US3609764A - Energy absorbing and sizing means for helmets - Google Patents

Energy absorbing and sizing means for helmets Download PDF

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US3609764A
US3609764A US3609764DA US3609764A US 3609764 A US3609764 A US 3609764A US 3609764D A US3609764D A US 3609764DA US 3609764 A US3609764 A US 3609764A
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helmet
chambers
means
compartments
energy absorbing
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Gerard E Morgan
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R HOLDINGS CORP
Riddell Inc
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Riddell Inc
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A42HEADWEAR
    • A42BHATS; HEAD COVERINGS
    • A42B3/00Helmets; Helmet covers; Other protective head coverings
    • A42B3/04Parts, details or accessories of helmets
    • A42B3/10Linings
    • A42B3/12Cushioning devices
    • A42B3/121Cushioning devices with at least one layer or pad containing a fluid
    • A42B3/122Cushioning devices with at least one layer or pad containing a fluid inflatable

Abstract

A SYSTEM FOR ABSORBING ENERGY TO AVOID THE DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF IMPACTS IN PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT SUCH AS HELMETS COMPRISING A PLURALITY OF FIRST CHAMBERS LOCATED ON THE INSIDE SURFACE OF THE HELMET FOR POSITIONING ADJACENT THE HEAD OF THE WEARER. A SUBSTANTIALLY NON-COMPRESSIBLE FLUID IS INCLUDED WITHIN THESE FIRST CHAMBERS, AND CONDUITS CONNECT THE FIRST CHAMBERS WITH CORRESPONDING SECOND CHAMBERS. UPON IMPACT, FLUID IS DISPLACED TO THE SECONE CHAMBERS, AND, DUE TO THE DESIGN OF THE CHAMBERS, THE DISPLACED FLUID IS RETURNED TO THE FIRST CHAMBERS WHEN THE FORCE OF THE IMPACT IS REMOVED. SIZING MEANS USEFUL WITH THE ENERGY ABSORBING MEANS OR IN OTHER APPLICATIONS ARE LOCATED ON THE INTERIOR OF THE HELMET SURFACE. THE SIZING MEANS INCLUDE EXPANDABLE COMPARTMENTS, AND VALVES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THESE COMPARTMENTS WHEREBY A USER OF THE HELMET CAN PLACE THE HELMET ON HIS HEAD AFTER WHICH AIR IS INTRODUCED INTO THE COMPARTMENTS UNTIL A PROPER FIT IS ACHIEVED. ENERGY ABSORBING PADS ARE PREFERABLY LOCATED WITHIN THE COMPARTMENTS TO SERVE AS ADDITIONAL SAFEGUARDS UNDER HIGH IMPACT CONDITIONS.

Description

G. E; MORGAN 3,609,764

ENERGY ABSORBING AND SIZING MEANS FOR HELMETS Oct. 5, 17K

4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 20, 1969 .5 MwMmIwI-M xr l w organ lNVf/VTOP G. E. MORGAN ENERGY ABSORBING AND SIZING MEANS FOR HELMETS Filed March 20, 1969 Oct. 5, 1971 4 Sheets-Sheet z ENERGY ABSORBING AND SIZING MEANS FOR HELMETS Filed March 20, 1969 G. E. MORGAN Oct. 5, 1971 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Oct. 5, 1971 E. MORGAN 3,609,764

ENERGY ABSORBING AND SIZING MEANS FOR HELMETS Filed March 20, 1969 FIG. .73

4 Sheets-Sheet 4 36' FIG, 76

FIG. 18

I I. I. I. I. I. I

- I. .I I.

United States Paten 1.

3,609,764 ENERGY ABSORBING AND SIZING MEANS FOR HELMETS Gerard E. Morgan, Lak Forest, 11]., assignor to Riddell, Inc., Des Plaines, Ill. Continuation-impart of applications Ser. No. 457,016, May 19, 1965, and Ser. No. 664,748, Aug. 31, 1967. This application Mar. 20, 1969, Ser. No. 808,800 Int. Cl. A42b 3/02 US. Cl. 2-3 34 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A system for absorbing energy to avoid the detrimental effects of impacts in protective equipment such as helmets comprising a plurality of first chambers located on the inside surface of the helmet for positioning adjacent the head of the wearer. A substantially non-compressible fluid is included within these first chambers, and conduits connect the first chambers with corresponding second chambers. Upon impact, fluid is displaced to the second chambers, and, due to the design of the chambers, the displaced fluid is returned to the first chambers when the force of the impact is removed.

Sizing means useful with the energy absorbing means or in other applications are located on the interior of the helmet surface. The sizing means include expandable compartments, and valves are associated with these compartments whereby a user of the helmet can place the helmet on his head after which air is introduced into the compartments until a proper fit is achieved. Energy absorbing pads are preferably located within the compartnients to serve as additional safeguards under high impact conditions.

This application is a contin-uation-in-part of application Ser. No. 457,016, filed May 19, 1965, now abandoned, and copending application Ser. No. 664,748, filed Aug. 31, 1967, now abandoned.

The invention relates primarily to improved helmet constructions although application to other types of protective equipment is contemplated. The construction particularly comprises a mechanism adapted to be employed for receiving impact forces and for dissipating the forces to thereby materially reduce the adverse affects of the impact. In addition, the construction includes a sizing means which permits adaptation of the same helmet to a variety of individuals and which cooperates in an ideal fashion with the energy absorbing means.

A wide variety of helmet structures have been designed for absorbing energy since there are many circumstances where individuals are susceptible to impact forces which could result in serious head injuries. In certain instances, the forces arise when the head strikes a more or less stationary object such as a wall or an automobile dashboard. In other instances, the forces arise due to impact which results when another object moves into contact with the individual. This may occur in contact sports such as football, or the impact forces could result when workmen are struck by falling objects.

In addition to energy absorbing means, a proper fit is also of critical importance in helmet constructions. Provision is made for fitting by providing a head cradle, usually composed of a plurality of straps, along with some means for adjusting the straps. This is, however, somewhat unsatisfactory since completely accurate adjustments are ditficult to make, and since the adjustments cannot be made while the helmet is on the head.

Since an improper fit can result in serious injury, it has been necessary for helmet manufacturers to make available a complete range of sizes of helmets. This leads to 3,609,764 Patented Oct. 5, 1971 additional costs both from the standpoint of manufacturing and due to the fact that users of the helmets must secure large inventories in orderto accommodate different individuals and to permit immediate replacement.

It is a general object of this invention to provide a novel design for a construction used for protection against impact forces.

It is a more particular object of this invention to provide a construction which involves the use of liquids or other substantially non-compressible fluids for the purpose of dissipating energly which results from impact forces.

It is a still further object of this invention to provide constructions of the type described which are adapted to be readily associated with helmets whereby individuals can be protected against the adverse affects of impact in a highly effective manner.

It is a still further object of this invention to provide an improved sizing means for helmets whereby accurate fitting of a helmet can be accomplished and whereby the need for a large inventory of different helmet sizes can be minimized or eliminated.

These and other objects of this invention will appear hereinafter and for purposes of illustration, but not of limitation, specific embodiments of this invention are shown in the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a vertical, sectional view of a helmet construction provided with energy absorbing and sizing means characterized by the features of this invention;

FIG. 2 is a vertical, sectional view of the helment construction taken about the line 2-2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary, sectional view of an energy absorbing element utilized in the construction;

FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional view taken about the line 44 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 5 is a plan view of an inflating means which can be used with the construction of the invention;

FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view of the helmet construction;

FIG. 7 is a schematic illustration of the construction as it is placed on a persons head;

FIG. 8 is a plan view of a sizing means assembly for location at the crown and sides of the helmet;

FIG. 9 is a plan view of an assembly of energy absorbing and sizing means for location in the front of the helmet;

FIG. 10 is a plan view of an assembly of energy absorbing and sizing means for location at the back and neck areas of the helmet;

FIG. 11 is an enlarged cross-sectional view, taken about the line 1111 of FIG. 8, illustrating the valve means utilized in the construction;

FIG. 12 is an enlarged fragmentary, sectional view illustrating a snap-in stud construction utilized for securing the energy absorbing and sizing means in the construction;

FIG. 13 is a perspective view of an alternative design of sizing means;

FIG. 14 is an enlarged fragmentary, sectional view illustrating an alternative form of valve mounting means;

FIG. 15 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view illustrating an alternative form of fastener means for securing energy absorbing and sizing assemblies;

FIG. 16 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view illustrating an additional type of sizing means;

FIG. 17 is a cross-sectional view illustrating an alterna tive form of energy absorbing means;

FIG. 18 is a detailed, fragmentary, cross-sectional view illustrating the operation of the construction of FIG. 17;

FIG. 19 is a cross-sectional view illustrating schematically the energy absorbing capabilities of the construction; and,

FIG. 20 is a diagrammatic illustration of an additional type of energy absorbing means.

The helmet construction of this invention includes means adapted to absorb energy upon being subjected to impact. The invention provides for the use of first and second chambers which are flexible in nature in the sense that the interiors of the chambers are adapted to increase and reduce in size in response to the application and removal of impact forces.

A passage means is provided for interconnecting the respective chambers, and a substantially non-compressible fluid is included in the first chamber. When an impact force is applied, the fluid is adapted to be transferred from the first chamber to the second chamber through the passage means. The work involved in moving the fluid represents a direct measure of the amount of energy absorbed. By providing an appropriate design for the energy absorbing means to fit their location in the helmet, the energy absorption capabilities will be such that injury or damage can be eliminated or reduced to a desirable minimum.

The sizing means of this invention generally consist of a plurality of air compartments situated over the interior surface of the helmet shell. Valve means accessible from the exterior of the shell are provided for inflating the compartments whereby the helmet can be fit while in place on an individuals head. Additional energy absorbing means are preferably included within the compartments to provide a back-up in the event of especially high impact or in the event of failure of the primary energy absorbing means.

In a preferred form of the invention, the combination of the energy absorbing and sizing means is used together, preferably by placing these means on a liner which fits within the helmet shell. With this combination, assembly of the helmet can be accomplished in an extremely efiicient manner. Fastening means for the liner and air valves are designed so that additional safety features are provided.

FIGS. 1, 2, 4 and 6 illustrate a helmet 10 provided with the energy absorbing and sizing means. The energy absorbing means are in the form of elements 12 including first and second chambers 14 and 16. The sizing means with associated energy absorbing means include a first set 18 for engaging the back of the neck, a second set 20 positioned to engage an intermediate area at the back of the head, a third set 22 extending over the front of the head and a crown and side set 24.

As shown in FIGS. 8-10, common backing sheets 25 may be provided for the energy absorbing and sizing means. These backing sheets are individually attached to the helmet shell which is preferably formed of a relatively rigid material such as hard plastic, metal, or the like.

Each of the energy absorbing means carries a noncompressible fluid, the major portion of which is present in the larger chambers 14. Each chamber 14 communicates with a chamber 16 through constricted passage 26. Accordingly, when force is applied to the energy absorbing means, fluid is adapted to be transferred from the chamber v14 to the chamber 16.

The energy absorbing means 12 are formed of a flexible material which can be sealed to form fluid-tight chambers, for example by gluing or heat sealing. Such materials provide the desired flexibility while also having characteristics which simplify manufacturing. In the embodiment shown, the energy absorbing means 12 are heat sealed directly to the backing sheet 25 (see FIG. 3). A heat seal is provided at 28 for purposes of forming the relatively narrow passage 26 between the chambers (FIGS. 9 and 10). The size of this passage will determine the amount of force required to permit transfer of fluid from a first chamber to a second chamber.

By controlling the extent of heat sealing around the chamber 16, the size of the chamber can be controlled. This chamber is designed to normally urge the fluid into the chamber 14. Accordingly, when an impact force is removed, the energy absorbing elements will resume their 4 normal configuration. As explained in the aforementioned copending applications, independent means could be provided for normally compressing the chamber 16, for example, resilient bands overlying the chamber 16. It is essential to the operation of the construction, however, that the fluid be preferentially included within one chamber for transfer to the other chamber upon the application of force. Substantially all of the fluid should, therefore, be in the chamber 14 with only a minimum amount of fluid, if any, being present in the chamber 16 until a force is applied.

The energy absorbing members 12 are located at strategic points over the interior wall of the construction. Obviously, the location of the energy absorbing means should be such that protection will be provided irrespective of the direction of impact.

The sizing means of this invention each comprise a compartment 32 or a compartment 24' in the case of the crown (FIGS. 810). These compartments are located in spaced apart relationship over the interior surface of the helmet. The location of the compartments is selected so that upon inflation of the compartments, the helmet shell will be evenly spaced apart as much as possible with respect to the head of the wearer.

The sizing compartments can be manufactured by locating a flexible material on backing sheet 25 and then sealing off the compartment, for example, by heat sealing or gluing. In the embodiment illustrated, the material is heat sealed to the backing sheet around all edges of each compartment with the exception of small passages 36 which interconnect the respective compartments. This arrangement is best illustrated in FIGS. 9 and 10.

A valve 38 may be associated with each compartment or set of compartments. Referring to the sets 18, 20 and 22 in FIGS. 9 and 10, it will be noted that a valve is associated with the intermediate compartment, and due t the interconnecting passages 36, all of the compartments 32 can be filled with air simultaneously. In the case of any set, a single valve can be employed; however, two or more valves could be positioned at intervals particularly where greater numbers of compartments are included in a set.

In FIG. 8, the set 24 consists of a compartment 24 of circular configuration with a valve 38 communicating with the interior of this sizing means. This compartment 24 is situated in the crown of the helmet for engaging the top of the wearers head. A bellows type body may alternatively be used for the compartment or for Others of the sizing means.

A second valve means 38 associated with this assembly communicates with a bubble 41 which, in turn, is connected through the passages 41' to the side compartments 32. As will be explained, these side compartments are P vided with a separate valve so that they can be inflated separately from the chamber 24' during the fitting operation.

The backing sheets 25 for each of the configurations shown in FIGS. 8-10 are provided with tabs 43. These tabs define openings 45 for alignment with corresponding openings in securing bands 47. These securing bands cornprise relatively stiff plastic pieces which are secured to the helmet wall by means of snap-in studs 49 shown in FIG. 12. The studs 49 include an enlarged bifurcated end 49" which, when pressed into reduced diameter openings in the helmet shell, will hold the bands in a secure position. As best shown in FIG. 1, the openings in the helmet shell define a countersunk portion 49" so that the enlarged end 49 will lock into place.

The sets of energy absorbing and sizing means can be riveted or otherwise attached to the bands and the bands are then secured to the helmet shell by means of the snapin studs 49. The valves 38 are attached to the sizing chamber assemblies prior to attachment of these assemblies to the bands, and the valves are then adapted to be snapped into place relative to the helmet shell.

A preferred construction for the valves 38 is shown in FIG. 11. The valves comprise a beaded inner end 140 whereby a resilient band 142 can be held in place around the valve body. The valve is slit at 144, and a central bore 146 is formed adjacent this slit. Outwardly extending shoulders 148 are provided so that the valves can b snapped into openings 150 defined by the helmet shell (FIG. 1).

The slit 144 is provided in the valve for entry of the needle 152 of the inflating means 154 shown in FIG. 5. The inflating device of FIG. 5 is merely illustrative of a suitable manually held construction; however, other conventional means can obviously be employed for this purpose. The inflating means should, however, include a needle portion which can be inserted in the bore 146 of the valve and forced through the slit in opposition to the resilient action of the band 142. The sizing means can then be inflated in a desired degree while the helmet is on the wearers head, and when the needle is pulled out, the band 142 will provide automatic sealing.

The use of studs 49 and valves 38 is particularly desirable for athletic helmets. The snap-in characteristics permit secure attachment of these members without having any protruding portions so that a smooth exterior can be provided to minimize the possibility of injuries.

A strip 53 of leather (FIG. 7) may be provided over the compartments 32 located at the front of the helmet for positioning against the forehead. This strip of material serves as a sweatband, and it is preferably adhesively applied to permit easy removal and replacement.

Although sequence variations are contemplated, particularly where the design of the individual sets varies, fitting a helmet on the head of an individual, may commence with the compartment 24 of the crown area 90 (FIG. 7) being inflated first to provide a comfortable position of the helmet, for example from the standpoint of vision. The sets 22 and 20 of compartments 32 in the areas 92 and 94 can then be inflated (preferably in that order) to provide substantially uniform spacing between the helmet wall and the front and back of the head. The set 18 is then inflated to engage the neck properly.

The side compartments 32 of the set 24 are then inflated last to complete fitting of the helmet, again without disturbing the position established by the initial inflation. It will be appreciated that the order of inflation described represents a convenient and eflicient arrangement but that other inflating sequences are clearly available.

Each of the compartments preferably includes an energy absorbing element in its interior. These elements comprise a first layer 50 formed of standard resilient material, such as expanded vinyl, used for the padding of athletic equipment. The other layer 51 is preferably a crushable material capable of absorbing energy, for example, expanded polystyrene beads or polyethylene foam sold under the trademark Ethafoam.

FIGS. 17 and 18 illustrate an alternative design for the energy absorbing means 12 comprising a single housing 86 defining a first chamber 88 and a second chamber 90. The passages 92 and 94 interconnect the respective chambers. A first flap valve 97 permits fluid in the chamber 88 to pass into the chamber 90 While the flap valve 98 provides for reverse movement.

A suitable resilient means may be associated with the arangement of FIG. 17 for compressing the housing 86 in the area of the chamber 90 as suggested by the dotted lines. These compressing means will, therefore, resist entry of fluid in the chamber 90 while operating to urge return of the fluid through the passage 94.

The arrangement shown in FIGS. 17 and 1 8 differs from the energy absorbing means 12 primarily because of the ability of the flap valve 97 to provide for substantial changes in the size of the passage communicating the first and second chambers. Thus, in the case of the passage 26, only a relatively small increase in the diameter of the passage will occur even when high impact takes place. This increase in diameter occurs because of the resilient character of the material forming the absorbing means 12.

It will be appreciated that the features of the absorbing means 12 and 86 could be combined whereby a single passage means, having expansion characteristics, will be provided. For example, the passage means shown in FIG. 20 comprises a conically shaped tubular member having a side wall of varying thickness. The opening 101 interconnects the chambers 102 and 104 thereby providing a normally open passage for movement of fluids back and forth between the chambers. The material forming the passage is flexible so that the opening 101, being in the thin wall area, will expand by an amount depending on the size of the impact force. This is particularly important in the case of high impact, since otherwise the resistance of the chamber 102 might approach the resistance of a solid.

FIG. 19 schematically illustrates the manner in which the various elements within the construction cooperate. The sizing means 32 absorb the energy resulting from impacts of lower magnitude. In the case of a football helmet, these sizing means may absorb all the energy as much as 60 percent of the time.

When greater forces are encountered, the absorbing means 12 come into play; these absorbing means will probably be used about 30 percent of the time when utilized in football helmets. The resilient padding 50 can then be used only for the remaining 10 percent of impact forces. As shown in FIG. 19, this resilient padding may extend closely adjacent the inner surface of the sizing chamber, in which case, its effect will be utilized for lesser impact stages. Alternatively, the padding 50 may be of much lesser extent, and it will then be utilized in later stages of impact. In any event, even relatively severe impacts encountered during a football game can be readily accommodated by the three systems referred to.

The crushable material 51 is provided only for extremely severe circumstances, circumstances which might be severe enough to cause bursting of the compartments 32 and absorbing means 12. The crushable material will give under these severe circumstances and therefore may not be usable thereafter; however, since other damage has occurred; sizing means and absorbing means would have to be replaced in any event.

It will be understod that the energy absorbing means comprising the units 12 are considered to have utility apart from the sizing means, and the sizing means likewise have separate utility. Although the respective means cooperate in an ideal fashion as described, the utilization of other complementary arrangements with either of these means is contemplated.

The provision of the sizing means and the energy absorbing means on a common liner provides many advantages. Assembly is greatly simplified since accurate placement of the elements on the linear is easily accomplished. Thus, the assembly can be produced from two opposing sheets of heat sealable material with the chambers, compartments, and passages formed in one sheet. Furthermore, the liner can be easily removed in the event of any defects or failure of any of the elements on the liner. A replacement line can be provided, and there will be no need to discard the helmet shell. Individual assemblies, for example the set 22, can be used in combination with other energy absorbing or sizing arrangements instead of using all the sets together. Finally, the energy absorbing or sizing means, or an assembly thereof, can be used with other protective equipment such as shoulder pads, jaw pads, thigh pads, hip pads, etc.

As shown in FIG. 15, a liner 52 may be provided with a strap portions 54 adapted to overlap the peripheral edge of the helmet shell. By providing openings in these strap portions in alignment with openings in the helmet shell, the liner can be easily attached and removed.

One suitable means for securing the liner 52 to the helmet shell comprises a fastener 56 formed of a tough resilient material. The fastener includes an enlarged head 58, a reduced diameter shank 60, an and enlarged end 62. A narrow strip 64 is formed as an extension of the enlarged end. When the holes in the liner strap and shell are in alignment, the fastener can be forced through, and then looked in place when the enlarged end passes the last hole. The strip 64 can be grasped with the fingers to assist in forcing the fastener through the holes. By utilizing a resilient material for the fastener 56, there is a minimum danger of injury if the head should strike a fastener end.

In the arrangement shown in FIG. 16, a plate 66 is located over the interior wall of the helmet shell, and an internally threaded sleeve 68 is passed through an opening in the liner 52 and through the helmet shell. A screw 70 is then provided for securing the edge portion 54.

FIG. 14 illustrates an alternative form of valve construction. The valve comprises a shank portion 72 which extends through an opening in the helmet shell. The inner end 74 is maintained in spaced apart relationship with the helmet shell by means of a grommet 76 formed of resilient material. In the event an impact force is applied in the area of this valve, it is possible that the wearers head will actually be moved so close to the surface of the helmet shell that there is a danger of the hard valve material injuring the head. However, before this can occur, the grommet 76 will give thereby allowing the shank 72 of the valve to move outwardly of the helmet shell. The helmet constructions of this invention are, of course, designed so that the wearers head would never come into contact with a valve; however, the arrangement of FIG. 14 is considered desirable as a means for preventing injury in the event of failure of other components of the helmet or in the event of highly unusual impact forces.

There has been described an arrangement which provides an extremely satisfactory means for the absorbing of energy and for properly fitting a helmet. The use of liquids or any substantially non-compressible fluid in the energy absorbing means enables the absorption of energy even at extremely high levels whereby the detrimental effects of impacts can be reduced to a minimum. Relatively common liquids may be utilized, for example, an aqueous solution containing 20 percent CaCl Vinyl sheets are suitable for forming the energy absorbing and sizing compartments.

The provision of air or other gas for the sizing means provides a highly effective and easily handled fitting technique. The combination of the energy absorbing means and the sizing means is itself of critical importance particularly since the design of the respective means lends itself to joint installation, for example, on a common backing, and since the highly accurate fitting cooperates with the energy absorbing mean in providing a safe helmet. This latter feature is of major importance since the provision of an accurate fit, with the sizing means firmly against the head even where unusual head contours are involved, is very important in preventing head injury. Thus, if a player has a prominent knob or other unusual head characteristic, the sizing compartments will compensate to avoid any looseness.

It will be understood that various changes and modifications may be made in the above described constructions which provide the characteristics of thisinvention without departing from the spirit thereof particularly as defined in the following claims.

That which is claimed is:

1. In a protective helmet construction adapted to absorb energy when subjected to impact, the improvement comprising a plurality of first flexible chambers positioned on the interior surface of the helmet to receive the effects of said impact, a plurality of second flexible chambers, passage means connecting said first chambers to said second chambers, a substantially non-compressible fluid within said first chambers, means for normally retaining at least a major portion of said fluid in said first chambers, the force of the impact operating to transfer fluid through said passage means into said second chambers, and said 8 retaining means operating to move fluid back to the first chambers when said force is dissipated, and including a plurality of sizing means attached within said helmet, said sizing means being adjustable whereby the helmet can be worn by different individuals.

2. A construction according to claim 1 wherein an individual second chamber is connected by passage means to each of said first chambers.

3. A construction in accordance with claim 2 wherein the interconnected first and second chambers are defined within a common housing of flexible material, and wherein said passage means are defined within said housing.

4. A construction in accordance with claim 3 wherein said housing is formed of a heat sealable material, and wherein opposing walls of said housing are heat sealed together and including a small opening defined between the heat sealed portions for forming said passage means.

5. A construction in accordance with claim 4 wherein the Walls defining said second chambers are partially heat sealed together to restrict said second chambers so that said fluid is normally urged out of said second chambers.

6. A construction in accordance with claim 1 wherein said sizing means comprise expandable compartments, and including means for changing the size of said compartments while the helmet is in place on the head of an individual.

7. A construction in accordance with claim 6 including valves associated with said expandable compartments whereby air is adapted to be formed into said compartments for adjusting the size of said compartments.

8. A construction in accordance with claim 7 wherein at least some of said expandable compartments are interconnected Whereby the size of said compartments can be simultaneously adjusted.

9. A construction in accordance with claim 6 including a common backing for at least some of said compartments whereby the compartments can be installed together within the helmet.

10. A construction in accordance with claim 9 wherein said chambers are mounted on said common backing.

11. A construction in accordance with claim 9 wherein said common backing comprises a liner fitting over substantially the entire interior surface of said helmet.

12. A construction in accordance with claim 6 wherein a bellows type compartment is provided at the crown of the helmet.

13. A construction in accordance with claim 6 including energy absorbing means located within said chambers, said energy absorbing means being utilized when said impact causes the head of the wearer to compress said chambers to a substantial degree.

14. A construction in accordance with claim 1 wherein said first and second chambers are formed from opposing sheets of heat sealable material, and wherein the spacing between sheet portions forming said first chambers substantially exceeds the spacing between the sheet portions forming said second chambers to thereby provide a substantially greater volume for retaining fluid in said first chambers.

'15. In a protective helmet construction adapted to absorb energy when subjected to impact, the improvement comprising a plurality of sizing means positioned on the interior surface of said helmet, said sizing means comprising compartments having a compressible fluid disposed therein, valve means communicating with said compartments for introducing and removing said fluid to thereby permit changing of the size of said compartments whereby the helmet can be worn by different individuals, and energy absorbing means having energy absorbing capabilities completely independent of said compartments and having exposed exterior surfaces for contact with the head of the wearer when impact occurs, said compartments being located at spaced intervals over substantially the entire interior surface of said helmet, and wherein at least some of said energy absorbing means are located in the spaces defined between said compartments.

16. A construction in accordance with claim 15 wherein at least some of said compartments are interconnected whereby the size of said compartments can be simultaneously adjusted.

17. A construction in accordance with claim 16 including a common backing for at least some of said compartments whereby the compartments can be installed together within the helmet.

18. A construction in accordance with claim 17 wherein said energy absorbing means are also mounted on said common backing.

19. A construction in accordance with claim 17 wherein said common backing comprises a liner fitting over substantially the entire interior surface of said helmet.

20. A construction in accordance with claim 15 wherein a bellows type compartment is provided at the crown of the helmet.

21. A construction in accordance with claim 15 wherein the exposed exterior surfaces of said energy absorbing means are closer to the interior of the helmet than the exterior surfaces of said compartments whereby the energy absorbing means are utiilzed when said impact causes the head of the wearer to compress said compartments to a substantial degree.

22. A construction in accordance with claim 19 including means securing said liner to the helmet shell, said securing means comprising a fastener formed of a plastic material, said fastener having an enlarged head portion, a reduced diameter shank, and an enlarged end portion, aligned openings in said edge of said liner and in said helmet, said enlarged end of said fastener being forced through said opening in said edge of said liner and locked in position opposite said fastener head in said opening in said helmet.

23. A construction in accordance with claim 15 Where in said valves include an opening exposed on the exterior surface of the helmet, and including a relatively thick grommet surrounding the shank of said valve adjacent the interior surface of the helmet, said grommet being formed of flexible material whereby the grommet will be compressed if subjected to an impact and whereby the shank of the valve will be forced outwardly.

24. A construction in accordance with claim 15 wherein at least one of said compartments is located at the front of the helmet for engagement with the forehead of the wearer, and including a sweatband adhesively attached to the exterior surface of the compartment whereby the band can be easily removed and replaced.

25. A construction in accordance with claim 15 wherein air comprises the fluid disposed within said compartments.

26. A construction in accordance with claim 15 wherein said sizing means and energy absorbing means are formed from two opposing sheets of heat sealable material, one of said sheets providing a common backing for the sizing means and energy absorbing means, said sheets being heat sealed together around the peripheral edges of said compartments.

27. A construction in accordance with claim 26 wherein said energy absorbing means comprise a plurality of first flexible chambers and a plurality of second flexible chambers, passage means connecting said first chambers to said second chambers, 21 substantially non-compressible fluid within the first chambers, and means for normally retaining at least a major portion of said non-compressible fluid in said first chambers, said sheets being heat sealed around the peripheral edges of said first and second chambers.

28. A construction in accordance with claim 27 wherein the passage means between said first and second chambers are formed by leaving a narrow unheat-sealed area between said chambers, and wherein additional passage means are provided for interconnecting said compartments by leaving narrow unheatsealed areas extending between the respective compartments.

29. In a protective helmet construction adapted to absorb energy when subjected to impact, the improvement comprising sizing means positioned on the interior surface of said helmet, said sizing means defining fluidtight compartments for holding compressible fluid and wherein individual compartments are positioned at different locations on said interior surface, a plurality of valve means for use in independently controlling the inflation of said compartments, said valve means including portions extending through the helmet shell whereby the compartments can be inflated while the helmet is on the head of the wearer, a plurality of mounting straps, bands extending over the interior surface of the helmet in underlying relation with said sizing means, means attaching said bands to said helmet, and means connecting said sizing means to said bands.

30. A construction in accordance with claim 29 wherein said helmet includes a crown portion and downwardly extending front, back and side portions, and wherein at least one individual compartment is located in the crown of the helmet for engaging the top of the head, at least one compartment is located at the front of the helmet for engaging the forehead, at least one individual compartment is located at the back of the helmet for engaging the back of the head, at least one individual compartment is located beneath the compartment at the back of the helmet for engaging the neck, and at least one individual compartment is located at each side of the helmet for engaging each side of the head, the separate valve means for the individual compartments permitting inflation of the compartments in a desired sequence.

31. A construction in accordance with claim 30 wherein the sizing means for the forehead, back and neck comprise a plurality of interconnected compartments situated in side-by-side relationship on the interior surface of the helmet.

32. A construction in accordance with claim 29 wherein each of said valve means comprises a body of plastic material having one end extending into the interior of a compartment with the opposite end being exposed on the exterior surface of the helmet, a bore defined by said body accessible from the exterior of the helmet, a slit in said body formed as a continuation of said bore, and resilient means surrounding said body at said one end for normally sealing said slit, and wherein the stem of an inflating means is adapted to be pressed into said bore and through said slit for access to the interior of the associated compartment.

33. In a protective helmet construction adapted to absorb energy when subjected to impact, the improvement comprising a plurality of first flexible chambers positioned on the interior surface of the helmet to receive the effects of said impact, a plurality of second flexible chambers, passage means connecting said first chambers to said second chambers, a substantially noncompressible fluid within said first chambers, said second chambers being formed by substantially overlying walls secured at their edges whereby the second chambers are normally maintained in a compressed state of low volume so that at least a major portion of said fluid will normally be retained in said first chambers, the force of an impact being adapted to transfer fluid through said passage means into said second chambers, and whereby the fluid transferred is moved back to the first chambers when said force is removed.

34. In a protective helmet construction adapted to absorb energy when subjected to impact, the improvement comprising sizing means positioned on the interior surface of said helmet, said sizing means defining fluidtight compartments for holding compressible fluid and wherein individual compartments are positioned at dif- 1 1 ferent locations on said interior surface, a plurality of valve means for use in independently controlling the inflation of said compartments, said valve means including portions extending through the helmet shell whereby the compartments can be inflated while the helmet is on the head of the wearer, and energy absorbing means positioned within said compartments, said energy absorbing means comprising at least in part resilient material adapted to be compressed when the compartments are subjected to impact.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,596,320 8/1926 Sonnett 27365.4 1,662,527 3/ 1928 MacDonald 273-65.4 1,833,708 11/1931 Ford 23 12 2,618,780 11/1952 Cushman 23 2,759,186 8/1956 Dye 23 2,816,290 8/1956 Boyer 23 3,039,109 6/ 1962 Simpson 23 3,186,004 6/ 1965 Carlini 23 3,344,433 10/ 1967 Stapenhill 23 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,171,173 9/1958 France 23 1,203,481 7/ 1959 France 23 947,772 1/1964 Great Britain 23 JAMES R. BOLER, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 27.3-65.4

US3609764A 1969-03-20 1969-03-20 Energy absorbing and sizing means for helmets Expired - Lifetime US3609764A (en)

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US3673609A (en) * 1971-01-27 1972-07-04 Us Navy Protective helmet
US3761959A (en) * 1971-12-27 1973-10-02 F Dunning Inflatable padding for football helmet or the like
US3787893A (en) * 1972-05-04 1974-01-29 A Larcher Protective headgear
US3806950A (en) * 1972-03-23 1974-04-30 Curran J Bandage shock absorbers for safety helmets
US3849801A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-11-26 Medalist Ind Inc Protective gear with hydraulic liner
US3866243A (en) * 1973-10-15 1975-02-18 Riddell Headgear with automatic sizing means
US3872511A (en) * 1974-03-11 1975-03-25 Larcher Angelo C Protective headgear
US3882547A (en) * 1973-10-09 1975-05-13 Riddell Padding structure
US3956773A (en) * 1974-04-25 1976-05-18 The Unites States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Custom fitted, light weight, air conditioned protective helmet
US4006496A (en) * 1975-08-13 1977-02-08 Land Tool Company Safety helmet
US4023213A (en) * 1976-05-17 1977-05-17 Pepsico, Inc. Shock-absorbing system for protective equipment
US4035845A (en) * 1976-09-16 1977-07-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Protective flight helmet
US4287613A (en) * 1979-07-09 1981-09-08 Riddell, Inc. Headgear with energy absorbing and sizing means
US4486901A (en) * 1982-03-12 1984-12-11 Houston Protective Equipment, Inc. Multi-layered, open-celled foam shock absorbing structure for athletic equipment
US4586200A (en) * 1984-03-26 1986-05-06 Poon Melvyn C Protective crash helmet
WO1986003655A2 (en) * 1984-12-21 1986-07-03 Sonda S.R.L. Protective buffer padding element
US4831668A (en) * 1988-06-23 1989-05-23 Riddell, Inc. Padding structure for use in protective headgear
FR2638618A1 (en) * 1988-11-04 1990-05-11 Bianchi Vittorio Device for retaining a removable object on a support, in particular a dust protection cap of said support, and protection accessory comprising such a device
US5014365A (en) * 1989-01-23 1991-05-14 Maxpro Helmets, Inc. Gas-fitted protective helmet
US5035009A (en) * 1990-09-27 1991-07-30 Riddell, Inc. Protective helmet and liner
US5545128A (en) * 1992-11-20 1996-08-13 Beth Israel Hospital Bone fracture prevention method
US5881395A (en) * 1993-07-08 1999-03-16 Donzis; Byron A Impact absorbing pad
US6093468A (en) * 1997-03-14 2000-07-25 The Procter & Gamble Company Flexible lightweight protective pad with energy absorbing inserts
US6128779A (en) * 1997-11-14 2000-10-10 Jas D. Easton, Inc. Limb protector
US6178560B1 (en) 1999-06-04 2001-01-30 Southern Impact Research Center, Llc Helmet fitting system
US20040025231A1 (en) * 2002-05-01 2004-02-12 Ide Thad M. Football helmet
US20060059605A1 (en) * 2004-09-22 2006-03-23 Xenith Athletics, Inc. Layered construction of protective headgear with one or more compressible layers of thermoplastic elastomer material
US20060059606A1 (en) * 2004-09-22 2006-03-23 Xenith Athletics, Inc. Multilayer air-cushion shell with energy-absorbing layer for use in the construction of protective headgear
WO2006089235A1 (en) * 2005-02-16 2006-08-24 Ferrara Vincent R Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members
US20070190293A1 (en) * 2006-02-16 2007-08-16 Xenith, Inc. Protective Structure and Method of Making Same
US20070190292A1 (en) * 2006-02-16 2007-08-16 Ferrara Vincent R Impact energy management method and system
US20080092277A1 (en) * 2006-09-08 2008-04-24 Nelson Kraemer Sports helmet with clamp for securing a chin protector
US20080250548A1 (en) * 2007-04-13 2008-10-16 Stuhmiller James H Anti-blast and shock optimal reduction buffer
US20090106882A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Melas, Inc. Helmet with an attachment mechanism for a faceguard
WO2009090410A1 (en) 2008-01-18 2009-07-23 Ayrtek (Tm) Limited Helmet
US20090265839A1 (en) * 2006-04-13 2009-10-29 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Fluid Safety Liner
US20100180363A1 (en) * 2009-01-16 2010-07-22 The Burton Corporation Adjustable fitting helmet
US20100299812A1 (en) * 2009-06-02 2010-12-02 Maddux Larry E Protective arrangement
US20110047685A1 (en) * 2006-02-16 2011-03-03 Ferrara Vincent R Impact energy management method and system
US20110131695A1 (en) * 2009-12-09 2011-06-09 Maddux Larry E TPU/Foam Jaw Pad
US8046845B1 (en) * 2009-01-09 2011-11-01 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Lightweight combat helmet
US20120036620A1 (en) * 2010-08-16 2012-02-16 Kerry Sheldon Harris Helmet padding systems
USD667592S1 (en) * 2011-06-08 2012-09-18 Matscitechno Licensing Company Shock-absorbing cap
US20120304367A1 (en) * 2010-02-26 2012-12-06 Thl Holding Company, Llc Protective helmet
US20120304366A1 (en) * 2011-06-01 2012-12-06 Bernard Daoust Mechanical fasteners for shock-absorbing helmets
US20130000017A1 (en) * 2011-07-01 2013-01-03 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
USD679058S1 (en) 2011-07-01 2013-03-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
US20130086733A1 (en) * 2011-10-10 2013-04-11 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
USD683079S1 (en) 2011-10-10 2013-05-21 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
US20130152287A1 (en) * 2011-12-16 2013-06-20 Oakwood Energy Management, Inc. Rebounding cushioning helmet liner
US8533869B1 (en) * 2008-02-19 2013-09-17 Noggin Group LLC Energy absorbing helmet underwear
US20130247411A1 (en) * 2010-10-08 2013-09-26 Teng-Jen Yang Air pressure adjustable elastic body used in shoe sole as a shock absorber
US20130247284A1 (en) * 2012-01-12 2013-09-26 University Of Ottawa Head Protection for Reducing Angular Accelerations
US20130333100A1 (en) * 2012-06-18 2013-12-19 Robert Erb Football helmet
US8621672B2 (en) 2011-05-06 2014-01-07 John CHUBACK Head and neck protection apparatus
US8631518B1 (en) * 2013-01-30 2014-01-21 William J. Jennings Shock absorbing, stretchable fabric, head cap for receipt under a head protection helmet
US20140096312A1 (en) * 2012-09-12 2014-04-10 Matscitechno Licensing Company Helmet padding system
US8726424B2 (en) 2010-06-03 2014-05-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Energy management structure
US20140215694A1 (en) * 2013-02-06 2014-08-07 Darin Grice Helmet with external shock wave dampening panels
US20140223643A1 (en) * 2013-02-12 2014-08-14 Riddell, Inc. Pad assemblies for a protective sports helmet
US8814150B2 (en) 2011-12-14 2014-08-26 Xenith, Llc Shock absorbers for protective body gear
US8850623B1 (en) * 2013-04-06 2014-10-07 Mazz Enterprises, Llc Helmet with energy management system
US8915339B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2014-12-23 Skydex Technologies, Inc. Interdigitated cellular cushioning
US8950735B2 (en) 2011-12-14 2015-02-10 Xenith, Llc Shock absorbers for protective body gear
USD733972S1 (en) 2013-09-12 2015-07-07 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet
US9289024B2 (en) 2007-04-16 2016-03-22 Riddell, Inc. Protective sports helmet
US9320311B2 (en) 2012-05-02 2016-04-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
US20160157545A1 (en) * 2014-12-05 2016-06-09 Michael R. Bowman Collapsible safety helmet
US20170232327A1 (en) * 2016-02-12 2017-08-17 Carl Kuntz Impact absorption padding for contact sports helmets
US9743701B2 (en) 2013-10-28 2017-08-29 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US9763488B2 (en) 2011-09-09 2017-09-19 Riddell, Inc. Protective sports helmet
US9788591B2 (en) 2007-04-16 2017-10-17 Riddell, Inc. Quick release connector
US9894953B2 (en) 2012-10-04 2018-02-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US9961952B2 (en) 2015-08-17 2018-05-08 Bauer Hockey, Llc Helmet for impact protection

Cited By (116)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3673609A (en) * 1971-01-27 1972-07-04 Us Navy Protective helmet
US3761959A (en) * 1971-12-27 1973-10-02 F Dunning Inflatable padding for football helmet or the like
US3806950A (en) * 1972-03-23 1974-04-30 Curran J Bandage shock absorbers for safety helmets
US3787893A (en) * 1972-05-04 1974-01-29 A Larcher Protective headgear
US3849801A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-11-26 Medalist Ind Inc Protective gear with hydraulic liner
US3882547A (en) * 1973-10-09 1975-05-13 Riddell Padding structure
US3866243A (en) * 1973-10-15 1975-02-18 Riddell Headgear with automatic sizing means
US3872511A (en) * 1974-03-11 1975-03-25 Larcher Angelo C Protective headgear
US3956773A (en) * 1974-04-25 1976-05-18 The Unites States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Custom fitted, light weight, air conditioned protective helmet
US4100320A (en) * 1974-04-25 1978-07-11 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Custom fitted, light weight, air conditioned protective helmet
US4006496A (en) * 1975-08-13 1977-02-08 Land Tool Company Safety helmet
US4023213A (en) * 1976-05-17 1977-05-17 Pepsico, Inc. Shock-absorbing system for protective equipment
US4035845A (en) * 1976-09-16 1977-07-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Protective flight helmet
US4287613A (en) * 1979-07-09 1981-09-08 Riddell, Inc. Headgear with energy absorbing and sizing means
US4486901A (en) * 1982-03-12 1984-12-11 Houston Protective Equipment, Inc. Multi-layered, open-celled foam shock absorbing structure for athletic equipment
US4586200A (en) * 1984-03-26 1986-05-06 Poon Melvyn C Protective crash helmet
WO1986003655A2 (en) * 1984-12-21 1986-07-03 Sonda S.R.L. Protective buffer padding element
WO1986003655A3 (en) * 1984-12-21 1986-08-14 Sonda Srl Protective buffer padding element
US4853980A (en) * 1984-12-21 1989-08-08 Sonda S.R.L. Protective buffer padding element
US4831668A (en) * 1988-06-23 1989-05-23 Riddell, Inc. Padding structure for use in protective headgear
FR2638618A1 (en) * 1988-11-04 1990-05-11 Bianchi Vittorio Device for retaining a removable object on a support, in particular a dust protection cap of said support, and protection accessory comprising such a device
WO1990004932A1 (en) * 1988-11-04 1990-05-17 Atys S.A. Device for securing a crash helmet
US5014365A (en) * 1989-01-23 1991-05-14 Maxpro Helmets, Inc. Gas-fitted protective helmet
US5035009A (en) * 1990-09-27 1991-07-30 Riddell, Inc. Protective helmet and liner
US5545128A (en) * 1992-11-20 1996-08-13 Beth Israel Hospital Bone fracture prevention method
US5599290A (en) * 1992-11-20 1997-02-04 Beth Israel Hospital Bone fracture prevention garment and method
US5881395A (en) * 1993-07-08 1999-03-16 Donzis; Byron A Impact absorbing pad
US6093468A (en) * 1997-03-14 2000-07-25 The Procter & Gamble Company Flexible lightweight protective pad with energy absorbing inserts
US6128779A (en) * 1997-11-14 2000-10-10 Jas D. Easton, Inc. Limb protector
US6178560B1 (en) 1999-06-04 2001-01-30 Southern Impact Research Center, Llc Helmet fitting system
US6591428B2 (en) 1999-06-04 2003-07-15 Southern Impact Research Center, Llc Helmet fitting system
US7146652B2 (en) 2002-05-01 2006-12-12 Riddell, Inc. Face guard connector assembly for a sports helmet
US20050114975A1 (en) * 2002-05-01 2005-06-02 Ide Thad M. Face guard for a sports helmet
US6934971B2 (en) * 2002-05-01 2005-08-30 Riddell, Inc. Football helmet
US20050235403A1 (en) * 2002-05-01 2005-10-27 Ide Thad M Face guard connector assembly for a sports helmet
US20050278835A1 (en) * 2002-05-01 2005-12-22 Ide Thad M Sports helmet
US8528118B2 (en) 2002-05-01 2013-09-10 Riddell, Inc. Sports helmet
US20040025231A1 (en) * 2002-05-01 2004-02-12 Ide Thad M. Football helmet
US8938818B2 (en) * 2002-05-01 2015-01-27 Riddell, Inc. Sports helmet
US7240376B2 (en) 2002-05-01 2007-07-10 Riddell, Inc. Sports helmet
US7036151B2 (en) 2002-05-01 2006-05-02 Riddell, Inc. Face guard for a sports helmet
US7954177B2 (en) * 2002-05-01 2011-06-07 Riddell, Inc. Sports helmet
US9683622B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2017-06-20 Xenith, Llc Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members
US20060059605A1 (en) * 2004-09-22 2006-03-23 Xenith Athletics, Inc. Layered construction of protective headgear with one or more compressible layers of thermoplastic elastomer material
US20060059606A1 (en) * 2004-09-22 2006-03-23 Xenith Athletics, Inc. Multilayer air-cushion shell with energy-absorbing layer for use in the construction of protective headgear
US20080256686A1 (en) * 2005-02-16 2008-10-23 Xenith, Llc. Air Venting, Impact-Absorbing Compressible Members
US20080155735A1 (en) * 2005-02-16 2008-07-03 Xenith, Llc Energy-Absorbing Liners and Shape Conforming Layers for Use with Pro-Tective Headgear
WO2006089235A1 (en) * 2005-02-16 2006-08-24 Ferrara Vincent R Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members
US7895681B2 (en) 2006-02-16 2011-03-01 Xenith, Llc Protective structure and method of making same
US20070190293A1 (en) * 2006-02-16 2007-08-16 Xenith, Inc. Protective Structure and Method of Making Same
US8528119B2 (en) * 2006-02-16 2013-09-10 Xenith Llc Impact energy management method and system
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US20070190292A1 (en) * 2006-02-16 2007-08-16 Ferrara Vincent R Impact energy management method and system
US20110047685A1 (en) * 2006-02-16 2011-03-03 Ferrara Vincent R Impact energy management method and system
US20120266366A1 (en) * 2006-02-16 2012-10-25 Ferrara Vincent R Impact energy management method and system
US20090265839A1 (en) * 2006-04-13 2009-10-29 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Fluid Safety Liner
US7900279B2 (en) 2006-09-08 2011-03-08 Riddell, Inc. Sports helmet with clamp for securing a chin protector
US20080092277A1 (en) * 2006-09-08 2008-04-24 Nelson Kraemer Sports helmet with clamp for securing a chin protector
US20080250548A1 (en) * 2007-04-13 2008-10-16 Stuhmiller James H Anti-blast and shock optimal reduction buffer
US9788591B2 (en) 2007-04-16 2017-10-17 Riddell, Inc. Quick release connector
US9289024B2 (en) 2007-04-16 2016-03-22 Riddell, Inc. Protective sports helmet
US9398783B2 (en) 2007-10-31 2016-07-26 Kranos Ip Corporation Helmet with shell having raised central channel and ear holes with abutting slopped banks
US20090106882A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Melas, Inc. Helmet with an attachment mechanism for a faceguard
US8209784B2 (en) 2007-10-31 2012-07-03 Kranos Ip Corporation Helmet with an attachment mechanism for a faceguard
US8719967B2 (en) 2008-01-18 2014-05-13 Ayrtek (Tm) Limited Helmet
WO2009090410A1 (en) 2008-01-18 2009-07-23 Ayrtek (Tm) Limited Helmet
CN102006795B (en) 2008-01-18 2013-02-27 埃泰克(Tm)有限公司 Helmet
US8533869B1 (en) * 2008-02-19 2013-09-17 Noggin Group LLC Energy absorbing helmet underwear
US8046845B1 (en) * 2009-01-09 2011-11-01 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Lightweight combat helmet
US20100180363A1 (en) * 2009-01-16 2010-07-22 The Burton Corporation Adjustable fitting helmet
US8566969B2 (en) * 2009-01-16 2013-10-29 The Burton Corporation Adjustable fitting helmet
US8069498B2 (en) * 2009-06-02 2011-12-06 Kranos Ip Corporation Protective arrangement
US20100299812A1 (en) * 2009-06-02 2010-12-02 Maddux Larry E Protective arrangement
US8387164B2 (en) * 2009-12-09 2013-03-05 Kranos Ip Corporation Plastic foam helmet pad
US20120198605A1 (en) * 2009-12-09 2012-08-09 Kranos Ip Corporation Tpu/foam jaw pad
US8201269B2 (en) * 2009-12-09 2012-06-19 Kranos Ip Corporation TPU/foam jaw pad
US20110131695A1 (en) * 2009-12-09 2011-06-09 Maddux Larry E TPU/Foam Jaw Pad
US20120304367A1 (en) * 2010-02-26 2012-12-06 Thl Holding Company, Llc Protective helmet
US8726424B2 (en) 2010-06-03 2014-05-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Energy management structure
US20120036620A1 (en) * 2010-08-16 2012-02-16 Kerry Sheldon Harris Helmet padding systems
US20130247411A1 (en) * 2010-10-08 2013-09-26 Teng-Jen Yang Air pressure adjustable elastic body used in shoe sole as a shock absorber
US8915339B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2014-12-23 Skydex Technologies, Inc. Interdigitated cellular cushioning
US9603407B2 (en) 2010-12-10 2017-03-28 Skydex Technologies, Inc. Interdigitated cellular cushioning
US8621672B2 (en) 2011-05-06 2014-01-07 John CHUBACK Head and neck protection apparatus
US9713355B2 (en) * 2011-06-01 2017-07-25 Xenith, Llc Mechanical fasteners for shock-absorbing helmets
US20120304366A1 (en) * 2011-06-01 2012-12-06 Bernard Daoust Mechanical fasteners for shock-absorbing helmets
USD667592S1 (en) * 2011-06-08 2012-09-18 Matscitechno Licensing Company Shock-absorbing cap
US9516910B2 (en) * 2011-07-01 2016-12-13 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
USD679058S1 (en) 2011-07-01 2013-03-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
US20130000017A1 (en) * 2011-07-01 2013-01-03 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
US9763488B2 (en) 2011-09-09 2017-09-19 Riddell, Inc. Protective sports helmet
US20130086733A1 (en) * 2011-10-10 2013-04-11 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
USD683079S1 (en) 2011-10-10 2013-05-21 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
US8814150B2 (en) 2011-12-14 2014-08-26 Xenith, Llc Shock absorbers for protective body gear
US8950735B2 (en) 2011-12-14 2015-02-10 Xenith, Llc Shock absorbers for protective body gear
US20130152287A1 (en) * 2011-12-16 2013-06-20 Oakwood Energy Management, Inc. Rebounding cushioning helmet liner
US9420843B2 (en) * 2011-12-16 2016-08-23 Oakwood Energy Management, Inc. Rebounding cushioning helmet liner
US20130247284A1 (en) * 2012-01-12 2013-09-26 University Of Ottawa Head Protection for Reducing Angular Accelerations
US9320311B2 (en) 2012-05-02 2016-04-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
US20130333100A1 (en) * 2012-06-18 2013-12-19 Robert Erb Football helmet
US9326561B2 (en) * 2012-06-18 2016-05-03 Kranos Ip Corporation Helmet
US9131744B2 (en) * 2012-06-18 2015-09-15 Kranos Ip Corporation Football helmet
US20140096312A1 (en) * 2012-09-12 2014-04-10 Matscitechno Licensing Company Helmet padding system
US9894953B2 (en) 2012-10-04 2018-02-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US8631518B1 (en) * 2013-01-30 2014-01-21 William J. Jennings Shock absorbing, stretchable fabric, head cap for receipt under a head protection helmet
US20140215694A1 (en) * 2013-02-06 2014-08-07 Darin Grice Helmet with external shock wave dampening panels
US9642410B2 (en) * 2013-02-06 2017-05-09 Turtle Shell Protective Systems Llc Helmet with external shock wave dampening panels
US9770060B2 (en) * 2013-02-12 2017-09-26 Riddell, Inc. Pad assemblies for a protective sports helmet
US20140223643A1 (en) * 2013-02-12 2014-08-14 Riddell, Inc. Pad assemblies for a protective sports helmet
US20140298572A1 (en) * 2013-04-06 2014-10-09 Mazz Enterprises, Llc Helmet with energy management system
US8850623B1 (en) * 2013-04-06 2014-10-07 Mazz Enterprises, Llc Helmet with energy management system
USD733972S1 (en) 2013-09-12 2015-07-07 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet
US9743701B2 (en) 2013-10-28 2017-08-29 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US20160157545A1 (en) * 2014-12-05 2016-06-09 Michael R. Bowman Collapsible safety helmet
US9961952B2 (en) 2015-08-17 2018-05-08 Bauer Hockey, Llc Helmet for impact protection
US20170232327A1 (en) * 2016-02-12 2017-08-17 Carl Kuntz Impact absorption padding for contact sports helmets

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Effective date: 19880418

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Effective date: 19880430

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