US20080155735A1 - Energy-Absorbing Liners and Shape Conforming Layers for Use with Pro-Tective Headgear - Google Patents

Energy-Absorbing Liners and Shape Conforming Layers for Use with Pro-Tective Headgear Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20080155735A1
US20080155735A1 US11/816,145 US81614506A US2008155735A1 US 20080155735 A1 US20080155735 A1 US 20080155735A1 US 81614506 A US81614506 A US 81614506A US 2008155735 A1 US2008155735 A1 US 2008155735A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
layer
protective headgear
impact
outer layer
inner
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11/816,145
Inventor
Vincent R. Ferrara
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Xenith LLC
Original Assignee
Xenith LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US11/059,427 priority Critical patent/US20060059606A1/en
Application filed by Xenith LLC filed Critical Xenith LLC
Priority to US11/816,145 priority patent/US20080155735A1/en
Priority to PCT/US2006/005856 priority patent/WO2006089234A2/en
Assigned to XENITH, LLC reassignment XENITH, LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: FERRARA, VINCENT R.
Assigned to XENITH, LLC reassignment XENITH, LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: XENITH, INC.
Publication of US20080155735A1 publication Critical patent/US20080155735A1/en
Assigned to SALUS CAPITAL PARTNERS, LLC reassignment SALUS CAPITAL PARTNERS, LLC SECURITY AGREEMENT Assignors: XENITH, LLC
Assigned to XENITH, LLC reassignment XENITH, LLC RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: SALUS CAPITAL PARTNERS, LLC
Assigned to SIENA LENDING GROUP LLC reassignment SIENA LENDING GROUP LLC SECURITY INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: XENITH, LLC
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A42HEADWEAR
    • A42BHATS; HEAD COVERINGS
    • A42B3/00Helmets; Helmet covers ; Other protective head coverings
    • A42B3/04Parts, details or accessories of helmets
    • A42B3/06Impact-absorbing shells, e.g. of crash helmets
    • A42B3/062Impact-absorbing shells, e.g. of crash helmets with reinforcing means
    • A42B3/063Impact-absorbing shells, e.g. of crash helmets with reinforcing means using layered structures
    • A42B3/064Impact-absorbing shells, e.g. of crash helmets with reinforcing means using layered structures with relative movement between layers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES, AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N25/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators, characterised by their forms, or by their non-active ingredients or by their methods of application, e.g. seed treatment or sequential application; Substances for reducing the noxious effect of the active ingredients to organisms other than pests
    • A01N25/18Vapour or smoke emitting compositions with delayed or sustained release
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES, AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N25/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators, characterised by their forms, or by their non-active ingredients or by their methods of application, e.g. seed treatment or sequential application; Substances for reducing the noxious effect of the active ingredients to organisms other than pests
    • A01N25/20Combustible or heat-generating compositions
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES, AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N25/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators, characterised by their forms, or by their non-active ingredients or by their methods of application, e.g. seed treatment or sequential application; Substances for reducing the noxious effect of the active ingredients to organisms other than pests
    • A01N25/34Shaped forms, e.g. sheets, not provided for in any other sub-group of this main group
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A42HEADWEAR
    • A42BHATS; HEAD COVERINGS
    • A42B3/00Helmets; Helmet covers ; Other protective head coverings
    • A42B3/04Parts, details or accessories of helmets
    • A42B3/06Impact-absorbing shells, e.g. of crash helmets
    • A42B3/066Impact-absorbing shells, e.g. of crash helmets specially adapted for cycling helmets, e.g. for soft shelled helmets
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A42HEADWEAR
    • A42BHATS; HEAD COVERINGS
    • A42B3/00Helmets; Helmet covers ; Other protective head coverings
    • A42B3/04Parts, details or accessories of helmets
    • A42B3/10Linings
    • A42B3/12Cushioning devices
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A42HEADWEAR
    • A42BHATS; HEAD COVERINGS
    • A42B3/00Helmets; Helmet covers ; Other protective head coverings
    • A42B3/04Parts, details or accessories of helmets
    • A42B3/10Linings
    • A42B3/12Cushioning devices
    • A42B3/121Cushioning devices with at least one layer or pad containing a fluid

Abstract

A multilayer shell for use in the construction of protective headgear, the shell including an outer layer, an inner layer, a middle layer disposed between the outer and inner layer which resiliently compresses in response to an impact to the outer layer, and an internal liner disposed inwardly of the inner layer. The middle layer includes a plurality of compressible members, which resiliently compress to absorb the energy of a direct impact to the outer layer and resiliently shear with respect to the inner layer in response to a tangential impact to the outer layer. The inner layer includes an open configuration, which reduces the weight of the shell, provides for greater heat ventilation from the head of the user, and permits for visualization of the compressible elements. The internal liner is formed from contourable materials which enhance user fit and comfort and reduce the weight of the protective headgear without compromising user safety.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is a continuation-in-part application claiming priority to co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/059,427, filed Feb. 16, 2005, titled “Multi-Layer Air-Cushion Shell With Energy-Absorbing Layer For Use in the Construction of Protective Headgear.” The entirety of this co-pending patent application is incorporated by reference herein.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates generally to protective headgear. More specifically, the invention relates to a layered construction of protective headgear having an inner liner having an open configuration which reduces the weight of the liner and allows for greater ventilation from the head and an internal liner formed of head contouring materials that improve the fit and comfort of the headgear further reduce the risk of and protect an individual' s head from injury.
  • BACKGROUND INFORMATION
  • Concussions, also called mild traumatic brain injury, are a common, serious problem in sports known to have detrimental effects on people in the short and long term. With respect to athletes, a concussion is a temporary and reversible neurological impairment, with or without loss of consciousness. Another definition for a concussion is a traumatically induced alteration of brain function manifested by 1) an alteration of awareness or consciousness, and 2) signs and symptoms commonly associated with post-concussion syndrome, such as persistent headaches, loss of balance, and memory disturbances, to list but a few. Some athletes have had their careers abbreviated because of concussions, in particular because those who have sustained multiple concussions show a greater proclivity to further concussions and increasingly severe symptoms. Although concussions are prevalent among athletes, the study of concussions is difficult, treatment options are virtually non-existent, and “return-to-play” guidelines are speculative. Accordingly, the best current solution to concussions is prevention and minimization.
  • Concussion results from a force being applied to the brain, usually the result of a direct blow to the head, which results in shearing force to the brain tissue, and a subsequent deleterious neurometabolic and neurophysiologic cascade. There are two primary types of forces experienced by the brain in an impact to the head, linear acceleration and rotational acceleration. Both types of acceleration are believed to be important in causing concussions. Decreasing the magnitude of acceleration thus decreases the force applied to the brain, and consequently reduces the risk or severity of a concussion.
  • Protective headgear is well known to help protect wearers from head injury by decreasing the magnitude of acceleration (or deceleration) experienced by their wearers. Currently marketed helmets, primarily address linear forces, but generally do not diminish the rotational forces experienced by the brain. Helmets fall generally into two categories: single impact helmets and multiple-impact helmets. Single-impact helmets undergo permanent deformation under impact, whereas multiple-impact helmets are capable of sustaining multiple blows. Applications of single-impact helmets include, for example, bicycling and motorcycling. Participants of contact sports, such as hockey and football, use multiple-impact helmets. Both categories of helmets have similar construction. A semi-rigid outer shell distributes the force of impact over a wide area and a crushable inner layer reduces the force upon the wearer's head.
  • The inner layer of single-impact helmets are typically constructed of fused expanded polystyrene (EPS), a polymer impregnated with a foaming agent. EPS reduces the amount of energy that reaches the head by permanently deforming under the force of impact. To be effective against the impact, the inner layer must be sufficiently thick not to crush entirely throughout its thickness. A thick inner layer, however, requires a corresponding increase in the size of the outer shell, which increases the size and bulkiness of the helmet.
  • Inner layers designed for multiple-impact helmets absorb energy through elastic and viscoelastic deformation. To absorb multiple successive hits, these helmets need to rebound quickly to return to their original shape. Materials that rebound too quickly, however, permit some of the kinetic energy of the impact to transfer to the wearer's head. Examples of materials with positive rebound properties, also called elastic memory, include foamed polyurethane, expanded polypropylene, expanded polyethylene, and foamed vinylnitrile. Although some of these materials have desirable rebound qualities, an inner layer constructed therefrom must be sufficiently thick to prevent forceful impacts from penetrating its entire thickness. The drawback of a thick layer, as noted above, is the resulting bulkiness of the helmet. Moreover, the energy absorbing properties of such materials tend to diminish with increasing temperatures, whereas the positive rebound properties diminish with decreasing temperatures. There remains a need, therefore, for an improved helmet construction that can reduce the risk and severity of concussions without the aforementioned disadvantages of current helmet designs.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In one aspect, the invention features protective headgear comprising an outer layer having an internally facing surface, an inner layer having a surface that faces the outer layer, and a middle layer having a plurality of compressible members disposed in a fluid-containing interstitial region bounded by the inner and outer layers. Each compressible member is attached to the surface of the inner layer and to the internally facing surface of the outer layer. The protective headgear of this embodiment also includes at least one passageway by which fluid can leave the middle layer when the protective headgear experiences an impact.
  • Corresponding with this invention there is provided a method for making protective headgear comprising forming a multi-layered shell by forming a plurality of individually compressible members, providing an outer layer and a inner layer, and producing a composite structure with the individually compressible members being disposed in an interstitial region bounded by the outer and inner layers, each compressible member being attached to an internally facing surface of the outer layer and to a surface of the inner layer facing the outer layer.
  • In another aspect, the invention features protective headgear comprising an outer layer having an internally facing surface, an inner layer having a surface that faces the outer layer, and a middle layer having a plurality of compressible members disposed in a fluid-containing interstitial region bounded by the inner and outer layers, and an internal liner layer disposed inwardly of the inner layer. The inner layer has an open configuration or a non-continuous form. The internal liner layer is formed of contouring materials which enhance user fit and comfort and reduce the weight of the protective headgear without compromising user safety.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The above and further advantages of this invention may be better understood by referring to the following description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like numerals indicate like structural elements and features in various figures. The drawings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention.
  • FIG. 1 is a side view of one embodiment of a protective headgear constructed in accordance with the present invention.
  • FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the protective headgear of FIG. 1 having a hard inner layer disposed between a compressible internal layer and a middle layer.
  • FIG. 3 is a side view of another embodiment of the protective headgear the present invention.
  • FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of still another embodiment of a layered construction for protective headgear embodying the invention, the embodiment having a multi-layer shell with a plurality of compressible members disposed between an outer surface and an inner surface.
  • FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a method for forming a multi-layer shell for use, for example, in constructing protective headgear.
  • FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a method for adding an internal layer to the multilayer shell of FIG. 5.
  • FIG. 7A is a diagram illustrating the operation of protective headgear of the present invention during a direct impact.
  • FIG. 7B is a diagram illustrating the operation of protective headgear of the present invention during a tangential impact.
  • FIG. 8A is a diagram of one embodiment of a compressible member having a hollow chamber for holding a volume of fluid.
  • FIG. 8B is a diagram of a sequence illustrating simulated effects of a high-energy impact to the compressible member of FIG. 8A.
  • FIG. 8C and 8D are diagrams illustrating the stretching and bending capabilities of the compressible member of FIG. 8A.
  • FIG. 8E is a diagram of the compressible member of FIG. 8A when compressed.
  • FIG. 9A is a diagram of another embodiment of a compressible member with a hollow chamber for holding a volume of fluid.
  • FIG. 9B is cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a shell having openings formed in the outer and inner layers thereof for the passage of fluid.
  • FIG. 10A is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a shell having an outer shell, an inner layer, and a plurality of compressible members disposed therebetween.
  • FIG. 10B is a diagram illustrating the shell of FIG. 10A on a wearer's head.
  • FIG. 10C is a diagram illustrating the operation of protective headgear of FIG. 10A during a direct impact.
  • FIG. 10D is a diagram illustrating the operation of protective headgear of FIG. 10A during a tangential impact.
  • FIG. 11A is a rear view of an embodiment of protective headgear employing compressible members of FIG. 9A.
  • FIG. 11B is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a shell having an outer shell, an inner layer, and a plurality of compressible members disposed therebetween.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates one embodiment of the internal liner layer of the present invention.
  • FIG. 13 illustrates another embodiment of the internal liner layer of the present invention.
  • FIG. 14 illustrates a third embodiment of the internal liner layer of the present invention.
  • FIG. 15 illustrates a fourth embodiment of the internal liner layer of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF AN ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENT
  • The present invention relates to protective headgear designed to lessen the amount of force that reaches the brain of the wearer from an impact to the head. The headgear includes a shell with a multilayer construction for cushioning the impact, thus slowing the change in velocity of the wearer's head, producing a corresponding decrease in the magnitude of acceleration or deceleration experienced by the wearer, and reducing the risk or severity of concussion. As described further below, the protective head gear may include an outer layer, an energy-absorbing middle layer, and an inner layer, with one or more of these layers being constructed of an energy-absorbing compressible material, and an inner liner layer formed of a contourable material which contours to the shape of an individual's head. In a preferred embodiment, the compressible material is a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). In a preferred embodiment, the contourable material is a use-dependent contour form. In another preferred embodiment, the contourable material is a pressure equalizing contouring fluid. Still other embodiments may include combinations of these compressible and contourable materials.
  • Various embodiments of the energy-absorbing layer of the shell function to provide an air cushion during an impact to the headgear. In a preferred embodiment, an impact causes air to be expelled from the energy-absorbing layer. Protective headgear of the invention can responds to an impact by moving in any one or combination of ways, including (1) globally compressing over a broad area of the shell, (2) locally compressing at the point of impact, (3) flexing by the outer layer of the shell, and (4) rotating by the outer layer and the energy-absorbing layer with respect to the inner layer.
  • The multi-layer constructions of the present invention can be adapted for use in a variety of types of protective headgear including, but not limited to, safety helmets, motorcycle helmets, bicycle helmets, ski helmets, lacrosse helmets, hockey helmets, and football helmets, batting helmets for baseball and softball, headgear for rock and mountain climbers, and headgear for boxers. Other applications can include helmets used on construction sites, in defense and military applications, and for underground activities. Although the following descriptions focus primarily on protective headgear, it is to be understood that the layered construction of the systems of the present invention apply to other types of equipment used for sports activities or for other applications, e.g., face masks, elbow pads, shoulder pads, and shin pads.
  • FIG. 1 shows a side view of one embodiment of a protective headgear 2 constructed in accordance with the present invention. Here, the protective headgear 2 is a helmet that has an aerodynamic shape designed for use by bicyclists. This shape is merely exemplary; it is to be understood that the helmet shape can vary, depending upon the particular sporting event or activity for which the helmet is designed. Further, the protective headgear of the present invention can be constructed with various additional features, such as a cage for a hockey helmet, a face mask for a football helmet, a visor for a motorcycle helmet, retention straps, chin straps, and the like.
  • The protective headgear, or helmet 2, of FIG. 1 includes ventilation openings 6 near the top to permit air to flow for cooling the wearer's head. Here, the ventilation openings 6 are teardrop shaped, each pointing toward the rear 10 of the helmet 2 to give a visual sensation of speed. For clarity sake, the various layers of the materials used in the construction of the helmet 2 appear in the openings 6 as a single layer 14. Ventilation openings can also be on the other side of the helmet 2 (not shown) if the helmet has a symmetric design. Such openings 6 are exemplary, and can have various other shapes or be omitted altogether, depending upon the type of helmet. As will be recognized by those skilled in the art, protective headgear constructed in accordance with the invention may also include other types of openings, such as ear holes.
  • FIG. 2 shows a cross section of the helmet 2 along the line A-A′ in FIG. 1. In the embodiment shown, the helmet 2 includes an outer shell layer 20, a compressible middle layer 24, a hard inner shell layer 28, and a compressible internal liner 32. The outer shell layer 20, middle layer 24, and inner shell layer 28 together provide an impact-absorbing shell 30. As used herein, a layer is compressible based on the relative ease with which that layer decreases in thickness in response to an applied force. In general, compressible layers are more apt to decrease in thickness in response to an applied force than hard layers. The compressible layers 24, 32 can compress discernibly in response to an applied force. In contrast, no readily discernible compression, as defined by a readily discernible decrease in thickness, occurs if a comparable force is applied directly to the inner shell layer 28, although that layer may temporarily deform by bending. Numerical hardness values, determined according to any one of a variety of hardness tests, such as a Shore (Durometer) Test, can be used to measure the relative hardness of each layer. In general, compressible layers measure softer than hard layers.
  • As described in detail below, each of the layers can be constructed of a lightweight material, thus contributing towards the construction of a lightweight helmet. Although not drawn to scale, FIG. 2 shows one example of the relative thicknesses of the various layers and coating. These relative thicknesses can also depart from those shown in FIG. 2 without departing from the principles of the invention. For example, a bike helmet could be made with a thick inner shell layer 28 (e.g., of expanded polystyrene) and with a middle layer 24 of TPE that is thinner than the inner shell layer 28. Also, additional layers can be disposed between the middle layer 24 and the inner shell layer 28, or between the internal liner 32 and the inner shell layer 28, without departing from the principles of the invention.
  • The outer shell layer 20 covers the middle layer 24 and serves various functions. For example, the outer shell layer 20 can provide durability by protecting the helmet 2 from punctures and scratches. Other functions include presenting a smooth surface for deflecting tangential impacts, waterproofing, and displaying cosmetic features such as coloring and identifying the product brand name. In a preferred embodiment, this outer shell layer 20 is made of a TPE material.
  • Beneath the outer shell layer 20, the compressible middle layer 24 covers an outer surface of the inner shell layer 28. The middle layer 24 attaches to the inner shell layer 28. A primary function of the middle layer 24 is impact energy absorption. Preferably, the middle layer 24 is constructed of a thermoplastic elastomer material.
  • Thermoplastic elastomers or TPEs are polymer blends or compounds, which exhibit thermoplastic characteristics that enable shaping into a fabricated article when heated above their melting temperature, and which possess elastomeric properties when cooled to their designed temperature range. Accordingly, TPEs combine the beneficial properties of plastic and rubber, that is, TPEs are moldable and shapeable into a desired shape when heated and are compressible and stretchable when cooled. In contrast, neither thermoplastics nor conventional rubber alone exhibits this combination of properties.
  • To achieve satisfactory purposes, conventional rubbers must be chemically crosslinked, a process often referred to as vulcanization. This process is slow, irreversible, and results in the individual polymer chain being linked together by covalent bonds that remain effective at normal processing temperatures. As a result, vulcanized rubbers do not become fluid when heated to these normal processing temperatures (i.e., the rubber cannot be melted). When heated well above normal processing temperatures, vulcanized rubbers eventually decompose, resulting in the loss of substantially all useful properties. Thus, conventional vulcanized rubbers cannot be formed into useful objects by processes that involve the shaping of a molten material. Such processes include injection molding, blow molding and extrusion, and are extensively used to produce useful articles from thermoplastics.
  • Thermoplastics are generally not elastic when cooled and conventional rubbers are not moldable using manufacturing processes and equipment currently used for working with thermoplastics, such as injection molding and extrusion. These processes, however, are applicable for working with TPEs.
  • Most TPEs have a common feature: they are phase-separated systems. At least one phase is hard and solid at room temperature and another phase is elastomeric and fluid. Often the phases are chemically bonded by block or graft polymerization. In other cases, a fine dispersion of the phases is apparently sufficient. The hard phase gives the TPEs their strength. Without the hard phase, the elastomer phase would be free to flow under stress, and the polymers would be unusable. When the hard phase is melted, or dissolved in a solvent, flow can occur and therefore the TPE can be processed. On cooling, or upon evaporation of the solvent, the hard phase solidifies and the TPEs regain their strength. Thus, in one sense, the hard phase of a TPE behaves similarly to the chemical crosslinks in conventional vulcanized rubbers, and the process by which the hard phase does so is often called physical crosslinking. At the same time, the elastomer phase gives elasticity and flexibility to the TPE.
  • Examples of TPEs include block copolymers containing elastomeric blocks chemically linked to hard thermoplastic blocks, and blends of these block copolymers with other materials. Suitable hard thermoplastic blocks include polystyrene blocks, polyurethane blocks, and polyester blocks. Other examples of TPEs include blends of a hard thermoplastic with a vulcanized elastomer, in which the vulcanized elastomer is present as a dispersion of small particles. These latter blends are known as thermoplastic vulcanizates or dynamic vulcanizates.
  • TPEs can also be manufactured with a variety of hardness values, e.g., a soft gel or a hard 90 Shore A or greater. One characteristic of the TPE material is its ability to return to its original shape after the force against the helmet 2 is removed (i.e., TPE material is said to have memory). Other characteristics of TPE include its resistance to tear, its receptiveness to coloring, and its rebound resilience elasticity. Rebound resilience elasticity is the ratio of regained energy in relation to the applied energy, and is expressed as a percentage ranging from 0% to 100%. A perfect energy absorber has a percentage of 0%; a perfectly elastic material has a percentage of 100%. In general, a material with low rebound resilience elasticity absorbs most of the applied energy from an impacting object and retransmits little or none of that energy. To illustrate, a steel ball that falls upon material with low rebound resilience elasticity experiences little or no bounce; the material absorbs the energy of the falling ball. In contrast, the ball bounces substantially if it falls upon material with high rebound resilience elasticity.
  • Another advantage of these TPEs is that their favorable characteristic may exist over a wide range of temperatures. Preferably, the TPE material of the middle layer 24 has a glass-transition temperature of less than −20 degrees Fahrenheit. The glass-transition temperature is the temperature below which the material loses its soft and rubbery qualities. A TPE material with an appropriate glass-transition temperature can be selected for the middle layer 24 depending on the particular application of the helmet 2 (e.g., a glass-transition temperature of 0 degrees Fahrenheit may be sufficient for baseball helmets, whereas a glass transition temperature of −40 degrees Fahrenheit may be needed for football and hockey helmets).
  • TPEs can also be formed into a variety of structures. In one embodiment, the middle layer 24 is processed into individual members, such as cylindrical columns, or other shapes such as pyramids, spheres, or cubes, allowing for independent movement of each member structure, and for the free flow of air around the members during an impact. Preferably, the individual members each have an air-filled chamber, as described in more detail below. In another embodiment, the layer has a honeycomb structure (i.e., waffle-type). The interconnected hexagonal cells of a honeycombed structure provide impact absorption and a high strength-to-weight ratio, which permits construction of a lightweight helmet. The interconnected cells absorb and distribute the energy of an impact evenly throughout the structure. The honeycomb structure also reduces material costs because much of the material volume is made of open cells. This structure can be any one in which the material is formed into interconnected walls and open cells. The cells can have a shape other than hexagonal, for example, square, rectangular, triangular, and circular, without departing from the principles of the invention.
  • The formation of the middle layer 24 on the inner shell layer 28 can be accomplished using an extrusion, blow molding, casting, or injection molding process. The compressible middle layer 24 and inner shell layer 28 can be manufactured separately and adhered together after production, or they may be manufactured as one component, with the two layers being adhered to each other during manufacturing. TPEs bond readily to various types of substrates, such as plastic, and, thus, TPEs and substrates are commonly manufactured together. With respect to solid and foam forms of TPE structures, the softness (or conversely, the hardness) of the middle layer 24 can also be determined over a range of durometers. Preferably, the hardness range for these forms is between 5 and 90 on the Shore A scale, inclusive. The thickness of the middle layer 24 can be varied without departing from the principles of the invention. In one embodiment, the middle layer 24 is approximately ¼ to one inch thick.
  • The inner shell layer 28 is constructed of a hardened material, such as a rigid thermoplastic, a thermoplastic alloy, expanded polystyrene, or a fiber-reinforced material such as fiberglass, TWINTEX®, KEVLAR®, or BP Curv™. The inner shell layer 28 operates to provide structure to the helmet 2, penetration resistance, and impact energy distribution to the internal liner layer 32. In one embodiment, the thickness of the inner shell layer 28 is 1/16th of an inch. The thickness of the inner shell layer 28 can be varied without departing from the principles of the invention.
  • The inner shell layer 28 may be constructed of a single piece of material. Alternatively, it may be non-continuous in form such that the layer 28 includes lines, bands or arcs of material which meet at vertices and are interrupted by open spaces in a patterned form. As described in further detail below, examples of the non-continuous shapes that the inner shell layer 28 may take include, but are not limited to, a buckeyball shape, a grid shape, a geodesic dome and a honeycomb. Among the benefits of non-continuous forms of the inner shell layer are that the weight of the shell is reduced, heat is more easily ventilated from the user's head through the open spaces defined by the openings, and visualization and manual contact with the compressible elements is permitted.
  • Providing another impact energy-absorbing layer, the internal liner layer 32 contacts the wearer's head. Other functions of the internal liner 32 may include sizing, resilience, airflow, and comfort. In general, the internal liner 32 may be constructed of a thermoplastic elastomer, a foam material of, for example, approximately ½ to 1 inch thickness. It may be constructed of expanded polystyrene.
  • In one preferred embodiment, the internal liner 32 is constructed of a use dependent contouring foam or a pressure equalizing contouring fluid. One type of use dependent contouring foam contemplated with in the scope of the present invention will mold permanently to the user's head, but will do so over a period of time. Another type of this foam takes shape when compressed about a user's head and only changes shape when something (such as the force of an impact) causes it to change. The pressure equalizing contouring fluid instantly takes shape of the compressing element and does not rebound, or return to its original form. Rather, it retains the shape of the element until deformed by another compressing element, and will not rebound. Such a contouring fluid, thus, is capable of repeatedly forming a custom mold, and will retain the shape of the last element to which it is exposed. In this embodiment, the fluid may be continued in a bladder and, because it is a fluid it will equalize pressure throughout.
  • The compressible internal liner 32 is attached to an inner surface of the inner shell layer 28. The method of attachment depends upon the type of materials used (of the inner shell layer 28 and of the internal liner 32).
  • Embodiments of the internal liner 32 include one or more of the following, either alone or in combination: thermoplastic elastomer (TPE), expanded polystyrene, expanded polypropylene, vinyl nitrile, silicone gel, silicone foam, viscoelastic or memory foam, nitrogen expanded polyethylene foam and polyurethane foam. The thickness and type of foam material can be varied without departing from the principles of the invention.
  • Important to the use of the helmet of the invention is for the helmet to fit properly and to remain in place during the impact. In an embodiment not shown, the helmet extends downwards from the regions near the ears and covers the angle of the wearer's jaw. This extension may be flexible, and when used in conjunction with a chinstrap, may be drawn in tightly to provide a snug fit around the jaw. FIG. 3 shows another embodiment of a helmet 2′ constructed in accordance with the invention. Here, the helmet 2′ is a football helmet (facemask and chinstrap not shown). This helmet 2′ illustrates a design that covers the ears and a portion of the wearer's jaw. The helmet 2′ has ventilation openings 6′ near the top and on the sides of the helmet 2′ and an ear hole 8. Again, for clarity sake, the various layers of materials used in the construction of the helmet 2′ appear in each opening 6′ as a single layer 14′.
  • FIG. 4 shows a cross-section of an embodiment of a layered shell 30′ for use, for example, in the construction of protective headgear. In this embodiment, the shell 30′ has an outer layer 20′, an inner layer 28′, and a plurality of independent compressible members 50 disposed between the inner and outer layers 28′, 20′. Each member 50 attaches to an internally facing surface of the outer layer 20′ and to a surface of the inner layer 28′ that faces the outer layer 20′. Members 50 are independent in that each individual member 50 can compress or shear independently of the other members 50. Here, members 50 have a resilient, compressible solid or foam construction.
  • Members 50 can range from approximately one-eighth inch to one inch in height and one-eighth inch to one-half inch in diameter, and need not be of uniform height or diameter. Although shown to have the shape of columns, the members 50 can have a variety of shapes, for example, pyramidal, cubic, rectangular, spherical, disc-shaped, and blob-shaped. Preferably, the members 50 are constructed of TPE material (e.g., solid form, foam), although other types of compressible materials can be used for producing the members 50, without departing from the principles of the invention, provided such materials can make the members sufficiently resilient to respond to various types of impact by leaning, stretching, shearing, and compressing.
  • In one embodiment, there is a spatial separation between each member 50. Referred to herein as an interstitial region 52, the spacing between the members 50 bounded between the inner and outer layers 28′, 20′ defines a volume of fluid. As used herein, this fluid is any substance that flows, such as gas and liquid. The distance between adjacent members 50 can be designed so that a desired proportion of the volume of the shell 30′ (e.g., >50%) is comprised of fluid. In a preferred embodiment, the fluid within the interstitial region 52 is air. An air-containing interstitial region 52 provides for lightweight headgear.
  • In FIG. 4, the distance between the outer layer 20′ and the inner layer 28′ is exaggerated in order to reveal the members 50 of the middle layer 24′. (The middle layer 24′ here comprises the members 50 and interstitial region 52). In general, the outer layer 20′ and inner layer 28′ approach and may touch each other so that any gap between the layers 20′, 28′ either is imperceptible or does not exist. Preferably, the outer and inner layers are not directly attached to each other at any point along the shell 30′. Not directly attaching the layers enables the outer layer to move during impact independently of the inner layer in a scalp-like fashion. At one or more points along the edge of the shell where the outer layer approaches the inner layer, an elastic adhesive or another intervening substance or material, can be applied in between the two layers in order to make the layers 20′, 28′ closely approximate other. This adhesive can be an elastomeric gel (similar to rubber cement) or an adhesive strip that attaches to each layer 20′, 28′. Despite this adhesive attachment of the intervening material to each layer 20′, 28′, the outer layer can still move relative to the inner layer in scalp-like fashion. Gaps may be present in this adhesive at various locations along the edge of the shell to permit air to escape from the middle layer 24′ during an impact to the shell or to enter the middle layer 24′ when the impact is over, as described in more detail below.
  • FIG. 5 shows a method for producing the shell 30′ for use in constructing protective headgear. According to this method, the compressible members 50 are constructed of TPE material 54. In step 60, a TPE foam 58 is produced from the TPE material 54, as described above. At step 64, the TPE foam 58 is extruded into a desired structure 61, here, for example, columnar members. Initial construction of the compressible members may be in the form of a chain (i.e., a single continuous string of multiple members, analogous to coupling between cars of a train). Alternatively, the compressible members may be formed together as a larger unit, which has an appearance analogous to that of a rake when the TPE structure 61 is laid flat and which takes a hemispherical shape when laid onto the inner layer 28′. Other techniques for forming the members together can be practiced to produce the desired structure 61.
  • The TPE foam structure 61 is placed (step 68) between and attached to a first sheet 62 of material, to serve as the inner layer 28′, and a second sheet 63 of material to serve as the outer layer 20′. The compressible members may be attached to the inner layer 28′ one member 50 at a time, for example, by adhesive. Alternately, each member 50 can have a point, nozzle, stem, which can be inserted into an appropriately shaped opening in the inner layer 28′ to hold that member in place. In one embodiment, the TPE foam structure 61 has a common chemical component as the sheets 62, 63 for the inner and outer layers, thus enabling chemical adhesion between the TPE foam structure and each layer during the manufacturing process. Thus, secondary adhesives are unnecessary, although not precluded from being used, to attach the TPE foam structure to these layers. The resulting sheet of composite structure 65 can then be cut (step 72) and formed (step 76) into the desired shape of the shell 30′ (only a portion of the shell being shown).
  • Instead of cutting and shaping the inner, middle, and outer layers together, as described above, the manufacture and shaping of each of the three layers of the shell can occur independently, and then the independently formed layers can be adhered to one another. As another embodiment, the middle and inner layers can be shaped together and the outer layer independently; then, the outer layer can be adhered to the middle layer. This embodiment can lead to the modularization of the manufacture of helmets. For instance, the interior components of a helmet, i.e., the liner, inner layer, and middle layer, can have standardized construction (i.e., the same appearance irrespective of the type of sports helmet for which the interior components are to be used), with the outer sport-specific layer, which is adhered to the middle layer, or injection molded around the interior components, providing the customization of the helmet for a particular sport.
  • As shown in FIG. 6, a compressible (e.g., foam) internal liner 32′ can then be added (step 80) to the multilayer shell 30′. FIG. 6 shows a cross-section of a portion of the shell 30′ and of the internal liner 32′. The internal liner 32′ is attached (e.g., with an adhesive) to an internally facing surface of the inner layer 28′. The shape of the internal liner 32′ conforms to the general shape of the shell 30′ and to the shape of a wearer's head.
  • The shell 30′ of the invention may reduce both linear acceleration and rotational acceleration experienced by the head of the headgear wearer. Linear acceleration occurs when the center of gravity of the wearer's head becomes rapidly displaced in a linear direction, such as might occur when the headgear is struck from the side. Rotational acceleration, widely believed to be a primary cause of concussion, can occur when the head rotates rapidly around the center of gravity, such as might occur when the headgear is struck tangentially. Most impacts impart both types of accelerations.
  • FIG. 7 A illustrates an exemplary simulated operation of the shell 30′, with solid or foam members 50, undergoing a direct impact from an object 100. In this example, the shell 30′ operates to reduce linear acceleration of the headgear wearer's head 104. When the object 100 strikes the outer layer 20′, the members 50 directly beneath the outer layer 20′ at the point of impact compress. The compression of the shell 30′ also causes air to exit the middle layer 24′ (arrow 108) through one or more openings at an edge of the shell 30′ where the inner and outer layers 28′, 20′ approach each other. Air also moves through the interstitial region away from the point of impact (arrow 110). The combined effects of energy-absorption by the compressible members 50 and air cushioning by the release and movement of air operate to reduce the amount of energy that reaches the wearer's head 104. When the force of the impact subsides, the shape and resilience of the inner and outer layers 28′, 20′, operate to restore the shell 30′ and the compressed members 50 to their original shape. When returning to the original shape, the shell 30′ in effect inhales air through each opening at the edge.
  • FIG. 7B illustrates an exemplary simulated operation of the shell 30′, with solid or foam members 50, undergoing a tangential impact from an object 100. In this example, the shell 30′ operates to reduce rotational acceleration of the wearer's head 104. When struck by an object tangentially, the outer layer 20′ shears with respect to the inner layer 28′ in a direction of motion of the object, as illustrated by arrows 112. The smoothness of the outer layer 20′ can operate to reduce friction with the object 100 and, correspondingly, to reduce the rotational force experienced by the shell 30′. Members 50 at the point of impact compress to some extent and shear with the outer layer 20′. As with the example of FIG. 7A, the compression causes air to exit the middle layer 24′ and to move within the interstitial region. The combined effects of the shearing motion of the outer layer 20′ and members 50, of the energy-absorbing compression of the middle layer 24′, and of the release and movement of air operate to reduce the rotational force reaching the wearer's head 104. The shell 30′ and members 50 return to their original shape after the force of the impact subsides.
  • FIG. 8A shows an embodiment of a compressible member 50′ for use in constructing the middle layer 24′ for the shell 30′ in accordance with the invention. Embodiments of the invention can use this type of member 50′ in conjunction with or instead of openings at the edge of the shell 30′. Making the member 50′ of TPE material further operates to improve the energy-absorbing effect of the shell, although other types of compressible materials can be used for producing the member 50′. The member 50′ has a top surface 120, a bottom surface 124, and a sidewall 128 that define a hollow internal chamber 132. The top surface 120 attaches to the outer layer 20′ of the shell 74, and the bottom surface 124 attaches to the inner layer 28′. The bottom surface 124 has a small opening 136 formed therein. When the member 50′ compresses in the general direction indicated by arrow 140, airflow 144, for example, exits the small opening 136.
  • The size of the opening 136 is designed to produce a rate-sensitive response to any impact causing compression of the member 50′. For instance, if the application of force upon the member 50′ is gradual or of relatively low energy, the opening 136 permits sufficient air to pass through so that the member 50′ compresses gradually and presents little resistance against the force. For example, an individual may be able to compress the shell of the protective headgear manually with a moderate touch of a hand or finger, because the energy-absorbing middle layer and, in some embodiments, the outer and inner layers are made of compressible materials. Because the application of the force is gradual, the wearer's head is not likely to accelerate significantly and thus is less likely to experience concussion. In addition, the wearer may feel the air being expelled from the members 50′ onto his or her head, as described further below.
  • If, as illustrated by FIG. 8B, the application of force upon the member 50′ occurs instantaneously or is of relatively high energy, the energy of impact is converted to heat, and laminar or turbulent air flows within the chamber 132. The size of the opening 136, which is small relative to the volume of air moved by the force, restricts the emission of the turbulent or laminar air from the chamber 132 and thus causes resistance within the chamber 132. Eventually the resistance is overcome and air flows out, but during this process, the impact energy is thus converted to heat. This variable response, dependent upon the energy input, is termed a rate-sensitive or a non-linear response. An advantage of this structure is that when the member 50′ compresses and empties the entire volume of air, a length of TPE material remains, which further absorbs energy. This helps prevent “bottoming out”, i.e., fully compressing so that the cushioning effect of the member 50′ is lost and the impinging force transfers directly to the wearer's head. In addition to providing this rate-sensitive response, the member 50′ can also stretch and bend during tangential impact similarly to the members 50 described above, as illustrated by FIG. 8C and FIG. 8D.
  • FIG. 8E shows the embodiment of the compressible member 50′ after becoming compressed. Because of its resilient nature, the tendency of the member 50′ is to return to its uncompressed shape. The inner and outer layers 28′, 20′ to which the member 50′ is attached also contribute to the restoration of the member 50′ to its uncompressed shape. The tendencies of the inner and outer layers 28′, 20′ to return to their pre-impact shape, because of their semi-rigidness and resiliency, operate to pull the member 50′ back to its uncompressed shape. Accordingly, after the force is removed from the shell 30′, the member 50′ expands in the direction indicated by arrow 150, consequently drawing air in through the opening 136 as indicated by arrows 144′. FIG. 8F illustrates a simulated sequence of expansion of a rate-sensitive compressible member 50′, as the force is removed.
  • FIG. 9A shows a cross-section of another embodiment of a rate-sensitive compressible member 50″ that is generally rectangular in shape (i.e., a strip). The member 50″ has a top surface 160, a bottom surface 164, sidewalls 168-1, 168-2 (generally, 168), and a hollow internal chamber 172. The top surface 160 attaches to the internally facing surface of the outer layer 20′ of the shell 30″, and the bottom surface 164 attaches to a surface of the inner layer 28′. Each sidewall 168 has a respective small opening 176-1, 176-2 (generally, 176) formed therein. (Practice of the invention can be achieved with only one of the sidewalls 168 having an opening). When the member 50″ compresses generally in the direction indicated by arrow 180, airflows 184 exit the small openings 176 and pass through the interstitial region of the shell. This embodiment illustrates that a variety of shapes, for example, disc-shaped, cylindrical, and pyramidal, can be used to implement rate-sensitive compressible members of the invention, capable of converting impact energy to heat of turbulent or of laminar airflow.
  • FIG. 9B shows a cross-section of a shell 30″′ having a plurality of rate-sensitive compressible members 50″′ disposed between the outer layer 20′ and inner layer 28′. Each compressible member 50″′ has a plurality of openings 176 for the passage of fluid (i.e., air). The inner layer can have an openings 200 formed therein, to permit the passage of fluid. Fluid escaping the rate-sensitive compressible members 50″′ during impact, or returning to the compressible members 50″′ after impact, thus have avenues for leaving and entering the shell 30″′. Embodiments of the invention can have one or more of such openings 200 in addition to or instead of openings at the edge of the shell. Further, other embodiments can use such openings 200 with other types of compressible members (e.g., those described in FIG. 4).
  • FIG. 10A shows a cross-section of an embodiment of a shell 230 having an outer layer 220, an inner layer 228, and a plurality of the rate-sensitive compressible members 50′ (FIG. 8A) disposed therebetween. The opening 136 of each rate-sensitive compressible member 50′ aligns with an opening (not shown) in the surface of the inner layer 228 and through any liner 232 so that expelled or inhaled air (arrows 210) can pass into the interior of the protective headgear. Similarly, such openings 136 can be on the sides of the compressible member 50′, allowing the release and return of air through the interstitial region of the shell 230. FIG. 10B shows the shell 230, with rate-sensitive compressible members 50′ and an internal liner 232, on the head 234 of a user.
  • FIG. 10C illustrates an exemplary simulated operation of the shell 230, with rate-sensitive members 50′, undergoing a direct impact from an object 236. In this example, the shell 230 operates to reduce linear acceleration of the headgear wearer's head 234. When the object 236 strikes the outer layer, the members 50′ directly beneath the outer layer at the point of impact compress. The compression of the shell 230 also causes air to exit the members 50′ (arrows 238) and enter the interior of the headgear through the openings in the members 50′ and in the inner layer.
  • FIG. 10D illustrates an exemplary simulated operation of the shell 230, with rate-sensitive compressible members 50′, undergoing a tangential impact from an object 236. In this example, the shell 230 operates to reduce rotational acceleration of the wearer's head 234. When struck by an object tangentially, the outer layer shears with respect to the inner layer in a direction of motion of the object, as illustrated by arrows 240. Members 50′ at the point of impact compress to some extent and shear with the outer layer. As with the example of FIG. 10C, the compression causes air to exit the members 50′ and to enter the interior of the headgear. The combined effects of the shearing motion of the outer layer and members 50′, of the rate-sensitive and energy-absorbing compression of the members 50′, and of the release of air into the interior of the headgear operate to reduce the rotational force reaching the wearer's head 104.
  • As an illustration of an exemplary use of the invention, FIG. 11A shows a rear view of an embodiment of protective headgear 250 embodying the invention. The headgear 250 includes a pattern 254 of strip-shaped members 50″ (FIG. 9A) disposed between outer and inner layers of the shell. FIG. 11B shows a side view of the headgear 250 with another pattern 258 of strip-shaped members 50″. A variety of other patterns is possible without departing from the principles of the invention.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates one embodiment of the internal liner layer 32 wherein the liner is non-continuous in form and is provided with a buckeyball shape. In this configuration, the inner liner layer 32 is interspersed with hexagon and pentagon shaped cutouts.
  • FIG. 13 illustrates another embodiment of the internal liner layer 32 wherein the liner is non-continuous in form and is provided with a grid shape, in which square openings are the prevailing pattern.
  • FIG. 14 illustrates a third embodiment of the internal liner layer 32 wherein the liner is provided with a geodesic dome shape having triangular shaped cutouts. Stated another way, in this configuration, the lines of the thermoplastic are formed into triangles which meet at the vertices.
  • FIG. 15 illustrates a fourth embodiment of the internal liner layer 32 wherein the liner is non-continuous and is provided with a honeycomb, wherein the liner defined hexagonal shapes. Still other examples of inner liner configurations will be recognized by those skilled in the art, including combinations of the described patterns.
  • While the invention has been shown and described with reference to specific preferred embodiments, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and detail may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the following claims. For example, more than one type of compressible member can be combined to construct a shell for a protective headgear.

Claims (104)

1. Protective headgear, comprising:
an outer layer having an internal surface;
an inner layer having a surface that faces the outer layer;
a middle layer having a plurality of compressible members disposed in a fluid-containing interstitial region formed by the inner and outer layers; and
at least one passageway by which fluid can leave the middle layer as the outer layer deforms in response to an impact on the outer layer.
2. The protective headgear of claim 1, wherein the at least one passageway includes a gap between a peripheral edge of the outer layer and a peripheral edge of the inner layer to permit fluid to exit the interstitial region in response to an impact.
3. The protective headgear of claim 1, wherein the at least one passageway includes an opening in the inner layer.
4. The protective headgear of claim 3, wherein fluid that passes through the opening in the inner layer is felt by a wearer of the protective headgear.
5. The protective headgear of claim 1, wherein at least one of the compressible members is made of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) material.
6. The protective headgear of claim 5, wherein the TPE material is a TPE foam.
7. The protective headgear of claim 1, wherein at least one of the compressible members is a columnar in shape.
8. The protective headgear of claim 1, wherein at least one of the compressible members includes a chamber for holding a volume of fluid, and the chamber includes a chamber surface having a chamber opening for the passage of fluid into and out of the chamber.
9. The protective headgear of claim 8, wherein the chamber opening is adapted to produce a rate-sensitive response to the force of the impact exerted on the outer layer.
10. The protective headgear of claim 8, wherein at least one compressible member expels fluid from the chamber through the chamber opening when the compressible member is compressed by the force of the impact and expands to draw fluid back into the chamber as the compressive force exerted on the outer layer is mitigated.
11. The protective headgear of claim 8, wherein the chamber opening is aligned with an opening in the inner layer to enable the passage of fluid through the inner layer.
12. The protective headgear of claim 1, wherein the inner layer includes an internal surface, and the headgear further comprising a compressible internal liner disposed inwardly of the internal surface of the inner layer.
13. The protective headgear of claim 1, wherein at least one compressible member includes a chamber for holding a volume of fluid, and the chamber includes a chamber surface having at least one chamber opening for passing fluid into and from the interstitial region formed by the outer and inner layers.
14. The protective headgear of claim 1, further comprising a resilient attachment for resiliently attaching and maintaining the orientation of the outer layer with respect to the inner layer.
15. The protective headgear of claim 1, wherein the outer layer shears rotationally with respect to the inner layer as the outer layer deforms in response to the impact.
16. A method for making protective headgear, the method comprising the steps of:
forming a multilayered shell by:
forming a plurality of individually compressible members;
providing an outer layer and a inner layer; and
producing a composite structure wherein the compressible members are disposed in an fluid-containing interstitial region formed by the outer and inner layers such that the outer layer deforms and the compressible members correspondingly compress in response to an impact to the outer layer.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein at least one compressible member is formed of thermoplastic elastomer material.
18. The method of claim 17, further comprising the step of:
introducing a chemical foaming agent into the thermoplastic elastomer material to produce compressible members made of thermoplastic elastomer foam.
19. The method of claim 16, further comprising the step of:
forming at least one of the compressible members to include a chamber for holding a volume of fluid, the chamber defining a chamber surface having at least one chamber opening for the passage of fluid into and out of the chamber.
20. The method of claim 19, further comprising the step of:
releasing fluid through the at least one chamber opening into the interstitial region formed by the inner and outer layers as the outer layer deforms in response to the impact to the outer layer.
21. The method of claim 19, further comprising the step of:
aligning the at least one chamber opening with an opening of the inner layer; and
releasing fluid through the at least one chamber opening toward the head of a wearer as the outer layer deforms in response to an impact to the outer layer.
22. The method of claim 16, wherein the producing step is such that the outer layer shears rotationally with respect to the inner layer in response to the impact.
23. The protective headgear of claim 1, wherein the outer layer includes an internal surface, the inner layer includes a surface that faces the outer layer and at least one of the plurality of compressible members is attached to at least one of the internal surface of the outer layer and the surface of the inner layer that faces the outer surface.
24. The method of claim 16, wherein the outer layer includes an internal surface, the inner layer includes a surface that faces the outer layer and the method further comprises the step of:
attaching at least one of the plurality of compressible members to at least one of the internal surface of the outer layer and the surface of the inner layer that faces the outer layer.
25. Protective headgear, comprising:
a relatively thin outer layer having an outwardly facing surface;
a relatively thin inner layer having an area which is spaced apart from the outer layer; and
a middle layer disposed in an area formed by the outer layer and the inner layer, the middle layer comprising a plurality of compressible members;
the middle layer being adapted to resiliently compress in response to a bending deformation of the outer layer to absorb energy of an impact; and
the outer layer being adapted to shear with respect to the inner layer in response to a tangential component of the impact to the outer layer.
26. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the outwardly facing surface of the outer layer is relatively smooth to reduce the tangential component of the impact.
27. The protective headgear of claim 25, further comprising a relatively compressible inner liner disposed inwardly of the inner layer.
28. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the middle layer has a rebound resilience elasticity of about fifty percent (50%) or less.
29. The protective headgear of claim 28, wherein the middle layer has a rebound resilience elasticity of about twenty-five percent (25%) or less.
30. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the plurality of compressible members are disposed in a fluid-containing interstitial region bounded by the outer layer and the inner layer.
31. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the outer layer includes an internally facing surface and at least one of the compressible members of the middle layer is attached to at least one of a surface of the inner layer that faces the outer layer and the internally facing surface of the outer layer.
32. The protective headgear of claim 25, further comprising at least one passageway for passing fluid from the middle layer in response to the impact.
33. The protective headgear of claim 32, wherein the at least one passageway includes a gap between the outer layer and the inner layer.
34. The protective headgear of claim 32, wherein the at least one passageway includes at least one opening in the inner layer.
35. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein at least one of the compressible members includes walls which define a fluid-containing internal chamber and the walls include at least one opening to permit fluid to exit the internal chamber in response to the impact.
36. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein at least one of the compressible members has a bellows-like sidewall construction.
37. The protective headgear of claim 35, wherein the walls of the compressible member have a bellows-like sidewall construction to facilitate compression of the compressible member in response to the impact.
38. The protective headgear of claim 35, wherein the at least one opening in the walls of the compressible member is adapted to produce a rate-sensitive response to the force of the impact exerted on the outer layer such that the compressible member compresses with relatively little resistance when the impact is of relatively low energy and such that the compressible member compresses with relatively high resistance when the impact force is of relatively high energy.
39. The protective headgear of claim 38, wherein the at least one opening in the walls of the compressible member is adapted such that, when the impact is of relatively high energy, the compressible member compresses with sufficiently high resistance to convert energy of the impact to heat in the compressible member.
40. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein at least one of the compressible members of the middle layer compresses in response to the bending deformation of the outer layer and resiliently shears with respect to the inner layer in response to the tangential impact component.
41. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the compressible members of the middle layer have a honeycomb structure of interconnected cells.
42. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the compressible members of the middle layer are arranged in a pre-determined pattern between the outer layer and the inner layer.
43. The protective headgear of claim 41, wherein the interconnected cells of the honeycomb-structured middle layer are arranged in a pre-determined pattern between the outer layer and the inner layer.
44. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the compressible members are made of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) material.
45. The protective headgear of claim 44, wherein the TPE material is a TPE foam.
46. The protective headgear of claim 44, wherein the TPE material has a glass-transition temperature less than about minus twenty degrees (−20°) Fahrenheit.
47. The protective headgear of claim 41, wherein the honeycomb-structured middle layer is made of a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) material.
48. The protective headgear of claim 47, wherein the TPE material is a TPE foam.
49. The protective headgear of claim 47, wherein the TPE material has a glass-transition temperature less than about minus twenty degrees (−20°) Fahrenheit.
50. The protective headgear of claim 35, wherein the at least one opening in the at least one compressible member permits fluid to enter the internal chambers thereof as the compressible member resiliently expands as the force of the impact is mitigated.
51. The protective headgear of claim 35, wherein the inner layer includes at least one opening in communication with the least one opening in the at least one compressible member to permit fluid exiting from the at least one compressible member when compressed to pass through the inner layer.
52. The protective headgear of claim 35, further comprising a relatively compressible inner liner layer disposed inwardly of the inner layer and wherein the inner layer and the inner liner layer include at least one opening in communication with the least one opening in the at least one compressible member to permit fluid exiting from the compressible member when compressed to pass through the inner layer and the inner liner layer.
53. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the compressible members are independent of one another.
54. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the compressible members are interconnected.
55. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the inner layer is of a relatively rigid thermoplastic material.
56. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the outer layer is of a thermoplastic material.
57. The protective headgear of claim 56, wherein the thickness of the thermoplastic material of the outer layer is such that the outer layer resiliently deforms by bending inwardly in response to the impact.
58. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the bending deformation of the outer layer and the compression of compressible members of the middle layer in response to the impact combine to reduce linear changes of velocity of a wearer's head due to the impact.
59. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the shearing of the outer layer with respect to the inner layer and of the compressible members of the middle layer in response to the impact combine to reduce rotational changes of velocity of the wearer's head due to the impact.
60. The protective headgear of claim 25, wherein the outer layer includes a plurality of ventilation openings.
61. Impact absorbing protective headgear, comprising
an inner layer;
an outer layer, the inner and outer layers having opposed surfaces; and
a middle layer comprising a plurality of compressible members, the middle layer extending between the inner and outer layers the inner and outer layers being at least partially coextensive so that when the outer layer is impacted, the outer layer deflects locally in response to the impact, thereby absorbing at least some of the energy created by the impact, and at least one of the compressible members of the middle layer compresses and shears relative to the inner layer to absorb impact energy not absorbed by the outer layer.
62. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the middle layer is anchored in at least one location to the opposed surfaces of the inner layer and the outer layer, the inner and outer layers being at least partially coextensive.
63. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the outer layer comprises an outwardly facing surface and the outwardly facing surface of the outer layer is relatively smooth to reduce the tangential component of the impact.
64. The protective headgear of claim 61, further comprising a relatively compressible inner liner layer disposed inwardly of the inner layer.
65. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the middle layer has a rebound resilience elasticity of about fifty percent (50%) or less.
66. The protective headgear of claim 65, wherein the middle layer has a rebound resilience elasticity of about twenty-five percent (25%) or less.
67. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the plurality of compressible members are disposed in a fluid-containing interstitial region bounded by the outer layer and the inner layer.
68. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein at least one of the compressible members of the middle layer is attached to a surface of the inner layer that faces the outer layer and to an internally facing surface of the outer layer.
69. The protective headgear of claim 61, further comprising at least one passageway by which fluid can leave the middle layer in response to the impact.
70. The protective headgear of claim 69, wherein the at least one passageway includes a gap between the outer layer and the inner layer.
71. The protective headgear of claim 69, wherein the at least one passageway includes at least one opening in the inner layer.
72. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein at least one of the compressible member includes walls which define a fluid-containing internal chamber and the walls include at least one opening to permit fluid to exit the internal chamber in response to the impact.
73. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein at least one of the compressible members has a bellows-like sidewall construction.
74. The protective headgear of claim 72, wherein the walls of the at least one compressible member has a bellows-like sidewall construction which facilitates compression of the compressible member in response to the impact.
75. The protective headgear of claim 72, wherein the at least one opening in the walls of the compressible member is adapted to produce a rate-sensitive response to the force of the impact exerted on the outer layer such that the compressible member compresses with relatively little resistance when the impact is of relatively low energy and such that the compressible member compresses with relatively high resistance when the impact force is of relatively high energy.
76. The protective headgear of claim 75, wherein the at least one opening in the walls of the compressible member is adapted such that, when the impact is of relatively high energy, the compressible member compresses with sufficiently high resistance to convert energy of the impact to heat in the compressible member.
77. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the middle layer has a honeycomb structure of interconnected cells.
78. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the compressible members of the middle layer are arranged in a pre-determined pattern between the outer layer and the inner layer.
79. The protective headgear of claim 77, wherein the interconnected cells of the honeycomb-structured middle layer are arranged in a pre-determined pattern between the outer layer and the inner layer.
80. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the compressible members are made of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) material.
81. The protective headgear of claim 80, wherein the TPE material is a TPE foam.
82. The protective headgear of claim 80, wherein the TPE material has a glass-transition temperature less than about minus twenty degrees (−20°) Fahrenheit.
83. The protective headgear of claim 77, wherein the honeycomb-structured middle layer is made of a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) material.
84. The protective headgear of claim 83, wherein the TPE material is a TPE foam.
85. The protective headgear of claim 83, wherein the TPE material has a glass-transition temperature less than about minus twenty degrees (−20°) Fahrenheit.
86. The protective headgear of claim 72, wherein the at least one opening in the compressible member permits fluid to be drawn into the internal chamber thereof as the compressible member resiliently expands in response to mitigation of the force of the impact.
87. The protective headgear of claim 72, wherein the inner layer includes at least one opening in communication with the at least one opening in the compressible member to permit fluid exiting from the compressible member when compressed to pass through the inner layer.
88. The protective headgear of claim 72, wherein the outer layer includes at least one opening in communication with the at least one opening in the compressible member to permit fluid exiting from the compressible member when compressed to pass through the outer layer.
89. The protective headgear of claim 72, further comprising a relatively compressible inner liner layer disposed inwardly of the inner layer and wherein the inner layer and the inner liner layer include at least one opening in communication with the at least one opening in the compressible member to permit fluid exiting from the compressible member when compressed to pass through the inner layer and the inner liner layer.
90. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the compressible members are independent of one another.
91. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the compressible members are interconnected.
92. The protective headgear of claim 91, wherein a first end of at least one of the compressible members is attached to the outer layer and a second end of the at least one compressible members is attached to the inner layer.
93. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the inner layer is of a relatively rigid thermoplastic material.
94. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the outer layer is of a thermoplastic material.
95. The protective headgear of claim 94, wherein the thickness of the thermoplastic material of the outer layer is such that the outer layer resiliently deforms by bending inwardly in response to the impact.
96. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the bending deformation of the outer layer and the compression of the middle layer in response to the impact combine to reduce linear changes of velocity of a wearer's head due to the impact.
97. The protective headgear of claim 61, wherein the shearing of the outer layer with respect to the inner layer and the compression of the middle layer in response to the impact combine to reduce rotational changes of velocity of the wearer's head due to the impact.
98. The protective headgear of claims 1, 25 or 61, wherein the inner layer is non-continuous in shape.
99. The protective headgear of claim 98, wherein the inner layer has a buckey ball-like shape.
100. The protective headgear of claim 98, wherein the inner layer has a grid-like shape.
101. The protective headgear of claim 98, wherein the inner layer has a geodesic dome-like shape.
102. The protective headgear of claim 101, wherein the inner layer has a honeycomb-like shape.
103. The protective headgear of claims 12, 27 or 64, wherein the internal liner is made of a use-dependent contouring material.
104. The protective headgear of claims 12, 27 or 64, wherein the internal liner includes a pressure equalizing contouring fluid.
US11/816,145 2004-09-22 2006-02-16 Energy-Absorbing Liners and Shape Conforming Layers for Use with Pro-Tective Headgear Abandoned US20080155735A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/059,427 US20060059606A1 (en) 2004-09-22 2005-02-16 Multilayer air-cushion shell with energy-absorbing layer for use in the construction of protective headgear
US11/816,145 US20080155735A1 (en) 2005-02-16 2006-02-16 Energy-Absorbing Liners and Shape Conforming Layers for Use with Pro-Tective Headgear
PCT/US2006/005856 WO2006089234A2 (en) 2005-02-16 2006-02-16 Energy-absorbing liners and shape conforming layers for use with protective headgear

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11/816,145 US20080155735A1 (en) 2005-02-16 2006-02-16 Energy-Absorbing Liners and Shape Conforming Layers for Use with Pro-Tective Headgear

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/059,427 Continuation-In-Part US20060059606A1 (en) 2004-09-22 2005-02-16 Multilayer air-cushion shell with energy-absorbing layer for use in the construction of protective headgear

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20080155735A1 true US20080155735A1 (en) 2008-07-03

Family

ID=35447767

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/059,427 Abandoned US20060059606A1 (en) 2004-09-22 2005-02-16 Multilayer air-cushion shell with energy-absorbing layer for use in the construction of protective headgear
US11/816,145 Abandoned US20080155735A1 (en) 2004-09-22 2006-02-16 Energy-Absorbing Liners and Shape Conforming Layers for Use with Pro-Tective Headgear

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/059,427 Abandoned US20060059606A1 (en) 2004-09-22 2005-02-16 Multilayer air-cushion shell with energy-absorbing layer for use in the construction of protective headgear

Country Status (10)

Country Link
US (2) US20060059606A1 (en)
EP (2) EP1927294A3 (en)
JP (1) JP2008529747A (en)
CN (2) CN100571557C (en)
AU (1) AU2006214035A1 (en)
CA (2) CA2598015A1 (en)
DE (1) DE602006007952D1 (en)
ES (1) ES2330138T3 (en)
HK (1) HK1112163A1 (en)
WO (2) WO2006088500A1 (en)

Cited By (41)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20090031480A1 (en) * 2005-08-18 2009-02-05 Mauricio Paranhos Torres Cephalic protection cell (cpc)
US20100282554A1 (en) * 2009-05-11 2010-11-11 Stone Thomas D Multi-chamber impact absorption system to protect individual
US20110177892A1 (en) * 2010-01-16 2011-07-21 Todd Garner Strap detachable portable basketball system
US20110209272A1 (en) * 2010-03-01 2011-09-01 Drake Carl Protective sports helmet with energy-absorbing padding and a facemask with force-distributing shock absorbers
US20120096631A1 (en) * 2009-06-25 2012-04-26 Wayne State University Omni-directional angular acceration reduction for protective headgear
US20120102630A1 (en) * 2010-11-01 2012-05-03 Lawrence Anderson Wearable protection device and method thereof
WO2012109381A1 (en) * 2011-02-09 2012-08-16 Innovation Dynamics LLC Helmet omnidirectional energy management systems
US20120266365A1 (en) * 2010-01-21 2012-10-25 Cohen Elie Helmet using shock absorbing material
USD679058S1 (en) 2011-07-01 2013-03-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
USD683079S1 (en) 2011-10-10 2013-05-21 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
US20130125294A1 (en) * 2011-11-22 2013-05-23 Xenith, Llc Magnetic impact absorption in protective body gear
WO2013104073A1 (en) 2012-01-12 2013-07-18 University Of Ottawa Head protection for reducing angular accelerations
US20130212783A1 (en) * 2012-02-16 2013-08-22 Walter Bonin Personal Impact Protection Device
US20140020158A1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2014-01-23 Roho, Inc. Multilayer impact attenuating insert for headgear
US8726424B2 (en) 2010-06-03 2014-05-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Energy management structure
US8863320B2 (en) 2013-01-18 2014-10-21 Windpact, Inc. Impact absorbing apparatus
US8950735B2 (en) 2011-12-14 2015-02-10 Xenith, Llc Shock absorbers for protective body gear
US9032558B2 (en) 2011-05-23 2015-05-19 Lionhead Helmet Intellectual Properties, Lp Helmet system
US20150135415A1 (en) * 2011-01-04 2015-05-21 Robert Oppenheim Helmet with a Writing Surface, Markers, and Stencil Kit
US9062939B2 (en) 2011-07-11 2015-06-23 John P. Papp Helmet cover
USD733972S1 (en) 2013-09-12 2015-07-07 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet
US20150223545A1 (en) * 2014-02-11 2015-08-13 Janice Geraldine Fraser Protective headgear
US20150237944A1 (en) * 2013-07-15 2015-08-27 Bcl Inc Protective ball cap
US9140637B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2015-09-22 Mihaly Kis, JR. Method and apparatus for simulating head impacts for helmet testing
US20150264991A1 (en) * 2014-03-24 2015-09-24 Mark Frey Concussive helmet
US9314062B2 (en) 2010-10-06 2016-04-19 Cortex Armour Inc. Shock absorbing layer with independent elements, and protective helmet including same
US9320311B2 (en) 2012-05-02 2016-04-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
USD762330S1 (en) 2013-07-15 2016-07-26 Bcl Inc Protective liner for a ball cap
US20160242485A1 (en) * 2015-02-25 2016-08-25 Steven Christopher CARTON Helmet
USD765918S1 (en) 2013-07-15 2016-09-06 BCL Inc. Protective liner for a ball cap
US9439468B1 (en) 2015-06-19 2016-09-13 Ethan Wayne Blagg Protective athletic helmet
WO2016195974A1 (en) * 2015-06-02 2016-12-08 Apex Biomedical Company, Llc Energy-absorbing structure with defined multi-phasic crush properties
US9516910B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2016-12-13 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
US9683622B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2017-06-20 Xenith, Llc Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members
WO2017120381A1 (en) * 2016-01-08 2017-07-13 University Of Washington Through Its Center For Commercialization Layered materials and structures for enhanced impact absorption
US9743701B2 (en) 2013-10-28 2017-08-29 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US9894953B2 (en) 2012-10-04 2018-02-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US9961952B2 (en) 2015-08-17 2018-05-08 Bauer Hockey, Llc Helmet for impact protection
WO2018144420A1 (en) * 2017-01-31 2018-08-09 Tutunaru Catalin Football helmet
US10092057B2 (en) 2014-08-01 2018-10-09 Carter J. Kovarik Helmet for reducing concussive forces during collision and facilitating rapid facemask removal
USD837455S1 (en) 2013-07-15 2019-01-01 Bcl Inc Protective liner for a cap

Families Citing this family (95)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7895681B2 (en) * 2006-02-16 2011-03-01 Xenith, Llc Protective structure and method of making same
US7367898B2 (en) * 2005-02-25 2008-05-06 The Aerospace Corporation Force diversion apparatus and methods and devices including the same
US7461726B2 (en) 2005-02-25 2008-12-09 The Aerospace Corporation Force diversion apparatus and methods
US20100258988A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2010-10-14 Sport Helmets, Inc. Embodiments of Lateral Displacement Shock Absorbing Technology and Applications Thereof
US20110004980A1 (en) * 2005-10-14 2011-01-13 Leatt Brace Holdings (Pty) Limited Helmet
GB2431859A (en) * 2005-10-31 2007-05-09 Lloyd A body protecting device comprising an array of energy absorbing cells
WO2008002248A1 (en) * 2006-06-26 2008-01-03 Piren Venture Ab Impact damping material. helmet and panel incorporating the same
US20080250548A1 (en) * 2007-04-13 2008-10-16 Stuhmiller James H Anti-blast and shock optimal reduction buffer
US20080251332A1 (en) * 2007-04-13 2008-10-16 Stuhmiller James H Anti-blast and shock reduction buffer
US8108951B2 (en) * 2007-09-20 2012-02-07 Warrior Sports, Inc. Wearable protective body appliance
US8104593B2 (en) * 2008-03-03 2012-01-31 Keng-Hsien Lin Resilient shock-absorbing device
US20090218185A1 (en) * 2008-03-03 2009-09-03 Keng-Hsien Lin Resilient shock-absorbing device
IT1391182B1 (en) * 2008-07-10 2011-11-18 Met S P A Padding of a helmet, particularly for sports use
US20100186150A1 (en) 2009-01-28 2010-07-29 Xenith, Llc Protective headgear compression member
US20110034220A1 (en) * 2009-08-07 2011-02-10 Chang-Chun Lee Handset jacket structure
US20110113533A1 (en) * 2009-11-19 2011-05-19 Manuel Guillen Sports/swimming head protection device
DE102009056723A1 (en) * 2009-12-02 2011-06-09 Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung (BAM) head protection
US20120304367A1 (en) * 2010-02-26 2012-12-06 Thl Holding Company, Llc Protective helmet
US20110225706A1 (en) * 2010-03-19 2011-09-22 Brian Pye Hybrid Head Covering
CN101822440A (en) * 2010-05-10 2010-09-08 李治中 Novel high-strength damping ventilated helmet
EP2568837A1 (en) 2010-05-12 2013-03-20 Hans Von Holst Protective material
US9226539B2 (en) 2010-07-13 2016-01-05 Sport Maska Inc. Helmet with rigid shell and adjustable liner
US20130150684A1 (en) * 2011-08-27 2013-06-13 Jason Ryan Cooner System and Method for Detecting, Recording, and Treating Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury
US9072331B2 (en) 2011-01-17 2015-07-07 Smith Optics, Inc. Goggle attachment system for a helmet
US8555423B2 (en) 2011-01-19 2013-10-15 Smith Optics, Inc. Goggle attachment system for a protective helmet
US8683617B2 (en) 2011-01-19 2014-04-01 Smith Optics, Inc. Multi-component helmet with ventilation shutter
US9572389B2 (en) 2011-02-14 2017-02-21 Kineticshield, Inc. Impact and explosive force minimization structures
US20120204327A1 (en) * 2011-02-14 2012-08-16 Kinetica Inc. Helmet design utilizing nanocomposites
US8756719B2 (en) * 2011-03-17 2014-06-24 Waldemar Veazie Method and apparatus for an adaptive impact absorbing helmet system
EP2734071B1 (en) * 2011-07-21 2017-06-21 Brainguard Technologies, Inc. Biomechanics aware protective gear
CA2784316C (en) * 2011-07-27 2013-10-01 Bauer Hockey Corp. Sports helmet with rotational impact protection
US20130042748A1 (en) * 2011-08-17 2013-02-21 The Government Of The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Mesostructure Based Scatterers in Helmet Suspension Pads
US20140007324A1 (en) * 2011-08-29 2014-01-09 Tim Svehaug Soft helmet incorporating rigid panels
US9089180B2 (en) * 2011-09-08 2015-07-28 Emerson Spalding Phipps Protective helmet
US9439469B2 (en) * 2011-09-08 2016-09-13 Emerson Spalding Phipps Protective helmet
US8789212B2 (en) 2011-09-13 2014-07-29 Robert E. Cleva Protective athletic headwear with open top
US8347419B1 (en) 2011-09-13 2013-01-08 Cleva Robert E Form-fitting protective headwear
US8458820B2 (en) 2011-09-13 2013-06-11 Robert E. Cleva Form-fitting protective headwear
US8713717B2 (en) 2011-09-13 2014-05-06 Robert E. Cleva Protective athletic headwear with open top
US8973171B2 (en) 2011-09-13 2015-03-10 Robert E. Cleva Form-fitting protective headwear
US9392833B2 (en) * 2012-01-06 2016-07-19 Michcar Partners, Llc Protective helmet
US9113672B2 (en) * 2012-01-06 2015-08-25 Michcar Partners, Llc Protective helmet
US20150272258A1 (en) * 2012-01-18 2015-10-01 Darius J. Preisler Sports helmet and pad kit for use therein
CN104379338B (en) 2012-03-07 2018-03-16 丰田铁工株式会社 Interior coincident composite parts
EP2833748B1 (en) * 2012-04-04 2018-11-21 University of Ottawa Head protection for reducing linear acceleration
EP2844097B1 (en) * 2012-04-24 2017-07-26 Bell Sports Inc. Protective snow and ski helmet
US20140373256A1 (en) * 2012-04-26 2014-12-25 Philip R. Harris Helmet pads
US20130298316A1 (en) * 2012-05-14 2013-11-14 William J. Jacob Energy dissipating helmet utilizing stress-induced active material activation
US9578917B2 (en) 2012-09-14 2017-02-28 Pidyon Controls Inc. Protective helmets
WO2015116750A1 (en) * 2014-02-03 2015-08-06 Cohen Yochanan Protective helmets
US8640267B1 (en) * 2012-09-14 2014-02-04 Yochanan Cohen Protective helmet
US9194452B2 (en) 2012-10-31 2015-11-24 The Aerospace Corporation High stiffness vibration damping apparatus, methods and systems
US9375044B2 (en) 2013-01-04 2016-06-28 Square One Parachutes, Inc. Anti-fog visor with opposed vents
US20140208486A1 (en) * 2013-01-25 2014-07-31 Wesley W.O. Krueger Impact reduction helmet
ES1079209Y (en) * 2013-02-27 2013-08-09 Moya Jose Antonio Rodriguez protective helmet interior visible
US8911015B2 (en) 2013-03-05 2014-12-16 Yochanan Cohen Car seat
US10220734B2 (en) 2013-03-05 2019-03-05 Pidyon Controls Inc. Car seat
US9655783B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2017-05-23 Smith Optics, Inc. Strap attachment systems and goggles including same
WO2014184903A1 (en) * 2013-05-15 2014-11-20 豊田鉄工株式会社 Multilayer composite interior component
USD752814S1 (en) 2013-08-13 2016-03-29 Smith Optics, Inc. Helmet
USD752294S1 (en) 2013-08-13 2016-03-22 Smith Optics, Inc. Helmet
US20150047110A1 (en) * 2013-08-13 2015-02-19 Smith Optics, Inc. Helmet with shock absorbing inserts
USD795500S1 (en) 2013-08-13 2017-08-22 Smith Optics, Inc. Helmet
US10219575B2 (en) 2013-08-16 2019-03-05 Tiax Llc Structured material for impact protection
WO2015057350A1 (en) * 2013-10-18 2015-04-23 Schneider Terrence Lee Sports equipment that employ force-absorbing elements
US20150113718A1 (en) * 2013-10-28 2015-04-30 Robert T. Bayer Protective Athletic Helmet to Reduce Linear and Rotational Brain Acceleration
CN103660304B (en) * 2013-11-29 2017-01-11 航宇救生装备有限公司 Personal protective helmet inner liner, and method for manufacturing thermoplastic
US9763487B1 (en) * 2013-12-04 2017-09-19 Alphonso William Brown, Jr. Double liner impact shield football helmet
US10244809B2 (en) * 2013-12-18 2019-04-02 Linares Medical Devices, Llc Helmet for attenuating impact event
WO2015089646A1 (en) * 2013-12-19 2015-06-25 Bauer Hockey Corp. Helmet for impact protection
US9487110B2 (en) 2014-03-05 2016-11-08 Pidyon Controls Inc. Car seat
GB2524089B (en) * 2014-03-14 2016-05-04 Charles Owen And Company (Bow) Ltd Helmet
FR3023679A1 (en) * 2014-07-18 2016-01-22 Salomon Sas Helmet amortization
USD773120S1 (en) 2014-07-25 2016-11-29 Smith Optics, Inc. Helmet
US9616782B2 (en) 2014-08-29 2017-04-11 Pidyon Controls Inc. Car seat vehicle connection system, apparatus, and method
USD793625S1 (en) 2014-10-23 2017-08-01 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet
US20160120255A1 (en) * 2014-11-03 2016-05-05 Vladimir A. Alexander Impact isolation sports helmet
US20170273387A1 (en) * 2014-11-11 2017-09-28 The Uab Research Foundation Protective helmets having energy absorbing shells
CN105982382A (en) * 2015-02-11 2016-10-05 天津市爱杜自行车有限公司 Bicycle helmet
US20160242487A1 (en) * 2015-02-25 2016-08-25 Joey LaRocque Vented soft-sided helmet
US20160256763A1 (en) * 2015-03-06 2016-09-08 Michael Henry McGee Compositions for preventing head injuries in team sports
US20160271482A1 (en) * 2015-03-17 2016-09-22 Major League Baseball Protective headgear for sports participants, especially baseball fielders
JP2018514457A (en) 2015-05-12 2018-06-07 ピダイオン コントロールズ インコーポレイティド Automotive sheet and consolidated system
MX2017014780A (en) * 2015-05-19 2018-08-09 Paranhos Torres Mauricio Improvements to skull protection cell.
US10143258B2 (en) * 2015-07-17 2018-12-04 Anomaly Action Sports S.R.L. Protective helmet
US10238950B2 (en) * 2016-02-12 2019-03-26 Carl Kuntz Impact absorption padding for contact sports helmets
USD811663S1 (en) 2016-03-30 2018-02-27 Major League Baseball Properties, Inc. Protective headgear
EP3442369A1 (en) * 2016-04-11 2019-02-20 Gerhard Karall Body protection element
CN105962513A (en) * 2016-07-13 2016-09-28 太仓市飞鸿塑钢制品有限公司 Anti-collision ABS plastic safety helmet
USD822905S1 (en) 2016-10-31 2018-07-10 Smith Optics, Inc. Helmet
USD817553S1 (en) 2016-10-31 2018-05-08 Smith Optics, Inc. Helmet
US20180153244A1 (en) * 2016-12-06 2018-06-07 KIRSH Helmets, Inc. Impact-dissipating liners and methods of fabricating impact-dissipating liners
USD815359S1 (en) 2017-01-06 2018-04-10 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet
WO2018148753A1 (en) * 2017-02-13 2018-08-16 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Constant force impact protection device
US10201208B1 (en) * 2017-07-26 2019-02-12 Ronnie Z. Bochner Foldable helmet

Citations (49)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1080690A (en) * 1913-04-28 1913-12-09 Samuel Hipkiss Foot-ball helmet.
US2296355A (en) * 1938-05-23 1942-09-22 Rca Corp High frequency oscillator tube
US3039109A (en) * 1958-10-16 1962-06-19 Electric Storage Battery Co Lining for safety helmets
US3174155A (en) * 1963-02-20 1965-03-23 Dallas Sports Knitting Co Inc Protective helmet having a padded outer surface
US3487417A (en) * 1968-05-22 1969-12-30 Riddell Construction for absorbing energy
US3600714A (en) * 1969-03-19 1971-08-24 Hop N Gator Inc Hydraulic helmet
US3609764A (en) * 1969-03-20 1971-10-05 Riddell Energy absorbing and sizing means for helmets
US3666220A (en) * 1970-06-25 1972-05-30 Imp Eastman Corp Adjustable retainable tool balancer
US3849801A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-11-26 Medalist Ind Inc Protective gear with hydraulic liner
US3872511A (en) * 1974-03-11 1975-03-25 Larcher Angelo C Protective headgear
US3887076A (en) * 1972-03-15 1975-06-03 Mogens Drost Larsen Document filing rack
US4023213A (en) * 1976-05-17 1977-05-17 Pepsico, Inc. Shock-absorbing system for protective equipment
US4124904A (en) * 1977-10-17 1978-11-14 Matthes John A Protective head gear
US4534068A (en) * 1982-10-26 1985-08-13 Figgie International Inc. Shock attenuation system
US4566137A (en) * 1984-01-20 1986-01-28 Gooding Elwyn R Inflatable baffled liner for protective headgear and other protective equipment
US4627114A (en) * 1984-08-23 1986-12-09 Figgie International, Inc. Shock attenuation structure
US4700411A (en) * 1984-11-16 1987-10-20 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Helmet
US4937888A (en) * 1988-05-31 1990-07-03 Straus Albert E Helmet cover
US5204998A (en) * 1992-05-20 1993-04-27 Liu Huei Yu Safety helmet with bellows cushioning device
US5263203A (en) * 1991-10-07 1993-11-23 Riddell, Inc. Integrated pump mechanism and inflatable liner for protective
US5319808A (en) * 1992-06-01 1994-06-14 Fibre-Metal Products Co. Impact absorbing protective cap
US5334646A (en) * 1977-03-17 1994-08-02 Applied Elastomerics, Inc. Thermoplastic elastomer gelatinous articles
US5343569A (en) * 1993-07-26 1994-09-06 Asare Michael K Protective helmet containing dye capsules
US5345614A (en) * 1992-05-20 1994-09-13 Shoei Kako Kabushiki Kaisha Vehicle helmet
US5500951A (en) * 1994-03-14 1996-03-26 Danmar Products, Inc. Shock absorbing strap cover
US5548848A (en) * 1992-12-18 1996-08-27 Robert Huybrechts Mouldable composition and method of making it
US5561866A (en) * 1992-06-27 1996-10-08 Leslie Ross Safety Helmets
US5846063A (en) * 1987-05-26 1998-12-08 Nikola Lakic Miniature universal pump and valve for inflatable liners
US5881395A (en) * 1993-07-08 1999-03-16 Donzis; Byron A Impact absorbing pad
US5916664A (en) * 1995-06-05 1999-06-29 Robert C. Bogart Multi-celled cushion and method of its manufacture
US5950243A (en) * 1997-06-13 1999-09-14 Alberta Research Council Structural shell for protective headgear
US5956777A (en) * 1998-07-22 1999-09-28 Grand Slam Cards Helmet
US6073271A (en) * 1999-02-09 2000-06-13 Adams Usa, Inc. Football helmet with inflatable liner
US6260212B1 (en) * 1999-10-12 2001-07-17 Mine Safety Appliances Company Head-protective helmet with geodesic dome
US6349599B1 (en) * 2000-05-02 2002-02-26 Panametrics, Inc. Layered ultrasonic coupler
US6351853B1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2002-03-05 Southern Impact Research Center, Llc Helmet fitting system
US6434755B1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2002-08-20 Southern Impact Research Center, Llc Helmet
US6453476B1 (en) * 2000-09-27 2002-09-24 Team Wendy, Llc Protective helmet
US6519873B1 (en) * 1999-10-21 2003-02-18 Yamamoto Limited Plastic bellows inserted into soles
US6658671B1 (en) * 1999-12-21 2003-12-09 Neuroprevention Scandinavia Ab Protective helmet
US6665884B1 (en) * 2002-05-31 2003-12-23 Adams Usa Helmet with self-adjusting padding
US6694529B1 (en) * 2002-11-25 2004-02-24 Tzu Tao Chiu Helmet structure
US20040117896A1 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-06-24 Madey Steven M. Load diversion method and apparatus for head protective devices
US20040168246A1 (en) * 2001-07-09 2004-09-02 Phillips Kenneth David Protective headgear and protective armour and a method of modifying protective headgear and protective armour
US6803005B2 (en) * 2001-11-14 2004-10-12 Mjd Innovations, Llc Method for making multi-layer, personnel-protective helmet shell
US20040261157A1 (en) * 2003-06-30 2004-12-30 Srikrishna Talluri Multi-layered, impact absorbing, modular helmet
US6839910B2 (en) * 2002-07-05 2005-01-11 David Morrow Protective athletic equipment
US6925657B2 (en) * 2002-08-09 2005-08-09 Shoei, Co., Ltd. Head protecting body for safety helmet and safety helmet having head protecting body
US6934971B2 (en) * 2002-05-01 2005-08-30 Riddell, Inc. Football helmet

Family Cites Families (63)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1552965A (en) * 1924-12-01 1925-09-08 Roland L Smith Pneumatic bumper for vehicles
US2296335A (en) * 1940-11-29 1942-09-22 David R Brady Athletic protector
US2759186A (en) * 1953-07-07 1956-08-21 Cornell Aeronautical Labor Inc Pneumatic suspension for safety helmet
US3242500A (en) * 1964-08-24 1966-03-29 John W Derr Protective head covering
US3447163A (en) * 1966-02-16 1969-06-03 Peter W Bothwell Safety helmets
US3500475A (en) * 1967-03-01 1970-03-17 Honda Gijutsu Kenkyusho Kk Protective helmet
US3668704A (en) * 1970-07-13 1972-06-13 Robert E Conroy Protective headgear
US3971583A (en) * 1971-03-19 1976-07-27 Safety Consultants Energy absorbing bumper system
US3747968A (en) * 1971-10-15 1973-07-24 G Hornsby Automobile cushion bumper
US3900222A (en) * 1971-12-02 1975-08-19 Ford Motor Co Compartmented resilient bumper assembly
US3784985A (en) * 1972-05-02 1974-01-15 Air Guard Ind Athletic armor and inflatable bag assembly
US3877076A (en) * 1974-05-08 1975-04-15 Mine Safety Appliances Co Safety hat energy absorbing liner
US4075717A (en) * 1975-02-28 1978-02-28 Lemelson Jerome H Helmate
US4067063A (en) * 1975-03-31 1978-01-10 Ettinger Donald N Pneumatic athletic guard
US4134156A (en) * 1976-06-11 1979-01-16 Gyoery Kalman Safety helmet
DE2526336A1 (en) * 1975-06-12 1976-12-16 Kalman Gyoery Used for safety helmets, particularly motorcycle helmets
US3999220A (en) * 1976-04-22 1976-12-28 Keltner Raymond O Air-cushioned protective gear
US4064565A (en) * 1976-05-13 1977-12-27 Griffiths William S Helmet structure
US4099759A (en) * 1976-05-18 1978-07-11 Safety Consultants Energy absorbing bumper system
US4370754A (en) * 1978-07-27 1983-02-01 American Pneumatics Co. Variable pressure pad
US4192699A (en) * 1977-03-16 1980-03-11 Lewicki Gregory D Method of making inflatable cellular assemblies of plastic material
US5336708A (en) * 1977-03-17 1994-08-09 Applied Elastomerics, Inc. Gelatinous elastomer articles
US4453271A (en) * 1979-09-28 1984-06-12 American Pneumatics Co. Protective garment
US4586200A (en) * 1984-03-26 1986-05-06 Poon Melvyn C Protective crash helmet
CH657760A5 (en) * 1984-06-18 1986-09-30 Battelle Memorial Institute protective helmets against impact and this helmet manufacturing process.
IT1177288B (en) * 1984-11-22 1987-08-26 Pier Luigi Nava Full helmet
JPH0454180Y2 (en) * 1987-05-12 1992-12-18
US4883299A (en) * 1988-04-07 1989-11-28 Bonar George D Bumper
JPH0461082B2 (en) * 1988-06-14 1992-09-29 Michio Arai
CN1043109A (en) * 1988-12-05 1990-06-20 张宁 Hovercar damping bumper
JP2741788B2 (en) * 1989-02-17 1998-04-22 キヤノン株式会社 An ink jet recording apparatus provided with a cleaning member and said cleaning member
US5056162A (en) * 1990-06-07 1991-10-15 Kaiser Aerospace & Electronics Corporation Form-fitting, energy-absorbing material and method for making the same
JPH0663125B2 (en) * 1990-08-31 1994-08-17 昭栄化工株式会社 Riding helmet
US5098124A (en) * 1990-09-06 1992-03-24 Automotive Technologies International Inc. Padding to reduce injuries in automobile accidents
JPH0635683B2 (en) * 1990-09-14 1994-05-11 昭栄化工株式会社 Riding helmet
US5083320A (en) * 1990-12-24 1992-01-28 Athletic Helmet, Inc. Protective helmet with self-contained air pump
JPH0634335Y2 (en) * 1991-03-18 1994-09-07 昭栄化工株式会社 Helmet with shield
CN1075867A (en) 1992-02-29 1993-09-08 刘辉玉 Helmet capable of buffering percussive force
US6319599B1 (en) * 1992-07-14 2001-11-20 Theresa M. Buckley Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus
JPH086006Y2 (en) * 1993-07-28 1996-02-21 昭栄化工株式会社 Riding helmet
JP2503094Y2 (en) * 1993-08-11 1996-06-26 昭栄化工株式会社 Helmet of the air intake apparatus
US5678885A (en) * 1995-08-21 1997-10-21 Stirling; Leroy D. Vehicle body construction
EP1066765B1 (en) * 1995-10-30 2005-06-15 Shoei Co., Ltd. Safety helmet and a head protector therefor
US5575017A (en) * 1996-01-02 1996-11-19 Rawlings Sporting Goods Company, Inc. Adjustable baseball batter's helmet
US5749111A (en) * 1996-02-14 1998-05-12 Teksource, Lc Gelatinous cushions with buckling columns
US5713082A (en) * 1996-03-13 1998-02-03 A.V.E. Sports helmet
JPH1088415A (en) * 1996-07-26 1998-04-07 T S Tec Kk helmet
US5794271A (en) * 1996-10-17 1998-08-18 Hastings; Dale Helmet shell structure
US5734994A (en) * 1997-02-06 1998-04-07 M.P.H. Associates, Inc. Ventilated safety helmet with progressively crushable liner
US6336220B1 (en) * 1997-05-29 2002-01-08 Trauma-Lite Limited Protective element
US6065158A (en) * 1997-10-29 2000-05-23 Rush, Iii; Gus A. Impact indicator for athletic helmets
US5911310A (en) * 1998-04-23 1999-06-15 Bridgers; Leo W. Inflatable shin guard
US6425141B1 (en) * 1998-07-30 2002-07-30 Cerebrix Protective helmet
JP2000080515A (en) * 1998-08-31 2000-03-21 T S Tec Kk Helmet
WO2000013881A1 (en) * 1998-09-03 2000-03-16 Mike Dennis Body-contact cushioning interface structure
US6565461B1 (en) * 1998-11-25 2003-05-20 Stuart E. Zatlin Method and apparatus for reducing the likelihood of head injury from heading a soccer ball
BR9915989A (en) * 1998-12-07 2002-01-08 Catalin Obreja hard-hat
ITTV20000052A1 (en) * 2000-05-18 2001-11-19 Benetton Spa protective structure particularly for sports use
US6560787B2 (en) * 2000-08-31 2003-05-13 Irma D. Mendoza Safety helmet
US6389607B1 (en) * 2000-09-26 2002-05-21 James C. Wood Soft foam sport helmet
US6704943B2 (en) * 2001-12-31 2004-03-16 Kisiel Technologies, S.L. Inner cushions for helmets
AU2003247414A1 (en) * 2002-05-14 2003-12-02 White Water Research And Safety Institute, Inc. Protective headgear for whitewater use
GB0415629D0 (en) * 2004-07-13 2004-08-18 Leuven K U Res & Dev Novel protective helmet

Patent Citations (51)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1080690A (en) * 1913-04-28 1913-12-09 Samuel Hipkiss Foot-ball helmet.
US2296355A (en) * 1938-05-23 1942-09-22 Rca Corp High frequency oscillator tube
US3039109A (en) * 1958-10-16 1962-06-19 Electric Storage Battery Co Lining for safety helmets
US3174155A (en) * 1963-02-20 1965-03-23 Dallas Sports Knitting Co Inc Protective helmet having a padded outer surface
US3487417A (en) * 1968-05-22 1969-12-30 Riddell Construction for absorbing energy
US3600714A (en) * 1969-03-19 1971-08-24 Hop N Gator Inc Hydraulic helmet
US3609764A (en) * 1969-03-20 1971-10-05 Riddell Energy absorbing and sizing means for helmets
US3666220A (en) * 1970-06-25 1972-05-30 Imp Eastman Corp Adjustable retainable tool balancer
US3887076A (en) * 1972-03-15 1975-06-03 Mogens Drost Larsen Document filing rack
US3849801A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-11-26 Medalist Ind Inc Protective gear with hydraulic liner
US3872511A (en) * 1974-03-11 1975-03-25 Larcher Angelo C Protective headgear
US4023213A (en) * 1976-05-17 1977-05-17 Pepsico, Inc. Shock-absorbing system for protective equipment
US5334646A (en) * 1977-03-17 1994-08-02 Applied Elastomerics, Inc. Thermoplastic elastomer gelatinous articles
US5334646B1 (en) * 1977-03-17 1998-09-08 Applied Elastomerics Inc Thermoplastic elastomer gelatinous articles
US4124904A (en) * 1977-10-17 1978-11-14 Matthes John A Protective head gear
US4534068A (en) * 1982-10-26 1985-08-13 Figgie International Inc. Shock attenuation system
US4566137A (en) * 1984-01-20 1986-01-28 Gooding Elwyn R Inflatable baffled liner for protective headgear and other protective equipment
US4627114A (en) * 1984-08-23 1986-12-09 Figgie International, Inc. Shock attenuation structure
US4700411A (en) * 1984-11-16 1987-10-20 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Helmet
US5846063A (en) * 1987-05-26 1998-12-08 Nikola Lakic Miniature universal pump and valve for inflatable liners
US4937888A (en) * 1988-05-31 1990-07-03 Straus Albert E Helmet cover
US5263203A (en) * 1991-10-07 1993-11-23 Riddell, Inc. Integrated pump mechanism and inflatable liner for protective
US5345614A (en) * 1992-05-20 1994-09-13 Shoei Kako Kabushiki Kaisha Vehicle helmet
US5204998A (en) * 1992-05-20 1993-04-27 Liu Huei Yu Safety helmet with bellows cushioning device
US5319808A (en) * 1992-06-01 1994-06-14 Fibre-Metal Products Co. Impact absorbing protective cap
US5561866A (en) * 1992-06-27 1996-10-08 Leslie Ross Safety Helmets
US5548848A (en) * 1992-12-18 1996-08-27 Robert Huybrechts Mouldable composition and method of making it
US5881395A (en) * 1993-07-08 1999-03-16 Donzis; Byron A Impact absorbing pad
US5343569A (en) * 1993-07-26 1994-09-06 Asare Michael K Protective helmet containing dye capsules
US5500951A (en) * 1994-03-14 1996-03-26 Danmar Products, Inc. Shock absorbing strap cover
US5916664A (en) * 1995-06-05 1999-06-29 Robert C. Bogart Multi-celled cushion and method of its manufacture
US5950243A (en) * 1997-06-13 1999-09-14 Alberta Research Council Structural shell for protective headgear
US5956777A (en) * 1998-07-22 1999-09-28 Grand Slam Cards Helmet
US6073271A (en) * 1999-02-09 2000-06-13 Adams Usa, Inc. Football helmet with inflatable liner
US6434755B1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2002-08-20 Southern Impact Research Center, Llc Helmet
US6351853B1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2002-03-05 Southern Impact Research Center, Llc Helmet fitting system
US6260212B1 (en) * 1999-10-12 2001-07-17 Mine Safety Appliances Company Head-protective helmet with geodesic dome
US6519873B1 (en) * 1999-10-21 2003-02-18 Yamamoto Limited Plastic bellows inserted into soles
US6658671B1 (en) * 1999-12-21 2003-12-09 Neuroprevention Scandinavia Ab Protective helmet
US6349599B1 (en) * 2000-05-02 2002-02-26 Panametrics, Inc. Layered ultrasonic coupler
US6453476B1 (en) * 2000-09-27 2002-09-24 Team Wendy, Llc Protective helmet
US20040168246A1 (en) * 2001-07-09 2004-09-02 Phillips Kenneth David Protective headgear and protective armour and a method of modifying protective headgear and protective armour
US6803005B2 (en) * 2001-11-14 2004-10-12 Mjd Innovations, Llc Method for making multi-layer, personnel-protective helmet shell
US6934971B2 (en) * 2002-05-01 2005-08-30 Riddell, Inc. Football helmet
US7146652B2 (en) * 2002-05-01 2006-12-12 Riddell, Inc. Face guard connector assembly for a sports helmet
US6665884B1 (en) * 2002-05-31 2003-12-23 Adams Usa Helmet with self-adjusting padding
US6839910B2 (en) * 2002-07-05 2005-01-11 David Morrow Protective athletic equipment
US6925657B2 (en) * 2002-08-09 2005-08-09 Shoei, Co., Ltd. Head protecting body for safety helmet and safety helmet having head protecting body
US20040117896A1 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-06-24 Madey Steven M. Load diversion method and apparatus for head protective devices
US6694529B1 (en) * 2002-11-25 2004-02-24 Tzu Tao Chiu Helmet structure
US20040261157A1 (en) * 2003-06-30 2004-12-30 Srikrishna Talluri Multi-layered, impact absorbing, modular helmet

Cited By (61)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9683622B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2017-06-20 Xenith, Llc Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members
US9210961B2 (en) * 2005-08-18 2015-12-15 Mauricio Paranhos Torres Cephalic protection cell (CPC)
US20090031480A1 (en) * 2005-08-18 2009-02-05 Mauricio Paranhos Torres Cephalic protection cell (cpc)
US20100282554A1 (en) * 2009-05-11 2010-11-11 Stone Thomas D Multi-chamber impact absorption system to protect individual
US20120096631A1 (en) * 2009-06-25 2012-04-26 Wayne State University Omni-directional angular acceration reduction for protective headgear
US20110177892A1 (en) * 2010-01-16 2011-07-21 Todd Garner Strap detachable portable basketball system
US20120266365A1 (en) * 2010-01-21 2012-10-25 Cohen Elie Helmet using shock absorbing material
US20110209272A1 (en) * 2010-03-01 2011-09-01 Drake Carl Protective sports helmet with energy-absorbing padding and a facemask with force-distributing shock absorbers
US8726424B2 (en) 2010-06-03 2014-05-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Energy management structure
US9314062B2 (en) 2010-10-06 2016-04-19 Cortex Armour Inc. Shock absorbing layer with independent elements, and protective helmet including same
US20120102630A1 (en) * 2010-11-01 2012-05-03 Lawrence Anderson Wearable protection device and method thereof
US9420841B2 (en) * 2010-11-01 2016-08-23 Lawrence Everett Anderson Wearable protection device and method thereof
US20150135415A1 (en) * 2011-01-04 2015-05-21 Robert Oppenheim Helmet with a Writing Surface, Markers, and Stencil Kit
US8955169B2 (en) 2011-02-09 2015-02-17 6D Helmets, Llc Helmet omnidirectional energy management systems
WO2012109381A1 (en) * 2011-02-09 2012-08-16 Innovation Dynamics LLC Helmet omnidirectional energy management systems
CN103635112A (en) * 2011-02-09 2014-03-12 6D头盔有限责任公司 Helmet omnidirectional energy management system
US9820525B2 (en) 2011-02-09 2017-11-21 6D Helmets, Llc Helmet omnidirectional energy management systems
US9372139B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2016-06-21 Mihaly Kis, JR. Method and apparatus for simulating head impacts for helmet testing
US9140637B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2015-09-22 Mihaly Kis, JR. Method and apparatus for simulating head impacts for helmet testing
US20140020158A1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2014-01-23 Roho, Inc. Multilayer impact attenuating insert for headgear
US10130133B2 (en) 2011-05-23 2018-11-20 Lionhead Helmet Intellectual Properties, Lp Helmet system
US9462840B2 (en) 2011-05-23 2016-10-11 Lionhead Helmet Intellectual Properties, Lp Helmet system
US9032558B2 (en) 2011-05-23 2015-05-19 Lionhead Helmet Intellectual Properties, Lp Helmet system
US9554608B2 (en) 2011-05-23 2017-01-31 Lionhead Helmet Intellectual Properties, Lp Helmet system
US9119433B2 (en) 2011-05-23 2015-09-01 Lionhead Helmet Intellectual Properties, Lp Helmet system
US9560892B2 (en) 2011-05-23 2017-02-07 Lionhead Helmet Intellectual Properties, Lp Helmet system
US9468248B2 (en) 2011-05-23 2016-10-18 Lionhead Helmet Intellectual Properties, Lp Helmet system
US9516910B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2016-12-13 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
USD679058S1 (en) 2011-07-01 2013-03-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
US9062939B2 (en) 2011-07-11 2015-06-23 John P. Papp Helmet cover
USD683079S1 (en) 2011-10-10 2013-05-21 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
US20130125294A1 (en) * 2011-11-22 2013-05-23 Xenith, Llc Magnetic impact absorption in protective body gear
US8950735B2 (en) 2011-12-14 2015-02-10 Xenith, Llc Shock absorbers for protective body gear
CN104244754A (en) * 2012-01-12 2014-12-24 渥太华大学 Head protection for reducing angular accelerations
US20130247284A1 (en) * 2012-01-12 2013-09-26 University Of Ottawa Head Protection for Reducing Angular Accelerations
WO2013104073A1 (en) 2012-01-12 2013-07-18 University Of Ottawa Head protection for reducing angular accelerations
EP2802229A4 (en) * 2012-01-12 2015-12-09 Univ Ottawa Head protection for reducing angular accelerations
US20130212783A1 (en) * 2012-02-16 2013-08-22 Walter Bonin Personal Impact Protection Device
EP2814348A4 (en) * 2012-02-16 2016-05-04 Wb Dev Company Llc Personal impact protection device
WO2013123113A1 (en) * 2012-02-16 2013-08-22 Bonin Walter Personal impact protection device
US9320311B2 (en) 2012-05-02 2016-04-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
US9894953B2 (en) 2012-10-04 2018-02-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US8863320B2 (en) 2013-01-18 2014-10-21 Windpact, Inc. Impact absorbing apparatus
US10039338B2 (en) 2013-01-18 2018-08-07 Windpact, Inc. Impact absorbing apparatus
US20150237944A1 (en) * 2013-07-15 2015-08-27 Bcl Inc Protective ball cap
USD765918S1 (en) 2013-07-15 2016-09-06 BCL Inc. Protective liner for a ball cap
USD837455S1 (en) 2013-07-15 2019-01-01 Bcl Inc Protective liner for a cap
USD762330S1 (en) 2013-07-15 2016-07-26 Bcl Inc Protective liner for a ball cap
USD733972S1 (en) 2013-09-12 2015-07-07 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet
US9743701B2 (en) 2013-10-28 2017-08-29 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US20150223545A1 (en) * 2014-02-11 2015-08-13 Janice Geraldine Fraser Protective headgear
US9468249B2 (en) * 2014-02-11 2016-10-18 Janice Geraldine Fraser Protective headgear
US20150264991A1 (en) * 2014-03-24 2015-09-24 Mark Frey Concussive helmet
US9975032B2 (en) * 2014-03-24 2018-05-22 Mark Frey Concussive helmet
US10092057B2 (en) 2014-08-01 2018-10-09 Carter J. Kovarik Helmet for reducing concussive forces during collision and facilitating rapid facemask removal
US20160242485A1 (en) * 2015-02-25 2016-08-25 Steven Christopher CARTON Helmet
WO2016195974A1 (en) * 2015-06-02 2016-12-08 Apex Biomedical Company, Llc Energy-absorbing structure with defined multi-phasic crush properties
US9439468B1 (en) 2015-06-19 2016-09-13 Ethan Wayne Blagg Protective athletic helmet
US9961952B2 (en) 2015-08-17 2018-05-08 Bauer Hockey, Llc Helmet for impact protection
WO2017120381A1 (en) * 2016-01-08 2017-07-13 University Of Washington Through Its Center For Commercialization Layered materials and structures for enhanced impact absorption
WO2018144420A1 (en) * 2017-01-31 2018-08-09 Tutunaru Catalin Football helmet

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2006089234A2 (en) 2006-08-24
EP1848293A2 (en) 2007-10-31
CN101720999B (en) 2013-07-17
CN101227842A (en) 2008-07-23
EP1848293B1 (en) 2009-07-22
WO2006088500A1 (en) 2006-08-24
CN100571557C (en) 2009-12-23
WO2006089234A3 (en) 2006-11-23
CA2598015A1 (en) 2006-08-24
ES2330138T3 (en) 2009-12-04
EP1927294A2 (en) 2008-06-04
AU2006214035A1 (en) 2006-08-24
HK1112163A1 (en) 2009-11-06
US20060059606A1 (en) 2006-03-23
CA2820137A1 (en) 2006-08-24
DE602006007952D1 (en) 2009-09-03
JP2008529747A (en) 2008-08-07
CN101720999A (en) 2010-06-09
EP1927294A3 (en) 2008-06-25

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7708653B2 (en) Force diversion apparatus and methods and devices including the same
CA1107901A (en) Protective helmet
US4845786A (en) Lightweight molded protective helmet
US20020023291A1 (en) Safety helmet
US20120060251A1 (en) Protective helmet; Method for mitigating or preventing a head injury
JP5855088B2 (en) Rebound buffer energy absorbing headgear liner comprising a deployment mechanism
EP1864032B1 (en) Force diversion apparatus and methods
US6854133B2 (en) Protective headgear for whitewater use
CN105661730B (en) The helmet with the sliding facilitator being arranged at energy-absorbing layer
US6931671B2 (en) Lightweight impact resistant helmet system
US9462847B2 (en) Impact and explosive force minimization structures
US6453476B1 (en) Protective helmet
US5920915A (en) Protective padding for sports gear
US20060242752A1 (en) Impact absorbing, modular helmet
US6381760B1 (en) Protective headguard
CN103635112B (en) Helmet omnidirectional energy management system
US7673350B2 (en) Universal safety cap
US6298483B1 (en) Protective headgear and chin pad
EP2420694A2 (en) Impact energy management method and system
CA2663728C (en) Impact energy management method and system
US9439469B2 (en) Protective helmet
US8986798B2 (en) Material for attenuating impact energy
US7669251B2 (en) Impact and/or vibration absorbent material and protective articles making use thereof
US7328462B1 (en) Protective helmet
RU2298391C2 (en) Protective headwear and protective clothing, and method for modifying of protective headwear and protective clothing

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: XENITH, LLC, MASSACHUSETTS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FERRARA, VINCENT R.;REEL/FRAME:019686/0630

Effective date: 20070807

AS Assignment

Owner name: XENITH, LLC, MASSACHUSETTS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:XENITH, INC.;REEL/FRAME:019933/0916

Effective date: 20070614

AS Assignment

Owner name: SALUS CAPITAL PARTNERS, LLC, MASSACHUSETTS

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:XENITH, LLC;REEL/FRAME:029244/0922

Effective date: 20121017

AS Assignment

Owner name: XENITH, LLC, MICHIGAN

Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:SALUS CAPITAL PARTNERS, LLC;REEL/FRAME:037528/0863

Effective date: 20151228

Owner name: SIENA LENDING GROUP LLC, CONNECTICUT

Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:XENITH, LLC;REEL/FRAME:037529/0397

Effective date: 20151230