US20060281962A1 - Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same - Google Patents

Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20060281962A1
US20060281962A1 US11418393 US41839306A US2006281962A1 US 20060281962 A1 US20060281962 A1 US 20060281962A1 US 11418393 US11418393 US 11418393 US 41839306 A US41839306 A US 41839306A US 2006281962 A1 US2006281962 A1 US 2006281962A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
blood
pump
patient
heart
inflow
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11418393
Inventor
Steven Bolling
Anthony Viole
Shawn O'Leary
Original Assignee
Bolling Steven F
Anthony Viole
O'leary Shawn
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/101Non-positive displacement pumps, e.g. impeller, centrifugal, vane pumps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/12Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps implantable into the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/36Other treatment of blood in a by-pass of the natural circulatory system, e.g. temperature adaptation, irradiation ; Extra-corporeal blood circuits
    • A61M1/3621Extra-corporeal blood circuits
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/36Other treatment of blood in a by-pass of the natural circulatory system, e.g. temperature adaptation, irradiation ; Extra-corporeal blood circuits
    • A61M1/3621Extra-corporeal blood circuits
    • A61M1/3653Interfaces between patient blood circulation and extra-corporal blood circuit
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/36Other treatment of blood in a by-pass of the natural circulatory system, e.g. temperature adaptation, irradiation ; Extra-corporeal blood circuits
    • A61M1/3621Extra-corporeal blood circuits
    • A61M1/3653Interfaces between patient blood circulation and extra-corporal blood circuit
    • A61M1/3655Arterio-venous shunts, fistulae
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/36Other treatment of blood in a by-pass of the natural circulatory system, e.g. temperature adaptation, irradiation ; Extra-corporeal blood circuits
    • A61M1/3621Extra-corporeal blood circuits
    • A61M1/3653Interfaces between patient blood circulation and extra-corporal blood circuit
    • A61M1/3659Cannulae pertaining to extracorporeal circulation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/0021Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by the form of the tubing
    • A61M25/0023Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by the form of the tubing by the form of the lumen, e.g. cross-section, variable diameter
    • A61M25/0026Multi-lumen catheters with stationary elements
    • A61M25/003Multi-lumen catheters with stationary elements characterized by features relating to least one lumen located at the distal part of the catheter, e.g. filters, plugs or valves
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/1001General aspects of blood pumps irrespective of pump type
    • A61M1/1005General aspects of blood pumps irrespective of pump type with means for making a blood flow pulsatile
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/1008Tubes; Connections therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/101Non-positive displacement pumps, e.g. impeller, centrifugal, vane pumps
    • A61M1/1029Drive systems therefor
    • A61M1/1031Drive systems therefor using a motor with canned rotor, i.e. a motor enclosed within a casing along with the rotor so that the motor bearings are lubricated by the blood that is being pumped
    • A61M1/1034Drive systems therefor using a motor with canned rotor, i.e. a motor enclosed within a casing along with the rotor so that the motor bearings are lubricated by the blood that is being pumped using rotating cables for driving
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/1037Pumps having flexible elements, e.g. with membranes, diaphragms, or bladder pumps
    • A61M1/107Pulsating membrane pumps without valves, e.g. for counter pulsation, extra-arterial balloon pumps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/1086Regulating or controlling systems therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/12Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps implantable into the body
    • A61M1/122Heart assist devices, i.e. for assisting an ailing heart, using additional pumping means in the blood circuit
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/12Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps implantable into the body
    • A61M1/125Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps implantable into the body intravascular, i.e. introduced or implanted in an existing blood vessel
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2230/00Measuring parameters of the user
    • A61M2230/04Heartbeat characteristics, e.g. ECG, blood pressure modulation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/0021Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by the form of the tubing
    • A61M25/0023Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by the form of the tubing by the form of the lumen, e.g. cross-section, variable diameter
    • A61M25/0026Multi-lumen catheters with stationary elements
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/0067Catheters; Hollow probes characterised by the distal end, e.g. tips
    • A61M25/0068Static characteristics of the catheter tip, e.g. shape, atraumatic tip, curved tip or tip structure
    • A61M25/007Side holes, e.g. their profiles or arrangements; Provisions to keep side holes unblocked

Abstract

An extracardiac pumping system and method for using it supplement the circulation of blood, including the cardiac output, in a patient without any component thereof being connected to the patient's heart. A battery powered pump may be implanted subcutaneously and attached to an inflow conduit fluidly coupled to a patient's femoral artery via a subcutaneous anastomosis connection. The pump draws blood from the inflow conduit and discharges it through an outflow conduit fluidly coupled to a second peripheral artery via another subcutaneous anastomosis connection. The battery may be charged extracorporeally and the pump may be operated in either a continuous or pulsatile fashion in synchronization with the patient's heart. The conduits can be housed in a multi-lumen catheter and a reservoir may be provided which fluidly communicates with the inflow conduits. An additional feature may keep blood traveling extracorporeally within the system at or near body temperature. The system is capable of adjusting outflow from the pump to optimize the mixing of red blood cells in the aorta and thereby enhance oxygen delivery to tissues by minimizing blood cell concentration in the center of the aorta.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/878,591, filed Jun. 28, 2004, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/289,467, filed Nov. 6, 2002, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/171,023, filed on Jun. 11, 2002, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,685,621, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/078,260, filed on Feb. 15, 2002, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,610,004, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/552,979, filed on Apr. 21, 2000, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,390,969 B1, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/470,841, filed on Dec. 23, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,387,037 B1, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/289,231, filed on Apr. 9, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,428,464 B1, which is continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/166,005, filed on Oct. 2, 1998, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,200,260 B1, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/061,434, filed Oct. 9, 1997.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates generally to a system for assisting the heart and, in particular, to an extracardiac pumping system and a method for both supplementing the circulation of blood through the patient and for enhancing vascular blood mixing using a minimally invasive procedure.
  • 2. Description of the Related Art
  • During the last decade, congestive heart failure (CHF) has burgeoned into the most important public health problem in cardiovascular medicine. As reported in Gilum, R. F., Epidemiology of Heart Failure in the U S., 126 Am. Heart J. 1042 (1993), four hundred thousand (400,000) new cases of CHF are diagnosed in the United States annually. The disorder is said to affect nearly 5 million people in this country and close to 20 million people worldwide. The number of hospitalizations for CHF has increased more than three fold in the last 15 years. Unfortunately, nearly 250,000 patients die of heart failure annually. According to the Framingham Heart Study, the 5-year mortality rate for patients with congestive heart failure was 75 per cent in men and 62 per cent in women (Ho, K. K. L., Anderson, K. M., Kannel, W. B., et al., Survival After the Onset of Congestive Heart Failure in Framingham Heart Study Subject, 88 Circulation 107 (1993)). This disorder represents the most common discharge diagnosis for patients over 65 years of age. Although the incidence of most cardiovascular disorders has decreased over the past 10 to 20 years, the incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure has increased at a dramatic rate. This number will increase as patients who would normally die of an acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) survive, and as the population ages.
  • CHF manifests itself primarily by exertional dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing) and fatigue. Three paradigms are used to describe the causes and therapy of CHF. The first views this condition in terms of altered pump function and abnormal circulatory dynamics. Other models describe it largely in terms of altered myocardial cellular performance or of altered gene expression in the cells of the atrophied heart. In its broadest sense, CHF can be defined as the inability of the heart to pump blood throughout the body at the rate needed to maintain adequate blood flow, and many of the normal functions of the body.
  • To address CHF, many types of cardiac assist devices have been developed. A cardiac or circulatory assist device is one that aids the failing heart by increasing its pumping function or by allowing it a certain amount of rest to recover its pumping function. Because congestive heart failure may be chronic or acute, different categories of heart assist devices exist. Short of a heart transplant, at least two types of chronic heart assist systems have been developed. One type employs a full or partial prosthetic connected between the heart and the aorta, one example of which is commonly referred to as a LVAD—Left Ventricular Assist Device. With reference to FIG. 1 herein, one example of a LVAD 2 is shown. The LVAD comprises a pump and associated valves 4 that draws blood directly from the apex of the left ventricle 6 and directs the blood to the aortic arch 8, bypassing the aortic valve. In this application, the left ventricle stops functioning and does not contract or expand. The left ventricle becomes, in effect, an extension of the left atrium, with the LVAD 2 taking over for the left ventricle. The ventricle, thus, becomes a low-pressure chamber. Because the intent is to take over for the left ventricle, the LVAD operates by pumping blood at cardiac rates. With an LVAD, oxygenated blood circulation is established sufficient to satisfy the demand of the patient's organs. Under these circumstances, however, continuous flow may not be desired because the patient's arterial system is deprived of pulsatile wave flow, which is beneficial to certain parts of the patient.
  • Another type of chronic heart assist system is shown in U.S. Pat. No. 5,267,940 to Moulder. Moulder describes a pump implanted into the proximal descending aorta to assist in the circulation of blood through the aorta. Because it is intended to pump blood flowing directly out of the heart, it is important that the Moulder device operate in a properly timed, pulsatile fashion. If it is not operated in direct synchronization with the patient's heart, there is a risk that the pump might cause “carotid steal phenomenon” where blood is drawn away from the patient's brain through the carotid arteries when there is insufficient blood in the left ventricle.
  • In addressing acute CHF, two types of heart assist devices have been used. One is counterpulsatory in nature and is exemplified by an intra-aortic balloon pump (LABP). With an IABP, the balloon is collapsed during isovolumic contraction, providing a reduced pressure against which the heart must pump blood, thereby reducing the load on the heart during systole. The balloon is then expanded, forcing blood omidirectionally through the arterial system. Another example of this first type employs one or more collapsible chambers in which blood flows passively into the chamber during systole, as is shown in U.S. Pat. No. 4,240,409 to Robinson et al. The chamber is then collapsed and the blood forcibly returned to the aorta. These devices simulate a chamber of the heart and depend upon an inflatable bladder to effectuate pumping action, requiring an external pneumatic driver. Moreover, they do not operate as a continuous flow system, operating exclusively in pulsatile fashion.
  • A second type of acute assist device utilizes an extracorporeal pump, such as the Biomedicus centrifugal pump, to direct blood through the patient while surgery is performed on the heart. In one example, described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,968,293 to Nelson, the heart assist system employs a centrifugal pump in which the muscle of the patient is utilized to add pulsatility to the blood flow. The Nelson device is used to bypass a portion of the descending aorta.
  • Another device, shown in U.S. Pat. No. 4,080,958 to Bregman et al., utilizes an inflatable and collapsible bladder to assist in blood perfusion during heart trauma and is intended to supplement a conventional heart-lung machine by imparting pulsatile actuation. In the primary embodiment disclosed in Bregman, the balloon is controlled to maintain sufficient pressure at the aortic root during diastole to ensure sufficient blood perfusion to the coronary arteries. In an alternative embodiment, a low resistance outlet from the aorta to the inferior vena cava is provided to reduce the aortic pressure during systole, thus, reducing the hemodynamic load on the left ventricle.
  • Other devices, such as that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 4,034,742 to Thoma, depend upon interaction and coordination with a mechanical pumping chamber containing a movable pumping diaphragm. These devices are intended primarily for application proximate the heart and within the patient's thorax, requiring major invasive surgery.
  • Many CHF devices are acutely used in the perioperative period. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,995,857 to Arnold discloses a perioperative device to pump blood at essentially cardiac rates during surgery when the heart has failed or has been stopped to perform cardiac surgery. The Arnold system temporarily replaces the patient's heart and lung and pumps blood at cardiac rates, typically 5 to 6 liters/min. Like all systems that bypass the heart and the lungs, an oxygenator is required. Of course, with any system that includes an oxygenator, such as the conventional heart-lung machine, the patient cannot be ambulatory.
  • With early IABP devices, a polyurethane balloon was mounted on a vascular catheter, inserted into the femoral artery, and positioned in the descending aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery. The balloon catheter was connected to a pump console that pumped helium or carbon dioxide into the balloon during diastole to inflate it. During isovolumic contraction, i. e., during the brief time that the aortic valve is closed and the left ventricle continues to contract, the gas used to actuate the balloon was rapidly withdrawn to deflate the balloon. This reduced the pressure at the aortic root when the aortic valve opened. In contrast, during diastole, the balloon was inflated, causing the diastolic pressure to rise and pushing the blood in the aorta distally towards the lower part of the body (on one side of the balloon) and proximally toward the heart and into the coronary arteries (on the other).
  • The major advantage in such a counterpulsation device was systolic deflation, which lowered the intra-aortic volume and pressure, reducing both afterload and myocardial oxygen consumption. In other words, when the balloon is inflated, it creates an artificially higher pressure in the aorta, which has the ancillary benefit of greater perfusion through the coronary arteries. When the balloon deflates, just before the aortic valve opens, the pressure and volume of the aorta decrease, relieving some of the hemodynamic burden on the heart. These physiologic responses improved the patient's cardiac output and coronary circulation, temporarily improving hemodynamics. In general, counterpulsation with an LABP can augment cardiac output by about 15%, this being frequently sufficient to stabilize the patient's hemodynamic status, which might otherwise rapidly deteriorate. When there is evidence of more efficient pumping ability by the heart, and the patient has moved to an improved class of hemodynamic status, counterpulsation can be discontinued, by slowly weaning while monitoring for deterioration.
  • Until 1979, all IABP catheters were inserted via surgical cutdown, generally of the femoral artery. Since then, the development of a percutaneous IABP catheter has allowed quicker, and perhaps safer, insertion and has resulted in more expeditious institution of therapy and expansion of clinical applications. Inflation and deflation of the balloon, however, requires a pneumatic pump that is sufficiently large that it must be employed extracorporeally, thereby restricting the patient's movements and ability to carry out normal, daily activities. LABP devices are, thus, limited to short term use, on the order of a few days to a few weeks.
  • As discussed above, a variety of ventricular assist pumping mechanisms have been designed. Typically associated with LVADs are valves that are used in the inlet and outlet conduits to insure unidirectional blood flow. Given the close proximity of the heart, unidirectional flow was necessary to avoid inadvertent backflow into the heart. The use of such valves also minimized the thrombogenic potential of the LVAD device.
  • Typically, the pump associated with older LVADs was a bulky pulsatile flow pump, of the pusher plate or diaphragm style, such as those manufactured by Baxter Novacor or TCI, respectively. Given that the pump was implanted within the chest and/or abdominal cavity, major invasive surgery was required. The pumps were typically driven through a percutaneous driveline by a portable external console that monitors and reprograms functions.
  • Alternatively, rotary pumps, such as centrifugal or axial pumps, have been used in heart assist systems. With centrifugal pumps, the blood enters and exits the pump practically in the same plane. An axial pump, in contrast, directs the blood along the axis of rotation of the rotor. Inspired by the Archimedes screw, one design of an axial pump has been miniaturized to about the size of a pencil eraser, although other designs are larger. Despite its small size, an axial pump may be sufficiently powerful to produce flows that approach those used with older LVADs. Even with miniaturized pumps, however, the pump is typically introduced into the left ventricle through the aortic valve or through the apex of the heart, and its function must be controlled from a console outside the body through percutaneous lines.
  • All of these heart assist systems referred to above serve one or both of two objectives: (1) to improve the performance of a patient's operative-but-diseased heart from the minimum, classified as NYHAC Class IV, to practically normal, classified as I or 0; or (2) to supplement oxygenated blood circulation through the patient to satisfy organ demand when the patient's heart is suffering from CHF. With such systems, extreme pumping and large amounts of energy, volume, and heat dissipation are required.
  • Many of these heart assist systems have several general features in common: 1) the devices are cardiac in nature; i. e., they are placed directly within or adjacent to the heart, or within one of the primary vessels associated with the heart (aorta), and are often attached to the heart and/or aorta; 2) the devices attempt to reproduce pulsatile blood flow naturally found in the mammalian circulatory system and, therefore, require valves to prevent backflow; 3) the devices are driven from external consoles, often triggered by the electrocardiogram of the patient; and 4) the size of the blood pump, including its associated connectors and accessories, is generally unmanageable within the anatomy and physiology of the recipient. Due to having one or more of these features, the prior art heart assist devices are limited in their effectiveness and/or practicality.
  • Many of the above identified prior art systems, generally referred to as Mechanical Circulatory Assist Devices, are not the only means, however, used to treat patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Most CHF patients are prescribed as many as five to seven different drugs to ameliorate their signs and symptoms. These drugs may include diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, cardiac glycosides, and peripheral vasodilators. The rationale for pharmacological intervention in heart failure include minimizing the load on the heart, improving the pumping action of the heart by enhancing the contractility of the muscle fibers, and suppression of harmful neurohormonal compensatory mechanisms that are activated because of the decreased pumping function of the heart.
  • Noncompliance with what is often a complex drug regime may dramatically adversely affect the recovery of a CHF patient leading to the need for hospitalization and possibly morbidity and mortality. In addition, ACE inhibitors and diurectics can cause hypotension, which leads to decreased organ perfusion or an increasing demand on the heart to pump more blood. This leads to an inability, in many cases, to prescribe the most effective dosage of ACE inhibitors and a less than optimum outcome for the patient. Patients suffering from CHF with the underlying cause of mitral valve insufficiency have been able to have their diuretics reduced following surgical repair of their mitral valve. This is due to an increased cardiac output and arterial pressures (as a result of the correction of the problem) resulting in more effective organ perfusion. With the reduction in the use of diuretics and the resultant hypotension, more effective dosages of ACE inhibitors can be used with more favorable outcomes. In addition, it is easier for the patient to follow a less complex drug regime, eliminating the costly and life threatening risks associated with noncompliance.
  • When blood flow through the coronary arteries falls below the level needed to provide the energy necessary to maintain myocardial function, due often to a blockage in the coronary arteries, a myocardial infarction or heart attack occurs. This is a result of the blockage in the coronary arteries preventing blood from delivering oxygen to tissues downstream of the blockage. The closer the blockage is to the coronary ostia, however, the more severe and life threatening the myocardial infarction. The farther the location of the blockage is from the coronary ostia, the smaller the area of tissue or myocardium that is at risk. As the energy stored in the affected area decreases, myocardial cells begin to die. The larger the area that dies due to the loss of oxygen, the more devastating the infarction. To reduce the area at risk, at least two known options are to either increase the oxygen supply to the affected area or decrease the energy demands of the heart to prolong energy stores until the blockage can be removed or reduced. One particular method to increase blood flow, thereby increasing delivery of oxygen to the affected area, is through a technique called retroperfusion. This is accomplished by passing a cannula into either the right or left ventricle (depending on the area of the blockage) and perfusing oxygenated blood retrograde up the coronary artery on the downstream side of the blockage. Another method is to use drugs to increase the force of contraction of the myocardium, creating increased blood flow across the blocked area. Yet another method is to use drugs, such as pentoxifylline, aspirin, or TPA (tissue plaminogen activator), to reduce the viscosity of (thin out) the blood, inhibit platelet aggregation, or lyse thrombi (clots), respectively, thus, allowing more blood to pass by the blockage. The goal of all of these methods is to increase the delivery of oxygen to the tissue at risk.
  • The alternative option mentioned above is to reduce the energy demands of the myocardium and increase the amount of time before irreversible damage occurs. This can be accomplished by reducing the workload of the left ventricle (which is the largest energy-consuming portion of the heart). An LABP is placed into the aorta and used as described above, resulting in a decreased afterload on the heart and increased perfusion of the coronary arteries and peripheral organs. An alternative way to reduce myocardial oxygen demand is to reduce the volume of blood the left ventricle must pump. This can be accomplished by reducing the load on the left ventricle, such as in a cardiopulmonary bypass or use of an LVAD. Unloading the left ventricle decreases the energy requirements of the myocardium and increases the amount of time before irreversible damage occurs. This provides an opportunity to more effectively remove or decrease the blockage and salvage myocardial function. To be successful, each of these techniques must be implemented within a short amount of time after the onset of a myocardial infarction. The disadvantage, however, is that each of these techniques can only be performed in an emergency room or hospital setting. Unless the patient is already in the hospital when the myocardial infarction occurs, there is usually some level of irreversible damage and subsequent loss of myocardial function.
  • It would be advantageous, therefore, to employ a heart assist system that avoids major invasive surgery and also avoids the use of peripheral equipment that severely restricts a patient's movement. It would also be advantageous to have such a heart assist system that can be employed in a non-hospital setting for ease of treating acute heart problems under emergency conditions.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The object of the present invention is to address the aspect of CHF that results from altered pump function and abnormal circulatory dynamics while overcoming the limitations of prior art heart assist systems. Without functioning as a bypass to one or more of a patient's organs, the present invention comprises an extracardiac pumping system for supplementing the circulation of blood through the patient without any component thereof being connected to the patient's heart or primary vessels. Thus, it is extracardiac in nature. With the ability to be applied within a minimally invasive procedure, the present invention significantly improves the condition of the patient suffering from CHF, resulting in the patient feeling much better, even where CHF continues. By supplementing the pumping action of the heart, in lieu of replacing it, the present system takes advantage of the pulsatile action of the heart, despite its weakened condition, to effectively deliver blood to body organs that benefit from pulsatile delivery of oxygenated blood. As a result, the present system is capable of being operated in a continuous flow fashion or, if desired, in a pulsatile flow fashion.
  • An ancillary but important benefit of the present invention is the ability to apply the present invention in such a way as to also reduce the pumping load on the heart, thereby potentially permitting the heart to recover during use. With the present invention, no bulky pump, valves or oxygenator are required, and no thoracic invasion with major cardiac surgery is required. Indeed, a significant advantage of the present invention is its simplicity while achieving extraordinary results in improving the condition of a patient suffering from CHF.
  • The extracardiac system of the present invention preferably comprises, in one example, a rotary pump configured to pump blood through the patient at subcardiac rates; i. e., at a flow rate significantly below that of the patient's heart. Other types of pumps or flow generating mechanisms may be effective as well. Pumping the blood tends to revitalize the blood to a certain extent by imparting kinetic and potential energy to the blood discharged from the pump. Importantly, the preferred pump for the present invention pumping system is one that requires a relatively low amount of energy input, when compared to prior art pumps designed to pump at cardiac rates. The pump may be implanted or not, depending upon the capability, practicality, or need of the patient to be ambulatory.
  • The present system also comprises an inflow conduit fluidly coupled to the pump, to direct blood to the pump from a first peripheral blood vessel, and an outflow conduit fluidly coupled to the pump, to direct blood from the pump to a second peripheral blood vessel. The connection of the inflow and outflow conduits to the respective blood vessels is performed subcutaneously; not so deep as to involve major invasive surgery. In other words, minimally subdermal. This permits application of the connections in a minimally-invasive procedure. Preferably, the connections to the blood vessels are just below the skin or just below the first layer of muscle, depending upon the blood vessels at issue or the location of the connection, although slightly deeper penetrations may be necessary for some patients or for some applications.
  • In an alternative embodiment, the present system is applied at a single cannulated site using, for example, a multi-lumen catheter having at least one lumen as an inflow lumen and a second lumen as an outlet lumen. The multi-lumen catheter has an inflow port in fluid communicating with the inflow lumen. With this embodiment, blood is drawn into the inflow port of the first lumen from a first peripheral blood vessel site, preferably the blood vessel into which the multi-lumen catheter is inserted. The output of the pump directs blood through a second (outlet) port at the distal end of the second lumen that is preferably located in a second peripheral vessel site. This method accomplishes the same beneficial results achieved in the previously described embodiments, but requires only a single cannulated site, rather than two such sites. It should be appreciated that the multi-lumen catheter could be used in a manner where the outflow of the cannula is to the first peripheral site, while the inflow is drawn from the second peripheral vessel. Further still, it should be appreciated that the inflow could be positioned to draw blood from a peripheral vessel at the site of entry into the patient while the outflow could be positioned in the aorta, proximate an arterial branch.
  • In one embodiment of the extracardiac system, the pump is a continuous flow pump, a pulsatile pump, and/or a pump that is configured to generate flow in both a continuous and pulsatile format. The pump may be implantable and is used to connect two peripheral arteries, such as the femoral artery at the inflow and the left axillary artery at the outflow, although other peripheral blood vessels are contemplated, including other arteries and/or veins, as well as any singular and/or cumulative combination thereof. An alternative embodiment employs both a continuous flow and a pulsatile flow pump connected in parallel or in series and operating simultaneously or in an alternating fashion. Yet another alternative embodiment employs a rotary pump that is controllable in a synchronous copulsating or counterpulsating fashion, or in some out-of-phase intermediate thereof. In one application, it is contemplated that the present invention be applied such that the heart experiences a reduced pressure at the aortic root during systole (afterload) and/or a reduced left ventricular end diastolic pressure (pre-load), thus reducing the hemodynamic burden or workload on the heart and, thus, permitting the heart to recover.
  • It is contemplated that, where the entire system of the present invention is implanted, that it be implanted subcutaneously without the need for major invasive surgery and, preferably, extraihoracically. For example, the pump may be implanted in the groin area, with the inflow conduit attached to the femoral or iliac artery proximate thereto and the outflow conduit attached to the axillary artery proximate the shoulder. It is contemplated that the outflow conduit be applied by tunneling it under the skin from the pump to the axillary artery. Where implanted, the pump is preferably powered by an implantable power source, such as for example a battery, that may be regenerated externally by an RF induction system or be replaced periodically, and/or a self-generating power source that, for example, draws energy from the human body (e. g., muscles, chemicals, heat).
  • The present invention also comprises a method for supplementing the circulation of blood in the patient and potentially reducing the workload on the heart of a patient without connecting any component to the patient's heart. The inventive method comprises the steps of implanting a pump configured to generate blood flow at volumetric rates that are on average subcardiac, wherein the pump has an inflow and outflow conduit attached thereto; connecting a distal end of the inflow conduit to a first peripheral blood vessel with a minimally-invasive surgical procedure to permit the flow of blood to the pump from the first peripheral blood vessel of the patient; implanting the inflow conduit subcutaneously; connecting a distal end of the outflow conduit to a second peripheral blood vessel with a minimally-invasive surgical procedure to permit the flow of blood away from the pump to the second peripheral blood vessel of the patient; and operating said pump to perfuse blood through the patient's circulatory system. Where the second peripheral blood vessel is the axillary artery, the step of connecting the distal end of the outflow conduit is performed in such a manner that a sufficient flow of blood is directed toward the hand to avoid limb ischemia while ensuring that sufficient flow is directed toward the aorta without damaging the endothelial lining of the second peripheral blood vessel. The same concerns for avoiding limb ischemia and damage to the endothelial lining would apply, however, regardless of the selection of second peripheral blood vessel.
  • In one specific application, the pump is capable of synchronous control wherein the step of operating the pump includes the steps of beginning discharge of blood out of the pump during isovolumic contraction and discontinuing discharge of blood when the aortic valve closes following systole. Depending upon the patient and the specific arrangement of the present system, this specific method results in reduced afterload and/or preload on the heart while also supplementing circulation. For example, in one embodiment, the first and second blood vessels are the femoral and axillary arteries, respectively.
  • In an alternative method of applying the present invention, the pump is not implanted and the inflow and outflow conduits are connected to the first and second blood vessels percutaneously, using a readily-removable connector, such as a cannula, to connect the distal ends of each conduit to the blood vessels.
  • An important advantage of the present invention is that it utilizes the benefits of an IABP, without the requirement of extracorporeal equipment or the need to have a balloon or similar implement partially obstructing a blood vessel. In addition to the benefits of an IABP, it also offers the benefit of reducing the preload on the heart. The present invention thus offers simplicity and long-term use.
  • Another important advantage of the present invention is its potential to enhance mixing of systemic arterial blood, particularly in the aorta, and thereby deliver blood with a higher oxygen-carrying capacity to organs supplied by arterial side branches off of the aorta. This overcomes the problem of blood streaming in the descending aorta that may sometimes occur in patients suffering from low cardiac output or other ailments resulting in low blood flow. The lack of mixing of the blood within the descending aorta that may result from blood streaming could lead to a higher concentration of red blood cells and nutrients in the central region of the aorta and a decreasing concentration of red blood cells closer to the aortic wall. This could result in lower hematocrit blood flowing into branch arteries from the aorta. Where it is desired to address the potential problem of blood streaming, a method of utilizing the present invention may include taking steps to assess certain parameters of the patient and then to determine the minimum output of the pump that ensures turbulent flow in the aorta, thereby enhancing blood mixing. One embodiment of that method includes the step of determining the Reynolds number and the average Womersley number for the flow through the descending aorta before and/or after applying the present inventive system to the patient and adjusting the pump accordingly.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • These and other features and advantages of the invention will now be described with reference to the drawings, which are intended to illustrate and not to limit the invention.
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a cardiac assist device, known as a left ventricular assist device, showing a bypass from the apex of the left ventricle to the aortic arch;
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a first embodiment of the present invention, shown applied to a patient's circulatory system.
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a second embodiment of the present invention, shown applied to a patient's circulatory system.
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a variation of the first embodiment of FIG. 2 shown implanted into a patient;
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic view of a third embodiment of the present invention, shown applied to a patient's circulatory system.
  • FIG. 6 is a schematic view of a fourth embodiment of the present invention, shown applied to a patient's circulatory system.
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic view of an inflow L-shaped connector, shown inserted within a blood vessel.
  • FIG. 8 is a schematic view of a fifth embodiment of the present invention employing a multi-lumen catheter for single site application to a patient.
  • FIG. 9 is a schematic view of a sixth embodiment of the present invention showing a reservoir and a portable housing for carrying a portion of the invention directly on the patient.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • Turning now to the drawings provided herein, a more detailed description of the embodiments of the present invention is provided below. It should be noted, however, that while some embodiments have all of the advantages identified herein, other embodiments may only realize some but not all of the advantages.
  • The present invention provides a heart assist system that is extracardiac in nature. In other words, the present invention supplements blood perfusion, without the need to interface directly with the heart and aorta. Thus, no major invasive surgery is necessary to use the present invention. The present invention also lessens the hemodynamic burden or workload on the heart by reducing the pressure at the aortic root during systole (afterload) and/or reducing left ventricular end diastolic pressure and volume (preload).
  • With reference to FIG. 2, a first embodiment of the present invention 10 is shown applied to a patient 12 having an ailing heart 14 and an aorta 16, from which peripheral brachiocephalic blood vessels extend, including the right subclavian 18, the right carotid 20, the left carotid 22, and the left axillary 24. Extending from the descending aorta is another set of peripheral blood vessels, the left and right femoral arteries 26, 28.
  • The first embodiment 10 comprises a pump 32, having an inlet 34 and an outlet 36 for connection of flexible conduits thereto. The pump 32 is preferably a rotary pump, either an axial type or a centrifugal type, although other types of pumps may be used, whether commercially-available or customized. In either case, the pump should be sufficiently small to be implanted subcutaneously and preferably extrathoracically, for example in the groin area of the patient, without the need for major invasive surgery. Because the present invention is an extracardiac system, no valves are necessary. Any inadvertent backflow through the pump and/or through the inflow conduit would not harm the patient.
  • Regardless of the style or nature chosen, the pump 32 of the present invention is sized to generate blood flow at subcardiac volumetric rates, less than about 50% of the flow rate of an average healthy heart, although flow rates above that may be effective. Thus, the pump 32 of the present invention is sized and configured to discharge blood at volumetric flow rates anywhere in the range of 0.1 to 3 liters per minute, depending upon the application desired and/or the degree of need for heart assist. For example, for a patient experiencing advanced congestive heart failure, it may be preferable to employ a pump that has an average subcardiac rate of 2.5 to 3 liters per minute. In other patients, particularly those with minimal levels of heart failure, it may be preferable to employ a pump that has an average subcardiac rate of 0.5 liters per minute or less. In yet other patients it may be preferable to employ a pump that is a pressure wave generator that uses pressure to augment the flow of blood generated by the heart.
  • In one embodiment, the pump selected is a continuous flow pump so that blood perfusion through the circulation system is continuous. In an alternative embodiment, the pump selected has the capability of synchronous actuation; i. e., it may be actuated in a pulsatile mode, either in copulsating or counterpulsating fashion.
  • For copulsating action, it is contemplated that the pump 32 would be actuated to discharge blood generally during systole, beginning actuation, for example, during isovolumic contraction before the aortic valve opens or as the aortic valve opens. The pump would be static while the aortic valve is closed following systole, ceasing actuation, for example, when the aortic valve closes.
  • For counterpulsating actuation, it is contemplated that the pump 32 would be actuated generally during diastole, ceasing actuation, for example, before or during isovolumic contraction. Such an application would permit and/or enhance coronary blood perfusion. In this application, it is contemplated that the pump would be static during the balance of systole after the aortic valve is opened, to lessen the burden against which the heart must pump. The aortic valve being open encompasses the periods of opening and closing, wherein blood is flowing therethrough.
  • It should be recognized that the designations copulsating and counterpulsating are general identifiers and are not limited to specific points in the patient's heart cycle when the pump begins and discontinues actuation. Rather, they are intended to generally refer to pump actuation in which the pump is actuating, at least in part, during systole and diastole, respectively. For example, it is contemplated that the pump might be activated to be out of phase from true copulsating or counterpulsating actuation described herein, and still be synchronous, depending upon the specific needs of the patient or the desired outcome. One might shift actuation of the pump to begin prior to or after isovolumic contraction or to begin before or after isovolumic expansion.
  • Furthermore, the pulsatile pump may be actuated to pulsate asynchronously with the patient's heart. Typically, where the patient's heart is beating irregularly, there may be a desire to pulsate the pump asynchronously so that the perfusion of blood by the extracardiac pumping system is more regular and, thus, more effective at oxygenating the organs. Where the patient's heart beats regularly, but weakly, synchronous pulsation of the extracardiac pump may be preferred.
  • The pump 32 is driven by a motor 40 and/or other type of drive means and is controlled preferably by a programmable controller 42 that is capable of actuating the pump in pulsatile fashion, where desired, and also of controlling the speed or output of the pump. For synchronous control, the patient's heart would preferably be monitored with an EKG in which feedback would be provided the controller 42. The controller 42 is preferably programmed by the use of external means. This may be accomplished, for example, using RF telemetry circuits of the type commonly used within implantable pacemakers and defibrillators. The controller may also be autoregulating to permit automatic regulation of the speed, and/or regulation of the synchronous or asynchronous pulsation of the pump, based upon feedback from ambient sensors monitoring parameters, such as pressure or the patient's EKG. It is also contemplated that a reverse-direction pump be utilized, if desired, in which the controller is capable of reversing the direction of either the drive means or the impellers of the pump. Such a pump might be used where it is desirable to have the option of reversing the direction of circulation between two peripheral blood vessels.
  • Power to the motor 40 and controller 42 may be provided by a power source 44, such as a battery, that is preferably rechargeable by an external induction source (not shown), such as an RF induction coil that may be electromagnetically coupled to the battery to induce a charge therein. Alternative power sources are also possible, including a device that draws energy directly from the patient's body; e. g., the patient's muscles, chemicals or heat. The pump can be temporarily stopped during recharging with no appreciable life threatening effect, because the system only supplements the heart, rather than substituting for the heart.
  • While the controller 42 and power source 44 are preferably pre-assembled to the pump 32 and implanted therewith, it is also contemplated that the pump 32 and motor 40 be implanted at one location and the controller 42 and power source 44 be implanted in a separate location. In one alternative arrangement, the pump 32 may be driven externally through a percutaneous drive line. In another alternative, the pump, motor and controller may be implanted and powered by an extracorporeal power source. In the latter case, the power source could be attached to the side of the patient to permit fully ambulatory movement.
  • The inlet 34 of the pump 32 is preferably connected to a flexible inflow conduit 50 and a flexible outflow conduit 52 to direct blood flow from one peripheral blood vessel to another. The inflow and outflow conduits 50, 52 may, for example, be formed from Dacron, Hemashield or Gortex materials, although other synthetic materials may be suitable. The inflow and outflow conduits 50, 52 may also comprise biologic materials or pseudobiological (hybrid) materials (e. g., biologic tissue supported on a synthetic scaffold). The inflow and outflow conduits are preferably configured to minimize kinks so blood flow is not meaningfully interrupted by normal movements of the patient or compressed easily from external forces. In some cases, the inflow and/or outflow conduits may come commercially already attached to the pump. Where it is desired to implant the pump 32 and the conduits 50, 52, it is preferable that the inner diameter of the conduits be less than 25 mm, although diameters slightly larger may be effective.
  • In one preferred application of the present invention, the first embodiment is applied in an arterial-arterial fashion; for example, as a femoral-axillary connection, as is shown in FIG. 2. It should be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art that an axillary-femoral connection would also be effective using the embodiments described herein. Indeed, it should be recognized by one of ordinary skill in the art that the present invention might be applied to any of the peripheral blood vessels in the patient.
  • The inflow conduit 50 has a first proximal end 56 that connects with the inlet 34 of the pump 32 and a second distal end 58 that connects with a first peripheral blood vessel, which is preferably the left femoral artery 26 of the patient 12, although the right femoral artery or any other peripheral artery may be acceptable. In one application, the connection between the inflow conduit 50 and the first blood vessel is via an end-to-side anastomosis, although a side-to-side anastomosis connection might be used mid-stream of the conduit where the inflow conduit were connected at its second end to an additional blood vessel or at another location on the same blood vessel (neither shown).
  • Similarly, the outflow conduit 52 has a first proximal end 62 that connects to the outlet 36 of the pump 32 and a second distal end 64 that connects with a second peripheral blood vessel, preferably the left axillary artery 24 of the patient 12, although the right axillary artery, or any other peripheral artery, would be acceptable. In one application, the connection between the outflow conduit 52 and the second blood vessel is via an end-to-side anastomosis, although a side-to-side anastomosis connection might be used mid-stream of the conduit where the outflow conduit were connected at its second end to yet another blood vessel (not shown) or at another location on the same blood vessel. Preferably, the outflow conduit is attached to the second blood vessel at an angle that results in the predominant flow of blood out of the pump proximally toward the aorta and heart, such as is shown in FIG. 2, while still maintaining sufficient flow distally toward the hand to prevent limb ischemia.
  • It is preferred that application of the present invention to the peripheral blood vessels be accomplished subcutaneously; i. e., at a shallow depth just below the skin or first muscle layer so as to avoid major invasive surgery. It is also preferred that the present invention be applied extrathoracically to avoid the need to invade the patient's chest cavity. Where desired, the entire extracardiac system of the present invention 10 may be implanted within the patient 12. In that case, the pump 32 may be implanted, for example, into the groin area, with the inflow conduit 50 connected subcutaneously to, for example, the femoral artery 26 proximate the pump 32. The outflow conduit would be tunneled subcutaneously through to, for example, the left axillary artery 24. In an alternative arrangement, the pump 32 and associated drive and controller could be temporarily fastened to the exterior skin of the patient, with the inflow and outflow conduits 50, 52 connected percutaneously. In either case, the patient may be ambulatory without restriction of tethered lines.
  • It is contemplated that, where an anastomosis connection is not desired, a special connector may be used to connect the conduits 50, 52 to the peripheral blood vessels. With reference to FIG. 3, a second embodiment of the present invention is shown, wherein the inflow conduit 50 and outflow conduit 52 are connected to the peripheral blood vessels via first and second connectors 68, 70 each comprising three-opening fittings. In the preferred embodiment, the connectors 68, 70 comprise an intra-vascular, generally-tee-shaped fitting 72 having a proximal end 74, a distal end 76, and an angled divergence 78 permitting connection to the inflow and outflow conduits 50, 52 and the blood vessels. The proximal and distal ends 74, 76 of the fittings 72 permit connection to the blood vessel into which the fitting is positioned. The angle of divergence 78 of the fittings 72 may be 90 degrees or less in either direction from the axis of flow through the blood vessel, as optimally selected to generate the needed flow distally toward the hand to prevent limb ischemia, and to insure sufficient flow and pressure toward the aorta to provide the circulatory assistance and workload reduction needed while minimizing or avoiding endothelial damage to the vessel. In another embodiment, the connectors 68, 70 are sleeves (not shown) that surround and attach to the outside of the peripheral blood vessel where, within the interior of the sleeve, a port to the blood vessel is provided to permit blood flow from the conduits 50, 52 when they are connected to the connectors 68, 70, respectively.
  • Other types of connectors having other configurations are contemplated that may avoid the need for an anastomosis connection or that permit connection of the conduits to the blood vessels. For example, it is contemplated that an L-shaped connector be used if it is desired to withdraw blood more predominantly from one direction of a peripheral vessel or to direct blood more predominantly into a peripheral vessel. Referring to FIG. 7, an inflow conduit 50 is fluidly connected to a peripheral vessel, for example, the left femoral artery 26, using an L-shaped connector 310. The connector 310 has an inlet port 312 at a proximal end and an outlet port 314 through which blood flows into the inflow conduit 50. The connector 310 also has an arrangement of holes 316 within a wall positioned at a distal end opposite the inlet port 312 so that some of the flow drawn into the connector 310 is diverted through the holes 312, particularly downstream of the connector, as in this application. A single hole in the wall could also be effective, depending upon size and placement. The connector may be a deformable L-shaped catheter percutaneously applied to the blood vessel or, in an alternative embodiment, be connected directly to the walls of the blood vessel for more long term application. By directing some blood flow downstream of the connector during withdrawal of blood from the vessel, ischemic damage downstream from the connector may be avoided. Such ischemic damage might otherwise occur if the majority of the blood flowing into the inflow connector were diverted from the blood vessel into the inflow conduit. It is also contemplated that a connection to the blood vessels might be made via a cannula, wherein the cannula is implanted, along with the inflow and outflow conduits.
  • The advantage of discrete connectors is their potential application to patients with chronic CHF. A connector eliminates a need for an anastomosis connection between the conduits of the present invention system and the peripheral blood vessels where it is desired to remove and/or replace the system more than one time. The connectors could be applied to the first and second blood vessels semi-permanently, with an end cap applied to the divergence for later quick-connection of the present invention system to the patient. In this regard, a patient might experience the benefit of the present invention periodically, without having to reconnect and redisconnect the conduits from the blood vessels via an anastomosis procedure each time. Each time it is desired to implement the present invention, the end caps would be removed and the conduit attached to the connectors quickly.
  • In the preferred embodiment of the connector 70, the divergence 78 is oriented at an acute angle significantly less than 90.degree. from the axis of the fitting 72, as shown in FIG. 3, so that a majority of the blood flowing through the outflow conduit 52 into the blood vessel (e. g., left axillary 24) flows in a direction proximally toward the heart 14, rather than in the distal direction. In an alternative embodiment, the proximal end 74 of the fitting 72 may have a diameter larger than the diameter of the distal end 76, without need of having an angled divergence, to achieve the same result.
  • With or without a connector, with blood flow directed proximally toward the aorta, the result may be concurrent flow down the descending aorta, which will result in the reduction of pressure at the aortic root. Thus, the present invention may be applied so to reduce the afterload on the patient's heart, permitting at least partial if not complete CHF recovery, while supplementing blood circulation. Concurrent flow depends upon the phase of operation of the pulsatile pump and the choice of second blood vessel to which the outflow conduit is connected.
  • While the present invention may be applied to create an arterial-arterial flow path, given the nature of the present invention, i. e., supplementation of circulation to meet organ demand, a venous-arterial flow path may also be used. For example, with reference to FIG. 4, one embodiment of the present invention 10 may be applied to the patient 12 such that the inflow conduit 50 is connected to a peripheral vein, such as the left femoral vein 80. In this arrangement, the outflow conduit 50 may be connected to one of the peripheral arteries, such as the left axillary 24. Arterial-venous arrangements are contemplated as well. In those venous-arterial cases where the inflow is connected to a vein and the outflow is connected to an artery, the pump 32 should be sized to permit flow sufficiently small so that oxygen-deficient blood does not rise to unacceptable levels in the arteries. It should be appreciated that the connections to the peripheral veins could be by one or more methods described above for connecting to a peripheral artery. It should also be appreciated that the present invention could be applied as a venous-venous flow path, wherein the inflow and outflow are connected to separate peripheral veins. In addition, an alternative embodiment comprises two discrete pumps and conduit arrangements, one being applied as a venous-venous flow path, and the other as an arterial-arterial flow path. When venous blood is mixed with arterial blood either at the inlet of the pump or the outlet of the pump the ratio of venous blood to arterial blood should be controlled to maintain an arterial saturation of a minimum of 80% at the pump inlet or outlet. Arterial saturation can be measured and/or monitored by pulse oximetry, laser doppler, colorimetry or other methods used to monitor blood oxygen saturation. The venous blood flow into the system can then be controlled by regulating the amount of blood allowed to pass through the conduit from the venous-side connection.
  • A partial external application of the present invention is contemplated where a patient's heart failure is acute; i. e., is not expected to last long, or in the earlier stages of heart failure (where the patient is in New York Heart Association Classification (NYHAC) functional classes II or III). With reference to FIG. 5, a third embodiment of the present invention 110 is applied percutaneously to a patient 112 to connect two peripheral blood vessels wherein a pump 132 and its associated driving means and controls are employed extracorporeally. The pump 132 has an inflow conduit 150 and an outflow conduit 152 associated therewith for connection to two peripheral blood vessels. The inflow conduit 150 has a first end 156 and second end 158 wherein the second end is connected to a first peripheral blood vessel (e. g., femoral artery 126) by way of a cannula 180. The cannula 180 has a first end 182 sealably connected to the second end 158 of the inflow conduit 150. The cannula 180 also has a second end 184 that is inserted through a surgical opening 186 or an introducer sheath (not shown) and into the blood vessel source (e. g., femoral artery 126).
  • Similarly, the outflow conduit 152 has a first end 162 and second end 164 wherein the second end is connected to a second peripheral blood vessel (e. g., left axillary artery 124) by way of a cannula 180. Like the inflow cannula, the outflow cannula 180 has a first end 182 sealably connected to the second end 164 of the outflow conduit 152. The outflow cannula 180 also has a second end 184 that is inserted through surgical opening 190 or an introducer sheath (not shown) and into the second blood vessel (e. g., left axillary artery 124). By use of a percutaneous application, the present invention may be applied temporarily without the need to implant any aspect thereof or to make anastomosis connections to the blood vessels.
  • It is contemplated that a means for minimizing the loss of thermal energy in the patient's blood be provided where the present inventive system is applied extracorporeally. Such means for minimizing the loss of thermal energy may comprise, for example, a heated bath through which the inflow and outflow conduits pass or, alternatively, thermal elements secured to the exterior of the inflow and outflow conduits. Referring to FIG. 9, one embodiment comprises an insulating wrap 402 surrounding the outflow conduit 152 having one or more thermal elements passing therethrough. The elements may be powered, for example, by a battery (not shown). One advantage of thermal elements is that the patient may be ambulatory, if desired. Other means that are known by persons of ordinary skill in the art for ensuring that the temperature of the patient's blood remains at acceptable levels while travelling extracorporeally are also contemplated.
  • An alternative variation of the third embodiment may be used where it is desired to treat a patient periodically, but for short periods of time each occasion and without the use of special connectors. With this variation, it is contemplated that the second ends of the inflow and outflow conduits be more permanently connected to the associated blood vessels via, for example, an anastomosis connection, wherein a portion of each conduit proximate to the blood vessel connection is implanted percutaneously with a removable cap enclosing the eternally-exposed first end (or an intervening end thereof) of the conduit external to the patient. When it is desired to provide a circulatory flow path to supplement blood flow, the removable cap on each exposed percutaneously-positioned conduit could be removed and the pump (or the pump with a length of inflow and/or outflow conduit attached thereto) inserted between the exposed percutaneous conduits. In this regard, a patient may experience the benefit of the present invention periodically, without having to reconnect and redisconnect the conduits from the blood vessels each time.
  • Another embodiment of the present invention includes a plurality of inflow and/or outflow conduits. For example, with reference to FIG. 6, a fourth embodiment of the present invention 210 includes a pump 232 in fluid communication with a plurality of inflow conduits 250A, 250B and a plurality of outflow conduits 252A, 252B. Each pair of conduits converges at a generally Y-shaped convergence 296 that converges the flow at the inflow end and diverges the flow at the outflow end. Each conduit may be connected to a separate peripheral blood vessel, although it is possible to have two connections to the same blood vessel at remote locations. In one arrangement, all four conduits are connected to peripheral arteries. Alternatively, one or more of the conduits could be connected to veins. In the application shown in FIG. 6, inflow conduit 250A is connected to left femoral artery 226 while inflow conduit 250B is connected to left femoral vein 278. Outflow conduit 252A is connected to left axillary artery 224 while outflow conduit 252B is connected to left carotid artery 222.
  • It should be noted that the connections of any or all of the conduits to the blood vessels may be via an anastomosis connection or via a special connector, as described above. In addition, the embodiment of FIG. 6 may be applied to any combination of peripheral blood vessels that would best suit the patient's condition. For example, it may be desired to have one inflow conduit and two outflow conduits or vice versa. It should be noted that more than two conduits may be used on the inflow or outflow side, where the number of inflow conduits is not necessarily equal to the number of outflow conduits.
  • If desired, the present inventive system may further comprise a reservoir that is either contained within or in fluid communication with the inflow conduit. This reservoir is preferably made of materials that are nonthrombogenic. Referring to FIG. 9, a reservoir 420 is positioned fluidly in line with the inflow conduit 150. The reservoir 420 serves to sustain adequate blood in the system when the pump demand exceeds momentarily the volume of blood available in the peripheral blood vessel in which the inflow conduit resides until the pump output can be adjusted. The reservoir reduces the risk of excessive drainage of blood from the peripheral blood vessel, which may occur when cardiac output falls farther than the already diminished baseline level of cardiac output, or when there is systemic vasodilation, as can occur, for example, with septic shock. It is contemplated that the reservoir would be primed with an acceptable solution, such as saline, when the present system is first applied to the patient.
  • In an alternative embodiment, the present system comprises a multi-lumen catheter whereby the system may be applied by insertion at a single cannulated site while the inflow and outflow conduits still fluidly communicate with peripheral vessels. Referring to FIG. 8, a multi-lumen catheter 510 could be inserted, for example, into the left femoral artery 26 and guided superiorly through the descending aorta to one of numerous locations. The blood could discharge, for example, directly into the descending aorta proximate an arterial branch, such as the left subclavian artery or, as shown in FIG. 2 by way of example, directly into the peripheral mesenteric artery 30. Preferably, the multi-lumen catheter 510 has an inflow port 512 that may be positioned within the left femoral artery 26 when the catheter 510 is fully inserted so that blood drawn from the left femoral artery is directed through the inflow port 512 into a first lumen 514 in the catheter. This blood is then pumped through a second lumen 516 in the catheter and out through an outflow port 520 at the distal end of the catheter 510. The outflow port 520 may be situated within, for example, the mesenteric artery 30 such that blood flow results from the left femoral artery 26 to the mesenteric artery 30. Preferably, where there is a desire for the patient to be ambulatory, the multi-lumen catheter 510 should preferably be made of material sufficiently flexible and resilient to permit the patient to be comfortably move about while the catheter is indwelling in the patient's blood vessels without causing any vascular trauma.
  • As explained above for several embodiments, one of the advantages of the present heart assist system is that it permits the patient to be ambulatory. If desired, the system may be designed portably so that it may be carried directly on the patient. Referring to FIG. 9, this may be accomplished through the use of a portable case 610 with a belt strap 612 to house the pump, power supply and/or the controller, along with certain portions of the inflow and/or outflow conduits, if necessary. It may also be accomplished with a shoulder strap or other techniques, such as a backpack or a fanny pack, that permit effective portability. As shown in FIG. 9, blood is drawn through the inflow conduit 150 into a pump contained within the portable case 610, where it is discharged into the outflow conduit 152 back into the patient.
  • An important advantage of the present invention is its potential to enhance mixing of systemic arterial blood, particularly in the aorta. Such enhanced mixing ensures the delivery of blood with higher oxygen-carrying capacity to organs supplied by arterial side branches off of the aorta. A method of enhancing mixing utilizing the present invention preferably includes taking steps to assess certain parameters of the patient and then to determine the minimum output of the pump that, when combined with the heart output, ensures turbulent flow in the aorta, thereby enhancing blood mixing.
  • Blood flow in the aortic arch during normal cardiac output may be characterized as turbulent in the end systolic phase. It is known that turbulence in a flow of fluid through pipes and vessels enhances the uniform distribution of particles within the fluid. It is believed that turbulence in the descending aorta enhances the homogeneity of blood cell distribution in the aorta. It is also known that laminar flow of viscous fluids leads to a higher concentration of particulates in the central portion of pipes and vessels through which the fluid flows. It is believed that, in low flow states such as that experienced during heart failure, there is reduced or inadequate mixing of blood cells leading to a lower concentration of nutrients at the branches of the aorta to peripheral organs and tissues. As a result, the blood flowing into branch arteries off of the aorta will likely have a lower hematocrit, especially that flowing into the renal arteries, the celiac trunk, the spinal arteries, and the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. That is because these branches draw from the periphery of the aorta The net effect of this phenomenon is that the blood flowing into these branch arteries has a lower oxygen-carrying capacity, because oxygen-carrying capacity is directly proportional to both hematocrit and the fractional O2 saturation of hemoglobin. Under those circumstances, it is very possible that these organs will experience ischemia-related pathology.
  • The phenomenon of blood streaming in the aorta, and the resultant inadequate mixing of blood resulting in central lumenal concentration of blood cells, is believed to occur when the Reynolds number (NR) for the blood flow in the aorta is below 2300. To help ensure that adequate mixing of blood will occur in the aorta to prevent blood cells from concentrating in the center of the lumen, a method of applying the present invention to a patient may also include steps to adjust the output of the pump to attain turbulent flow within the descending aorta upstream of the organ branches; i.e., flow exhibiting a peak Reynolds number of at least 2300 within a complete cycle of systole and diastole. Because flow through a patient is pulsatile in nature, and not continuous, consideration must be given to how frequently the blood flow through the aorta has reached a certain desired velocity and, thus, a desired Reynolds number. The method contemplated herein, therefore, should also include the step of calculating the average Womersley number (NW), which is a function of the frequency of the patient's heart beat. It is desired that a peak Reynolds number of at least 2300 is attained when the corresponding Womersley number for the same blood flow is approximately 6 or above.
  • More specifically, the method may comprise calculating the Reynolds number for the blood flow in the descending aorta by determining the blood vessel diameter and both the velocity and viscosity of the fluid flowing through the aorta. The Reynolds number may be calculated pursuant to the following equation: N R = V · d υ
  • where: V=the velocity of the fluid; d=the diameter of the vessel; and ν=the viscosity of the fluid. The velocity of the blood flowing through the aorta is a function of the cross-sectional area of the aorta and the volume of flow therethrough, the latter of which is contributed both by the patient's own cardiac output and by the output of the pump of the present invention. Velocity may be calculated by the following equation: V = Q π r 2
  • where Q=the volume of blood flowing through the blood vessel per unit time, e. g., the aorta, and r=radius of the aorta. If the relationship between the pump output and the velocity is already known or independently determinable, the volume of blood flow Q may consist only of the patient's cardiac output, with the knowledge that that output will be supplemented by the subcardiac pump that is part of the present invention. If desired, however, the present system can be implemented and applied to the patient first, before calculating Q, which would consist of the combination of cardiac output and the pump output.
  • The Womersley number may be calculated as follows: N W = r 2 πω / υ
  • where r is the radius of the vessel being assessed, ω is the frequency of the patient's heartbeat, and ν=the viscosity of the fluid. For a peak Reynolds number of at least 2300, a Womersley number of at least 6 is preferred, although a value as low as 5 would be acceptable.
  • By determining (i) the viscosity of the patient's blood, which is normally about 3.0 mm2/sec (kinematic viscosity), (ii) the cardiac output of the patient, which of course varies depending upon the level of CHF, and (iii) the diameter of the patient's descending aorta, which varies from patient to patient but is about 21 mm for an average adult, one can determine the flow rate Q that would result in a velocity through the aorta necessary to attain a Reynolds number of at least 2300 at its peak during the patient's heart cycle. Based upon that determination of Q, one may adjust the output of the pump of the present invention to attain the desired turbulent flow characteristic through the aorta, enhancing mixing of the blood therethrough.
  • One may use ultrasound (e. g., echocardiography or abdominal ultrasound) to measure the diameter of the aorta, which is relatively uniform in diameter from its root to the abdominal portion of the descending aorta. Furthermore, one may measure cardiac output using a thermodilution catheter or other techniques known to those of skill in the art. Finally, one may measure viscosity of the patient's blood by using known methods; for example, using a capillary viscosimeter. It is expected that in many cases, the application of this embodiment of the present method will provide a basis to more finely tune the system to more optimally operate the system to the patient's benefit. Other methods contemplated by the present invention may include steps to assess other patient parameters that enable a person of ordinary skill in the art to optimize the present system to ensure adequate mixing within the vascular system of the patient.
  • While the above description has explained the inventive features of the invention as applied to various embodiments, it will be understood that the variations in the form and details of the apparatus or method may be made by those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. The scope of the invention is indicated by the appended claims herein, however, not by the foregoing description.

Claims (4)

  1. 1. A method for increasing perfusion in a renal artery, the method comprising:
    providing fluid communication between a pump and an inflow conduit and between the pump and an outflow conduit;
    fluidly coupling said inflow conduit with a first location of the vasculature using a minimally invasive surgical procedure;
    advancing a distal end of the outflow conduit to a location proximate a renal artery; and
    operating said pump to direct blood from the first location to the renal artery at volumetric rates that are on average subcardiac to increase perfusion through the renal artery.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein fluidly coupling the inflow conduit comprises fluidly coupling the inflow conduit to a first femoral artery.
  3. 3. The method of claim 1, further comprising connecting at least one of said inflow and said outflow conduits to said pump.
  4. 4. The method of claim 1, further comprising providing a multilumen catheter that at least partially defining said inflow conduit and said outflow conduit.
US11418393 1997-10-09 2006-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same Abandoned US20060281962A1 (en)

Priority Applications (12)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US6143497 true 1997-10-09 1997-10-09
US09166005 US6200260B1 (en) 1997-10-09 1998-10-02 Implantable heart assist system
US09289231 US6428464B1 (en) 1997-10-09 1999-04-09 Implantable heart assist system
US09470841 US6387037B1 (en) 1997-10-09 1999-12-23 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US09552979 US6390969B1 (en) 1997-10-09 2000-04-21 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US10078260 US6610004B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2002-02-15 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US10171023 US6685621B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2002-06-11 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US10289467 US6889082B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2002-11-06 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US10408926 US7125376B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2003-04-07 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US10878592 US7331921B2 (en) 2002-02-15 2004-06-28 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US10878591 US7513863B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2004-06-28 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US11418393 US20060281962A1 (en) 1997-10-09 2006-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11418393 US20060281962A1 (en) 1997-10-09 2006-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10878591 Continuation US7513863B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2004-06-28 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20060281962A1 true true US20060281962A1 (en) 2006-12-14

Family

ID=32312098

Family Applications (11)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10289467 Expired - Fee Related US6889082B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2002-11-06 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US10729026 Active US7144365B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2003-12-05 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US10878591 Expired - Fee Related US7513863B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2004-06-28 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US11121352 Active 2020-02-08 US7458929B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2005-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US11417905 Active 2019-06-03 US7614997B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2006-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US11418393 Abandoned US20060281962A1 (en) 1997-10-09 2006-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US11417889 Expired - Fee Related US7591778B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2006-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US11417677 Expired - Fee Related US7588531B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2006-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US12565651 Active 2019-01-30 US7998054B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2009-09-23 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US12616087 Active 2018-12-14 US7993260B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2009-11-10 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US13175735 Active 2020-05-10 US8900115B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2011-07-01 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same

Family Applications Before (5)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10289467 Expired - Fee Related US6889082B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2002-11-06 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US10729026 Active US7144365B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2003-12-05 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US10878591 Expired - Fee Related US7513863B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2004-06-28 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US11121352 Active 2020-02-08 US7458929B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2005-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US11417905 Active 2019-06-03 US7614997B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2006-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same

Family Applications After (5)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11417889 Expired - Fee Related US7591778B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2006-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US11417677 Expired - Fee Related US7588531B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2006-05-03 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US12565651 Active 2019-01-30 US7998054B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2009-09-23 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US12616087 Active 2018-12-14 US7993260B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2009-11-10 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US13175735 Active 2020-05-10 US8900115B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2011-07-01 Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (11) US6889082B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1562656B1 (en)
DE (2) DE60310258T2 (en)
ES (1) ES2276130T3 (en)
WO (1) WO2004043519A8 (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050113631A1 (en) * 2003-11-12 2005-05-26 Bolling Steven F. Cannulae having a redirecting tip
US20080294252A1 (en) * 2007-05-23 2008-11-27 Helge Myklebust Cardiopulmonary bypass devices and methods
US7513863B2 (en) * 1997-10-09 2009-04-07 Orqis Medical Corporation Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same

Families Citing this family (139)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6610004B2 (en) * 1997-10-09 2003-08-26 Orqis Medical Corporation Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US7780628B1 (en) 1999-01-11 2010-08-24 Angiodynamics, Inc. Apparatus and methods for treating congestive heart disease
US6749598B1 (en) * 1999-01-11 2004-06-15 Flowmedica, Inc. Apparatus and methods for treating congestive heart disease
US7022100B1 (en) 1999-09-03 2006-04-04 A-Med Systems, Inc. Guidable intravascular blood pump and related methods
US6488662B2 (en) 2000-12-19 2002-12-03 Laksen Sirimanne Percutaneous catheter assembly
US6761700B2 (en) 2001-02-09 2004-07-13 Orqis Medical Corporation Extra-corporeal vascular conduit
US20020188167A1 (en) * 2001-06-06 2002-12-12 Anthony Viole Multilumen catheter for minimizing limb ischemia
US7048680B2 (en) * 2001-06-06 2006-05-23 Orqis Medical Corporation Multilumen catheter for minimizing limb ischemia
US7630766B2 (en) * 2002-07-03 2009-12-08 Uscom Limited Exercise responsive pacemaker tuning method using Doppler blood flow measurements to adjust pacing for optimized flow
WO2004004573A1 (en) * 2002-07-03 2004-01-15 Uscom Pty Ltd Prosthetic heart function evaluation method and apparatus
WO2004030718A3 (en) * 2002-09-20 2004-08-19 Ricardo Aboytes Method and apparatus for intra aortic substance delivery to a branch vessel
JP2006526464A (en) * 2003-06-05 2006-11-24 フローメディカ,インコーポレイテッド System and method for bilateral intervention or diagnostic in branched body lumens
JP2006508776A (en) * 2002-09-20 2006-03-16 フローメディカ,インコーポレイテッド Method and apparatus for selective material delivery via renal catheter
US7063679B2 (en) * 2002-09-20 2006-06-20 Flowmedica, Inc. Intra-aortic renal delivery catheter
US7993325B2 (en) 2002-09-20 2011-08-09 Angio Dynamics, Inc. Renal infusion systems and methods
WO2004034767A3 (en) * 2002-09-20 2005-12-29 Flowmedica Inc Catheter system for renal therapy
EP1592343A4 (en) * 2003-01-22 2008-09-17 Uscom Ltd Method and system for the determination of blood characteristics
US8721515B2 (en) * 2003-01-31 2014-05-13 L-Vad Technology, Inc. Rigid body aortic blood pump implant
US8540618B2 (en) * 2003-01-31 2013-09-24 L-Vad Technology, Inc. Stable aortic blood pump implant
WO2004073796A3 (en) * 2003-02-19 2004-11-25 Tal Yair Device and method for regulating blood flow
US20060167437A1 (en) * 2003-06-17 2006-07-27 Flowmedica, Inc. Method and apparatus for intra aortic substance delivery to a branch vessel
EP1659970A4 (en) * 2003-08-05 2008-05-21 Flowmedica Inc Sytem and method for prevention of radiocontrast induced nephropathy
US20050085683A1 (en) * 2003-10-15 2005-04-21 Bolling Steven F. Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US7273446B2 (en) 2003-10-31 2007-09-25 Spence Paul A Methods, devices and systems for counterpulsation of blood flow to and from the circulatory system
EP1696806B1 (en) 2003-11-21 2012-08-29 Silk Road Medical, Inc. Apparatus for treating a carotid artery
US20050131385A1 (en) * 2003-12-12 2005-06-16 Bolling Steven F. Cannulae for selectively enhancing blood flow
US20050197624A1 (en) * 2004-03-04 2005-09-08 Flowmedica, Inc. Sheath for use in peripheral interventions
JP2007537298A (en) * 2004-05-14 2007-12-20 フロウメディカ, インコーポレイテッド Bilateral local renal delivery for the treatment and bnp therapy of congestive heart failure
US7591777B2 (en) 2004-05-25 2009-09-22 Heartware Inc. Sensorless flow estimation for implanted ventricle assist device
US20050277870A1 (en) * 2004-06-10 2005-12-15 Robert Pecor Cannula having reduced flow resistance
US7445592B2 (en) * 2004-06-10 2008-11-04 Orqis Medical Corporation Cannulae having reduced flow resistance
US7393181B2 (en) 2004-09-17 2008-07-01 The Penn State Research Foundation Expandable impeller pump
US20060069323A1 (en) * 2004-09-24 2006-03-30 Flowmedica, Inc. Systems and methods for bi-lateral guidewire cannulation of branched body lumens
US7615028B2 (en) 2004-12-03 2009-11-10 Chf Solutions Inc. Extracorporeal blood treatment and system having reversible blood pumps
US20060224110A1 (en) * 2005-03-17 2006-10-05 Scott Michael J Methods for minimally invasive vascular access
US7972122B2 (en) * 2005-04-29 2011-07-05 Heartware, Inc. Multiple rotor, wide blade, axial flow pump
US8419609B2 (en) 2005-10-05 2013-04-16 Heartware Inc. Impeller for a rotary ventricular assist device
JP2009511199A (en) * 2005-10-11 2009-03-19 フロウメディカ, インコーポレイテッド Vascular sheath variable lumen configuration
US20070213813A1 (en) * 2005-12-22 2007-09-13 Symetis Sa Stent-valves for valve replacement and associated methods and systems for surgery
RU2009100654A (en) * 2006-06-09 2010-07-20 Те Риджентс Оф Те Юниверсити Оф Калифорния (Us) Biomimetic scaffolds with attached biomolecules
US20070269481A1 (en) * 2006-01-27 2007-11-22 The Regents Of The University Of California Biomimetic Scaffolds
US20080220042A1 (en) * 2006-01-27 2008-09-11 The Regents Of The University Of California Biomolecule-linked biomimetic scaffolds
EP3115070A1 (en) 2006-03-23 2017-01-11 The Penn State Research Foundation Heart assist device with expandable impeller pump
CA2898879A1 (en) 2013-03-08 2014-09-12 Limflow Gmbh Methods and systems for providing or maintaining fluid flow through body passages
US20130190676A1 (en) 2006-04-20 2013-07-25 Limflow Gmbh Devices and methods for fluid flow through body passages
EP2026856B1 (en) 2006-05-31 2015-08-26 VADovations, Inc. Heart assistance device
US7771401B2 (en) * 2006-06-08 2010-08-10 Angiodynamics, Inc. Selective renal cannulation and infusion systems and methods
US8075471B2 (en) * 2006-07-12 2011-12-13 Allegheny-Singer Research Institute Apical torsion device for cardiac assist
US20080058925A1 (en) * 2006-08-02 2008-03-06 Gordon Cohen Bifurcated flow device for cardio-pulmonary assist or support and associated methods
US7905823B2 (en) * 2006-08-30 2011-03-15 Circulite, Inc. Devices, methods and systems for establishing supplemental blood flow in the circulatory system
US9028392B2 (en) * 2006-12-01 2015-05-12 NuCardia, Inc. Medical device
EP2131888B1 (en) 2007-02-26 2017-04-05 HeartWare, Inc. Intravascular ventricular assist device
US20080221551A1 (en) * 2007-03-09 2008-09-11 Flowmedica, Inc. Acute kidney injury treatment systems and methods
US7828710B2 (en) * 2007-06-05 2010-11-09 Medical Value Partners, Llc Apparatus comprising a drive cable for a medical device
US8858490B2 (en) 2007-07-18 2014-10-14 Silk Road Medical, Inc. Systems and methods for treating a carotid artery
EP2173425B1 (en) * 2007-07-18 2012-11-21 Silk Road Medical, Inc. Systems for establishing retrograde carotid arterial blood flow
US8079948B2 (en) 2007-08-29 2011-12-20 NuCardia, Inc. Article comprising an impeller
US8251941B2 (en) * 2007-08-31 2012-08-28 The Regents Of The University Of Michigan Selective cytopheresis devices and related methods thereof
US8376979B2 (en) * 2007-09-25 2013-02-19 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Method and apparatus of a cardiac fluid flow path
US20090105799A1 (en) * 2007-10-23 2009-04-23 Flowmedica, Inc. Renal assessment systems and methods
US8343029B2 (en) * 2007-10-24 2013-01-01 Circulite, Inc. Transseptal cannula, tip, delivery system, and method
EP2231223A4 (en) * 2007-12-27 2016-11-23 Heartware Inc Vad connector plug
JP2011510796A (en) * 2008-02-05 2011-04-07 シルク・ロード・メディカル・インコーポレイテッドSilk Road Medical, Inc. Interventional catheter system and method
DE102008038243B4 (en) * 2008-04-19 2013-05-08 Lutz Habbel LVAD-pump assembly, and method of operating such a
US8540616B2 (en) 2008-05-05 2013-09-24 Coherex Medical, Inc. Ventricular assist device and related methods
US8235885B2 (en) 2008-05-05 2012-08-07 Coherex Medical, Inc. Ventricular assist device and related methods
WO2010042546A9 (en) 2008-10-06 2010-06-03 Indiana University Research And Technology Corporation Methods and apparatus for active or passive assistance in the circulatory system
US9566146B2 (en) 2008-12-19 2017-02-14 St. Jude Medical, Inc. Cardiovascular valve and valve housing apparatuses and systems
US20100160939A1 (en) * 2008-12-19 2010-06-24 St. Jude Medical, Inc. Systems, apparatuses, and methods for cardiovascular cutting devices and valves
US8905961B2 (en) * 2008-12-19 2014-12-09 St. Jude Medical, Inc. Systems, apparatuses, and methods for cardiovascular conduits and connectors
US8728012B2 (en) 2008-12-19 2014-05-20 St. Jude Medical, Inc. Apparatus and method for measuring blood vessels
EP2379129B1 (en) * 2008-12-23 2017-09-13 Silk Road Medical, Inc. Methods and systems for treatment of acute ischemic stroke
WO2010083167A3 (en) * 2009-01-13 2010-09-23 Silk Road Medical, Inc. Methods and systems for performing neurointerventional procedures
US8562507B2 (en) 2009-02-27 2013-10-22 Thoratec Corporation Prevention of aortic valve fusion
US20100249491A1 (en) * 2009-03-27 2010-09-30 Circulite, Inc. Two-piece transseptal cannula, delivery system, and method of delivery
US8460168B2 (en) * 2009-03-27 2013-06-11 Circulite, Inc. Transseptal cannula device, coaxial balloon delivery device, and methods of using the same
WO2010141752A1 (en) * 2009-06-03 2010-12-09 Silk Road Medical, Inc. System and methods for controlling retrograde carotid arterial blood flow
CA2769631A1 (en) 2009-07-01 2011-01-06 The Penn State Research Foundation Blood pump with expandable cannula
WO2011031364A1 (en) 2009-09-14 2011-03-17 Circulite, Inc Endovascular anastomotic connector device, delivery system, and methods of delivery and use
US8827986B2 (en) * 2009-10-19 2014-09-09 Pharmaco-Kinesis Corporation Remotely activated piezoelectric pump for delivery of biological agents to the intervertebral disc and spine
US20110118537A1 (en) * 2009-11-04 2011-05-19 Richard Wampler Methods and devices for treating heart failure
US20110112353A1 (en) * 2009-11-09 2011-05-12 Circulite, Inc. Bifurcated outflow cannulae
WO2016154541A1 (en) 2015-03-26 2016-09-29 Surmodics, Inc. Controlled release matrix barrier structure for subcutaneous medical devices
JP2013519497A (en) 2010-02-17 2013-05-30 ノビタ セラピューティクス エルエルシー System and method for increasing the overall diameter of the vein
US9555174B2 (en) 2010-02-17 2017-01-31 Flow Forward Medical, Inc. Blood pump systems and methods
US9662431B2 (en) 2010-02-17 2017-05-30 Flow Forward Medical, Inc. Blood pump systems and methods
EP2388027A1 (en) * 2010-05-20 2011-11-23 Berlin Heart GmbH Pump system with normal and special operation phase
EP2575922A4 (en) * 2010-06-07 2017-09-20 Tc1 Llc Bi-ventricular percutaneous cable
US9623228B2 (en) 2010-08-12 2017-04-18 Silk Road Medical, Inc. Systems and methods for treating a carotid artery
KR20130096730A (en) 2010-09-07 2013-08-30 폴 에이. 스펜스 Cannula systems and methods
JP5818897B2 (en) 2010-09-24 2015-11-18 ソーラテック コーポレイション The occurrence of anthropogenic beating
US9265870B2 (en) 2010-10-13 2016-02-23 Thoratec Corporation Pumping blood
US9775936B2 (en) 2010-10-18 2017-10-03 WorldHeart Corp. Blood pump with separate mixed-flow and axial-flow impeller stages, components therefor and related methods
US8562509B2 (en) 2010-12-30 2013-10-22 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Ventricular assist device
US8485961B2 (en) 2011-01-05 2013-07-16 Thoratec Corporation Impeller housing for percutaneous heart pump
US8597170B2 (en) 2011-01-05 2013-12-03 Thoratec Corporation Catheter pump
WO2012094641A3 (en) 2011-01-06 2012-10-18 The Penn State Research Foundation Percutaneous heart pump
US8591393B2 (en) 2011-01-06 2013-11-26 Thoratec Corporation Catheter pump
US8951222B2 (en) * 2011-08-10 2015-02-10 Western Vascular Institute Arterial shunt
CN105102011A (en) * 2012-08-15 2015-11-25 前进医药公司 Blood pump systems and methods
RU2664156C2 (en) 2011-08-17 2018-08-15 Флоу Форвард Медикал, Инк., Сша System and method for increase of outer diameter of viens and arteries
US8864643B2 (en) 2011-10-13 2014-10-21 Thoratec Corporation Pump and method for mixed flow blood pumping
CN104168932B (en) 2011-11-28 2016-03-23 Mi-Vad公司 Ventricular assist device and method
US9168352B2 (en) 2011-12-19 2015-10-27 Cardiacassist, Inc. Dual lumen cannula
JP2015505515A (en) 2012-02-07 2015-02-23 フリダヤ インコーポレーテッドHridaya, Inc. Circulation auxiliary device
EP3159023B1 (en) 2012-03-05 2017-11-29 Tc1 Llc Method of calibrating implantable medical pumps
US9872947B2 (en) 2012-05-14 2018-01-23 Tc1 Llc Sheath system for catheter pump
DE102013008159A1 (en) 2012-05-14 2013-11-14 Thoratec Corporation Coat system for catheter pump
GB201308563D0 (en) 2012-05-14 2013-06-19 Thoratec Corp Impeller for catheter pump
GB2504175B (en) 2012-05-14 2015-01-28 Thoratec Corp Distal Bearing Support
US8721517B2 (en) 2012-05-14 2014-05-13 Thoratec Corporation Impeller for catheter pump
US9446179B2 (en) 2012-05-14 2016-09-20 Thoratec Corporation Distal bearing support
US9327067B2 (en) 2012-05-14 2016-05-03 Thoratec Corporation Impeller for catheter pump
US9358329B2 (en) 2012-07-03 2016-06-07 Thoratec Corporation Catheter pump
US9421311B2 (en) 2012-07-03 2016-08-23 Thoratec Corporation Motor assembly for catheter pump
GB201311685D0 (en) 2012-07-03 2013-08-14 Thoratec Corp Motor assembly for catheter pump
WO2014062827A1 (en) 2012-10-16 2014-04-24 Spence Paul A Devices, systems, and methods for facilitating flow from the heart to a blood pump
GB201219958D0 (en) * 2012-11-06 2012-12-19 Queen Mary Innovation Ltd Mechanical circulatory support
EP2968718A4 (en) 2013-03-13 2016-11-09 Thoratec Corp Fluid handling system
US9308302B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-04-12 Thoratec Corporation Catheter pump assembly including a stator
WO2014143593A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 Thoratec Corporation Catheter pump assembly including a stator
US20150005570A1 (en) 2013-06-26 2015-01-01 Circulite, Inc. System and method of facilitating connection between cannulae and a blood pump
WO2016178864A1 (en) * 2015-05-07 2016-11-10 Circulite, Inc. Inflow cannula tunneling tool allowing quick exchange with dilating plug
EP3076884A4 (en) 2013-12-04 2017-12-06 Heartware, Inc. Apparatus and methods for cutting an atrial wall
US9265512B2 (en) 2013-12-23 2016-02-23 Silk Road Medical, Inc. Transcarotid neurovascular catheter
EP3131599A4 (en) 2014-04-15 2017-12-20 Thoratec Corporation Catheter pump with access ports
US10029037B2 (en) 2014-04-15 2018-07-24 Tc1 Llc Sensors for catheter pumps
WO2015187616A1 (en) * 2014-06-02 2015-12-10 The Johns Hopkins University Device for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cardio-pulmonary resuscitation training and vascular cut down trainer
US9545263B2 (en) 2014-06-19 2017-01-17 Limflow Gmbh Devices and methods for treating lower extremity vasculature
US20160022896A1 (en) * 2014-07-22 2016-01-28 Heartware, Inc. Cardiac support system and methods
US9241699B1 (en) 2014-09-04 2016-01-26 Silk Road Medical, Inc. Methods and devices for transcarotid access
US9675738B2 (en) 2015-01-22 2017-06-13 Tc1 Llc Attachment mechanisms for motor of catheter pump
WO2016118781A3 (en) 2015-01-22 2016-09-22 Thoratec Corporation Motor assembly with heat exchanger for catheter pump
EP3247420A4 (en) 2015-01-22 2018-09-12 Tc1 Llc Reduced rotational mass motor assembly for catheter pump
US9907890B2 (en) 2015-04-16 2018-03-06 Tc1 Llc Catheter pump with positioning brace
US9717830B2 (en) 2015-10-28 2017-08-01 Circulite, Inc. Inflow cannula and blood flow assist system
US20180021495A1 (en) 2016-07-21 2018-01-25 Thoratec Corporation Gas-filled chamber for catheter pump motor assembly
US20180021494A1 (en) 2016-07-21 2018-01-25 Thoratec Corporation Fluid seals for catheter pump motor assembly
WO2018089970A1 (en) 2016-11-14 2018-05-17 Tc1 Llc Sheath assembly for catheter pump

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6068588A (en) * 1999-01-07 2000-05-30 International Business Machines Corporation Counterbalanced pump
US6136025A (en) * 1999-07-27 2000-10-24 Barbut; Denise R. Endoscopic arterial pumps for treatment of cardiac insufficiency and venous pumps for right-sided cardiac support
US7331921B2 (en) * 2002-02-15 2008-02-19 Orqis Medical Corporation Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same

Family Cites Families (410)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1902418A (en) 1931-11-02 1933-03-21 Jensen Salsbery Lab Inc Surgical instrument
US2356659A (en) 1941-11-24 1944-08-22 Aguiar Clovis De Paiva Nozzle for duodenal pump tubes
US2649052A (en) 1947-04-17 1953-08-18 Marine Products Company Rotary pump or motor
US2684035A (en) 1947-10-02 1954-07-20 Philip G Kemp Fluid pump
US2664050A (en) 1949-03-02 1953-12-29 Gen Motors Corp Domestic appliance
US2789511A (en) 1953-05-25 1957-04-23 Jabsco Pump Co Flexible vane pump impeller
US2935068A (en) * 1955-08-04 1960-05-03 Donaldson John Shearman Surgical procedure and apparatus for use in carrying out the same
US2876769A (en) * 1955-10-11 1959-03-10 Cordova Jose Juan Apparatus for oxygenating, centrifuging and changing the temperature of blood
US3017885A (en) * 1959-03-30 1962-01-23 Robicsek Francis Blood flow meter
US3080824A (en) 1961-02-27 1963-03-12 James A Boyd Fluid moving device
US3195540A (en) 1963-03-29 1965-07-20 Louis C Waller Power supply for body implanted instruments
US3410263A (en) * 1965-05-13 1968-11-12 Westinghouse Electric Corp Blood-pumping apparatus provided with heart synchronizing means
US3510229A (en) 1968-07-23 1970-05-05 Maytag Co One-way pump
US3592018A (en) * 1969-08-11 1971-07-13 Gen Motors Corp Pilot operated automatic expansion valve
US3860968A (en) 1969-11-20 1975-01-21 Max Shapiro Compact, implantable apparatus for pumping blood to sustain blood circulation in a living body
US3592184A (en) * 1969-12-16 1971-07-13 David H Watkins Heart assist method and catheter
US3692018A (en) * 1970-02-11 1972-09-19 Robert H Goetz Cardiac assistance device
US3835864A (en) * 1970-09-21 1974-09-17 Rasor Ass Inc Intra-cardiac stimulator
FR2144806B1 (en) 1971-07-06 1976-05-14 Inst Med
US3995617A (en) 1972-05-31 1976-12-07 Watkins David H Heart assist method and catheter
FR2201908B1 (en) * 1972-10-10 1975-06-13 Thomson Medical Telco
US4034742A (en) * 1973-01-31 1977-07-12 Thoma Dipl Ing Dr Techn Herwig Apparatus for mechanically assisting circulation of the blood in the human body
US3885251A (en) * 1973-03-05 1975-05-27 Philips Corp Artificial heart pump or assist
US3812812A (en) 1973-06-25 1974-05-28 M Hurwitz Trolling propeller with self adjusting hydrodynamic spoilers
US3942535A (en) 1973-09-27 1976-03-09 G. D. Searle & Co. Rechargeable tissue stimulating system
DE2355966A1 (en) 1973-11-09 1975-05-22 Medac Klinische Spezialpraep blood pumps pump arrangement, in particular for
DE2355959B2 (en) 1973-11-09 1976-07-29 Artificial pocket flap for replacement of the aortic or pulmonary valve in the heart
US3911898A (en) * 1974-04-05 1975-10-14 Jr Frank A Leachman Heart assist method and device
FR2267800B1 (en) 1974-04-17 1976-12-17 Anvar
US4016864A (en) * 1974-08-01 1977-04-12 Airco, Inc. Blood gas catheter
US3939820A (en) * 1974-10-29 1976-02-24 Datascope Corporation Single-chamber, multi-section balloon for cardiac assistance
US3938530A (en) * 1974-11-15 1976-02-17 Santomieri Louis Catheter
US3964479A (en) * 1974-11-20 1976-06-22 Cobe Laboratories, Inc. Extracorporeal blood circulation system and drip chamber with adjustable blood level
US4458366C1 (en) 1975-05-09 2001-02-20 David C Macgregor Artificial implantable blood pump
US4000739A (en) * 1975-07-09 1977-01-04 Cordis Corporation Hemostasis cannula
US4033331A (en) 1975-07-17 1977-07-05 Guss Stephen B Cardiac catheter and method of using same
US4051840A (en) * 1976-01-05 1977-10-04 Sinai Hospital Of Detroit Dynamic aortic patch
US4047849A (en) * 1976-01-09 1977-09-13 Thermo Electron Corporation Pneumatic pulsator pumping system with pulsator fluid venting valve
US4135496A (en) * 1976-01-30 1979-01-23 Institut Kardiologii Imeni A.L. Myasnikova Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk Sssr Extracorporeal circulation apparatus
US4134402B1 (en) * 1976-02-11 1989-07-25
US4004299A (en) * 1976-02-12 1977-01-25 Runge Thomas M Cardiac replacement and assist devices
US4080958A (en) * 1976-02-27 1978-03-28 Datascope Corporation Apparatus for aiding and improving the blood flow in patients
LU77252A1 (en) 1976-05-06 1977-08-22
US4077394A (en) * 1976-08-25 1978-03-07 Mccurdy Martin D Integral pressure sensor probe for a cardiac assistance device
US4135253A (en) 1976-11-30 1979-01-23 Medtronic, Inc. Centrifugal blood pump for cardiac assist
US4143616A (en) * 1977-03-18 1979-03-13 Robertshaw Controls Company Process machinery control system and individual safety control systems therefor or the like
DE2742681C3 (en) 1977-09-22 1980-07-31 Dr. Eduard Fresenius, Chemisch- Pharmazeutische Industrie Kg, 6380 Bad Homburg
US4154227A (en) * 1977-10-11 1979-05-15 Krause Horst E Method and apparatus for pumping blood within a vessel
US4167046A (en) * 1977-12-12 1979-09-11 Andros, Inc. Blood pumping device
US4375941A (en) * 1978-03-20 1983-03-08 Child Frank W Method and apparatus for pumping blood
DE2815756C3 (en) 1978-04-12 1982-01-28 Helmut Dr.-Ing. 5160 Dueren De Reul
US4240409A (en) * 1979-02-21 1980-12-23 Thermo Electron Corporation Apparatus for assisting circulation of blood
US4327799A (en) 1979-06-18 1982-05-04 Helmholtz-Institut Fur Biomedizinische Technik Process and apparatus for freezing living cells
GB2058231B (en) 1979-09-07 1982-01-20 Woodcoxon Eng International Lt Variable pitch marine propellers
DE3010841A1 (en) * 1980-03-21 1981-10-08 Ulrich Dr Med Uthmann lectern
JPH0247496Y2 (en) 1980-05-21 1990-12-13
US4302854A (en) * 1980-06-04 1981-12-01 Runge Thomas M Electrically activated ferromagnetic/diamagnetic vascular shunt for left ventricular assist
US4522195A (en) * 1981-05-25 1985-06-11 Peter Schiff Apparatus for left heart assist
US4407271A (en) * 1980-07-28 1983-10-04 Peter Schiff Apparatus for left heart assist
US4457673A (en) * 1980-11-28 1984-07-03 Novacor Medical Corporation Pump and actuator mechanism
US4384829A (en) * 1980-11-28 1983-05-24 Andros Incorporated Pump and actuator mechanism
US4688998A (en) * 1981-03-18 1987-08-25 Olsen Don B Magnetically suspended and rotated impellor pump apparatus and method
FR2502499B1 (en) * 1981-03-27 1987-01-23 Farcot Jean Christian An apparatus for blood retroperfusion, intended in particular for the treatment of arterial blood by myocardial injection in the coronary sinus
US4453537A (en) 1981-08-04 1984-06-12 Spitzer Daniel E Apparatus for powering a body implant device
US4838889A (en) * 1981-09-01 1989-06-13 University Of Utah Research Foundation Ventricular assist device and method of manufacture
US4411655A (en) 1981-11-30 1983-10-25 Schreck David M Apparatus and method for percutaneous catheterization
US4405313A (en) 1982-01-29 1983-09-20 Sisley James R Figure-eight, dual-lumen catheter and method of using
US4447236A (en) * 1982-02-05 1984-05-08 Cordis Corporation Infusion catheter system
DE3205449C2 (en) 1982-02-16 1985-10-17 Fresenius Ag, 6380 Bad Homburg, De
US4692141A (en) 1982-03-08 1987-09-08 Mahurkar Sakharam D Double lumen catheter
DE3214397C2 (en) 1982-04-20 1984-07-26 Karl Dr. 6301 Pohlheim De Aigner
US4464164A (en) * 1982-09-24 1984-08-07 Extracorporeal Medical Specialties, Inc. Flowrate control for a blood flow system
US4569332A (en) * 1983-04-13 1986-02-11 Peter Schiff Method and apparatus for treating a heart patient through the coordinating efforts of balloon pumping and dispensing catheters
DE3316101C1 (en) * 1983-05-03 1984-08-23 Forschungsgesellschaft Fuer Bi one redundant piston pump for operating or more comb-engined pneumatic blood pumps
US4546759A (en) * 1983-07-29 1985-10-15 Mladen Solar Method and apparatus for assisting human heart function
US4625712A (en) 1983-09-28 1986-12-02 Nimbus, Inc. High-capacity intravascular blood pump utilizing percutaneous access
US4704121A (en) 1983-09-28 1987-11-03 Nimbus, Inc. Anti-thrombogenic blood pump
US4543087A (en) 1983-11-14 1985-09-24 Quinton Instrument Company Double lumen catheter tip
CA1211610A (en) * 1983-12-23 1986-09-23 Melle Hugh Van Segmented spacer ring
US4685446A (en) * 1984-02-21 1987-08-11 Choy Daniel S J Method for using a ventricular assist device
US4902273A (en) * 1984-02-21 1990-02-20 Choy Daniel S J Heart assist device
US4771765A (en) * 1984-02-21 1988-09-20 Choy Daniel S J Heart assist device and method of use
US4934996A (en) * 1984-02-27 1990-06-19 Boston Scientific Corporation Pressure-controlled intermittent coronary sinus occlusion apparatus and method
US4573997A (en) * 1984-03-19 1986-03-04 Research Corporation Right ventricular assist device
US4589822A (en) 1984-07-09 1986-05-20 Mici Limited Partnership Iv Centrifugal blood pump with impeller
US4610656A (en) 1984-08-21 1986-09-09 Mehealus Partnership Fully portable semi-automatic mechanical heart-lung substitution system and method
DE3442088A1 (en) 1984-11-17 1986-05-28 Beiersdorf Ag Heart valve prosthesis
FR2577423B1 (en) * 1985-02-20 1989-05-05 Gilles Karcher and coronary circulatory assistance pump intra-aortic balloon
GB8600576D0 (en) 1985-04-22 1986-02-19 Bard Inc C R Blood retroperfusion system
US4769006A (en) 1985-05-13 1988-09-06 Kos Medical Technologies, Ltd. Hydrodynamically propelled pacing catheter
US4686982A (en) 1985-06-19 1987-08-18 John Nash Spiral wire bearing for rotating wire drive catheter
US4690134A (en) * 1985-07-01 1987-09-01 Snyders Robert V Ventricular assist device
US4813952A (en) 1985-08-01 1989-03-21 Medtronic, Inc. Cardiac assist device
US4719921A (en) * 1985-08-28 1988-01-19 Raul Chirife Cardiac pacemaker adaptive to physiological requirements
DE3541478A1 (en) 1985-11-23 1987-05-27 Beiersdorf Ag Heart valve prosthesis and process for their preparation
JPH0480704B2 (en) * 1985-12-18 1992-12-21 Nippon Sherwood Kk
GB8608805D0 (en) * 1986-04-11 1986-05-14 Du Pont Uk Thermoplastic polymer-lined pipe
US4666443A (en) * 1986-04-18 1987-05-19 Novacor Medical Corporation Biventricular circulatory assist system and method
DE3620873C2 (en) 1986-06-21 1988-09-01 Guenter Prof. Dr.Rer.Nat. 5100 Aachen De Rau
US4790825A (en) 1986-09-05 1988-12-13 Electro Catheter Corporation Closed chest cannulation method and device for atrial-major artery bypass
JPS6355943U (en) 1986-09-29 1988-04-14
US4753221A (en) 1986-10-22 1988-06-28 Intravascular Surgical Instruments, Inc. Blood pumping catheter and method of use
US4759760A (en) * 1986-10-30 1988-07-26 Snapp Jr Edward A Cardiovascular pump system
US4756302A (en) * 1986-11-20 1988-07-12 Novacor Medical Corporation Blood pumping system and method
DE3701704C1 (en) 1987-01-22 1988-08-18 Braun Melsungen Ag Heart valve prosthesis
DE3701755C1 (en) 1987-01-22 1988-08-04 Braun Melsungen Ag Heart valve prosthesis
DE3701702C1 (en) 1987-01-22 1988-07-14 Braun Melsungen Ag Heart valve prosthesis
US4883462A (en) * 1987-01-30 1989-11-28 Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc. Blood extraction assist apparatus and method
US4861330A (en) * 1987-03-12 1989-08-29 Gene Voss Cardiac assist device and method
US4822357A (en) * 1987-04-29 1989-04-18 Articor Limited Auxiliary artificial heart
US4872874A (en) * 1987-05-29 1989-10-10 Taheri Syde A Method and apparatus for transarterial aortic graft insertion and implantation
US5059167A (en) * 1987-05-29 1991-10-22 Retroperfusion Systems, Inc. Retroperfusion and retroinfusion control apparatus, system and method
US4902272A (en) * 1987-06-17 1990-02-20 Abiomed Cardiovascular, Inc. Intra-arterial cardiac support system
US4846152A (en) 1987-11-24 1989-07-11 Nimbus Medical, Inc. Single-stage axial flow blood pump
US4817586A (en) 1987-11-24 1989-04-04 Nimbus Medical, Inc. Percutaneous bloom pump with mixed-flow output
US4895557A (en) 1987-12-07 1990-01-23 Nimbus Medical, Inc. Drive mechanism for powering intravascular blood pumps
US4809676A (en) 1987-12-28 1989-03-07 Freeman Maynard L Heart assist device and method of implanting it
DE3902497A1 (en) * 1988-01-29 1989-08-03 Galram Technology Ind Ltd Heart support device or system
US4994078A (en) * 1988-02-17 1991-02-19 Jarvik Robert K Intraventricular artificial hearts and methods of their surgical implantation and use
US4944745A (en) * 1988-02-29 1990-07-31 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Perfusion balloon catheter
US4925452A (en) * 1988-03-08 1990-05-15 Uresil Corporation Multiple conduit drainage device
US4857062A (en) 1988-03-09 1989-08-15 Medical Parameters, Inc. Catheter introducer valve
US4895150A (en) * 1988-03-24 1990-01-23 Nu-Tech Industries, Inc. Implanted power source
US5020516A (en) * 1988-03-31 1991-06-04 Cardiopulmonary Corporation Circulatory assist method and apparatus
US4906229A (en) * 1988-05-03 1990-03-06 Nimbus Medical, Inc. High-frequency transvalvular axisymmetric blood pump
US4995078A (en) * 1988-06-09 1991-02-19 Monslow H Vincent Television broadcast system for selective transmission of viewer-chosen programs at viewer-requested times
FR2632686B1 (en) 1988-06-14 1993-07-16 Thomson Brandt Armements
DE3824353A1 (en) 1988-07-19 1990-01-25 Paz Arzneimittelentwicklung A process for the separation of mixtures of enantiomeric arylpropionic acids
US4908012A (en) * 1988-08-08 1990-03-13 Nimbus Medical, Inc. Chronic ventricular assist system
DE3828781A1 (en) 1988-08-25 1990-03-08 Braun Melsungen Ag Heart valve prosthesis
DE3828830A1 (en) 1988-08-25 1990-03-08 Braun Melsungen Ag Heart valve prosthesis
US5011469A (en) * 1988-08-29 1991-04-30 Shiley, Inc. Peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass and coronary reperfusion system
US4964864A (en) 1988-09-27 1990-10-23 American Biomed, Inc. Heart assist pump
JPH0653161B2 (en) * 1988-09-28 1994-07-20 東洋紡績株式会社 Circulation device
DE3834545C2 (en) * 1988-10-11 1992-08-27 Josef Dr.-Ing. Jansen
US4919647A (en) 1988-10-13 1990-04-24 Kensey Nash Corporation Aortically located blood pumping catheter and method of use
US5069662A (en) 1988-10-21 1991-12-03 Delcath Systems, Inc. Cancer treatment
US5014715A (en) 1988-11-22 1991-05-14 Chapolini Robert J Device for measuring the impedance to flow of a natural or prosthetic vessel in a living body
US4957504A (en) * 1988-12-02 1990-09-18 Chardack William M Implantable blood pump
US4969865A (en) 1989-01-09 1990-11-13 American Biomed, Inc. Helifoil pump
US5089017A (en) * 1989-01-17 1992-02-18 Young David B Drive system for artificial hearts and left-ventricular assist devices
US4944722A (en) * 1989-02-23 1990-07-31 Nimbus Medical, Inc. Percutaneous axial flow blood pump
US4968293A (en) * 1989-03-20 1990-11-06 Medtronic, Inc. Circulatory assist device
US4976270A (en) 1989-03-28 1990-12-11 Vanderbilt University Apparatus for continuously sampling plasma
US4995857A (en) * 1989-04-07 1991-02-26 Arnold John R Left ventricular assist device and method for temporary and permanent procedures
ES2016888A6 (en) * 1989-04-26 1990-12-01 Ramos Martinez Wilson artificial mechanical heart tubular-valved half-life.
JPH02286170A (en) 1989-04-27 1990-11-26 Terumo Corp Exocirculating device
US5176619A (en) * 1989-05-05 1993-01-05 Jacob Segalowitz Heart-assist balloon pump with segmented ventricular balloon
US5049134A (en) 1989-05-08 1991-09-17 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Sealless heart pump
US5041098A (en) 1989-05-19 1991-08-20 Strato Medical Corporation Vascular access system for extracorporeal treatment of blood
US4995865A (en) * 1989-06-09 1991-02-26 Worldwide Medical Plastics Inc. Multi-lumen catheters
US5169379A (en) 1989-06-14 1992-12-08 L-Vad Technology In-series ventricular assist system and method of controlling same
US4995856A (en) * 1989-06-14 1991-02-26 Pudenz-Schulte Medical Research Corporation Ventriculostomy reservoir
US5089016A (en) 1989-06-15 1992-02-18 Abiomed Cardiovascular, Inc. Blood pump
US4927407A (en) * 1989-06-19 1990-05-22 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Cardiac assist pump with steady rate supply of fluid lubricant
US4985014A (en) * 1989-07-11 1991-01-15 Orejola Wilmo C Ventricular venting loop
US5021048A (en) 1989-08-04 1991-06-04 Medtronic, Inc. Blood pump drive system
DE69019886T2 (en) 1989-08-04 1995-11-16 Terumo Corp Catheters and instruments for extracorporeal circulation.
US5147186A (en) 1989-08-04 1992-09-15 Bio Medicus, Inc. Blood pump drive system
JPH03112563A (en) 1989-09-28 1991-05-14 Toyobo Co Ltd Auxiliary circulating device and its driving method
US5007927A (en) 1989-10-24 1991-04-16 Purdue Research Foundation Muscle-powered cardiac assist device
US5098256A (en) 1989-11-21 1992-03-24 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Viscous seal blood pump
US5267940A (en) 1989-11-29 1993-12-07 The Administrators Of The Tulane Educational Fund Cardiovascular flow enhancer and method of operation
US5308319A (en) * 1989-12-28 1994-05-03 Sumitmo Bakelite Company Limited Cardio assist system and insertion device therefor
US5066285A (en) 1990-01-26 1991-11-19 Cordis Corporation Catheter introducer sheath made of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene
CA2075472A1 (en) * 1990-02-09 1991-08-10 Bernard Candelon Process and device for regulating the flow of a periodical-flow cardiac prothesis
JPH0636821B2 (en) * 1990-03-08 1994-05-18 健二 山崎 Body buried form of the auxiliary artificial heart
EP0449786B1 (en) * 1990-03-20 1993-12-15 Ministero Dell' Universita' E Della Ricerca Scientifica E Tecnologica Cardiac assist device
US5092844A (en) * 1990-04-10 1992-03-03 Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research Intracatheter perfusion pump apparatus and method
US5147281A (en) * 1990-04-23 1992-09-15 Advanced Medical Systems, Inc. Biological fluid pumping means and method
US5112200A (en) 1990-05-29 1992-05-12 Nu-Tech Industries, Inc. Hydrodynamically suspended rotor axial flow blood pump
US5211546A (en) * 1990-05-29 1993-05-18 Nu-Tech Industries, Inc. Axial flow blood pump with hydrodynamically suspended rotor
DE4020120A1 (en) * 1990-06-25 1991-01-31 Klaus Prof Dr Ing Affeld Medical device for producing an alternating current to the drive volume blood pumps of implantable
US5131905A (en) * 1990-07-16 1992-07-21 Grooters Ronald K External cardiac assist device
ES2020787A6 (en) 1990-07-20 1991-09-16 Figuera Aymerich Diego Expandable intra-ventricular pump circulatory support.
CA2022019C (en) 1990-07-26 1992-12-29 Michael Black Catheter
US5087247A (en) * 1990-08-28 1992-02-11 Cardiovascular Designs, Inc. Balloon perfusion catheter
US5584804A (en) 1990-10-10 1996-12-17 Life Resuscitation Technologies, Inc. Brain resuscitation and organ preservation device and method for performing the same
US5114408A (en) * 1990-10-18 1992-05-19 Daig Corporation Universal hemostasis valve having improved sealing characteristics
US5190528A (en) 1990-10-19 1993-03-02 Boston University Percutaneous transseptal left atrial cannulation system
US5186713A (en) * 1990-11-01 1993-02-16 Baxter International Inc. Extracorporeal blood oxygenation system and method for providing hemoperfusion during transluminal balloon angioplasty procedures
US5211659A (en) * 1990-11-05 1993-05-18 Strimling Walter E Pump system suitable as a heart assist device
WO1992008500A1 (en) * 1990-11-09 1992-05-29 Mcgill University Cardiac assist method and apparatus
FR2671283B1 (en) * 1991-01-08 1995-05-12 Alain Durand Catheter intravascular multilumen, may be implanted with tunneling.
US5171212A (en) 1991-02-08 1992-12-15 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Blood pumping system with backflow warning
US6180059B1 (en) * 1995-06-05 2001-01-30 Therox, Inc. Method for the preparation and delivery of gas-enriched fluids
US5171207A (en) 1991-04-03 1992-12-15 Whalen Biomedical, Inc. Apparatus and method of use for pulsatile blood flow
FR2678171B1 (en) * 1991-06-27 1994-11-10 Nippon Zeon Co Catheter balloon has to pump into the aorta.
US5584803A (en) 1991-07-16 1996-12-17 Heartport, Inc. System for cardiac procedures
US5139878A (en) * 1991-08-12 1992-08-18 Allied-Signal Inc. Multilayer film constructions
DE4126886A1 (en) * 1991-08-14 1993-02-18 Hp Medica Gmbh Flushing Catheter
DE4129970C1 (en) * 1991-09-10 1993-03-04 Forschungsgesellschaft Fuer Biomedizinische Technik E.V., 5100 Aachen, De
JP2713515B2 (en) 1991-09-17 1998-02-16 滋 古井 Catheter device
US5443504A (en) 1991-09-30 1995-08-22 Hill; John D. Basic skeletal muscle energy conversion system
US5344385A (en) 1991-09-30 1994-09-06 Thoratec Laboratories Corporation Step-down skeletal muscle energy conversion system
US5449342A (en) 1991-09-30 1995-09-12 Nippon Zeon Co., Ltd. Apparatus for assisting blood circulation
US5256146A (en) 1991-10-11 1993-10-26 W. D. Ensminger Vascular catheterization system with catheter anchoring feature
US5201679A (en) 1991-12-13 1993-04-13 Attwood Corporation Marine propeller with breakaway hub
US5171218A (en) 1992-01-02 1992-12-15 Trustees Of Boston University Bidirectional femoral arterial cannula
US5279551A (en) * 1992-01-29 1994-01-18 Vascular Products, Inc. Trocar catheter
US5273518A (en) 1992-01-31 1993-12-28 Medtronic, Inc. Cardiac assist apparatus
US5437601A (en) * 1992-03-03 1995-08-01 Runge; Thomas M. Blood conduit and pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass pump system
EP0590158A4 (en) * 1992-04-17 1994-07-20 Yoshiharu Kiyota Intracorporeal heart assisting device
WO1994001163A1 (en) * 1992-07-03 1994-01-20 Lars Wiklund Equipment for treating circulatory arrest
US5300112A (en) 1992-07-14 1994-04-05 Aai Corporation Articulated heart pump
US5458459A (en) 1992-07-30 1995-10-17 Haemonetics Corporation Centrifugal blood pump with impeller blades forming a spin inducer
EP0653022B1 (en) 1992-07-30 2001-12-05 Cobe Cardiovascular, Inc. Centrifugal blood pump
US5374239A (en) 1992-08-04 1994-12-20 Metatech Corporation Arterial shunt with blood flow indicator
US5290227A (en) * 1992-08-06 1994-03-01 Pasque Michael K Method of implanting blood pump in ascending aorta or main pulmonary artery
US5676651A (en) * 1992-08-06 1997-10-14 Electric Boat Corporation Surgically implantable pump arrangement and method for pumping body fluids
US5312341A (en) 1992-08-14 1994-05-17 Wayne State University Retaining apparatus and procedure for transseptal catheterization
US5332403A (en) * 1992-08-17 1994-07-26 Jack Kolff LVAD with t-shape and unidirectional valve
WO1994005347A1 (en) * 1992-09-02 1994-03-17 Reitan Oeyvind Catheter pump
US5344443A (en) 1992-09-17 1994-09-06 Rem Technologies, Inc. Heart pump
US5376114A (en) 1992-10-30 1994-12-27 Jarvik; Robert Cannula pumps for temporary cardiac support and methods of their application and use
US5250036A (en) 1992-11-24 1993-10-05 Mohammad Farivar Intravenous catheter placement system
US5972030A (en) * 1993-02-22 1999-10-26 Heartport, Inc. Less-invasive devices and methods for treatment of cardiac valves
US6010531A (en) * 1993-02-22 2000-01-04 Heartport, Inc. Less-invasive devices and methods for cardiac valve surgery
US5643226A (en) 1993-02-24 1997-07-01 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Low velocity aortic cannula
EP0617981B1 (en) * 1993-03-29 1998-09-23 Pacesetter AB Mechanical defibrillation
US5417705A (en) * 1993-05-14 1995-05-23 Habley Medical Technology Corp. Obturator with rotating, resettable safety shield
US5456715A (en) 1993-05-21 1995-10-10 Liotta; Domingo S. Implantable mechanical system for assisting blood circulation
US5533958A (en) * 1993-06-17 1996-07-09 Wilk; Peter J. Intrapericardial assist device and associated method
DE4321260C1 (en) * 1993-06-25 1995-03-09 Westphal Dieter Dipl Ing Dipl Blood pump as a centrifugal
US5368438A (en) * 1993-06-28 1994-11-29 Baxter International Inc. Blood pump
US5344402A (en) * 1993-06-30 1994-09-06 Cardiovascular Dynamics, Inc. Low profile perfusion catheter
US5403291A (en) * 1993-08-02 1995-04-04 Quinton Instrument Company Catheter with elongated side holes
DE69431302T2 (en) 1993-08-18 2003-05-15 Gore & Ass Rohrfoermiges intraluminal usable tissue
DE69419420D1 (en) 1993-09-10 1999-08-12 Ottawa Heart Inst Research Cor Electrohydraulic ventricular support system
US5486159A (en) * 1993-10-01 1996-01-23 Mahurkar; Sakharam D. Multiple-lumen catheter
US5413549A (en) * 1993-10-07 1995-05-09 Datascope Investment Corp. Devices and methods for efficient intra-aortic balloon pumping
US5378230A (en) * 1993-11-01 1995-01-03 Mahurkar; Sakharam D. Triple-lumen critical care catheter
US5527159A (en) 1993-11-10 1996-06-18 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Rotary blood pump
US5947892A (en) 1993-11-10 1999-09-07 Micromed Technology, Inc. Rotary blood pump
ES2077519B1 (en) * 1993-11-22 1996-07-01 Fernandez De Lomana Euge Anaya Intraaortic catheter for renal perfusion and conservation.
JPH07194694A (en) 1993-11-30 1995-08-01 Tulane Educational Fund Enhancer for cardiovascular flow
US5437541A (en) 1993-12-30 1995-08-01 Vainrub; John Blade for axial fan
US5511958A (en) * 1994-02-10 1996-04-30 Baxter International, Inc. Blood pump system
ES2213752T3 (en) 1994-04-15 2004-09-01 Allegheny-Singer Research Institute Blood pump device and method for pumping blood of a patient.
US5545191A (en) 1994-05-06 1996-08-13 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Method for optimally positioning and securing the external unit of a transcutaneous transducer of the skin of a living body
US5597377A (en) * 1994-05-06 1997-01-28 Trustees Of Boston University Coronary sinus reperfusion catheter
US5881943A (en) 1994-06-17 1999-03-16 Heartport, Inc. Surgical anastomosis apparatus and method thereof
US5505710A (en) * 1994-08-22 1996-04-09 C. R. Bard, Inc. Telescoping probe
US5503615A (en) * 1994-08-26 1996-04-02 Goldstein; Bernard Implantable cardiac ventricular assist device and controller thereof
US5613935A (en) 1994-12-16 1997-03-25 Jarvik; Robert High reliability cardiac assist system
US5743845A (en) 1995-01-12 1998-04-28 Runge; Thomas M. Biventricular pulsatile cardiac support system having a mechanically balanced stroke volume
US5904697A (en) * 1995-02-24 1999-05-18 Heartport, Inc. Devices and methods for performing a vascular anastomosis
US5588812A (en) 1995-04-19 1996-12-31 Nimbus, Inc. Implantable electric axial-flow blood pump
US5707218A (en) 1995-04-19 1998-01-13 Nimbus, Inc. Implantable electric axial-flow blood pump with blood cooled bearing
US6254359B1 (en) 1996-05-10 2001-07-03 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Method for providing a jewel bearing for supporting a pump rotor shaft
US5924848A (en) 1995-06-01 1999-07-20 Advanced Bionics, Inc. Blood pump having radial vanes with enclosed magnetic drive components
US5938412A (en) 1995-06-01 1999-08-17 Advanced Bionics, Inc. Blood pump having rotor with internal bore for fluid flow
DE69938001D1 (en) 1998-07-24 2008-03-06 Therox Inc Bgabe-enriched gas liquid
US5800528A (en) * 1995-06-13 1998-09-01 Abiomed R & D, Inc. Passive girdle for heart ventricle for therapeutic aid to patients having ventricular dilatation
US5793974A (en) 1995-06-30 1998-08-11 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Network navigation and viewing system for network management system
US6007479A (en) 1996-07-08 1999-12-28 H.D.S. Systems Ltd. Heart assist system and method
KR100254745B1 (en) 1995-07-10 2000-05-01 마모루 우메가에 System and treating extracorporeally circulating blood for curing inflammatory diseases
US5562595A (en) * 1995-08-17 1996-10-08 Medtronic, Inc. Multiple therapy cardiac assist device having battery voltage safety monitor
US5924975A (en) 1995-08-30 1999-07-20 International Business Machines Corporation Linear pump
DE19535781C2 (en) 1995-09-26 1999-11-11 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Device for active flow support of body fluids
EP0862378A4 (en) 1995-10-26 2000-01-18 Medisystems Technology Corp Pressure measurement in blood treatment
US5824070A (en) * 1995-10-30 1998-10-20 Jarvik; Robert Hybrid flow blood pump
US5957977A (en) * 1996-01-02 1999-09-28 University Of Cincinnati Activation device for the natural heart including internal and external support structures
US5840070A (en) 1996-02-20 1998-11-24 Kriton Medical, Inc. Sealless rotary blood pump
US5695471A (en) 1996-02-20 1997-12-09 Kriton Medical, Inc. Sealless rotary blood pump with passive magnetic radial bearings and blood immersed axial bearings
US6228052B1 (en) * 1996-02-29 2001-05-08 Medtronic Inc. Dilator for introducer system having injection port
US5911685A (en) * 1996-04-03 1999-06-15 Guidant Corporation Method and apparatus for cardiac blood flow assistance
US5964694A (en) 1997-04-02 1999-10-12 Guidant Corporation Method and apparatus for cardiac blood flow assistance
DE19613564C1 (en) * 1996-04-04 1998-01-08 Guenter Prof Dr Rau Intravascular blood pump
US5868703A (en) * 1996-04-10 1999-02-09 Endoscopic Technologies, Inc. Multichannel catheter
US5738649A (en) 1996-04-16 1998-04-14 Cardeon Corporation Peripheral entry biventricular catheter system for providing access to the heart for cardiopulmonary surgery or for prolonged circulatory support of the heart
US5746709A (en) * 1996-04-25 1998-05-05 Medtronic, Inc. Intravascular pump and bypass assembly and method for using the same
US5814011A (en) 1996-04-25 1998-09-29 Medtronic, Inc. Active intravascular lung
US5688245A (en) 1996-05-02 1997-11-18 Runge; Thomas M. Cannula system for a biventricular cardiac support system or a cardiopulmonary bypass system
US6074180A (en) 1996-05-03 2000-06-13 Medquest Products, Inc. Hybrid magnetically suspended and rotated centrifugal pumping apparatus and method
DE19625300A1 (en) 1996-06-25 1998-01-02 Guenter Prof Dr Rau blood pump
DE19629614A1 (en) * 1996-07-23 1998-01-29 Cardiotools Herzchirurgietechn Left-heart assist pump for post-operative period
US5756181A (en) 1996-07-23 1998-05-26 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Repellent and soil resistant carpet treated with ammonium polycarboxylate salts
FR2751867B1 (en) 1996-08-05 1999-05-21 Leriche Rene Ass prosthesis collar
US5921971A (en) 1996-09-13 1999-07-13 Boston Scientific Corporation Single operator exchange biliary catheter
US5851174A (en) 1996-09-17 1998-12-22 Robert Jarvik Cardiac support device
US6783328B2 (en) 1996-09-30 2004-08-31 Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Corporation Method and apparatus for controlling fluid pumps
EP2058017A3 (en) 1996-10-04 2011-02-23 Tyco Healthcare Group LP Circulatory support system
US5902336A (en) * 1996-10-15 1999-05-11 Mirimedical, Inc. Implantable device and method for removing fluids from the blood of a patient method for implanting such a device and method for treating a patient experiencing renal failure
US6071093A (en) 1996-10-18 2000-06-06 Abiomed, Inc. Bearingless blood pump and electronic drive system
US5888242A (en) 1996-11-01 1999-03-30 Nimbus, Inc. Speed control system for implanted blood pumps
US5776111A (en) 1996-11-07 1998-07-07 Medical Components, Inc. Multiple catheter assembly
US5807311A (en) 1996-11-29 1998-09-15 Palestrant; Aubrey M. Dialysis catheter having rigid and collapsible lumens and related method
US5741316A (en) 1996-12-02 1998-04-21 Light Sciences Limited Partnership Electromagnetic coil configurations for power transmission through tissue
US5814021A (en) 1996-12-26 1998-09-29 Johnson & Johnson Medical, Inc. Adjustable securing wings
US6102884A (en) * 1997-02-07 2000-08-15 Squitieri; Rafael Squitieri hemodialysis and vascular access systems
US6176822B1 (en) 1998-03-31 2001-01-23 Impella Cardiotechnik Gmbh Intracardiac blood pump
US5776169A (en) 1997-04-28 1998-07-07 Sulzer Intermedics Inc. Implantable cardiac stimulator for minimally invasive implantation
US6056762A (en) * 1997-05-22 2000-05-02 Kensey Nash Corporation Anastomosis system and method of use
DE19726702A1 (en) * 1997-06-24 1999-01-07 Ralf Dr Ing Kaufmann Device, in particular pump
US6532964B2 (en) 1997-07-11 2003-03-18 A-Med Systems, Inc. Pulmonary and circulatory blood flow support devices and methods for heart surgery procedures
US6123725A (en) 1997-07-11 2000-09-26 A-Med Systems, Inc. Single port cardiac support apparatus
US6709418B1 (en) 1997-07-11 2004-03-23 A-Med Systems, Inc. Apparatus and methods for entering cavities of the body
US5817046A (en) * 1997-07-14 1998-10-06 Delcath Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for isolated pelvic perfusion
US5858009A (en) 1997-08-14 1999-01-12 Medtronic, Inc. Multi-lumen cannula
US6059760A (en) * 1997-08-14 2000-05-09 Medtronic, Inc. Cannula having reverse flow tip
DE69829766T2 (en) 1997-09-05 2006-02-16 University Of Technology, Sydney Rotary pump with an impeller supported hydrodynamically
US6250880B1 (en) 1997-09-05 2001-06-26 Ventrassist Pty. Ltd Rotary pump with exclusively hydrodynamically suspended impeller
DE19739086C1 (en) 1997-09-06 1999-07-15 Voelker Wolfram Priv Doz Dr Me balloon catheter
CA2303818A1 (en) 1997-09-30 1999-04-08 Paul S. Freed Cardiovascular support control system
US6387037B1 (en) * 1997-10-09 2002-05-14 Orqis Medical Corporation Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US6200260B1 (en) * 1997-10-09 2001-03-13 Fore Flow Corporation Implantable heart assist system
US6889082B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2005-05-03 Orqis Medical Corporation Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US6390969B1 (en) * 1997-10-09 2002-05-21 Orqis Medical Corporation Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US6007478A (en) 1997-11-13 1999-12-28 Impella Cardiotechnik Aktiengesellschaft Cannula having constant wall thickness with increasing distal flexibility and method of making
US5928181A (en) * 1997-11-21 1999-07-27 Advanced International Technologies, Inc. Cardiac bypass catheter system and method of use
US6422990B1 (en) 1997-11-26 2002-07-23 Vascor, Inc. Blood pump flow rate control method and apparatus utilizing multiple sensors
US6044845A (en) * 1998-02-03 2000-04-04 Salient Interventional Systems, Inc. Methods and systems for treating ischemia
US6190408B1 (en) * 1998-03-05 2001-02-20 The University Of Cincinnati Device and method for restructuring the heart chamber geometry
DE29804046U1 (en) 1998-03-07 1998-04-30 Schmitz Rode Thomas Dipl Ing D Percutaneously implantable selbstentfaltbare axial pump for temporary cardiac support
US6086527A (en) * 1998-04-02 2000-07-11 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. System for treating congestive heart failure
US6508777B1 (en) * 1998-05-08 2003-01-21 Cardeon Corporation Circulatory support system and method of use for isolated segmental perfusion
DE19821307C1 (en) 1998-05-13 1999-10-21 Impella Cardiotech Gmbh Intra-cardiac blood pump
US20010027287A1 (en) 1998-05-26 2001-10-04 Trans Vascular, Inc. Apparatus for providing coronary retroperfusion and/or left ventricular assist and methods of use
US20050165269A9 (en) 1999-06-18 2005-07-28 Aboul-Hosn Walid N. Cannulation system and related methods
US6083198A (en) * 1998-06-25 2000-07-04 Cardiovention, Inc. Perfusion catheter providing segmented flow regions and methods of use
US6135943A (en) 1998-08-07 2000-10-24 Cardiac Assist Technologies, Inc. Non-invasive flow indicator for a rotary blood pump
DE69938002D1 (en) 1998-08-27 2008-03-06 A Med Systems Inc A device for intravascular attaching a cannula and method of use
US6183411B1 (en) * 1998-09-21 2001-02-06 Myocor, Inc. External stress reduction device and method
US6167765B1 (en) * 1998-09-25 2001-01-02 The Regents Of The University Of Michigan System and method for determining the flow rate of blood in a vessel using doppler frequency signals
WO2000018448A9 (en) 1998-09-30 2000-09-14 A Med Systems Inc Method and apparatus for preventing air embolisms
US5948006A (en) 1998-10-14 1999-09-07 Advanced Bionics Corporation Transcutaneous transmission patch
US6200560B1 (en) * 1998-10-20 2001-03-13 Avigen, Inc. Adeno-associated virus vectors for expression of factor VIII by target cells
DE29821565U1 (en) 1998-12-02 2000-06-15 Impella Cardiotech Ag Bearingless blood pump
DE29821563U1 (en) 1998-12-02 2000-07-13 Impella Cardiotech Ag pressure sensor
WO2000037139A1 (en) 1998-12-23 2000-06-29 A-Med Systems, Inc. Left and right side heart support
US7329236B2 (en) 1999-01-11 2008-02-12 Flowmedica, Inc. Intra-aortic renal drug delivery catheter
US7780628B1 (en) 1999-01-11 2010-08-24 Angiodynamics, Inc. Apparatus and methods for treating congestive heart disease
US6749598B1 (en) 1999-01-11 2004-06-15 Flowmedica, Inc. Apparatus and methods for treating congestive heart disease
US6161547A (en) * 1999-01-15 2000-12-19 Coaxia, Inc. Medical device for flow augmentation in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease and methods of use
US6371935B1 (en) * 1999-01-22 2002-04-16 Cardeon Corporation Aortic catheter with flow divider and methods for preventing cerebral embolization
US6123659A (en) 1999-01-26 2000-09-26 Nimbus Inc. Blood pump with profiled outflow region
US6245007B1 (en) 1999-01-28 2001-06-12 Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Corporation Blood pump
DE19904975A1 (en) 1999-02-06 2000-09-14 Impella Cardiotech Ag A device for intravascular cardiac valve surgery
US6176765B1 (en) * 1999-02-16 2001-01-23 International Business Machines Corporation Accumulator for slurry sampling
US6743196B2 (en) * 1999-03-01 2004-06-01 Coaxia, Inc. Partial aortic occlusion devices and methods for cerebral perfusion augmentation
EP1034808A1 (en) 1999-03-09 2000-09-13 Paul Frederik Gründeman A device for transventricular mechanical circulatory support
US6295877B1 (en) 1999-03-30 2001-10-02 A-Med Systems, Inc. Pressure sensing cannula
US6245045B1 (en) * 1999-04-23 2001-06-12 Alexander Andrew Stratienko Combination sheath and catheter for cardiovascular use
US20050196293A1 (en) 1999-04-23 2005-09-08 Ayre Peter J. Rotary blood pump and control system therefor
US6866625B1 (en) 1999-04-23 2005-03-15 Ventrassist Pty Ltd Rotary blood pump and control system therefor
US6146325A (en) 1999-06-03 2000-11-14 Arrow International, Inc. Ventricular assist device
US6190304B1 (en) 1999-07-13 2001-02-20 University Of North Texas Health Science Center At Fort Worth Enhanced intra-aortic balloon assist device
US6247892B1 (en) 1999-07-26 2001-06-19 Impsa International Inc. Continuous flow rotary pump
US7022100B1 (en) 1999-09-03 2006-04-04 A-Med Systems, Inc. Guidable intravascular blood pump and related methods
US20050154370A1 (en) 1999-10-29 2005-07-14 Medtronic, Inc. Methods and systems for providing therapies into the pericardial space
DE29921352U1 (en) 1999-12-04 2001-04-12 Impella Cardiotech Ag Intravascular blood pump
US6592567B1 (en) * 1999-12-07 2003-07-15 Chf Solutions, Inc. Kidney perfusion catheter
US6514226B1 (en) * 2000-02-10 2003-02-04 Chf Solutions, Inc. Method and apparatus for treatment of congestive heart failure by improving perfusion of the kidney
DE10016422B4 (en) 2000-04-01 2013-10-31 Impella Cardiosystems Ag Para cardiac blood pump
US6530876B1 (en) 2000-04-25 2003-03-11 Paul A. Spence Supplemental heart pump methods and systems for supplementing blood through the heart
US6719749B1 (en) * 2000-06-01 2004-04-13 Medical Components, Inc. Multilumen catheter assembly and methods for making and inserting the same
DE10040403A1 (en) 2000-08-18 2002-02-28 Impella Cardiotech Ag Intracardiac blood pump
DE10043151A1 (en) 2000-08-31 2002-03-28 Peter Steinruecke Bone cement with antimicrobial activity
DE10058669B4 (en) 2000-11-25 2004-05-06 Impella Cardiotechnik Ag micromotor
US7122019B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2006-10-17 Flowmedica Inc. Intra-aortic renal drug delivery catheter
DE10059714C1 (en) 2000-12-01 2002-05-08 Impella Cardiotech Ag Intravasal pump has pump stage fitted with flexible expandible sleeve contricted during insertion through blood vessel
DE10060275A1 (en) 2000-12-05 2002-06-13 Impella Cardiotech Ag A method of calibrating a pressure sensor or a flow sensor to a rotary pump
US6761700B2 (en) * 2001-02-09 2004-07-13 Orqis Medical Corporation Extra-corporeal vascular conduit
US6547519B2 (en) 2001-04-13 2003-04-15 Hewlett Packard Development Company, L.P. Blower impeller apparatus with pivotable blades
US6723039B2 (en) 2001-04-27 2004-04-20 The Foundry, Inc. Methods, systems and devices relating to implantable fluid pumps
DE10164898B4 (en) 2001-04-30 2010-09-23 Berlin Heart Gmbh A method for controlling an assist pump for fluid delivery systems with pulsatile pressure
US6517315B2 (en) 2001-05-29 2003-02-11 Hewlett-Packard Company Enhanced performance fan with the use of winglets
US20020188167A1 (en) 2001-06-06 2002-12-12 Anthony Viole Multilumen catheter for minimizing limb ischemia
US7048680B2 (en) * 2001-06-06 2006-05-23 Orqis Medical Corporation Multilumen catheter for minimizing limb ischemia
US6623420B2 (en) 2001-08-16 2003-09-23 Apex Medical, Inc. Physiological heart pump control
US6692318B2 (en) 2001-10-26 2004-02-17 The Penn State Research Foundation Mixed flow pump
US6981942B2 (en) 2001-11-19 2006-01-03 University Of Medicine And Dentristy Of New Jersey Temporary blood circulation assist device
CA2471484A1 (en) 2002-01-08 2003-07-17 Micromed Technology, Inc. Method and system for detecting ventricular collapse
US7238151B2 (en) 2002-02-26 2007-07-03 Frazier O Howard Permanent heart assist system
US7029433B2 (en) 2002-03-16 2006-04-18 Chang Sheldon S Device for cardiac restoration
US20030231959A1 (en) 2002-06-12 2003-12-18 William Hackett Impeller assembly for centrifugal pumps
US20040024285A1 (en) 2002-06-21 2004-02-05 Helmut Muckter Blood pump with impeller
US7241257B1 (en) 2002-06-28 2007-07-10 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Devices and methods to perform minimally invasive surgeries
WO2004004573A1 (en) 2002-07-03 2004-01-15 Uscom Pty Ltd Prosthetic heart function evaluation method and apparatus
US6949066B2 (en) 2002-08-21 2005-09-27 World Heart Corporation Rotary blood pump diagnostics and cardiac output controller
US6817836B2 (en) 2002-09-10 2004-11-16 Miwatec Incorporated Methods and apparatus for controlling a continuous flow rotary blood pump
US7284956B2 (en) 2002-09-10 2007-10-23 Miwatec Co., Ltd. Methods and apparatus for controlling a continuous flow rotary blood pump
US7988728B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2011-08-02 Thoratec Corporation Physiological demand responsive control system
US6860713B2 (en) 2002-11-27 2005-03-01 Nidec Corporation Fan with collapsible blades, redundant fan system, and related method
US20050085683A1 (en) * 2003-10-15 2005-04-21 Bolling Steven F. Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US7273446B2 (en) 2003-10-31 2007-09-25 Spence Paul A Methods, devices and systems for counterpulsation of blood flow to and from the circulatory system
US7037069B2 (en) 2003-10-31 2006-05-02 The Gorman-Rupp Co. Impeller and wear plate
US20050113631A1 (en) * 2003-11-12 2005-05-26 Bolling Steven F. Cannulae having a redirecting tip
DE102004001594B4 (en) 2004-01-09 2006-09-21 Bio-Gate Ag Wound dressing and methods for their preparation
US7160243B2 (en) 2004-03-25 2007-01-09 Terumo Corporation Method and system for controlling blood pump flow
US7172551B2 (en) 2004-04-12 2007-02-06 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Cyclical pressure coronary assist pump
US20060058869A1 (en) 2004-09-14 2006-03-16 Vascular Architects, Inc., A Delaware Corporation Coiled ladder stent
US7393181B2 (en) 2004-09-17 2008-07-01 The Penn State Research Foundation Expandable impeller pump
DE102004054714A1 (en) 2004-11-12 2006-05-24 Impella Cardiosystems Gmbh Foldable intravascularly insertable blood pump
FR2883756A1 (en) 2005-03-31 2006-10-06 Andre Greze Cardiac assistance system or artificial heart comprises series of pouches implanted under the patient's skin to pump blood round the body
EP3115070A1 (en) 2006-03-23 2017-01-11 The Penn State Research Foundation Heart assist device with expandable impeller pump
US7905823B2 (en) 2006-08-30 2011-03-15 Circulite, Inc. Devices, methods and systems for establishing supplemental blood flow in the circulatory system
ES2528902T3 (en) 2006-08-30 2015-02-13 Circulite, Inc. Devices and systems to establish the complementary blood flow in the circulatory system
JP5457182B2 (en) 2006-09-14 2014-04-02 サーキュライト・インコーポレーテッド Intravascular blood pump and catheter
DE102007012817A1 (en) 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Mwf Consult Ltd. Apparatus for supporting the heart and circulation
US7828710B2 (en) 2007-06-05 2010-11-09 Medical Value Partners, Llc Apparatus comprising a drive cable for a medical device
EP2170449B1 (en) 2007-07-19 2013-01-16 CircuLite, Inc. Cannula for heart chamber implantation and related systems and methods
US8439859B2 (en) 2007-10-08 2013-05-14 Ais Gmbh Aachen Innovative Solutions Catheter device
US8489190B2 (en) 2007-10-08 2013-07-16 Ais Gmbh Aachen Innovative Solutions Catheter device
US8209015B2 (en) 2007-10-09 2012-06-26 Stealth Therapeutics, Inc. Enhanced stability implantable medical device
US8343029B2 (en) 2007-10-24 2013-01-01 Circulite, Inc. Transseptal cannula, tip, delivery system, and method
US7993259B2 (en) 2009-01-23 2011-08-09 Wei-Chang Kang Percutaneous intra-aortic ventricular assist device
US20100249491A1 (en) 2009-03-27 2010-09-30 Circulite, Inc. Two-piece transseptal cannula, delivery system, and method of delivery
CA2769631A1 (en) 2009-07-01 2011-01-06 The Penn State Research Foundation Blood pump with expandable cannula

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6068588A (en) * 1999-01-07 2000-05-30 International Business Machines Corporation Counterbalanced pump
US6136025A (en) * 1999-07-27 2000-10-24 Barbut; Denise R. Endoscopic arterial pumps for treatment of cardiac insufficiency and venous pumps for right-sided cardiac support
US7331921B2 (en) * 2002-02-15 2008-02-19 Orqis Medical Corporation Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7513863B2 (en) * 1997-10-09 2009-04-07 Orqis Medical Corporation Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US7993260B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2011-08-09 Thoratec Corporation Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US8900115B2 (en) 1997-10-09 2014-12-02 Thoratec Corporation Implantable heart assist system and method of applying same
US20050113631A1 (en) * 2003-11-12 2005-05-26 Bolling Steven F. Cannulae having a redirecting tip
US20080294252A1 (en) * 2007-05-23 2008-11-27 Helge Myklebust Cardiopulmonary bypass devices and methods
US8672867B2 (en) * 2007-05-23 2014-03-18 Laerdal Medical As Cardiopulmonary bypass devices and methods

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20040116768A1 (en) 2004-06-17 application
US20050256363A1 (en) 2005-11-17 application
US20030069468A1 (en) 2003-04-10 application
US20060276681A1 (en) 2006-12-07 application
US20060270892A1 (en) 2006-11-30 application
US7513863B2 (en) 2009-04-07 grant
US8900115B2 (en) 2014-12-02 grant
EP1562656A1 (en) 2005-08-17 application
US20120004495A1 (en) 2012-01-05 application
US7614997B2 (en) 2009-11-10 grant
US20100145133A1 (en) 2010-06-10 application
US7591778B2 (en) 2009-09-22 grant
US7144365B2 (en) 2006-12-05 grant
US7458929B2 (en) 2008-12-02 grant
DE60310258D1 (en) 2007-01-18 grant
EP1562656B1 (en) 2006-12-06 grant
US7998054B2 (en) 2011-08-16 grant
US7993260B2 (en) 2011-08-09 grant
WO2004043519A1 (en) 2004-05-27 application
US20040236172A1 (en) 2004-11-25 application
US20060270893A1 (en) 2006-11-30 application
US20100016960A1 (en) 2010-01-21 application
ES2276130T3 (en) 2007-06-16 grant
DE60310258T2 (en) 2007-07-12 grant
US7588531B2 (en) 2009-09-15 grant
WO2004043519A8 (en) 2004-08-19 application
US6889082B2 (en) 2005-05-03 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4902272A (en) Intra-arterial cardiac support system
US4705507A (en) Arterial catheter means
US6508787B2 (en) System for actively supporting the flow of body fluids
US6306116B1 (en) Method and apparatus for pressurizing the right atrium or right ventricle to assist cardiac function during beating heart surgery
US6554790B1 (en) Cardiopulmonary bypass device and method
US6508777B1 (en) Circulatory support system and method of use for isolated segmental perfusion
US20060100565A1 (en) Transport pump and organ stabilization apparatus including related methods
US5928132A (en) Closed chest intra-aortic balloon based ventricular assist device
US20010027287A1 (en) Apparatus for providing coronary retroperfusion and/or left ventricular assist and methods of use
US6514226B1 (en) Method and apparatus for treatment of congestive heart failure by improving perfusion of the kidney
US5009636A (en) Dual-lumen catheter apparatus and method
US20030212304A1 (en) Systems and method for practicing counter-cardiac retrograde perfusion
US7048680B2 (en) Multilumen catheter for minimizing limb ischemia
US20070208210A1 (en) Method and apparatus to unload a failing heart
US20100197994A1 (en) Cardiac Assist Device
US5135467A (en) Implantable system and method for coronary perfusions assistance
US4592340A (en) Artificial catheter means
US6395026B1 (en) Apparatus and methods for beating heart bypass surgery
US7491163B2 (en) Multilumen catheter for minimizing limb ischemia
US20050085761A1 (en) Single expandable double lumen cannula assembly for veno-venous ECMO
US20060217588A1 (en) Fully-implantable cardiac recovery system
US4985014A (en) Ventricular venting loop
US5267940A (en) Cardiovascular flow enhancer and method of operation
US5820593A (en) Portable and modular cardiopulmonar bypass apparatus and associated aortic balloon catheter and associated method
US4080958A (en) Apparatus for aiding and improving the blood flow in patients