RU2404861C2 - Wear resistant board with decorative surface - Google Patents

Wear resistant board with decorative surface Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2404861C2
RU2404861C2 RU2008113530/04A RU2008113530A RU2404861C2 RU 2404861 C2 RU2404861 C2 RU 2404861C2 RU 2008113530/04 A RU2008113530/04 A RU 2008113530/04A RU 2008113530 A RU2008113530 A RU 2008113530A RU 2404861 C2 RU2404861 C2 RU 2404861C2
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Prior art keywords
wear
coating
resistant particles
layer
decorative
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RU2008113530/04A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2008113530A (en
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Дитер ДЁРИНГ (DE)
Дитер ДЁРИНГ
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Кроноспан Текникал Компани Лтд.
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Priority to DE202005015978.6 priority Critical
Priority to DE200520015978 priority patent/DE202005015978U1/en
Priority to DE202005016804.1 priority
Priority to DE202005016804 priority
Application filed by Кроноспан Текникал Компани Лтд. filed Critical Кроноспан Текникал Компани Лтд.
Publication of RU2008113530A publication Critical patent/RU2008113530A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B44DECORATIVE ARTS
    • B44CPRODUCING DECORATIVE EFFECTS; MOSAICS; TARSIA WORK; PAPERHANGING
    • B44C5/00Processes for producing special ornamental bodies
    • B44C5/04Ornamental plaques, e.g. decorative panels, decorative veneers
    • B44C5/043Ornamental plaques, e.g. decorative panels, decorative veneers containing wooden elements
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B44DECORATIVE ARTS
    • B44CPRODUCING DECORATIVE EFFECTS; MOSAICS; TARSIA WORK; PAPERHANGING
    • B44C5/00Processes for producing special ornamental bodies
    • B44C5/04Ornamental plaques, e.g. decorative panels, decorative veneers
    • B44C5/0469Ornamental plaques, e.g. decorative panels, decorative veneers comprising a decorative sheet and a core formed by one or more resin impregnated sheets of paper
    • B44C5/0476Ornamental plaques, e.g. decorative panels, decorative veneers comprising a decorative sheet and a core formed by one or more resin impregnated sheets of paper with abrasion resistant properties

Abstract

FIELD: process engineering. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of flooring boards with decorative surface and high wear resistance coats. Proposed method comprises the following jobs: a) making board (1) with decorative surface consisting of wood material; b) applying thermoset base layer (2); c) applying wear-resistant particles (3) of aluminium oxide and/or emery on damp base layer; d) applying cover layer (8) on wear-resistant particles (3) and still damp base layer; e) curing of both said layers (2, 8). Aforesaid layers are acrylate coats based on polyurethane or aliphatic polyester. ^ EFFECT: higher wear resistance. ^ 17 cl, 1 dwg

Description

The invention relates to wear-resistant plates with a decorative surface, as well as to a method for their manufacture. According to the present invention, a decorative surface is understood to mean a pattern, for example, simulating the texture of wood, made in the usual way by applying pressure. In addition, a natural wooden structure can form a decorative surface.

Parquet floors have decorative surfaces made of wood. To impart wear resistance to these decorative coatings, one or more than one transparent film coating is applied and cured thereon. If several film coatings are applied, each of them is first at least partially cured (or solidifies) before the next film coating is applied to it. Curing (or solidification) should prevent the dissolution of each film coating.

The use of so-called filled coatings is also known. These are coatings containing very fine ceramic particles. Typically, particle size is measured in nanometers. These particles are called nanoparticles. In addition to surface compaction, such coatings should further increase wear resistance. However, the very small particle size does not allow to obtain a wear resistance equal to several thousand revolutions in accordance with European standards EN 13329. In addition, after each application, the applied layer is at least partially cured (or hardens) to prevent dissolution of each of the coating layers. In addition, curing (or solidification) does not allow to obtain a very high wear resistance. Thus, it is impossible to obtain wear resistance exceeding 3000 rpm.

In addition, there are so-called laminate floor panels, the decorative surface of which is made of printed paper. A wear-resistant layer is applied to the decorative surface of paper, allowing the use of such a panel for flooring. Such a panel is disclosed in patent document WO 2005/042644.

If the decorative paper is located on the surface of the flooring, then the decorative paper, which must be produced with a wear-resistant layer applied to it, has particularly high demands. For example, to use the slab as a floor covering, the decorative surface must have a sufficiently high wear resistance. Competitive flooring must have a wear resistance of several thousand revolutions. Laminate flooring that meets only the requirements of classes AC 1 and AC 2 according to European standards EN 13329 and, thus, having an IP (initial phase) value of only 1800 revolutions, is practically not in demand. For example, refer to the latest sales data from Kronospan GmbH of Lampertswalde. 35% of the sold laminate flooring products belong to AC 3 class, which is equivalent to an IP resistance value of at least 2500 rpm. 60% of the products belong to AC 4 class, which is equivalent to an IP wear resistance of at least 4000 rpm. 5% of the products belong to AC 5 class, which is equivalent to an IP wear resistance of at least 6500 rpm.

One skilled in the art will appreciate that the wear resistance IP of competitive flooring should be at least 2500 rpm.

In addition, other wear resistance characteristics, such as impact resistance and mechanical resistance, are also important. For example, red wine spilled from a glass should not leave spots on the surface. In practice, to achieve these goals in the manufacture of laminate floors, the so-called “wet on wet” method with an amine resin is used (among other things, according to patent document EP 08753999 A2, page 3, line 44), according to which the decorative paper is initially impregnated amine resin. An amine resin-based dispersion containing as wear-resistant, i.e. abrasive particles, especially (light) corundum or, for a dark decor, silicon carbide, as described in patent document EP 1270811 A1. Paper is used not only to provide a decorative coating. It also fixes applied wet amine resins. This action is comparable to the curing achieved by curing coatings.

The wet-on-wet application method avoids the appearance of an undesirable boundary layer. Thus, amine resin is used, among other reasons, because after curing it creates a so-called matrix or network. The individual layers formed from the amine resin not only mechanically adhere to each other. In fact, layers made of amine resin are crosslinked. The resulting matrix or mesh provides a rigid interconnection of resin layers. This, basically, is the first important condition that allows to obtain high wear resistance.

According to the “wet on wet” method, wear-resistant particles are applied in the form of a dispersion, since this does not form a boundary layer between the wear-resistant particles, which creates an undesirable visual effect and, in addition, in this way, a very strong incorporation of wear-resistant particles into the resin matrix can be obtained.

Tests were conducted during which wear-resistant particles, for example, were atomized rather than applied as a dispersion. Usually in this case it is very difficult to obtain the necessary uniform distribution, since the particles tend to form clots (see patent document WO 98/47705, page 3, paragraphs 1 and 4). In addition, it is difficult to ensure a sufficient degree of incorporation of wear-resistant particles into the resin.

Thus, at present, the method of applying the amine resin “wet on wet” is practically the only method used in the manufacture of laminate flooring with wear-resistant decorative paper, despite the fact that the manufacture and work with dispersion containing wear-resistant or abrasive particles are relatively complex technically. In practice, the method known from patent document WO 2005/042644, according to which wear-resistant particles are sprayed onto decorative paper, is used only in certain cases.

To obtain high-quality flooring, it is also necessary that the applied wear-resistant particles are evenly distributed on the decorative layer. Otherwise, the wear resistance fluctuates, and in some places blackouts are formed (see patent document EP 0875399 A2, page 3, lines 24-27). When carrying out wet application for uniform application, it is mainly required that the wear-resistant particles are evenly distributed and are in the dispersion of the amine resin. This is difficult because the particles quickly settle and, thus, separation occurs. This is described in detail, inter alia, in patent documents EP 0875399 A2, p. 3, lines 24-30; WO 98/47705, p. 2, paragraph 2; EP 0875399 A20, p. 2, lines 20-22; EP 0875399 A23, column 2, lines 48-58; and also in the controversial patent, paragraph 4.

Thus, at the time of application, a specialist familiar with developments in the field of wear-resistant flooring materials knows that the only way to apply decorative flooring paper is “wet on wet”, but the uniform distribution of wear-resistant particles in an amine resin dispersion is a difficult task.

Various proposals are known for solving this problem. It is constantly indicated that for wet application, wear-resistant particles should be especially fine-grained (EP 0875399 A2, claim 6; DE 19643742 A1, claim 2 of the abstract "feinkörniges Material"; WO 98/47705, page 2, claim 2; DE 2362645, page 4, paragraph 1; WO 93/17182, page 8, lines 18-19; EP 0875399 A23, column 6, lines 24-25).

However, the diameter of the wear-resistant particles should not be too small, since in this case it is impossible to achieve high wear resistance. In addition, in this case, the number of wear-resistant particles should be so large that they have an undesirable effect on the appearance. Wear-resistant particles with a diameter of several microns are not very suitable for creating a surface with high wear resistance.

After impregnation of decorative paper with a wear-resistant layer, it is applied to the plate. An overlay is applied to the decorative paper. From below, the plate is covered with so-called stabilizing paper. The layered system is pressed by a press when heated. Panels of the required size are cut off from the plate and, by milling, lateral connecting elements, such as a spike and a groove, are made on them.

Overlay is necessary to protect the press from wear-resistant particles. Wear-resistant particles should not protrude from the layers during pressing, since in this case they can damage the press. In addition, wear-resistant particles should not protrude on the finished laminate, because otherwise the surface remains rough and this has an undesirable effect on the appearance. For this reason, among other things, the diameter of the wear-resistant particles should not exceed a predetermined value. So, in the patent document WO 2005/042664 the largest diameter of 200 μm is described, which, however, can only be achieved using relatively thick paper.

The embossed surfaces of the coatings differ from the rough surface formed as a result of protruding wear-resistant particles. Therefore, for example, the steel tape of the press contains an embossing relief, as described in patent document EP 108476402 A2. Such embossing is mainly provided by decorative resins. Typically, an embossed pattern mimics the texture of wood.

The objective of the present invention is to provide an economical solution for creating a plate with a decorative surface and high wear resistance.

To solve this problem, a plate with a decorative surface is coated. Wear-resistant particles are also applied to a plate with a decorative surface. A film coating is then applied and the coatings cured. Thus, a plate having a wear-resistant surface is obtained. The decor of the plate can be made of solid wood. In order for it to be visible, transparent coatings are used.

In contrast to the known methods, after applying the first film coating, it does not cure (does not solidify) at least partially for fixing. In addition, no paper is used to secure the first applied liquid.

The present invention refutes the widespread belief among specialists that either the first liquid layer must be fixed by curing (solidification), or other means for fixing, such as paper, should be used. This involves the application of several coatings containing wear-resistant particles, which in this case can have relatively large sizes. Thus, a wear-resistant surface with a wear resistance of more than 3000 rpm is made without the use of paper, which increases the cost of manufacture.

In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, the decor is applied to the slab, preferably by indirect engraving. Unlike laminate flooring with decorative paper, initially decorative paper is not used. In addition, in this case, stabilizing paper is not required, which, in accordance with known methods, prevents plate lagging. In addition, other paper containing resin used to connect the stabilizing paper to the board is saved. In addition, an overlay with the resin contained in it is saved. For this reason, the required amount of coating now depends only on the particle size. The amount of coating should be limited by the cost, as well as the possibilities of working with it so that the particles do not protrude from the coating. Thus, the amount of coating used is minimized. Indirect engraving is especially suitable for applying decor directly, for example, to an HDF board (high density fiberboard) or MDF board (medium density fiberboard). Thickness tolerances can be adjusted using the adjustable rollers used for indirect engraving. In this case, transparent coatings are used so that the decor can be seen.

In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, to obtain the high wear resistance expected by a European consumer of flooring, the average diameter of the wear resistant particles is about 10-160 microns. Preferably, the average diameter is 20-40 microns. The diameters of the manufactured wear-resistant particles basically do not go beyond the average diameter, therefore, are, for example, 20-40 microns.

On the one hand, in this way wear resistance is achieved above 2500 rpm. In accordance with the current regulations indicated at the beginning, it is easy to obtain wear resistance over 3000 rpm. On the other hand, this guarantees the absence of surface roughness created by a plurality of protruding wear-resistant particles. In addition, a sufficiently small number of wear-resistant particles can be used, not so much deteriorating the appearance.

The specified range of 20-40 microns is particularly preferred, since, on the one hand, the desired high wear resistance is achieved, and, on the other hand, the amount of practically used coating does not create any difficulties when working with it.

In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a first base coat is first applied to the board. After that, wear-resistant particles, preferably corundum, are sprayed onto the still wet base coat. Then, a coating layer is applied to the wet base coating layer with the wear-resistant particles applied, after which the base layer and the coating layer are cured together. The average diameter of the wear resistant particles is preferably 10-60 microns, more preferably 20-40 microns. If an average diameter of 20-40 microns is selected, then usually the particle diameter does not exceed 60 microns.

Surprisingly, the wear resistant particles penetrate deep enough into the base layer of the coating when applied by spraying, and thus are embedded in the base layer of the coating. This is important to achieve high wear resistance and to ensure that the wear resistant particles do not protrude to the surface. So, suddenly it became possible to work without using dispersion.

However, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a dispersion is initially manufactured consisting of a base coat material with wear-resistant particles contained therein. Upon subsequent application by spraying, the dispersion will be stable enough to hold the abrasion resistant particles in suspension. However, spraying is preferred since it can be used without the need for dispersion.

To further increase the wear resistance, the wear resistant particles are preferably coated with a silane adhesion promoter and sprayed in this state. Thus, there is a further improvement in the incorporation of wear resistant particles into the coating.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, UV curable coatings are used and cured, preferably forming a sealed coating. In the event that the UV-curable coatings cure to form a sealed coating, double bonds undergo more than 90% reaction during curing. On the contrary, if air is not excluded, the conversion of double bonds can reach 50-60%. A double bond creates a mesh extending from the basecoat to the topcoat. In this case, particularly high wear resistance values are achieved.

When using a UV curable coating, it preferably contains photoinitiator additives, preferably 0.3-5% by weight. In this way, the possibility of bonding the corresponding coating used by ultraviolet radiation is increased.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, electron beam curable coatings are used that cure to form a sealed coating. At the same time, a high degree of reacted double bonds during curing is also achieved. A mesh is created so that very high wear resistance values can be obtained.

The curing of the interconnected layers, which are airtight with the exclusion of air, is very easy when, for this purpose, the curable surface of the plate is covered with a film that transmits UV and electronic radiation without being destroyed, for example, during the curing process. Polymer-based films satisfy these requirements. Thus, technically difficult inert gas cleaning during curing can be eliminated. In addition, the use of the film provides a further improvement in the incorporation of wear resistant particles into the coating.

In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, the decorative surface of the plate is coated during the curing process with a structural film, preferably on a polymer basis. On the one hand, the desired exclusion of air during the curing process is achieved. On the other hand, the surface is directly provided by the structure without the need to extrude this structure at high pressure, as in the known methods.

The coating layer preferably contains a release agent that allows you to separate the coating, for example a structural film, after curing.

According to another embodiment of the present invention, the base coating layer and the coating layer are different from each other. The base coating layer is selected in such a way as to provide good adhesion to the primer layer and to compensate for internal stresses. The coating layer is selected especially resistant to stretching, mechanically elastic and insensitive to chemical influences. To achieve this, the coating layer preferably has a composition that allows to obtain a higher level of crosslinking compared with the first coating layer. In addition, the coatings preferably alternatively or additionally contain additives that support the desired characteristics.

In accordance with one embodiments of the present invention, acrylate coatings based on a polyurethane or aliphatic polyester are used, which have proven to be suitable. In order to control the desired level of crosslinking and viscosity, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, dimers are added to the coatings used. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, monomers are added to control viscosity.

If the coating is applied using a roller, the viscosity value is set to preferably 15-180 Pa · s, more preferably 60-80 Pa · s. If the coating is applied by pouring, the viscosity value is set to preferably 30-70 Pa · s, more preferably 40-60 Pa · s.

In General, in accordance with the present invention creates a layer whose thickness is preferably up to 100 microns. This layer includes both applied coating layers and the wear resistant particles contained therein. This layer, consisting of a base and a coating layer with the wear-resistant particles contained therein, preferably has a thickness of at least 80 μm, so that the wear-resistant particles with an average diameter of 20-40 μm do not protrude from the coating and to ensure a good surface structure, for example, imitating wood texture.

Thus, wear resistance of up to 8500 rpm can be obtained. This value is equivalent to the 34th class of wear resistance of floor coverings.

The present invention is described below with reference to preferred embodiments.

The surface of the plate, which is an HDF plate, is smoothly sanded. A primer, an adhesion promoter, is applied to the polished surface. The wet coating is dried. The surface is then leveled using a high dry matter acrylate system and then dried. A primer is applied on top to create, for example, a bright background. The primer paint is preferably applied by pouring through a slit, since the paint layer is applied to the surface of the plate in a non-contact manner. After this, the primer paint is dried and leveled, for example, with a calender. Then, preferably, the back side of the plate is covered with a second layer of paint, creating a barrier layer against moisture, this prevents the deformation of the plate.

Then, on a dried and evened primer ink using a four-color printing device by means of indirect engraving, a drawing is applied. The drawing is dried.

Laromer® UP 35 D from BASF is used as the base layer, and Laromer® HDDA from BASF is added as a crosslinking component to control the degree of crosslinking and viscosity. Laromer® UP 35 D is used for the manufacture of radiation-curable intermediate and coating layers for wood and wood-based materials. This is a moderately reactive unsaturated polyester resin, approximately 55% in dipropylene glycol diacrylate. It is a transparent, slightly yellowish viscous resin with a viscosity of 3 to 6 Pa · sec. Laromer® HDDA dimer is hexanediol diacrylate C 12 H 18 O 4 :

Figure 00000001

The base layer is applied in an amount of from 20 to 50 g / m 2 .

Particles of corundum or alumina are then sprayed onto the wet coating. Particles are coated with a silane adhesion promoter. The average particle diameter is 20-40 microns. Typically, the diameter size does not exceed 60 microns. The amount of corundum depends on the desired wear resistance. The amount can be up to 50% by weight with respect to the total amount of coating used. Tests have shown that already the amount of 25 g / m 2 gives good values of wear resistance, and this amount practically does not adversely affect the appearance.

After that, a coating layer is applied preferably to the base layer with sprayed wear-resistant particles. As the base resin for the coating layer, Laromer® LR 8987 from BASF was selected. This is an acrylate resin for the manufacture of radiation curable coatings, including for wood and wood materials with an aliphatic urethane acrylate composition, 70% in hexanediol diacrylate. The viscosity at 23 ° C is 4-6 Pa · s. As a result, the manufactured coatings are characterized by a low level of yellowing. To cure this coating with ultraviolet radiation, a photoinitiator is added in an amount of 2-5% by weight. The required viscosity is adjusted by the addition of BASF's Laromer® DPGDA. Thus, we are talking about dipropylene glycol diacrylate C 12 H 18 O 5 :

Figure 00000002

The application is preferably carried out by the method shown in the drawing. On the HDF plate 1 with a deposited base layer 2 containing sprayed wear-resistant particles 3, by rotating the roller or coil 5 by means of rollers 6 and 7, a structural film 4 is applied. Immediately before applying the structural film 4 next to the first roller 6, intended for its application, is applied the coating layer 8, so that it hermetically closes the surface from the external environment during the subsequent curing procedure. Above the applied structural film 4 is a device 9 for curing the base and coating layers using radiation. The structural film 4 is folded using the next roller 10. The plate 1 is transferred by a conveyor belt 12 parallel to the applied structural film at the same speed in the direction of the arrow 11.

Using the structural film, the necessary exclusion of air is achieved and the desired surface structure is created. In addition, it is ensured that these wear-resistant particles are pressed into the coating. In general, a corresponding implementation of wear-resistant particles in the coating is carried out. Thus, it is easy to obtain a plate with wear-resistant particles embedded in the grating, the wear resistance of which is 4000 revolutions or more according to EN 13329, status June 2000.

Instead of a structural film, a polished surface film can also be used if it is only a matter of achieving particularly high wear resistance without forming a surface structure.

Then the floor panels are sawed off from the plate and lateral connecting elements, such as, for example, grooves and spikes, are made on them, along with other fixing means, providing a glueless connection of the panels. Coatings may contain conventional additives, such as silicon, as well as polymerizable oils, for example, to improve the wetting of the primer layer or to improve ventilation or gloss.

Bottom plate made in accordance with the present invention may have one or more sound absorbing layers. Compared with the known solutions, a particularly good noise absorption is provided, since they have only a few boundary layers adversely reflecting the sound. The sound-absorbing layer in accordance with the present invention consists, for example, of a thermoplastic material having particularly high relaxation properties at ambient temperature. In this case, sound directed into the layer is particularly well absorbed at ambient temperature. The layer can be very thin, less than 1 mm.

Claims (17)

1. A method of manufacturing a plate, in particular a floor plate with a decorative surface and a highly wear-resistant coating, consisting of the following operations:
a) obtaining a slab (1) with a decorative surface consisting of wood or wood material;
b) applying to it a curable base layer (2);
c) applying wear-resistant particles (3) of alumina and / or corundum to the wet base layer;
d) applying to wear-resistant particles (3) and a still wet base layer of the coating layer (8);
e) curing both applied coatings (2, 8),
where these layers are acrylate coatings based on polyurethane or based on aliphatic polyester.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the applied coating (2, 8) is cured by radiation.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the applied coating (2, 8) is coated with a film (4) and cured in a coated state.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the applied coatings (2, 8) are coated with a film (4) and cured in a coated state, the film (4) being a structural film.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the plate consists of wood or wood material, in particular HDF.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the wear-resistant particles (3) consist of corundum.
7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the wear-resistant particles (3) consist of corundum and have an average diameter of 10-60 microns.
8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the wear-resistant particles (3) consist of corundum and have an average diameter of 20-40 microns.
9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the wear-resistant particles (3) are coated with a silane adhesion promoter.
10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the wear-resistant particles (3) are distributed in a crosslinked coating (2, 8).
11. The method of claim 1, characterized in that the wear-resistant particles (3) are distributed in a crosslinked coating (2, 8), in which up to 90% of the double bonds are preferably reacted.
12. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the coating (2, 8) contains photoinitiator additives.
13. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the base layer has a lower degree of crosslinking compared with the upper layer of the coating.
14. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the film coating (2, 8) is applied with a thickness of up to 100 μm.
15. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the decor is applied to the polished and leveled surface of the plate (1).
16. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the decor is applied to the polished and smoothed surface of the plate (1) containing the adhesion promoter and / or the base coating layer.
17. The floor panel obtained from a plate made in accordance with the method according to any one of claims 1 to 16.
RU2008113530/04A 2005-10-10 2006-10-10 Wear resistant board with decorative surface RU2404861C2 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE202005015978.6 2005-10-10
DE200520015978 DE202005015978U1 (en) 2005-10-10 2005-10-10 Plate for panel of floor covering, has decorative surface to which paint film is attached, where film contains abrasion resistance particle, and diameter of abrasion resistance particle lies between ten to hundred and sixty micrometers
DE202005016804.1 2005-10-25
DE202005016804 2005-10-25

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RU2008113530A RU2008113530A (en) 2009-11-20
RU2404861C2 true RU2404861C2 (en) 2010-11-27

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Country Status (5)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1937476B1 (en)
ES (1) ES2567590T3 (en)
PL (1) PL1937476T3 (en)
RU (1) RU2404861C2 (en)
WO (1) WO2007042258A1 (en)

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RU2008113530A (en) 2009-11-20

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