RU100184U1 - vortex furnace - Google Patents

vortex furnace Download PDF

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Publication number
RU100184U1
RU100184U1 RU2010115435/06U RU2010115435U RU100184U1 RU 100184 U1 RU100184 U1 RU 100184U1 RU 2010115435/06 U RU2010115435/06 U RU 2010115435/06U RU 2010115435 U RU2010115435 U RU 2010115435U RU 100184 U1 RU100184 U1 RU 100184U1
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
furnace
combustion chamber
gap
fuel supply
horizontal
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RU2010115435/06U
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Олег Владимирович Семичев
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Олег Владимирович Семичев
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Priority to RU2010115435/06U priority Critical patent/RU100184U1/en
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Publication of RU100184U1 publication Critical patent/RU100184U1/en

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Abstract

 1. A vortex furnace having a housing with a combustion chamber, a fuel supply device, a forced air supply device equipped with at least one fan, at least one collector, air ducts and nozzles located tangentially to the conditional rotation body along the height of the combustion chamber as well as a channel for exhausting the generator gas located on top and a bottom slag removal device, characterized in that there is a gap between the side walls of the combustion chamber and the housing, the fuel supply device has the possibility of horizontal fuel supply and is located below, for which the combustion chamber is equipped with a fuel channel, a manifold with three horizontal air ducts located one above the other and equipped with shutters is installed externally above the fuel supply device at the height of the middle part of the wall, while the air ducts are separated from each other from the gap other horizontal diaphragms, the shape and width of which corresponds to the shape and width of the gap, the vertical gap is symmetrically divided by a vertical partition located on the oppositely from the collector side transversely over its entire height of the gap, and the nozzles are arranged horizontally one above the other, the height of at least one for each duct, with the nozzle in a horizontal plane located at equal distance from each other in an amount of not less than three. ! 2. The furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the forced air supply device is equipped with two fans, while the manifolds with air ducts are symmetrically located on both sides of the fuel supply device. ! 3. The furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that according to

Description

The device relates to the field of industrial energy, in particular to those working on solid, including humid, woodworking, furniture and other production wastes without grate devices for waste disposal and production of cleaned from harmful impurities generator gas for boilers of heating plants, drying chambers, etc. .d.
Known is a vortex furnace containing a combustion chamber, a fuel supply device, a grate with a fluidized bed, a forced air supply device located on top of the generator gas exhaust window with tangentially sharp blast nozzles directed towards the furnace, and a slag removal device (see, for example , utility model patent No. 2230980 from 2002, IPC F23B 5/02).
The disadvantage of this furnace is the increased emission of harmful oxides due to the fact that vortex aerodynamics is concentrated only near the window for removing the heating gas, as a result of which small particles of fuel are poorly retained in the combustion chamber and, without being burned, are carried out with the gas stream, and the intense combustion process does not captures the entire volume of the furnace, and there is an uneven heat release, leading to a reduced intensity of the pyrolysis process, and hence to an increased content of harmful substances in the generator gas.
Also known is taken as a prototype vortex furnace having a housing with a combustion chamber, a fuel supply device, a forced air supply device equipped with at least one fan, at least one collector, air ducts and nozzles located tangentially to the conditional body along the height of the combustion chamber rotation, as well as the top channel of the outlet of the generator gas and the bottom slag removal device (see, for example, utility model patent No. 8662 of 2009, IPC F23C 5/24).
This firebox allows to obtain generator gas with a reduced content of harmful substances. However, the drawback of this firebox is the design complexity (and hence its low reliability), associated both with the presence of a grate with a screwing bar (which also reduces the temperature of the generator gas, which is spent on heating them), and with the presence of a branched forced air supply system having vertical and annular (top) air ducts, an annular manifold, as well as two groups of nozzles, one of which (secondary blast) is located in the corners along the entire height of the combustion chamber, and the other (sharp blast) in two rows along the ceiling mounted annular manifold. Moreover, all nozzles are not only oriented tangentially to the conventional vertical body of revolution, but also have a downward inclination, and the upper row of nozzles of the annular collector upward. This arrangement of groups of nozzles and their complex orientation increases the complexity of manufacturing and does not allow the combustion chamber to be made of the simplest refractory material — brick, and nozzles — in the form of channels in brickwork.
Another disadvantage of the known furnace is the limited functionality, in particular, the inability to use the furnace as a plant for the disposal of solid and wet waste from various industries due to the low efficiency of such waste. This is due to the design features of the furnace, in particular, with the location of the fuel supply device on top, and the implementation of primary air pressurization from below, resulting in a decrease in the burning rate of wet fuel, and hence a decrease in the temperature of the generator gas. This is explained by the fact that the drying of wet fuel occurs during its fall down onto the grate through the intense combustion zone, as a result of which the fuel passes through the combustion chamber twice (first from top to bottom in the form of large particles, and then from bottom to top in the form of a vortex flow of burning and incandescent particles), and the first stream of fuel lowers the temperature of the second. At the same time, the furnace’s circuit diagram is: the location of the fuel supply device from above, and the implementation of pressurization from below, as well as the inclination of the secondary blast nozzles and the lower row of sharp blast nozzles downward (as a result of which, inside the horizontal vortex, small hot fuel particles are directed downward, mixed and uniformly fill the combustion chamber ), - does not allow to implement the most efficient during the disposal of wet waste (from the point of view of obtaining a high temperature of the generator gas and a high degree of its purification from harmful impurities by the simplest means and without intermediate temperature losses) a layer-by-layer vortex method of burning fuel with a natural arrangement of layers: from the low-temperature bottom (intended for drying wet fuel, which is also supplied to this layer from the bottom) to the high-temperature top (where heating gas is selected, which has at this point in the furnace the maximum temperature) through the intermediate layer (in which, due to the formation of a fluidized bed, the pyrolysis process occurs, which reduces the amount of harmful ETS in the product gas).
The utility model solves the problem of simplifying the design of the furnace and expanding its functionality by increasing the efficiency of fuel combustion while ensuring the minimum content of harmful substances in the generator gas and the possibility of forcing the furnace.
To solve this problem, in a known vortex furnace having a housing with a combustion chamber, a fuel supply device, a forced air supply device equipped with at least one fan, at least one collector, air ducts and nozzles located tangentially to the conditional body along the height of the combustion chamber rotation, as well as the channel of the outlet of the generator gas located above and the bottom slag removal device, according to the utility model, between the side walls of the combustion chamber and the housing there is the gap, the fuel supply device has the possibility of horizontal fuel supply and is located below, for which the combustion chamber is equipped with a fuel channel, a manifold with three horizontal air ducts located one above the other and provided with flaps is installed externally above the fuel supply device at the height of the middle part of the wall, inside the gap, the air ducts are separated from each other by horizontal diaphragms, the shape and width of which corresponds to the shape and width of the gap, vertically the gap is symmetrically divided vertically a septum located on the opposite side of the gap across the gap from the manifold along its entire height, and the nozzles are horizontally one above the other, at least one in height for each duct, and in the horizontal plane, the nozzles are equally spaced at least three .
The forced air supply device can be equipped with two fans, while the manifolds with air ducts are symmetrically located on both sides of the fuel supply device.
The nozzles in height can be arranged in two pairs for each duct.
The furnace can be made square, while the nozzles are located in each wall of the combustion chamber with an offset in the horizontal plane relative to the vertical axis of the wall.
The combustion chamber can be made of refractory bricks, and nozzles in the form of channels in the walls.
The working body of the fuel supply device can be made in the form of a screw.
The generator gas outlet can be made horizontal, have a rectangular cross section and an outlet window on the side of the housing opposite from the collector.
Due to the design features of the inventive furnace: the location of the fuel supply device from below, and the collector with air ducts (i.e., layered boost) from above, it becomes possible to naturally (from bottom to top) and the most efficient layer-by-layer vortex burning of solid fuel, which allows not only to obtain high temperature of the generator gas and the minimum content of harmful impurities in it and, thereby, expand the functionality of the furnace and use it at the same time as a unit for the utilization of humid waste waste of various industries, but also to create the simplest both in design and manufacturing forced air supply device (having a collector with three air ducts located one above the other, separated by horizontal diaphragms and a vertical partition inside the gap between the walls of the housing and the combustion chamber, and horizontal tangential nozzles, which can be made in the form of easily made channels in refractory masonry walls of the combustion chamber). At the same time, the minimum content of harmful impurities (carbon monoxide and residual hydrocarbons) in the generator gas is guaranteed by creating a low-temperature combustion process in the middle of the combustion chamber (due to its cooling by turbulent air circulating in the gap with horizontal diaphragms and a vertical partition) inside (in the resulting fluidized bed) the process of pyrolysis occurs. The natural location of the layers of fuel burned in a vortex air flow eliminates the use of a grate (also cooled) with a screwing bar, which also simplifies the design of the furnace, increases its reliability and eliminates the loss of temperature of the generator gas.
Layer-by-layer vortex combustion of fuel with cooling of the surface of the combustion chamber provides a natural sequence of combustion processes in the furnace volume with the elimination of the maximum temperature, which stabilizes the combustion process, thereby smoothing out dips in the combustion temperature in case of heterogeneity of the fuel in moisture, and eliminates the possibility of termination of the combustion process when it enters a furnace of sawdust of high humidity. The stability of the combustion process provides an increase in efficiency and the possibility of increasing the power of the furnace (i.e. the possibility of forcing it).
Thanks to the cooling of the walls of the combustion chamber by turbulent air, the furnace service safety is increased due to a decrease in the heating temperature of the case (in this case, warm turbulent air through the nozzles enters the chamber and returns part of the heat spent on heating the chamber and the case), as well as the service life of the vortex furnace without repair.
The utility model is illustrated by drawings, where in Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of a furnace, in Fig. 2 is a top view (in cross section is a view of the tangential channels of the lower and central ducts).
The inventive furnace consists of (Fig.1, 2) a metal casing 1, in particular, a square shape, inside which is located the same shape of the combustion chamber 2, made of heat-resistant material (refractory brick). Between the side walls of the housing and the chamber, there is a gap 3 around the perimeter of the furnace, designed to cool the chamber from the outside with the help of air circulating in it.
The furnace is equipped with a horizontal fuel supply device 4, for example auger type, located at the bottom left in the center of the side wall, for which the combustion chamber has a corresponding fuel channel with a pipe for connecting the auger.
The furnace also has a forced air supply device, which is equipped with two fans 5 and rectangular air distribution manifolds 6, each of which has three horizontal air ducts 7. To regulate the working clearance, the air ducts are equipped with shutters 8.
To create the possibility of layer-by-layer vortex combustion of fuel, collectors with air ducts 7 are located outside above the fuel supply device 4 on both sides at the height of the middle part of the wall. For layered air pressurization, air ducts are located one above the other.
Inside the gap 3, the air ducts are separated from each other by two horizontal metal diaphragms 9, covering the combustion chamber along the perimeter. The width of each diaphragm is equal to the width of the gap. In this case, the central duct is limited by the diaphragms above and below, and the lower and upper ducts are only on one side (respectively, above and below) with the formation of 3 lower and upper volumes. Vertically, the gap 3 is symmetrically divided into two parts by a vertical partition 10 located on the side opposite from the collector 6 across the gap 3 over its entire height.
The forced air supply device also has horizontal nozzles 11, made in the form of channels in brickwork in each wall of the combustion chamber. For the formation of a vertical air vortex inside the chamber, the axis of which coincides with the axis of the chamber, the nozzles 11 are oriented tangentially to the conditional body of revolution (directed along the tangent to its surface), for which they are located with an offset in the horizontal plane on the same side relative to the vertical axis of the wall (figure 2). Nozzles 11, as well as air ducts 7, are located (Fig. 1) one above the other. The optimal number of nozzles in height - two pairs for each duct (Fig.1, 2).
In the upper part of the combustion chamber there is a horizontal channel 12 of the generator gas outlet, rectangular in cross section, having an outlet on the side of the furnace opposite from the collector 6 for connection with a heating boiler or drying chamber.
Bottom of the furnace is equipped with a device for removing slag - ash pan 13 with a door, also intended for ignition of fuel.
In the middle part of the furnace there is a peephole for visual control of the fuel level in the combustion chamber.
The device operates as follows.
Before supplying fuel to the combustion chamber, it is necessary to adjust the working clearance of each duct 7, for which to slightly open the valve 8 by a certain amount (Fig. 1). To create the possibility of increasing traction during the operation of the furnace, the lower air duct flap opens to the maximum value, the middle one to the smaller one, and the upper one to the minimum.
Then open the ashpit door 13 and light a fire at the bottom of the chamber.
After receiving a stable burning of the fire, it is necessary to close the ash pan door and turn on the fans 6 and the auger drive of the fuel supply device 4.
Solid crushed fuel using a screw horizontally begins to flow into the combustion chamber (figure 1). In the process of mechanical movement inside the chamber, a slide is created from fuel, which is intensively dried in the lower low-temperature part of the chamber using the lower (primary) air stream supplied through the lower air ducts 7 and the corresponding nozzles 11 through the lower volume of the gap 3. In this layer, the array is saturated fuel with oxygen, the emission of volatile particles and their ignition. At the same time, an intensive process of turbulization of the air flow (in horizontal and vertical planes) takes place in the lower volume of the gap with the help of a vertical partition 10 and a horizontal diaphragm 9, and an air flow enters the chamber through nozzles 11, the pressure of which is amplified by turbulization (Figs. 1, 2) .
The combustion process in the lower layer of the fuel array is regulated by changing the working clearance in the lower duct 7 by the position of the shutter 8 (after stabilization of this process).
Then, in the second layer, the process of vortex movement of hot fuel particles begins using the middle (secondary) air stream supplied into the combustion chamber through the central (narrow) air ducts 7 and nozzles 11 located in the zone of these air ducts. In the second layer, intense combustion of fuel particles inside the vortex begins which are discarded under the action of centrifugal forces to the walls of the combustion chamber and rotate together with an accelerating vortex air flow until burnout is almost complete. Here, due to the cooling of the outer walls of the combustion chamber by turbulent air circulating in the gap 3, the temperature inside the chamber decreases, its maximum is eliminated, as a result of which conditions are created for the formation of a fluidized bed in which the process of intensive decomposition of organic compounds takes place.
Unburned hot fuel particles, rotating with acceleration (due to a decrease in their amount in the flow), gradually rise to the upper high-temperature and most intense combustion layer, the vortex movement of particles in which is supported by the upper (afterburning) air flow entering through the upper air ducts 7 through the upper clearance volume 3 (where, as in the lower volume, the process of air turbulization takes place, but the side walls of the channel 12 play the role of the partition 10) and the corresponding upper nozzles 11. In this layer, burning out the remaining hot particles and the receipt of a high-temperature purified from harmful impurities generator gas in the channel 12 and further to consumers.
Using dampers 8 on the air ducts 7, if necessary, control the flow of air into the burning layers of fuel.
To increase the productivity of the furnace, it is necessary to open the flap of the upper duct 7 by a large amount.
The inventive swirl furnace provides the production of non-harmful impurities heating gas with the simultaneous utilization of low-grade solid fuel: sawdust, shavings, chipboard and chipboard; wood waste containing used engine oil; waste containing polyethylene, polypropylene, glue; waste from broiler production, production of hygiene products and packaging; husks of rice and sunflower.

Claims (7)

1. A vortex furnace having a housing with a combustion chamber, a fuel supply device, a forced air supply device equipped with at least one fan, at least one collector, air ducts and nozzles located tangentially to the conditional rotation body along the height of the combustion chamber as well as a channel for exhausting the generator gas located on top and a bottom slag removal device, characterized in that there is a gap between the side walls of the combustion chamber and the housing, the fuel supply device has the possibility of horizontal fuel supply and is located below, for which the combustion chamber is equipped with a fuel channel, a manifold with three horizontal air ducts located one above the other and equipped with shutters is installed externally above the fuel supply device at the height of the middle part of the wall, while the air ducts are separated from each other from the gap other horizontal diaphragms, the shape and width of which corresponds to the shape and width of the gap, the vertical gap is symmetrically divided by a vertical partition located on the oppositely from the collector side transversely over its entire height of the gap, and the nozzles are arranged horizontally one above the other, the height of at least one for each duct, with the nozzle in a horizontal plane located at equal distance from each other in an amount of not less than three.
2. The furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the forced air supply device is equipped with two fans, while the manifolds with air ducts are symmetrically located on both sides of the fuel supply device.
3. The furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the height of the nozzle is two pairs for each duct.
4. The furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that it is square, and the nozzles are located in each wall of the combustion chamber with an offset in the horizontal plane relative to the vertical axis of the wall.
5. The furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the combustion chamber is made of refractory bricks, and the nozzles are in the form of channels in the walls.
6. The furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the working body of the fuel supply device is made in the form of a screw.
7. The furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the channel for generating gas exhaust is horizontal, has a rectangular cross section and an exit window on the side of the housing opposite from the collector.
Figure 00000001
RU2010115435/06U 2010-04-19 2010-04-19 vortex furnace RU100184U1 (en)

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2516671C2 (en) * 2012-03-29 2014-05-20 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Союз" Method of burning litter manure from floor management of birds and device for implementation of method (versions)
RU2640873C2 (en) * 2012-11-14 2018-01-12 ЧиВон КИМ Device for zoned centrifugal burning using flow of combustion air
RU177020U1 (en) * 2017-04-06 2018-02-06 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Светлобор" Solid boiler combustion chamber
WO2018186769A1 (en) * 2017-04-06 2018-10-11 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Светлобор" Combustion chamber of solid-fuel boiler
RU2695877C1 (en) * 2018-04-11 2019-07-29 Евгений Михайлович Пузырёв Power boiler
RU2702066C1 (en) * 2018-12-25 2019-10-03 Кузнецов Владислав Борисович Heat-generating plant with heat generator and continuous fuel supply bunker, which implement wood wastes burning method
RU194262U1 (en) * 2019-08-12 2019-12-04 Василий Васильевич Семенов Solid fuel combustion plant

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2516671C2 (en) * 2012-03-29 2014-05-20 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Союз" Method of burning litter manure from floor management of birds and device for implementation of method (versions)
RU2640873C2 (en) * 2012-11-14 2018-01-12 ЧиВон КИМ Device for zoned centrifugal burning using flow of combustion air
RU177020U1 (en) * 2017-04-06 2018-02-06 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Светлобор" Solid boiler combustion chamber
WO2018186769A1 (en) * 2017-04-06 2018-10-11 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "Светлобор" Combustion chamber of solid-fuel boiler
RU2695877C1 (en) * 2018-04-11 2019-07-29 Евгений Михайлович Пузырёв Power boiler
RU2702066C1 (en) * 2018-12-25 2019-10-03 Кузнецов Владислав Борисович Heat-generating plant with heat generator and continuous fuel supply bunker, which implement wood wastes burning method
RU194262U1 (en) * 2019-08-12 2019-12-04 Василий Васильевич Семенов Solid fuel combustion plant

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Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
MM1K Utility model has become invalid (non-payment of fees)

Effective date: 20140420

NF1K Reinstatement of utility model

Effective date: 20150210