US20080256686A1 - Air Venting, Impact-Absorbing Compressible Members - Google Patents

Air Venting, Impact-Absorbing Compressible Members Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20080256686A1
US20080256686A1 US11815486 US81548606A US2008256686A1 US 20080256686 A1 US20080256686 A1 US 20080256686A1 US 11815486 US11815486 US 11815486 US 81548606 A US81548606 A US 81548606A US 2008256686 A1 US2008256686 A1 US 2008256686A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
impact
enclosure
inner chamber
member
compressible
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11815486
Inventor
Vincent R. Ferrara
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Xenith LLC
Original Assignee
Xenith LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16FSPRINGS; SHOCK-ABSORBERS; MEANS FOR DAMPING VIBRATION
    • F16F7/00Vibration-dampers; Shock-absorbers
    • F16F7/12Vibration-dampers; Shock-absorbers using plastic deformation of members
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A41WEARING APPAREL
    • A41DOUTERWEAR; PROTECTIVE GARMENTS; ACCESSORIES
    • A41D13/00Professional, industrial, or sporting protective garments, e.g. garments affording protection against blows or punches, surgeon's gowns
    • A41D13/015Professional, industrial, or sporting protective garments, e.g. garments affording protection against blows or punches, surgeon's gowns with shock-absorbing means
    • A41D13/0155Professional, industrial, or sporting protective garments, e.g. garments affording protection against blows or punches, surgeon's gowns with shock-absorbing means having inflatable structure, e.g. non automatic
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A41WEARING APPAREL
    • A41DOUTERWEAR; PROTECTIVE GARMENTS; ACCESSORIES
    • A41D31/00Selection of special materials for outerwear
    • A41D31/0011Selection of special materials for protective garments
    • A41D31/0044Selection of special materials for protective garments with shock absorbing materials
    • A41D31/005Selection of special materials for protective garments with shock absorbing materials using layered materials
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A42HEADWEAR
    • A42BHATS; HEAD COVERINGS
    • A42B3/00Helmets; Helmet covers; Other protective head coverings
    • A42B3/04Parts, details or accessories of helmets
    • A42B3/06Impact-absorbing shells, e.g. of crash helmets
    • A42B3/062Impact-absorbing shells, e.g. of crash helmets with reinforcing means
    • A42B3/065Corrugated or ribbed shells
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A42HEADWEAR
    • A42BHATS; HEAD COVERINGS
    • A42B3/00Helmets; Helmet covers; Other protective head coverings
    • A42B3/04Parts, details or accessories of helmets
    • A42B3/10Linings
    • A42B3/12Cushioning devices
    • A42B3/121Cushioning devices with at least one layer or pad containing a fluid
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B71/00Games or sports accessories not covered in groups A63B1/00 - A63B69/00
    • A63B71/0054Features for injury prevention on an apparatus, e.g. shock absorbers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B71/00Games or sports accessories not covered in groups A63B1/00 - A63B69/00
    • A63B71/08Body-protectors for players or sportsmen, i.e. body-protecting accessories affording protection of body parts against blows or collisions
    • A63B71/081Body-protectors for players or sportsmen, i.e. body-protecting accessories affording protection of body parts against blows or collisions fluid-filled, e.g. air-filled
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B71/00Games or sports accessories not covered in groups A63B1/00 - A63B69/00
    • A63B71/08Body-protectors for players or sportsmen, i.e. body-protecting accessories affording protection of body parts against blows or collisions
    • A63B71/10Body-protectors for players or sportsmen, i.e. body-protecting accessories affording protection of body parts against blows or collisions for the head
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R19/00Wheel guards; Radiator guards, e.g. grilles; Obstruction removers; Fittings damping bouncing force in collisions
    • B60R19/02Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects
    • B60R19/18Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects characterised by the cross-section; Means within the bumper to absorb impact
    • B60R19/20Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects characterised by the cross-section; Means within the bumper to absorb impact containing mainly gas or liquid, e.g. inflatable
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R21/00Arrangements or fittings on vehicles for protecting or preventing injuries to occupants or pedestrians in case of accidents or other traffic risks
    • B60R21/02Occupant safety arrangements or fittings, e.g. crash pads
    • B60R21/04Padded linings for the vehicle interior ; Energy absorbing structures associated with padded or non-padded linings
    • B60R21/045Padded linings for the vehicle interior ; Energy absorbing structures associated with padded or non-padded linings associated with the instrument panel or dashboard
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16FSPRINGS; SHOCK-ABSORBERS; MEANS FOR DAMPING VIBRATION
    • F16F13/00Units comprising springs of the non-fluid type as well as vibration-dampers, shock-absorbers, or fluid springs
    • F16F13/04Units comprising springs of the non-fluid type as well as vibration-dampers, shock-absorbers, or fluid springs comprising both a plastics spring and a damper, e.g. a friction damper
    • F16F13/06Units comprising springs of the non-fluid type as well as vibration-dampers, shock-absorbers, or fluid springs comprising both a plastics spring and a damper, e.g. a friction damper the damper being a fluid damper, e.g. the plastics spring not forming a part of the wall of the fluid chamber of the damper
    • F16F13/08Units comprising springs of the non-fluid type as well as vibration-dampers, shock-absorbers, or fluid springs comprising both a plastics spring and a damper, e.g. a friction damper the damper being a fluid damper, e.g. the plastics spring not forming a part of the wall of the fluid chamber of the damper the plastics spring forming at least a part of the wall of the fluid chamber of the damper
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16FSPRINGS; SHOCK-ABSORBERS; MEANS FOR DAMPING VIBRATION
    • F16F7/00Vibration-dampers; Shock-absorbers
    • F16F7/12Vibration-dampers; Shock-absorbers using plastic deformation of members
    • F16F7/128Vibration-dampers; Shock-absorbers using plastic deformation of members characterised by the members, e.g. a flat strap, yielding through stretching, pulling apart
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16FSPRINGS; SHOCK-ABSORBERS; MEANS FOR DAMPING VIBRATION
    • F16F9/00Springs, vibration-dampers, shock-absorbers, or similarly-constructed movement-dampers using a fluid or the equivalent as damping medium
    • F16F9/02Springs, vibration-dampers, shock-absorbers, or similarly-constructed movement-dampers using a fluid or the equivalent as damping medium using gas only or vacuum
    • F16F9/04Springs, vibration-dampers, shock-absorbers, or similarly-constructed movement-dampers using a fluid or the equivalent as damping medium using gas only or vacuum in a chamber with a flexible wall
    • F16F9/0472Springs, vibration-dampers, shock-absorbers, or similarly-constructed movement-dampers using a fluid or the equivalent as damping medium using gas only or vacuum in a chamber with a flexible wall characterised by comprising a damping device
    • F16F9/0481Springs, vibration-dampers, shock-absorbers, or similarly-constructed movement-dampers using a fluid or the equivalent as damping medium using gas only or vacuum in a chamber with a flexible wall characterised by comprising a damping device provided in an opening to the exterior atmosphere
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B71/00Games or sports accessories not covered in groups A63B1/00 - A63B69/00
    • A63B71/0054Features for injury prevention on an apparatus, e.g. shock absorbers
    • A63B2071/0063Shock absorbers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R19/00Wheel guards; Radiator guards, e.g. grilles; Obstruction removers; Fittings damping bouncing force in collisions
    • B60R19/02Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects
    • B60R19/18Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects characterised by the cross-section; Means within the bumper to absorb impact
    • B60R2019/1893Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects characterised by the cross-section; Means within the bumper to absorb impact comprising a multiplicity of identical adjacent shock-absorbing means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R21/00Arrangements or fittings on vehicles for protecting or preventing injuries to occupants or pedestrians in case of accidents or other traffic risks
    • B60R21/02Occupant safety arrangements or fittings, e.g. crash pads
    • B60R21/04Padded linings for the vehicle interior ; Energy absorbing structures associated with padded or non-padded linings
    • B60R2021/0407Padded linings for the vehicle interior ; Energy absorbing structures associated with padded or non-padded linings using gas or liquid as energy absorbing means

Abstract

An impact-absorbing compressible member includes a thin-walled enclosure defining an inner chamber containing a volume of fluid such as air. The enclosure includes one or more orifices which as sized and positioned to allow air to vent from the inner chamber in response to an impact on the member and to refill the inner chamber in response to an impact on the member and to refill the inner chamber after the impact is released. The enclosure is formed of a blow-molded thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) material which is economical to make and durable in use. The compressible members can be used as building blocks for impact-absorbing shell structures for a wide variety of application such helmets, protective pads for body parts, sports arena wall padding, vehicular bumpers, dashboards and the like. The compressible member has impact-absorbing advantages over conventional foams currently used in those applications.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is a continuation-in-part application claiming priority to my co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/059,427, filed Feb. 16, 2005, titled “Multi-Layer Air-Cushion Shell With Energy-Absorbing Layer For Use in the Construction of Protective Headgear.” The entirety of this patent application is incorporated by reference herein.
  • This application also claims priority to my Provisional Application No. to 60/654,225, filed Feb. 18, 2005, titled “Compressible Air Cushion Technology For Use In Protective Body Equipment,” my Provisional Application No. 60/654,194, filed Feb. 18, 2005, titled “Compressible Air Cushion Technology For Use In Sports Arenas,” and my Provisional Application No. 60/654,128, filed Feb. 18, 2005, titled “Vehicular Uses Of Compressible Air Cushion Technology.” The entireties of these provisional applications are also incorporated by reference herein.
  • This application is also related to my PCT application filed concurrently herewith, titled “Energy-Absorbing Liners For Use With Protective Headgear” (Cesari and McKenna, LLP Docket No. 104208-0019). The entirety of this application is also incorporated by reference herein.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The invention relates generally to thin-walled, impact-absorbing compressible members. More specifically, the invention relates to an air venting, impact-absorbing compressible member, preferably fabricated from thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) material, that can be used in the construction of a wide variety of shock-absorbing and/or impact protective devices, including, without limitation, protective headgear, protective pads for other parts of the body, protective padding for sports arenas such as hockey rink boards and the like, and impact-absorbing devices for vehicles such as bumpers, dashboards and the like.
  • 2. Background Information
  • Concussions, also called mild traumatic brain injury, are a common, serious problem in sports known to have detrimental effects on people in the short and long term. With respect to athletes, a concussion is a temporary and reversible neurological impairment, with or without loss of consciousness. Another definition of a concussion is a traumatically induced alteration of brain function manifested by 1) an alteration of awareness or consciousness, and 2) signs and symptoms commonly associated with post-concussion syndrome, such as persistent headaches, loss of balance, and memory disturbances, to list but a few. Some athletes have had their careers abbreviated because of concussions, in particular because those who have sustained multiple concussions show a greater proclivity to further concussions and increasingly severe symptoms. Although concussions are prevalent among athletes, the study of concussions is difficult, treatment options are virtually non-existent, and “return-to-play” guidelines are speculative. Accordingly, the best current solution to concussions is prevention and minimization.
  • Concussion results from a force being applied to the brain, usually the result of a direct blow to the head, which results in shearing force to the brain tissue, and a subsequent deleterious neurometabolic and neurophysiologic cascade. There are two primary types of forces experienced by the brain in an impact to the head, linear acceleration and rotational acceleration. Both types of acceleration are believed to be important in causing concussions. Decreasing the magnitude of acceleration thus decreases the force applied to the brain, and consequently reduces the risk or severity of a concussion.
  • Protective headgear is well known to help protect wearers from head injury by decreasing the magnitude of acceleration (or deceleration) experienced by the wearers. Currently marketed helmets primarily address linear forces, but generally do not diminish the rotational forces experienced by the brain. Helmets fall generally into two categories: single impact helmets and multiple-impact helmets. Single-impact helmets undergo permanent deformation under impact, whereas multiple-impact helmets are capable of sustaining multiple blows. Applications of single-impact helmets include, for example, bicycling and motorcycling. Participants of contact sports, such as hockey and football, use multiple-impact helmets. Both categories of helmets have similar construction. A semi-rigid outer shell distributes the force of impact over a wide area and a compressible foam inner layer reduces the force upon the wearer's head.
  • The inner layer of single-impact helmets are typically constructed of fused expanded polystyrene (EPS), a polymer impregnated with a foaming agent. EPS reduces the amount of energy that reaches the head by permanently deforming under the force of impact. To be effective against the impact, the inner layer must be sufficiently thick not to crush entirely throughout its thickness. A thick inner layer, however, requires a corresponding increase in the size of the outer shell, which increases the size and bulkiness of the helmet.
  • Inner layers designed for multiple-impact helmets absorb energy through elastic and viscoelastic deformation. To absorb multiple successive hits, these helmets is need to rebound quickly to return to their original shape. Materials that rebound too quickly, however, permit some of the kinetic energy of the impact to transfer to the wearer's head. Examples of materials with positive rebound properties, also called elastic memory, include foamed polyurethane, expanded polypropylene, expanded polyethylene, and foamed vinylnitrile. Although some of these materials have desirable rebound qualities, an inner layer constructed therefrom must be sufficiently thick to prevent forceful impacts from penetrating its entire thickness. The drawback of a thick foam layer, as noted above, is the resulting bulkiness of the helmet. Moreover, the energy absorbing properties of such materials tend to diminish with increasing temperatures, whereas the positive rebound properties diminish with decreasing temperatures.
  • Regardless of the particular material involved, the material properties and densities of foam inner layers in helmets have historically been selected to optimally absorb energy for impacts that are considered severe for the particular sport or activity in which the helmets are to be used. Foams are thus relatively ineffective in absorbing impact energies below the severe level. Industry safety standards currently test and certify helmet designs based on their ability to absorb high energy impacts to ensure that helmets protect wearers against severe head injuries, such as skull fractures. Recent evidence has shown that lower energy impacts result in less severe yet still damaging head injuries, typically concussions. Current laboratory certification tests are pass/fail tests, and are not designed to test for prevention of concussions.
  • As such, testing of helmets to protect against concussions is being developed outside the realm of existing industry standards as the industry attempts to determine if helmets can be designed that provide universal protection against both mild and severe impacts. Several manufacturers are experimenting with various permutations of laminated foams and newer materials to broaden the range of impact energies over which the materials provide effective energy absorption. While some progress is being made, it is limited. This is due at least in part to the fact that foam materials are inherently limited in their ability to absorb energy because of their tendency to “bottom out” when compressed. Specifically, foams can be compressed downwardly only about seventy percent (70%) from their uncompressed thicknesses before they become so dense and stiff that they no longer effectively absorb impact energy. This factor is referred to as the “ride-down” point of the foam. When compressed to the is maximum “ride-down” point, a foam in a helmet is said to have “bottomed out”, and acts essentially as a rigid layer that transfers impact energy with little or no absorption directly to the wearer's head.
  • There is thus a need in the industry for an improved helmet construction that can reduce the risk and severity of head injuries, including concussions, over a wide range of impact energies, without the aforementioned disadvantages of current helmet designs. There exists a similar need for structures that have improved impact-absorbing properties for use in a variety of other applications.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention provides a compressible member whose properties, configuration and construction are optimized to maximize its impact-absorbing capabilities over a wide range of impact energies.
  • In accordance with the invention, a compressible member comprises a thin-walled enclosure defining a hollow inner chamber containing a volume of fluid such as air. The compressible member has at least one orifice by which fluid can vent from its inner chamber when the member experiences an impact. Preferably, the orifice is sized and positioned so that the compressible member provides a rate sensitive response to impacts, i.e., the member provides relatively low resistance to compression in response to relatively low energy impacts and relatively high resistance to compression in response to relatively high energy impacts. More than one orifice may also be provided in the compressible member so that air flows into its inner chamber following an impact at a rate that can be selected by the designer depending on the particular application of the member to be equal to, less than, or greater than the rate at which air flows out of the inner chamber during the impact.
  • The thin-walled enclosure of the compressible member is preferably fabricated from blow-molded thermoplastic elastomer material (“TPE”). TPE materials are uniquely suited for the fabrication of the impact-absorbing, compressible members of the invention because they can be readily and economically molded and shaped into the desired thin-walled, hollow configuration, and because they maintain their compressibility, stretchability and structural integrity in use after experiencing repeated impacts. Additionally, because they are hollow and air filled, the TPE compressible members of the invention are capable of being compressed to substantially greater degrees than conventional foams of the type currently used in protective headgear, without “bottoming out.” This greater degree of “ride down” makes the TPE compressible members of the invention effective in the absorption of a much wider range of impact energies. Other advantages resulting from the use of TPE materials for the compressible members of the invention, and their higher “ride-down” factors, are discussed in more detail below.
  • The compressible members of the invention may be assembled side-by-side in a layer, and combined with one or more layers of other materials, to form multilayer impact-absorbing shells for use in a wide variety of applications. One particularly advantageous embodiment of a protective shell structure comprises a thin outer shell layer, a compressible middle layer comprised of a plurality of the compressible members of the invention arranged in spaced apart positions, and a thin inner layer. In response to an impact to the outer shell layer, the outer layer deflects locally causing the compressible members of the middle layer to compress and vent air from their inner chambers. The inner layer is preferably provided with one or more passageways that allow the air vented from the compressible members to pass to the inside of the inner layer. The outer shell layer and the inner layer are also preferably secured to the compressible middle layer, but not directly or rigidly to each other. This allows the outer layer to shear or rotate relative to the inner layer and thus take up and absorb tangential components of the impact force.
  • Multilayered shell structures which include one or more compressible members of the invention can be configured and used in the construction of a wide variety of impact-absorbing devices. Examples disclosed include helmets, protective body pads, sports arena padding, vehicle bumpers, dashboards and the like.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The above and further advantages of this invention may be better understood by referring to the following description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like numerals indicate like structural elements and features in various figures. The drawings are not necessarily to scale or relative dimension, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention.
  • FIG. 1A is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a compressible member of the invention having an enclosure with a bellows-like wall construction and defining a hollow inner chamber for holding a volume of fluid (e.g., air).
  • FIG. 1B is a diagram of a sequence illustrating simulated effects of a high-energy impact to the compressible member of FIG. 1A.
  • FIGS. 1C and 1D are diagrams illustrating the stretching and bending (e.g., shearing) capabilities of the compressible member of FIG. 1A.
  • FIG. 1E is a diagram of the compressible member of FIG. 1A following an impact.
  • FIG. 1F is a diagram illustrating the expansion of the compressible member of FIG. 1A to its uncompressed condition after impact force is removed.
  • FIG. 2 is a diagram of another embodiment of a compressible member of the invention having a generally rectangular shape and configuration.
  • FIG. 3 is a diagram of a sequence illustrating simulated effects of an impact on another embodiment of a compressible member of the invention having separate in-flow and outflow orifices for the fluid contained in its inner chamber.
  • FIG. 4A is a partial, cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a multilayer shell structure, which includes a layer formed of a plurality of compressible members embodied in accordance with the invention, configured to function as a protective helmet for a wearer's head.
  • FIG. 4B is a diagram illustrating the operation of protective shell of FIG. 4A during a direct impact.
  • FIG. 4C is a diagram illustrating the operation of protective shell of FIG. 4A during a tangential impact.
  • FIG. 5 is a partial, cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a multilayered shell structure, similar to that of FIG. 4A, configured for use as a protective body pad, e.g., a shin pad.
  • FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a multilayer shell structure, similar to that of FIGS. 4A and 5, configured for use as an energy-absorbing covering for the boards of a hockey rink.
  • FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a multilayered shell structure, similar to those of FIGS. 4A, 5 and 6, configured for use as an impact-absorbing bumper on a motor vehicle.
  • FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a multilayered shell structure, similar to those of FIGS. 4A through 7, configured for use as an energy-absorbing dashboard in a vehicle.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF AN ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENT
  • FIG. 1A illustrates a compressible member 50 embodied in accordance with the present invention. The member 50 has a top surface 120, a bottom surface 124, and a sidewall 128 that together define a hollow inner chamber 132. The bottom surface 124 has a small orifice 136 formed therein. When the member 50 compresses in the general direction indicated by arrow 140, airflow 144, for example, exits the small orifice 136. The member 50 is formed of TPE material which, as discussed in more detail below, because of its unique properties, optimizes the impact-absorbing properties of the compressible member 50.
  • Thermoplastic elastomers or TPEs are polymer blends or compounds, which exhibit thermoplastic characteristics that enable shaping into a fabricated article when heated above their melting temperature, and which possess elastomeric properties when cooled to their designed temperature range. Accordingly, TPEs combine the beneficial properties of plastic and rubber, that is, TPEs are moldable and shapeable into a desired shape when heated and are compressible and stretchable when cooled. In contrast, neither thermoplastics nor conventional rubber alone exhibits this combination of properties.
  • To achieve satisfactory purposes, conventional rubbers must be chemically crosslinked, a process often referred to as vulcanization. This process is slow, irreversible, and results in the individual polymer chain being linked together by covalent bonds that remain effective at normal processing temperatures. As a result, vulcanized rubbers do not become fluid when heated to these normal processing temperatures (i.e., the rubber cannot be melted). When heated well above normal processing temperatures, vulcanized rubbers eventually decompose, resulting in the loss of substantially all useful properties. Thus, conventional vulcanized rubbers cannot be formed into useful objects by processes that involve the shaping of a molten material. Such processes include injection molding, blow molding and extrusion, and are extensively used to produce useful articles from thermoplastics.
  • Thermoplastics are generally not elastic when cooled and conventional rubbers are not moldable using manufacturing processes and equipment currently used for working with thermoplastics, such as injection molding and extrusion. These processes, however, are applicable for working with TPEs.
  • Most TPEs have a common feature: they are phase-separated systems. At least one phase is hard and solid at room temperature and another phase is elastomeric and fluid. Often the phases are chemically bonded by block or graft polymerization. In other cases, a fine dispersion of the phases is apparently sufficient. The hard phase gives the TPEs their strength. Without the hard phase, the elastomer phase would be free to flow under stress, and the polymers would be unusable. When the hard phase is melted, or dissolved in a solvent, flow can occur and therefore the TPE can be processed. On cooling, or upon evaporation of the solvent, the hard phase solidifies and the TPEs regain their strength. Thus, in one sense, the hard phase of a TPE behaves similarly to the chemical crosslinks in conventional vulcanized rubbers, and the process by which the hard phase does so is often called physical crosslinking. At the same time, the elastomer phase gives elasticity and flexibility to the TPE.
  • Examples of TPEs include block copolymers containing elastomeric blocks chemically linked to hard thermoplastic blocks, and blends of these block copolymers with other materials. Suitable hard thermoplastic blocks include polystyrene blocks, polyurethane blocks, and polyester blocks. Other examples of TPEs include blends of a hard thermoplastic with a vulcanized elastomer, in which the vulcanized elastomer is present as a dispersion of small particles. These latter blends are known as thermoplastic vulcanizates or dynamic vulcanizates.
  • TPEs can also be manufactured with a variety of hardness values, e.g., a soft gel or a hard 90 Shore A or greater. One characteristic of the TPE material is its ability to return to its original shape after the force against it removed (i.e., TPE material is said to have memory). Other characteristics of TPE include its resistance to tear, its receptiveness to coloring, and its rebound resilience elasticity. Rebound resilience elasticity is the ratio of regained energy in relation to the applied energy, and is expressed as a percentage ranging from 0% to 100%. A perfect energy absorber has a percentage of 0%; a perfectly elastic material has a percentage of 100%. In general, a material with low rebound resilience elasticity absorbs most of the applied energy from an impacting object and retransmits little or none of that energy. To illustrate, a steel ball that falls upon material with low rebound resilience elasticity experiences little or no bounce; the material absorbs the energy of the falling ball. In contrast, the ball bounces substantially if it falls upon material with high rebound resilience elasticity. This characteristic can influence the behavior of the compressible member.
  • Another advantage of these TPEs is that their favorable characteristics may exist over a wide range of temperatures. Preferably, the TPE material of the compressible member 50 has a glass-transition temperature of less than −20 degrees Fahrenheit. The glass-transition temperature is the temperature below which the material loses its soft and rubbery qualities. A TPE material with an appropriate glass-transition temperature can be selected for the compressible member 50 depending on the particular application of the member (e.g., a glass-transition temperature of 0 degrees Fahrenheit may be sufficient for baseball helmets, whereas a glass transition temperature of −40 degrees Fahrenheit may be needed for football and hockey helmets).
  • The size of the opening 136 in the compressible member 50 is preferably selected to produce a rate-sensitive response to any impact causing compression of the member 50. For instance, if the application of force upon the member 50 is gradual or of relatively low energy, the opening 136 permits sufficient air to pass through so that the member 50 compresses gradually and presents little resistance against the force. In that case, an individual may be able to compress the member 50 manually with a moderate touch of a hand or finger.
  • If, as illustrated by FIG. 1B, the application of force upon the member 50 occurs instantaneously or is of relatively high energy, laminar or turbulent air flows within the inner chamber 132. The size of the opening 136, which is small relative to the volume of air moved by the force, restricts the emission of the turbulent or laminar air from the chamber 132 and thus causes resistance within the chamber 132. Eventually the resistance is overcome and air flows out, and during this process, a portion of the impact energy is also converted to heat. This variable response, dependent upon the energy input, is termed a rate-sensitive or a non-linear response.
  • A further important advantage of the compressible member 50 is that it can be compressed ninety percent (90%) or more from its uncompressed thickness before “bottoming out”, i.e., before the top wall of TPE material comes in contact with the bottom wall of TPE material. This increased “ride-down” factor compared to conventional foams, which have ride-down factors of only about 70%, increases the distance over which impacts are effectively absorbed and, as a result, decreases the force trans-ferred through the compressible member 50 proportionately to this increased distance. Even when the compressible member 50 “bottoms out”, a thickness of TPE material (equal to twice the wall thickness) remains, which, because of its compressibility, provides further energy absorption.
  • Additionally, the geometry of the compressible member 50, the stiffness and elasticity of the TPE material used for its enclosure, and the venting of the member 50 can all be adjusted and optimized to provide a “softer landing” than conventional foams across a broad range of impact energy levels. Force/time curves for foams are bell-shaped due to the increased stiffness of foams as they are compressed which results in increasing forces with severe peaks. The shape of the force/time curve for foams is similar regardless of the amount of ride-down, which is dependent on the energy of the impact. For low energy impacts, the ride-down distance of foams is low and can result in concussions, even at relatively low impact energies, especially with EPS foams.
  • The compressible member 50 of the invention, on the other hand, can be engineered to allow optimal ride down for a wide range of impact energies and also to “shape” the rate at which the forces increase during the impact. This “shaping” of the force/time curve is accomplished by managing the air pressure in the inner chamber of the member 50 for various impact energies, something foams cannot do. The result is a flatter and broader force/time curve for the compressible member 50 which reduces the force of impact. This broader, flatter curve in essence demonstrates a “soft landing”.
  • This technology allows for the manipulation of multiple engineering parameters, such as material properties, chamber geometry, chamber wall thickness, and relative configurations of outflow(s) and inflow(s). Careful calibration of the many design parameters will allow those skilled in the art to determine the optimum combination based on the particular application to which the member 50 is to be put.
  • In addition to providing this rate-sensitive response, the compressible member 50 can also stretch and bend during tangential impact, as illustrated by FIG. 1C and FIG. 1D. This allows the compressible member 50 to shear in response to the tangential impacts and absorb rotational forces as well as direct forces applied normal to the top surface 120 of the member 50.
  • FIG. 1E shows the compressible member 50 following an impact. Because of its resilient nature, the tendency of the member 50 is to return to its uncompressed shape. Accordingly, after the impact force is removed from the compressible member 50, it expands in the direction indicated by arrow 146, consequently drawing air in through the opening 136 as indicated by arrows 148. FIG. 1F illustrates a simulated sequence of expansion of a rate-sensitive compressible member 50, as the impact force is removed.
  • FIG. 2 shows a cross-section of another embodiment of a rate-sensitive compressible member 150 that is generally rectangular in shape (i.e., a strip). The member 150 has a top surface 160, a bottom surface 164, sidewalls 168-1, 168-2 (generally, 168), and a hollow inner chamber 172. Each sidewall 168 has a respective small opening 176-1, 176-2 (generally, 176) formed therein. (Practice of the invention can be achieved with only one of the sidewalls 168 having an opening). When the member 150 compresses generally in the direction indicated by arrow 180, airflows 184 exit the small openings 176. This embodiment illustrates that a variety of shapes, for example, disc-shaped, cylindrical, and pyramidal, and the like, can be used to implement rate-sensitive compressible members of the invention capable of absorbing impact energy.
  • FIG. 3 diagrammatically illustrates another version of a compressible member 250 embodied in accordance with the invention. The compressible member 250 differs from the prior two embodiments in that it includes separate orifices for the inflow and outflow, respectively, of air relative to its inner chamber. More specifically, the compressible member 250 includes a plurality of outflow orifices, in the form of thin slits 254 in the wall of its enclosure 252, spaced about the circumference of the enclosure 252. The compressible member 250 also includes an inflow orifice, which includes a one-way flap valve 256, located at the bottom of the enclosure 252.
  • As the sequence of FIG. 3 illustrates, moving from left to right in the figure, upon impact, the one way flap valve 256 is forced closed and air is forced out of the inner chamber of the compressible member 250 through the thin slits 254. Upon removal of the force, the one-way flap valve 256 opens and air returns quickly to the inner chamber of the compressible member 250 through the opening of the valve.
  • To further enhance the “rate-sensitive” response of the compressible member 250 of this embodiment, the outflow slits 254 are elastic, being formed directly in the TPE material of the wall of the enclosure 252. Because of this elasticity, the slits 254 provide some resistance to opening and to the escape of the air in the inner chamber during the impact, and close resiliently and quickly following the impact. The slits 254 are also preferably significantly smaller in diameter that the inflow opening of the one-way flap valve 256. As a result, the member 250 provides a greater degree of resistance to compression and collapse depending upon the energy level of the impact force, yet will return quickly to its uncompressed condition upon removal of the force, ready to absorb additional impacts.
  • FIG. 4A is a partial cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a multilayer shell structure 230 which includes a plurality of the rate-sensitive compressible members 50 (FIG. 1A) disposed therein, configured as a protective helmet 200. In this particular embodiment shown, the compressible members 50 are spaced from one another and sandwiched between an outer layer 220 and an inner layer 228. An internal foam liner 232 of conventional design may be disposed between the inner layer 228 and the wearer's head.
  • In the shell structure 230 of FIG. 4A, the orifice 136 of each rate-sensitive compressible member 50 preferably aligns with an opening (not shown) in the surface of the inner layer 228 and through any internal liner 232 so that expelled or inhaled air can pass into the interior of the shell structure 230. Similarly, such openings 136 can be on the sides of the compressible members 50, allowing the release and return of air through the interstitial region of the shell structure 230 between the outer and inner layers 220 and 228.
  • Those desiring further details of the construction of a shell structure such as shell structure 230, and its configuration as a protective helmet, are referred to my copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/059,427, filed Feb. 16, 2005, and my related application filed concurrently herewith, titled “EnergyAbsorbing Inner Liners For Use With Protective Headgear” (Cesari and McKenna, LLP Docket No. 104208-0019), which, as noted above, are incorporated by reference herein.
  • Those skilled in the art will appreciate that other embodiments of the compressible member, such as the members 150 and 250 shown above, can be substituted for the compressible members 50 in the shell structure 230 of FIG. 4A, and that two or more types or sizes of compressible members can be combined therein. Those skilled in the art will also appreciate that modifications can be made to the shell structure 230 without departing from the scope of the invention. For example, the compressible members 50 may be secured to a single layer, either on their inside or outside, instead of being sandwiched between two layers as shown in FIG. 4A. Additionally, the compressible members 50, instead of being separate from one another, could be interconnected by a thin web of TPE material to form a sheet-like middle layer. The connecting web material could also include internal passageways that communicate with the inner chambers of adjacent ones of the compressible members 50, so that, during an impact, air passes from one chamber or member 50 to another, in addition to venting from the chambers, spreading the impact force among several members 50.
  • FIG. 4B illustrates an exemplary simulated operation of the shell structure 230, with rate-sensitive compressible members 50, undergoing a direct impact from an object 236. In this example, the shell structure 230 operates to reduce linear-acceleration of the wearer's head 234. When the object 236 strikes the outer layer, the members 50 directly beneath the outer layer 220 at the point of impact compress. The compression of the shell structure 230 also causes air to exit the members 50 (arrows 238) and enter the interior of the shell structure 230 through the openings in the members 50 and in the inner layer 228.
  • FIG. 4C illustrates an exemplary simulated operation of the shell structure 230, with rate-sensitive compressible members 50, undergoing a tangential impact from an object 236. In this example, the shell structure 230 operates to reduce rotational acceleration of the wearer's head 234. When struck by an object tangentially, the outer layer 220 shears with respect to the inner layer 228 in a direction of motion of the object, as illustrated by arrows 240. Members 50 at the point of impact compress to some extent and shear with the outer layer 220. As with the example of FIG. 4B, the compression causes air to exit the members 50 and to enter the interior of the headgear. The combined effects of the shearing motion of the outer layer 220 and members 50, the rate-sensitive and energy-absorbing compression of the members 50, and the release of air into the interior of the headgear operate to reduce the rotational forces reaching the wearer's head 234.
  • The layered construction of the invention can be likewise used to construct a variety of types of protective headgear including, but not limited to, safety helmets, motorcycle helmets, bicycle helmets, ski helmets, lacrosse helmets, hockey helmets, and football helmets, batting helmets for baseball and softball, headgear for rock and mountain climbers, and headgear for boxers. Other applications can include helmets used on construction sites, in defense and military applications, and for underground activities.
  • Although the foregoing description focuses primarily on protective headgear, it is to be understood that the compressible members of the invention can be used in other types of equipment used for sports activities or other applications.
  • By way of example, FIG. 5 illustrates the shell structure 230 configured as a shin pad which may be removably fastened by any suitable means e.g., elastic straps, to the lower leg of a wearer. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the shell structure 230 may be similarly configured as a face mask, elbow pad, shoulder pads, chest protector or the like, or as a protective body pad for other sports/activities such as “extreme” and other outdoor sports, motorcross, car racing, and the like.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates a shell structure 230′, similar to, but fabricated in larger scale and dimension than, the shell structure 230 previously described, as an impactabsorbing covering for application to the boards of a hockey rink. A similar shell structure 230′ could be used as an impact-absorbing covering for basketball gymnasium walls, racket ball walls, indoor soccer or football arenas, and other structures which enclose an athletic event.
  • FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate still another version of a shell structure 230″, similar to but larger than the shell structure 230 previously described, configured as part of a vehicle bumper and dashboard, respectively. Other similar applications of the shell structure 230″ include vehicle decking, highway barriers and the like.
  • While the invention has been shown and described with reference to specific preferred embodiments, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and detail may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the following claims.

Claims (18)

  1. 1. An impact-absorbing, compressible member comprising:
    an enclosure having a thin wall and an uncompressed configuration which defines a hollow inner chamber;
    a volume of fluid at least partially filling said inner chamber;
    at least one orifice in the enclosure wall which communicates with said inner chamber;
    said enclosure being sized and adapted to collapse at a first rate when the member is subjected to a relative high energy impact and to collapse at a lesser rate when the member is subjected to a lesser energy impact.
  2. 2. The compressible member of claim 1 in which said thin enclosure is formed of a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) material.
  3. 3. The compressible member of claim 2 in which said enclosure is formed by blow-molding the TPE material into the uncompressed configuration of said enclosure.
  4. 4. The compressible member of claim 2 in which said fluid is air.
  5. 5. The compressible member of claim 1 including at least first and second separate orifices through the wall of said enclosure, the first orifice permitting fluid to exhaust from the inner chamber at a first rate in response to the impact on said member, and the second orifice permitting fluid to flow into the inner chamber at a second rate different from the first rate following the impact.
  6. 6. The compressible member of claim 5 in which the first orifice comprises a plurality of spaced, relatively small openings in the wall of said enclosure.
  7. 7. The compressible member of claim 5 in which the second orifice includes a one-way valve permitting fluid to flow into the inner chamber and resisting fluid flow out of the inner chamber.
  8. 8. The compressible member of claim 5 in which the second orifice is sized to adjust the rate at which the fluid flows into the inner chamber relative to the rate at which the fluid flows out of the inner chamber through the first orifice.
  9. 9. The compressible member of claim 1 in which said enclosure has a bellows-like wall construction to facilitate collapse of said enclosure in response to the impact.
  10. 10. The compressible member of claim 1 in which the at least one orifice is sized such that, when the impact is of relatively high energy, said enclosure collapses with sufficiently high resistance to convert energy of the impact to heat in said enclosure.
  11. 11. The compressible member of claim 1 in which said wall is elastic and the at least one orifice is in the form of a slit or slits in the wall of said enclosure, which due to the elasticity of the enclosure wall elastically varies or vary in size or shape in response to the impact.
  12. 12. An energy-absorbing shell structure comprising a plurality of energy-absorbing compressible members as defined in any of claims 1 through 11 arranged in a layer, and at least one additional layer secured to corresponding parts of said compressible members.
  13. 13. The structure of claim 12 wherein said plurality of compressible members are disposed between said at least one additional layer and a second layer.
  14. 14. The structure of claim 12 or 13 configured as a protective helmet for a wearer's head.
  15. 15. The structure of claim 12 or 13 configured as a protective pad for a wearer's body part.
  16. 16. The structure of claim 12 or 13 configured as a protective pad for a sports arena barrier.
  17. 17. The structure of claims 12 or 13 configured as a bumper on a vehicle.
  18. 18. The structure of claim 12 or 13 configured as a protective covering on a vehicle dashboard.
US11815486 2004-09-22 2006-02-16 Air Venting, Impact-Absorbing Compressible Members Abandoned US20080256686A1 (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11059427 US20060059606A1 (en) 2004-09-22 2005-02-16 Multilayer air-cushion shell with energy-absorbing layer for use in the construction of protective headgear
US65412805 true 2005-02-18 2005-02-18
US65419405 true 2005-02-18 2005-02-18
US65422505 true 2005-02-18 2005-02-18
PCT/US2006/005857 WO2006089235A1 (en) 2005-02-16 2006-02-16 Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members
US11815486 US20080256686A1 (en) 2005-02-16 2006-02-16 Air Venting, Impact-Absorbing Compressible Members

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11815486 US20080256686A1 (en) 2005-02-16 2006-02-16 Air Venting, Impact-Absorbing Compressible Members
US14295507 US9683622B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2014-06-04 Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members

Related Parent Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11059427 Continuation-In-Part US20060059606A1 (en) 2004-09-22 2005-02-16 Multilayer air-cushion shell with energy-absorbing layer for use in the construction of protective headgear
PCT/US2006/005857 A-371-Of-International WO2006089235A1 (en) 2004-09-22 2006-02-16 Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14295507 Continuation US9683622B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2014-06-04 Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20080256686A1 true true US20080256686A1 (en) 2008-10-23

Family

ID=36384460

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11815486 Abandoned US20080256686A1 (en) 2004-09-22 2006-02-16 Air Venting, Impact-Absorbing Compressible Members
US14295507 Active 2026-02-11 US9683622B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2014-06-04 Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14295507 Active 2026-02-11 US9683622B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2014-06-04 Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (2) US20080256686A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2006089235A1 (en)

Cited By (44)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080251332A1 (en) * 2007-04-13 2008-10-16 Stuhmiller James H Anti-blast and shock reduction buffer
US20080250548A1 (en) * 2007-04-13 2008-10-16 Stuhmiller James H Anti-blast and shock optimal reduction buffer
US20090031480A1 (en) * 2005-08-18 2009-02-05 Mauricio Paranhos Torres Cephalic protection cell (cpc)
US20100258988A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2010-10-14 Sport Helmets, Inc. Embodiments of Lateral Displacement Shock Absorbing Technology and Applications Thereof
US20120261867A1 (en) * 2011-03-14 2012-10-18 Robert Gilkes Protective Device for Sports Equipment
US20120304367A1 (en) * 2010-02-26 2012-12-06 Thl Holding Company, Llc Protective helmet
US20130019385A1 (en) * 2011-07-21 2013-01-24 Brainguard Technologies, Inc. Energy and impact transformer layer
USD679058S1 (en) 2011-07-01 2013-03-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
USD683079S1 (en) 2011-10-10 2013-05-21 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
US20130125294A1 (en) * 2011-11-22 2013-05-23 Xenith, Llc Magnetic impact absorption in protective body gear
US20130150684A1 (en) * 2011-08-27 2013-06-13 Jason Ryan Cooner System and Method for Detecting, Recording, and Treating Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury
US20130185837A1 (en) * 2011-09-08 2013-07-25 Emerson Spalding Phipps Protective Helmet
US8528864B2 (en) * 2009-12-18 2013-09-10 Airbus Operations, S.L. Protection device for sensitive areas against impact of foreign objects
US20130232668A1 (en) * 2012-03-06 2013-09-12 Loubert S. Suddaby Helmet with multiple protective zones
US8566968B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2013-10-29 Prostar Athletics Llc Helmet with columnar cushioning
US20130298316A1 (en) * 2012-05-14 2013-11-14 William J. Jacob Energy dissipating helmet utilizing stress-induced active material activation
US20140020158A1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2014-01-23 Roho, Inc. Multilayer impact attenuating insert for headgear
US20140076767A1 (en) * 2012-09-18 2014-03-20 Samuel S McFarland Energy Absorbent Protective Structure
US20140097052A1 (en) * 2011-12-14 2014-04-10 Alexander Reynolds Shock absorbers for protective body gear
US20140135590A1 (en) * 2012-11-14 2014-05-15 Victor M. Pedro Method For Diagnosis Of And Therapy For A Subject Having A Central Nervous System Disorder
US8726424B2 (en) 2010-06-03 2014-05-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Energy management structure
US8863320B2 (en) 2013-01-18 2014-10-21 Windpact, Inc. Impact absorbing apparatus
US20150107005A1 (en) * 2013-10-18 2015-04-23 Terrence Lee Schneider Sports equipment that employ force-absorbing elements
US20150157082A1 (en) * 2011-02-09 2015-06-11 Innovation Dynamics LLC Helmet omnidirectional energy management systems
USD733972S1 (en) 2013-09-12 2015-07-07 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet
US20150223545A1 (en) * 2014-02-11 2015-08-13 Janice Geraldine Fraser Protective headgear
US20160015111A1 (en) * 2014-07-18 2016-01-21 Salomon S.A.S. Impact-absorbing helmet
US9314062B2 (en) 2010-10-06 2016-04-19 Cortex Armour Inc. Shock absorbing layer with independent elements, and protective helmet including same
US9320311B2 (en) 2012-05-02 2016-04-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
US20160256763A1 (en) * 2015-03-06 2016-09-08 Michael Henry McGee Compositions for preventing head injuries in team sports
US9439468B1 (en) 2015-06-19 2016-09-13 Ethan Wayne Blagg Protective athletic helmet
US9439469B2 (en) * 2011-09-08 2016-09-13 Emerson Spalding Phipps Protective helmet
US20160286886A1 (en) * 2012-03-08 2016-10-06 Protective Sports Equipment International, Inc Helmet
US9516910B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2016-12-13 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
US9642410B2 (en) 2013-02-06 2017-05-09 Turtle Shell Protective Systems Llc Helmet with external shock wave dampening panels
US9683622B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2017-06-20 Xenith, Llc Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members
US9717297B2 (en) 2013-05-31 2017-08-01 Lenard Harris Shell for a protective helmet
US9743701B2 (en) 2013-10-28 2017-08-29 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US9763487B1 (en) * 2013-12-04 2017-09-19 Alphonso William Brown, Jr. Double liner impact shield football helmet
US20170347740A1 (en) * 2013-12-18 2017-12-07 Linares Medical Devices, Llc Helmet for attenuating impact event
US9894953B2 (en) 2012-10-04 2018-02-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US9980531B2 (en) 2012-03-06 2018-05-29 Loubert S. Suddaby Protective helmet with energy storage mechanism
US10000171B2 (en) * 2016-06-10 2018-06-19 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Vehicle energy-absorbing device
US10099638B2 (en) 2017-02-27 2018-10-16 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Bumper assembly

Families Citing this family (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7895681B2 (en) * 2006-02-16 2011-03-01 Xenith, Llc Protective structure and method of making same
US7774866B2 (en) * 2006-02-16 2010-08-17 Xenith, Llc Impact energy management method and system
US20110047685A1 (en) 2006-02-16 2011-03-03 Ferrara Vincent R Impact energy management method and system
US20100186150A1 (en) 2009-01-28 2010-07-29 Xenith, Llc Protective headgear compression member
US9943746B2 (en) 2010-02-26 2018-04-17 The Holding Company, Llc Protective headgear with impact diffusion
US8814150B2 (en) 2011-12-14 2014-08-26 Xenith, Llc Shock absorbers for protective body gear
US20170232327A1 (en) * 2016-02-12 2017-08-17 Carl Kuntz Impact absorption padding for contact sports helmets
CN106501050A (en) * 2016-12-09 2017-03-15 安徽省建筑工程质量监督检测站 Forming method of brick test mold for more firmly fixing brick body

Citations (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3600714A (en) * 1969-03-19 1971-08-24 Hop N Gator Inc Hydraulic helmet
US3609764A (en) * 1969-03-20 1971-10-05 Riddell Energy absorbing and sizing means for helmets
US3666310A (en) * 1971-01-11 1972-05-30 Gulf & Western Ind Prod Co Shock absorbing bumper
US3713640A (en) * 1970-07-27 1973-01-30 Riddell Energy absorbing and sizing means for helmets
US3849801A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-11-26 Medalist Ind Inc Protective gear with hydraulic liner
US3872511A (en) * 1974-03-11 1975-03-25 Larcher Angelo C Protective headgear
US3877076A (en) * 1974-05-08 1975-04-15 Mine Safety Appliances Co Safety hat energy absorbing liner
US4124904A (en) * 1977-10-17 1978-11-14 Matthes John A Protective head gear
US4534068A (en) * 1982-10-26 1985-08-13 Figgie International Inc. Shock attenuation system
US4566137A (en) * 1984-01-20 1986-01-28 Gooding Elwyn R Inflatable baffled liner for protective headgear and other protective equipment
US4568102A (en) * 1984-03-29 1986-02-04 Dauvergne Hector A Motor vehicle dashboard and seat arrangement
US5204998A (en) * 1992-05-20 1993-04-27 Liu Huei Yu Safety helmet with bellows cushioning device
US6073271A (en) * 1999-02-09 2000-06-13 Adams Usa, Inc. Football helmet with inflatable liner
US6519873B1 (en) * 1999-10-21 2003-02-18 Yamamoto Limited Plastic bellows inserted into soles
US6681408B2 (en) * 2002-01-25 2004-01-27 Tun-Jen Ku Impact resistant structure of safety helmet
US6934971B2 (en) * 2002-05-01 2005-08-30 Riddell, Inc. Football helmet
US7578074B2 (en) * 2005-09-29 2009-08-25 Ridinger Michael R Shoe ventilation and shock absorption mechanism

Family Cites Families (150)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1080690A (en) 1913-04-28 1913-12-09 Samuel Hipkiss Foot-ball helmet.
US1560825A (en) 1923-03-23 1925-11-10 Kelticka Ludwig Protective device for knees, etc.
US1552965A (en) 1924-12-01 1925-09-08 Roland L Smith Pneumatic bumper for vehicles
US2296355A (en) 1938-05-23 1942-09-22 Rca Corp High frequency oscillator tube
US2759186A (en) 1953-07-07 1956-08-21 Cornell Aeronautical Labor Inc Pneumatic suspension for safety helmet
US3039109A (en) 1958-10-16 1962-06-19 Electric Storage Battery Co Lining for safety helmets
DE1154311B (en) 1960-06-23 1963-09-12 Lemfoerder Metallwaren Gmbh Hollow spring consists of rubber or rubber-elastic plastic material
US3231454A (en) 1961-04-14 1966-01-25 Cadillac Products Cushioning material
US3174155A (en) 1963-02-20 1965-03-23 Dallas Sports Knitting Co Inc Protective helmet having a padded outer surface
US3202412A (en) 1964-03-06 1965-08-24 Miner Inc W H Shock attenuating devices
US3242500A (en) 1964-08-24 1966-03-29 John W Derr Protective head covering
US3447163A (en) 1966-02-16 1969-06-03 Peter W Bothwell Safety helmets
US3500475A (en) 1967-03-01 1970-03-17 Honda Gijutsu Kenkyusho Kk Protective helmet
FR1572542A (en) 1968-05-16 1969-06-27
US3487417A (en) 1968-05-22 1969-12-30 Riddell Construction for absorbing energy
US3574379A (en) 1968-07-08 1971-04-13 Alexander T Jordan Resilient shock-absorbing bumper
US3487471A (en) 1969-01-16 1970-01-06 Robert W Hagen Necktie clasp combined with four-in-hand necktie
US3666220A (en) 1970-06-25 1972-05-30 Imp Eastman Corp Adjustable retainable tool balancer
US3668704A (en) 1970-07-13 1972-06-13 Robert E Conroy Protective headgear
US3971583A (en) 1971-03-19 1976-07-27 Safety Consultants Energy absorbing bumper system
GB1316722A (en) * 1971-03-22 1973-05-16 Chrysler Uk Vehicle bodies
US3782511A (en) 1971-06-29 1974-01-01 Coal Ind Self-adjusting brakes
US3747968A (en) 1971-10-15 1973-07-24 G Hornsby Automobile cushion bumper
US3900222A (en) 1971-12-02 1975-08-19 Ford Motor Co Compartmented resilient bumper assembly
US3784985A (en) 1972-05-02 1974-01-15 Air Guard Ind Athletic armor and inflatable bag assembly
US3787893A (en) * 1972-05-04 1974-01-29 A Larcher Protective headgear
US3880087A (en) * 1972-06-09 1975-04-29 Mcneil Corp Material handling apparatus
US4105236A (en) 1974-07-10 1978-08-08 Volkswagenwerk Aktiengesellschaft Shock absorbing body
US3811467A (en) 1973-02-27 1974-05-21 L Jones Cow milking machine system, and vacuum regulator incorporated therein
GB1503483A (en) * 1975-02-10 1978-03-08 Bothwell P Shock absorbing means
US4075717A (en) 1975-02-28 1978-02-28 Lemelson Jerome H Helmate
US4067063A (en) 1975-03-31 1978-01-10 Ettinger Donald N Pneumatic athletic guard
DE2526336A1 (en) 1975-06-12 1976-12-16 Kalman Gyoery Used for safety helmets, particularly motorcycle helmets
US4134156A (en) 1976-06-11 1979-01-16 Gyoery Kalman Safety helmet
US4037273A (en) 1975-06-20 1977-07-26 Labaire Wallace F Ear protector
US4098434A (en) 1975-06-20 1978-07-04 Owens-Illinois, Inc. Fluid product dispenser
US3984595A (en) 1975-08-20 1976-10-05 Lawrence Peska Associates, Inc. Inflatable rug
US3999220A (en) 1976-04-22 1976-12-28 Keltner Raymond O Air-cushioned protective gear
US4064565A (en) 1976-05-13 1977-12-27 Griffiths William S Helmet structure
US4023213A (en) 1976-05-17 1977-05-17 Pepsico, Inc. Shock-absorbing system for protective equipment
US4099759A (en) 1976-05-18 1978-07-11 Safety Consultants Energy absorbing bumper system
US4370754A (en) 1978-07-27 1983-02-01 American Pneumatics Co. Variable pressure pad
US4076872A (en) * 1977-03-16 1978-02-28 Stephen Lewicki Inflatable cellular assemblies of plastic material
US4192699A (en) 1977-03-16 1980-03-11 Lewicki Gregory D Method of making inflatable cellular assemblies of plastic material
US5334646B1 (en) 1977-03-17 1998-09-08 Applied Elastomerics Inc Thermoplastic elastomer gelatinous articles
US5336708A (en) 1977-03-17 1994-08-09 Applied Elastomerics, Inc. Gelatinous elastomer articles
US4191370A (en) 1977-11-25 1980-03-04 Marvin Glass & Associates Pneumatic exercising device
US4282610A (en) 1978-01-16 1981-08-11 The Kendall Company Protective headgear
US4453271A (en) 1979-09-28 1984-06-12 American Pneumatics Co. Protective garment
US4218807A (en) 1978-12-22 1980-08-26 Snow A Ray Door stop
US4213202A (en) 1979-03-02 1980-07-22 Larry Ronald G Shock distributing panel
US4441751A (en) 1980-11-24 1984-04-10 Wesley William M Collapsible high speed extension for motor vehicles
US4432099A (en) 1982-07-09 1984-02-21 Gentex Corporation Individually fitted helmet liner
US4472472A (en) 1983-04-28 1984-09-18 Schultz Robert J Protective device
DE3320301C1 (en) 1983-06-04 1984-11-08 Schuberth Werk Kg crash helmet
US4586200A (en) 1984-03-26 1986-05-06 Poon Melvyn C Protective crash helmet
FR2561887A1 (en) 1984-04-03 1985-10-04 Hillen Lucas Process for assembling furniture components and multifunctional catch adapted for this assembly
US4627114A (en) 1984-08-23 1986-12-09 Figgie International, Inc. Shock attenuation structure
US4700411A (en) 1984-11-16 1987-10-20 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Helmet
JPS62501717A (en) 1984-12-11 1987-07-09
US4642814A (en) 1985-11-01 1987-02-17 Godfrey Jerry W Athletic padding
US4911443A (en) 1985-12-04 1990-03-27 Foster James F Football game system and method of play
DE3619282A1 (en) 1986-06-07 1987-12-10 Bloch Karlheinz Dieter Cover for protective helmets
JPH0454180Y2 (en) 1987-05-12 1992-12-18
US5846063A (en) 1987-05-26 1998-12-08 Nikola Lakic Miniature universal pump and valve for inflatable liners
US5235715A (en) 1987-09-21 1993-08-17 Donzis Byron A Impact asborbing composites and their production
US4883299A (en) 1988-04-07 1989-11-28 Bonar George D Bumper
US4937888A (en) 1988-05-31 1990-07-03 Straus Albert E Helmet cover
JPH0461082B2 (en) 1988-06-14 1992-09-29 Michio Arai
CN1043109A (en) 1988-12-05 1990-06-20 张宁 Hovercar damping bumper
JPH03282031A (en) 1990-03-30 1991-12-12 Hokushin Ind Inc Vibrationisolating damper
JPH044332A (en) 1990-04-21 1992-01-08 Tokico Ltd Air spring
US5056162A (en) 1990-06-07 1991-10-15 Kaiser Aerospace & Electronics Corporation Form-fitting, energy-absorbing material and method for making the same
JPH0663125B2 (en) 1990-08-31 1994-08-17 昭栄化工株式会社 Riding helmet
US5098124A (en) 1990-09-06 1992-03-24 Automotive Technologies International Inc. Padding to reduce injuries in automobile accidents
JPH0635683B2 (en) 1990-09-14 1994-05-11 昭栄化工株式会社 Riding helmet
US5083320A (en) 1990-12-24 1992-01-28 Athletic Helmet, Inc. Protective helmet with self-contained air pump
JPH0634335Y2 (en) 1991-03-18 1994-09-07 昭栄化工株式会社 Helmet with shield
US5263203A (en) 1991-10-07 1993-11-23 Riddell, Inc. Integrated pump mechanism and inflatable liner for protective
US5319808A (en) 1992-06-01 1994-06-14 Fibre-Metal Products Co. Impact absorbing protective cap
GB9213704D0 (en) 1992-06-27 1992-08-12 Brine C A Safety helmet
EP0605912B1 (en) 1992-12-18 1997-07-16 Robert Huybrechts Mouldable support article and method of making it
US5356177A (en) * 1993-06-25 1994-10-18 Davidson Textron Inc. Side impact protection apparatus
US5881395A (en) 1993-07-08 1999-03-16 Donzis; Byron A Impact absorbing pad
US5343569A (en) 1993-07-26 1994-09-06 Asare Michael K Protective helmet containing dye capsules
JPH086006Y2 (en) 1993-07-28 1996-02-21 昭栄化工株式会社 Riding helmet
JP2503094Y2 (en) 1993-08-11 1996-06-26 昭栄化工株式会社 Helmet of the air intake apparatus
DE4336665C2 (en) 1993-10-27 1996-07-11 Schuberth Werk Kg helmet
GB9403976D0 (en) * 1994-03-02 1994-04-20 Ford Motor Co A motor vehicle bumper
US5500951A (en) 1994-03-14 1996-03-26 Danmar Products, Inc. Shock absorbing strap cover
US5764271A (en) 1994-08-22 1998-06-09 Xerox Corporation Multi-mode printing circuitry providing ROS printing correction
GB9423113D0 (en) 1994-11-16 1995-01-04 Phillips Kenneth D Protective headgear
US5753061A (en) 1995-06-05 1998-05-19 Robert C. Bogert Multi-celled cushion and method of its manufacture
US5678885A (en) 1995-08-21 1997-10-21 Stirling; Leroy D. Vehicle body construction
EP1066765B1 (en) 1995-10-30 2005-06-15 Shoei Co., Ltd. Safety helmet and a head protector therefor
US5575017A (en) 1996-01-02 1996-11-19 Rawlings Sporting Goods Company, Inc. Adjustable baseball batter's helmet
US5749111A (en) 1996-02-14 1998-05-12 Teksource, Lc Gelatinous cushions with buckling columns
US5713082A (en) 1996-03-13 1998-02-03 A.V.E. Sports helmet
US5872511A (en) 1996-04-18 1999-02-16 Niles Parts Co., Ltd. Electronic flasher system
JPH1088415A (en) 1996-07-26 1998-04-07 T S Tec Kk helmet
US5794271A (en) 1996-10-17 1998-08-18 Hastings; Dale Helmet shell structure
US5734994A (en) 1997-02-06 1998-04-07 M.P.H. Associates, Inc. Ventilated safety helmet with progressively crushable liner
CA2207778C (en) 1997-06-13 2001-01-23 Alberta Research Council Structural shell for protective headgear
US6065158A (en) 1997-10-29 2000-05-23 Rush, Iii; Gus A. Impact indicator for athletic helmets
US5911310A (en) 1998-04-23 1999-06-15 Bridgers; Leo W. Inflatable shin guard
US6394432B1 (en) 1998-06-10 2002-05-28 Lord Corporation Vibration and/or shock absorbing devices and compensator elements utilized therein
EP1246548B1 (en) 1999-12-21 2004-07-21 Neuroprevention Scandinavia AB Protective helmet
US5956777A (en) 1998-07-22 1999-09-28 Grand Slam Cards Helmet
US6425141B1 (en) 1998-07-30 2002-07-30 Cerebrix Protective helmet
JP2000080515A (en) 1998-08-31 2000-03-21 T S Tec Kk Helmet
WO2000013881A1 (en) 1998-09-03 2000-03-16 Mike Dennis Body-contact cushioning interface structure
US5920915A (en) 1998-09-22 1999-07-13 Brock Usa, Llc Protective padding for sports gear
US6565461B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2003-05-20 Stuart E. Zatlin Method and apparatus for reducing the likelihood of head injury from heading a soccer ball
US6219850B1 (en) 1999-06-04 2001-04-24 Lexington Safety Products, Inc. Helmet
US6178560B1 (en) 1999-06-04 2001-01-30 Southern Impact Research Center, Llc Helmet fitting system
US6260212B1 (en) 1999-10-12 2001-07-17 Mine Safety Appliances Company Head-protective helmet with geodesic dome
US6418832B1 (en) 2000-04-26 2002-07-16 Pyramid Technologies International, Inc. Body armor
US6349599B1 (en) 2000-05-02 2002-02-26 Panametrics, Inc. Layered ultrasonic coupler
US6908209B2 (en) 2000-05-22 2005-06-21 Mocap, Inc. Miniature flashlight and keyholder
US6560787B2 (en) 2000-08-31 2003-05-13 Irma D. Mendoza Safety helmet
US6453476B1 (en) 2000-09-27 2002-09-24 Team Wendy, Llc Protective helmet
GB0116738D0 (en) 2001-07-09 2001-08-29 Phillips Helmets Ltd Protective headgear and protective armour and a method of modifying protective headgear and protective armour
US6803005B2 (en) 2001-11-14 2004-10-12 Mjd Innovations, Llc Method for making multi-layer, personnel-protective helmet shell
US6704943B2 (en) 2001-12-31 2004-03-16 Kisiel Technologies, S.L. Inner cushions for helmets
US6665884B1 (en) 2002-05-31 2003-12-23 Adams Usa Helmet with self-adjusting padding
US6839910B2 (en) 2002-07-05 2005-01-11 David Morrow Protective athletic equipment
JP4059729B2 (en) 2002-08-09 2008-03-12 株式会社Shoei The head protecting body for a safety helmet
US20040117896A1 (en) 2002-10-04 2004-06-24 Madey Steven M. Load diversion method and apparatus for head protective devices
US6694529B1 (en) 2002-11-25 2004-02-24 Tzu Tao Chiu Helmet structure
US7089602B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2006-08-15 Srikrishna Talluri Multi-layered, impact absorbing, modular helmet
US7188375B2 (en) 2004-06-21 2007-03-13 Norman Richard Harrington Infant protective head covering
GB0415629D0 (en) 2004-07-13 2004-08-18 Leuven K U Res & Dev Novel protective helmet
US20080256686A1 (en) 2005-02-16 2008-10-23 Xenith, Llc. Air Venting, Impact-Absorbing Compressible Members
US20060059606A1 (en) 2004-09-22 2006-03-23 Xenith Athletics, Inc. Multilayer air-cushion shell with energy-absorbing layer for use in the construction of protective headgear
US20110047685A1 (en) 2006-02-16 2011-03-03 Ferrara Vincent R Impact energy management method and system
US7895681B2 (en) 2006-02-16 2011-03-01 Xenith, Llc Protective structure and method of making same
US7774866B2 (en) 2006-02-16 2010-08-17 Xenith, Llc Impact energy management method and system
WO2006089098A1 (en) 2005-02-18 2006-08-24 Ferrara Vincent R Chin strap system for protective headgear
US7444687B2 (en) 2005-08-29 2008-11-04 3M Innovative Properties Company Hearing protective device that includes cellular earmuffs
JP2007064354A (en) 2005-08-31 2007-03-15 Polymatech Co Ltd Viscous fluid-filled damper and disk device
US7865374B2 (en) 2006-02-22 2011-01-04 Cerner Innovation, Inc. Computerized system and method for verifying authority to modify clinical orders
DE102007012158B4 (en) 2007-03-12 2009-11-26 Trelleborg Automotive Technical Centre Gmbh Pneumatically damping mount
JP5141174B2 (en) 2007-10-15 2013-02-13 Toto株式会社 Flush toilet
US20100186150A1 (en) 2009-01-28 2010-07-29 Xenith, Llc Protective headgear compression member
US20100282554A1 (en) 2009-05-11 2010-11-11 Stone Thomas D Multi-chamber impact absorption system to protect individual
KR20130115240A (en) 2010-10-06 2013-10-21 코어텍스 아머 아이엔씨. Shock absorbing layer with independent elements
US20130152284A1 (en) 2011-12-14 2013-06-20 Vincent Ferrara Shock absorbers for protective body gear
US8950735B2 (en) 2011-12-14 2015-02-10 Xenith, Llc Shock absorbers for protective body gear
US8814150B2 (en) 2011-12-14 2014-08-26 Xenith, Llc Shock absorbers for protective body gear
US9468249B2 (en) * 2014-02-11 2016-10-18 Janice Geraldine Fraser Protective headgear

Patent Citations (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3600714A (en) * 1969-03-19 1971-08-24 Hop N Gator Inc Hydraulic helmet
US3609764A (en) * 1969-03-20 1971-10-05 Riddell Energy absorbing and sizing means for helmets
US3713640A (en) * 1970-07-27 1973-01-30 Riddell Energy absorbing and sizing means for helmets
US3666310A (en) * 1971-01-11 1972-05-30 Gulf & Western Ind Prod Co Shock absorbing bumper
US3849801A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-11-26 Medalist Ind Inc Protective gear with hydraulic liner
US3872511A (en) * 1974-03-11 1975-03-25 Larcher Angelo C Protective headgear
US3877076A (en) * 1974-05-08 1975-04-15 Mine Safety Appliances Co Safety hat energy absorbing liner
US4124904A (en) * 1977-10-17 1978-11-14 Matthes John A Protective head gear
US4534068A (en) * 1982-10-26 1985-08-13 Figgie International Inc. Shock attenuation system
US4566137A (en) * 1984-01-20 1986-01-28 Gooding Elwyn R Inflatable baffled liner for protective headgear and other protective equipment
US4568102A (en) * 1984-03-29 1986-02-04 Dauvergne Hector A Motor vehicle dashboard and seat arrangement
US5204998A (en) * 1992-05-20 1993-04-27 Liu Huei Yu Safety helmet with bellows cushioning device
US6073271A (en) * 1999-02-09 2000-06-13 Adams Usa, Inc. Football helmet with inflatable liner
US6519873B1 (en) * 1999-10-21 2003-02-18 Yamamoto Limited Plastic bellows inserted into soles
US6681408B2 (en) * 2002-01-25 2004-01-27 Tun-Jen Ku Impact resistant structure of safety helmet
US6934971B2 (en) * 2002-05-01 2005-08-30 Riddell, Inc. Football helmet
US7578074B2 (en) * 2005-09-29 2009-08-25 Ridinger Michael R Shoe ventilation and shock absorption mechanism

Cited By (55)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9683622B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2017-06-20 Xenith, Llc Air venting, impact-absorbing compressible members
US9210961B2 (en) * 2005-08-18 2015-12-15 Mauricio Paranhos Torres Cephalic protection cell (CPC)
US20090031480A1 (en) * 2005-08-18 2009-02-05 Mauricio Paranhos Torres Cephalic protection cell (cpc)
US20100258988A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2010-10-14 Sport Helmets, Inc. Embodiments of Lateral Displacement Shock Absorbing Technology and Applications Thereof
US20080251332A1 (en) * 2007-04-13 2008-10-16 Stuhmiller James H Anti-blast and shock reduction buffer
US20080250548A1 (en) * 2007-04-13 2008-10-16 Stuhmiller James H Anti-blast and shock optimal reduction buffer
US8528864B2 (en) * 2009-12-18 2013-09-10 Airbus Operations, S.L. Protection device for sensitive areas against impact of foreign objects
US20120304367A1 (en) * 2010-02-26 2012-12-06 Thl Holding Company, Llc Protective helmet
US20160278468A1 (en) * 2010-02-26 2016-09-29 Thl Holding Company, Llc Protective helmet
US8726424B2 (en) 2010-06-03 2014-05-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Energy management structure
US9314062B2 (en) 2010-10-06 2016-04-19 Cortex Armour Inc. Shock absorbing layer with independent elements, and protective helmet including same
US9820525B2 (en) * 2011-02-09 2017-11-21 6D Helmets, Llc Helmet omnidirectional energy management systems
US20150157082A1 (en) * 2011-02-09 2015-06-11 Innovation Dynamics LLC Helmet omnidirectional energy management systems
US20120261867A1 (en) * 2011-03-14 2012-10-18 Robert Gilkes Protective Device for Sports Equipment
US20140020158A1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2014-01-23 Roho, Inc. Multilayer impact attenuating insert for headgear
USD679058S1 (en) 2011-07-01 2013-03-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
US9131743B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2015-09-15 Prostar Athletics Llc Helmet with columnar cushioning
US8566968B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2013-10-29 Prostar Athletics Llc Helmet with columnar cushioning
US9516910B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2016-12-13 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
US20130019385A1 (en) * 2011-07-21 2013-01-24 Brainguard Technologies, Inc. Energy and impact transformer layer
US20130150684A1 (en) * 2011-08-27 2013-06-13 Jason Ryan Cooner System and Method for Detecting, Recording, and Treating Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury
US20130185837A1 (en) * 2011-09-08 2013-07-25 Emerson Spalding Phipps Protective Helmet
US9089180B2 (en) * 2011-09-08 2015-07-28 Emerson Spalding Phipps Protective helmet
US20150250246A1 (en) * 2011-09-08 2015-09-10 Emerson Spalding Phipps Protective Helmet
US9439469B2 (en) * 2011-09-08 2016-09-13 Emerson Spalding Phipps Protective helmet
US9549582B2 (en) * 2011-09-08 2017-01-24 Emerson Spalding Phipps Protective helmet
USD683079S1 (en) 2011-10-10 2013-05-21 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet liner
US20130125294A1 (en) * 2011-11-22 2013-05-23 Xenith, Llc Magnetic impact absorption in protective body gear
US20140097052A1 (en) * 2011-12-14 2014-04-10 Alexander Reynolds Shock absorbers for protective body gear
US8950735B2 (en) * 2011-12-14 2015-02-10 Xenith, Llc Shock absorbers for protective body gear
US9980531B2 (en) 2012-03-06 2018-05-29 Loubert S. Suddaby Protective helmet with energy storage mechanism
US20130232668A1 (en) * 2012-03-06 2013-09-12 Loubert S. Suddaby Helmet with multiple protective zones
US20160286886A1 (en) * 2012-03-08 2016-10-06 Protective Sports Equipment International, Inc Helmet
US9795179B2 (en) * 2012-03-08 2017-10-24 Protective Sports Equipment International, Inc. Helmet
US9320311B2 (en) 2012-05-02 2016-04-26 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet impact liner system
US20130298316A1 (en) * 2012-05-14 2013-11-14 William J. Jacob Energy dissipating helmet utilizing stress-induced active material activation
US20140076767A1 (en) * 2012-09-18 2014-03-20 Samuel S McFarland Energy Absorbent Protective Structure
US9894953B2 (en) 2012-10-04 2018-02-20 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US20140135590A1 (en) * 2012-11-14 2014-05-15 Victor M. Pedro Method For Diagnosis Of And Therapy For A Subject Having A Central Nervous System Disorder
US10039338B2 (en) 2013-01-18 2018-08-07 Windpact, Inc. Impact absorbing apparatus
US8863320B2 (en) 2013-01-18 2014-10-21 Windpact, Inc. Impact absorbing apparatus
US9642410B2 (en) 2013-02-06 2017-05-09 Turtle Shell Protective Systems Llc Helmet with external shock wave dampening panels
US9717297B2 (en) 2013-05-31 2017-08-01 Lenard Harris Shell for a protective helmet
USD733972S1 (en) 2013-09-12 2015-07-07 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet
US20150107005A1 (en) * 2013-10-18 2015-04-23 Terrence Lee Schneider Sports equipment that employ force-absorbing elements
US9743701B2 (en) 2013-10-28 2017-08-29 Intellectual Property Holdings, Llc Helmet retention system
US9763487B1 (en) * 2013-12-04 2017-09-19 Alphonso William Brown, Jr. Double liner impact shield football helmet
US20170347740A1 (en) * 2013-12-18 2017-12-07 Linares Medical Devices, Llc Helmet for attenuating impact event
US20150223545A1 (en) * 2014-02-11 2015-08-13 Janice Geraldine Fraser Protective headgear
US9468249B2 (en) * 2014-02-11 2016-10-18 Janice Geraldine Fraser Protective headgear
US20160015111A1 (en) * 2014-07-18 2016-01-21 Salomon S.A.S. Impact-absorbing helmet
US20160256763A1 (en) * 2015-03-06 2016-09-08 Michael Henry McGee Compositions for preventing head injuries in team sports
US9439468B1 (en) 2015-06-19 2016-09-13 Ethan Wayne Blagg Protective athletic helmet
US10000171B2 (en) * 2016-06-10 2018-06-19 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Vehicle energy-absorbing device
US10099638B2 (en) 2017-02-27 2018-10-16 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Bumper assembly

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US9683622B2 (en) 2017-06-20 grant
WO2006089235A1 (en) 2006-08-24 application
US20150008085A1 (en) 2015-01-08 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4937888A (en) Helmet cover
US6701529B1 (en) Smart padding system utilizing an energy absorbent medium and articles made therefrom
US7367898B2 (en) Force diversion apparatus and methods and devices including the same
US7461726B2 (en) Force diversion apparatus and methods
US3818508A (en) Protective headgear
US6058515A (en) Helmet
US4441211A (en) Protective batting jacket
US6389607B1 (en) Soft foam sport helmet
US20110131695A1 (en) TPU/Foam Jaw Pad
US6055676A (en) Protective padding for sports gear
US20120233745A1 (en) Method and apparatus for an adaptive impact absorbing helmet system
US6969548B1 (en) Impact absorbing composite
US6499147B2 (en) Protective headgear and chin pad
US20120297525A1 (en) Helmet for Reducing Concussive Forces During Collision
US7673351B2 (en) Shock absorbing structure
US6704943B2 (en) Inner cushions for helmets
US7254843B2 (en) Impact absorbing, modular helmet
US20100258988A1 (en) Embodiments of Lateral Displacement Shock Absorbing Technology and Applications Thereof
US7774866B2 (en) Impact energy management method and system
US7062795B2 (en) Lightweight impact resistant helmet system
US5920915A (en) Protective padding for sports gear
US6378140B1 (en) Impact and energy absorbing product for helmets and protective gear
US6425141B1 (en) Protective helmet
US20060168710A1 (en) Vibration dampening material and method of making same
US6453476B1 (en) Protective helmet

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: XENITH, LLC., MASSACHUSETTS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FERRARA, VINCENT R.;REEL/FRAME:019644/0211

Effective date: 20070630

AS Assignment

Owner name: XENITH, LLC, MASSACHUSETTS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:XENITH, INC.;REEL/FRAME:019933/0916

Effective date: 20070614

AS Assignment

Owner name: SALUS CAPITAL PARTNERS, LLC, MASSACHUSETTS

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:XENITH, LLC;REEL/FRAME:029244/0922

Effective date: 20121017

AS Assignment

Owner name: XENITH, LLC, MICHIGAN

Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:SALUS CAPITAL PARTNERS, LLC;REEL/FRAME:037528/0863

Effective date: 20151228

Owner name: SIENA LENDING GROUP LLC, CONNECTICUT

Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:XENITH, LLC;REEL/FRAME:037529/0397

Effective date: 20151230