LV14899B - Building element with changeable properties of heat insulation as well as heat and moisture accumulation - Google Patents

Building element with changeable properties of heat insulation as well as heat and moisture accumulation Download PDF

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Publication number
LV14899B
LV14899B LVP-13-17A LV130017A LV14899B LV 14899 B LV14899 B LV 14899B LV 130017 A LV130017 A LV 130017A LV 14899 B LV14899 B LV 14899B
Authority
LV
Latvia
Prior art keywords
cavities
heat
masonry
filled
masonry unit
Prior art date
Application number
LVP-13-17A
Other languages
Latvian (lv)
Other versions
LV14899A (en
Inventor
Jānis KĻAVIŅŠ
Andris Jakovičs
Original Assignee
Latvijas Universitāte
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Latvijas Universitāte filed Critical Latvijas Universitāte
Priority to LVP-13-17A priority Critical patent/LV14899B/en
Publication of LV14899A publication Critical patent/LV14899A/en
Publication of LV14899B publication Critical patent/LV14899B/en

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2/14Walls having cavities in, but not between, the elements, i.e. each cavity being enclosed by at least four sides forming part of one single element
    • E04B2/16Walls having cavities in, but not between, the elements, i.e. each cavity being enclosed by at least four sides forming part of one single element using elements having specially-designed means for stabilising the position
    • E04B2/18Walls having cavities in, but not between, the elements, i.e. each cavity being enclosed by at least four sides forming part of one single element using elements having specially-designed means for stabilising the position by interlocking of projections or inserts with indentations, e.g. of tongues, grooves, dovetails
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C1/00Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings
    • E04C1/40Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings built-up from parts of different materials, e.g. composed of layers of different materials or stones with filling material or with insulating inserts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2002/0202Details of connections
    • E04B2002/0204Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections
    • E04B2002/0208Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections of trapezoidal shape
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2002/0202Details of connections
    • E04B2002/0204Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections
    • E04B2002/0228Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections with tongues next to each other on one end surface and grooves next to each other on opposite end surface
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/02Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls built-up from layers of building elements
    • E04B2002/0256Special features of building elements
    • E04B2002/0289Building elements with holes filled with insulating material
    • E04B2002/0293Building elements with holes filled with insulating material solid material

Abstract

The invention relates to building elements, in particular, to building masonry units with variable physico-constructional heat insulation, and heat and moisture accumulation properties. A masonry unit is proposed, containing two parts: part (A) un part (B), where part (A) contains unit outer walls (1), a number of cavities (2), adapted to be filled with heat insulating material, cavities (2) wall (3), which is perpendicular to heat flow direction and cavities (2) wall (4), which is parallel to heat flow direction; part (B) contains a number of cavities (6), adapted to be filled with phase transition material, and cavities (6) wall (5), where cross-section of cavities (2) is greater than of cavities (6) and the cavities (6) cross-sectional shape is such, that its perimeter is larger than the perimeter of the same cross-sectional area having rectangular shape.

Description

Description of the Invention

The present invention relates to building blocks of block or other shape, in particular to building masonry units with variable building-physical thermal insulation as well as heat and moisture accumulation properties intended to provide a set room microclimate in dynamic operating modes with minimal energy consumption.

Known state of the art

Building blocks, which contain cavities filled with heat insulating material (DE3100642, FR2192226, DE2719860, GB2255117), have been known for some time. These blocks have much better thermal insulation properties than traditional perforated bricks.

A block containing cavities partially or completely filled with waterproof mineral wool pads is known (DE10058463). The main disadvantage of the known block is that its construction cannot provide equivalent load-bearing capacity of masonry wall construction, because the cavity area of these masonry elements is 40% larger than the total block area. This goes well beyond the limits set out in EN 1996-1-1, which means that these ceramic blocks may not be built into load-bearing enclosures, in accordance with the EN 1996-1-1 Eurocode building codes. In addition, the known block cannot be effectively used in combination with phase transition material - the insulating material is positioned symmetrically in the known block both in the exterior and in the room-facing part of the enclosure.

A building block comprising several interior zones of different structure and / or composition is known (DE 19741282). Some zones in the known block contain cavities filled with ceramic foam. These zones are parallel to the side walls of the block, which are adapted to hold the plaster layer. The main disadvantage of this block is that the block does not provide equivalent load-bearing capacity of the masonry wall structure, since the elements of these blocks are designed with a cavity in the center of the element occupying about 1/3 or an area> 30% of the total block area. It also exceeds the limits set by EN 1996-1-1. Secondly, the known unit cannot provide equivalent efficiency for the stabilization of the microclimate of the room due to the symmetrical arrangement of the insulating material in both the outer and the interior part of the enclosing structure. The space-facing part of the cavity is also not intended to be filled with phase transition material.

A building block (DE202005000723 Ul) containing two parts is known. Both sections have penetrating cavities for insulating the insulating material. The first part cavities have a larger cross-sectional area than the second part cavities, and the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the first part cavities to the second part cavities is less than ten, preferably less than five. The total thickness of the cavity walls of the second part of the block is 1.5-2.5 times greater than the total thickness of the cavity walls of the first part of the block. The main disadvantage of this block is that the block wall thicknesses are the same for both large and small cross-sectional cavities and their placement vectors relative to the symmetry axes of the ceramic element do not provide increased resistance of masonry structure to tangential shear deformation. . In addition, if the cross-sectional areas of the cavities are so significantly different (1.5-2.5 times), structural boundaries between material flows with substantially different velocities and pressures are formed when the block is formed. At the boundary of these streams, after completion of the molding process, when the molding pressure is interrupted, a process of equalization of pressure-induced stress differences begins, which causes permanent deformation at the boundaries of these streams. Further technological drying and firing processes exacerbate these deformations, forming cracks in the ceramic walls that either destroy the product or significantly reduce its durability.

In the field of construction, phase transition materials containing substances with a high melting enthalpy are also used; substances that are capable of storing and liberating large amounts of energy and which, due to external factors (eg changes in ambient temperature), change phases, for example, from solid to liquid or vice versa. In this way heat is absorbed or emitted (C. Castellon et al., Use of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in Building Applications. ASHRAE, 2007).

A building block (CN101196067) is known, which has four walls, one of which has a convex shape, while its parallel wall has a concave shape. The block has three cavities separated by internal walls of the block. One block cavity is adapted to be filled with phase transition material and the other two with heat insulating material. The unit is equipped with a lifting lid adapted to cover the top of the block phase transition material cavity. The block walls forming the cavity of the phase transition material are provided with reinforcing ribs adapted to hold said lifting lid. In the center of the block top is a groove that coincides with the block's longitudinal axis; the corresponding grooves are also present in the concave and convex wall of the block and coincide with the vertical axis of symmetry of these walls. The said grooves are adapted for insertion of reinforcement therein. The main disadvantage of the block is that one large cavity, which is adapted to be filled with phase transition material, does not ensure efficient use of the phase transition material. First of all, due to the thick layer of the material, the heat from this material is more difficult to transport to and from the premises. The effect of the phase transition material on the microclimate of the room is significantly dependent on the reaction rate. The high thickness of the phase transition material significantly reduces the reaction rate. Second, the thick layer of phase transition material results in much higher production costs. Third, over time, gravity forces the phase transition material to compact, resulting in a relatively large void at the top of the large cavity, which reduces the heat exchange and microclimate stabilization properties of the building block.

Purpose and substance of the invention

The object of the present invention is to overcome the drawbacks of the prior art solutions and to provide a building block which is intended to provide a set room microclimate in dynamic operating modes with minimal energy consumption.

The object is achieved by the proposed construction of a building masonry element, wherein the masonry element comprises two parts: part A and part B, where part A comprises the outer wall of the element, several cavities adapted to be filled with heat insulating material, cavity walls which are perpendicular the direction of the heat flow and the walls of the cavities parallel to the direction of the heat flow; part B comprises a plurality of cavities adapted to be filled with phase transition material; the cross-sectional area of the cavities of part A is larger than that of the cavities of part B, and the cavity of the cavity of part B is larger than the perimeter of the rectangle of the same cross-sectional area; of the volume of the cavities, but the ratio of the material of the masonry unit to the volume of the cavities in each part Α, B is in the range of 1 to 10%, preferably 4 to 6%.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

One embodiment of the building masonry element is shown in Figs. 1, which is a longitudinal section of a masonry unit. Part A of the masonry unit is intended to be located on the outside of the building wall and part B on the inside of the building. Part of an element

A contains the outer wall of the element (1). The cavity (2) is formed in part A and cavities (6) in part B. The cavities (2) and (6) are asymmetrical and preferably permeable.

The cavities (2) are separated from each other by walls (3) and (4). The walls (3) are perpendicular to the direction of heat flow and the walls (4) are parallel to the direction of heat flow. According to a better embodiment of the invention, the element comprises two or more parallel rows of cavities (2) (for example as shown in Fig. 1), preferably three to seven rows. In addition, the desired mutual arrangement of the cavities (2) in the element part A is chess-like.

The cavities (2) have a larger cross-section than the cavities (6). The cavities (6) are separated from each other by walls (5). According to a better embodiment of the invention, the element comprises three or more rows of parallel cavities (6) (for example, as shown in Fig. 1), preferably four to fifteen rows. The desired mutual placement of the cavities (2) in the element part B is chess-like.

Part A cavities are adapted to be filled with heat-insulating material (eg glass or rock wool, eco-wool, synthetic foam materials - polystyrene foam, polyurethane or polyamide foam, or low volume geopolymer foam). Part B cavities are adapted to be filled with filler material comprising phase transition carrier and phase transition material granules. The carrier for the phase transition material may be, for example, crushed fiber, mineral fiber - rock or glass wool fiber, or vegetable fiber - hemp or flax spatula, eco - wool. The said phase transition material is selected with the aim of achieving a greater thermal effect interval of the phase transition.

If the masonry element is to be used in rooms where moisture content has to be stabilized (exhibition galleries, museums, libraries) - hygroscopic fibers (ecowool, hemp fiber, wood wool, geopolymer filling, gypsum mortar) are preferred. If the premises need to be temperature stabilized as a matter of priority and do not require moisture stabilization, mineral fibers and materials which have no pronounced hygroscopic properties (rock or glass wool fiber sealing, fast setting cement mortar or organic polymers) are preferred. Geopolymeric mineral foam can also be used as phase transition material. In this case, the foam may have a higher volume weight than the foam intended for filling the block facing the outer wall.

The distribution and filling of the part A and B cavities of the element is varied depending on the designed energy efficiency of the room, the intensity of heat and humidity changes and the planned comfort category level of the microclimate of the room.

For rooms with high energy efficiency requirements, the increased thickness of the outer insulation layer prevails. For premises with elevated microclimate criteria, the thickness of the accumulating and stabilizing layer of the indoor space is predominant.

The offered masonry element can be ceramic. The volume ratio of ceramic element wall material in the parts A and B of the block is equivalent and ranges from 45 to 70% of the volume of the cavities, with the permissible difference in volume of the cavity parts A and B not exceeding 10%, preferably not exceeding 5%. This enables the extrusion of elements from the mass of clay and scorched additives using the technical equipment of traditional building ceramics companies.

The increased cross-sectional area of the masonry element A cavities (2) allows insulating material with a lower degree of compaction. For this purpose, both preformed cores of appropriate size by insertion into the cavities (2) of the insulating material can be used for this purpose, or pieces of fibrous insulation material of appropriate size may be filled into the cavities (2) (e.g. 2) on a vibrating conveyor with rotating brushes).

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the cavities (2) of the masonry element part A have a rectangular cross-section, the longitudinal axis of the rectangle being parallel to the plan of the wall and the smaller rectangular cavity (2) ) the longest edge length. Such a design provides for the possible termination of cold bridges, as well as the economic advantage of the preparation of uniformly sized cores of the heat insulating material due to the possibility of using one core for filling the small opening and two cores respectively for filling the large opening.

The desired thickness of the cavity walls (3) and (4) of the masonry unit part A is> 3 mm, preferably> 5 mm, while the thickness of the outer wall (1) of the element is> 5, preferably> 8 mm. The thickness of the walls (4) of the cavities (2) parallel to the direction of the heat flow is 0.3 to 1, preferably 0.5, of the thickness of the wall (3) of the cavities (2) perpendicular to the direction of the heat flow. Compliance with this condition ensures the resistance of the element to static loads against the deformation of the gauge and ensures compliance of the element with EN 1996-1-1, 3.1. the requirements of Eurocode 6 - Part -1-1 for masonry units in the Geometrical Requirements for Grouping Masonry Units table.

The reduced cross-sectional area of the masonry element B cavities (6) allows for the placement of phase transition material with a higher degree of compaction. For this purpose, a mixture of both a fast transition paste (e.g. gypsum, a fast setting cement, a fast setting organic polymer or geopolymer material) and a phase transition micro-granulate with a crushed fiber of mineral or organic origin may be used. (glass or rock wool, hemp fiber, wood and eco-wool, synthetic fibers with a fiber length <4 mm; crushed fiber can be filled into the block openings by means of a rotary brush). Compliance with this condition ensures efficient implementation of the phase transition material heat exchange processes in space heat accumulation or emission.

The part B cavities (6) of the desired element have a trapezoidal or rhombic cross-sectional shape, with an increased surface area per unit volume.

Known phase transition material microcapsules may be used as the phase transition material, for example: Rubitherm Technologies GmbH Rubitherm SP 25 A8 (Polymer dispersions for construction); Microtek Laboratories, Inc. MPCM 24, 24D, MPCM 18D; RGEES LLC, savEnrg PCM 21P.

Claims (10)

  1. Claims
    1. A masonry unit consisting of two parts: part A and part B, furthermore:
    - part A comprises an outer wall (1) of the element, a plurality of cavities (2) adapted to be filled with heat insulating material, a wall (3) of the cavity (2) perpendicular to the direction of heat flow, and a wall (4) that are parallel to the direction of the heat flow;
    - part B comprises a plurality of cavities (6) adapted to be filled with phase transition material and walls (5) of the cavities (6);
    characterized in that the cavities (2) have a larger cross-sectional area than the cavities (6), the cavity (6) having a cross-sectional shape such that its perimeter is larger than a rectangle having the same cross-sectional area, (1, 3, 4, 5) the volume of the material in parts A and B ranges from 45 to 70% of the volume of the cavities (2, 6), but the ratio of the volume of masonry material to the volume of the cavities (2, 6) in each part Α, B is in the range of 1 to 10%, preferably 4 to 6%.
  2. Masonry unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the wall (4) has a thickness of 0.3 to 1, preferably 0.5, of the wall (3).
  3. Masonry unit according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the volume differences of the cavities in parts A and B do not exceed 10%, preferably do not exceed 5%.
  4. Masonry unit according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the cross-section of the cavities (2) has a rectangular shape, the longitudinal edges of the cavities (2) being parallel to the longitudinal axis (1) and the shortest rectangular cavity (2) is 1/2 of the longest edge of the cavity (2).
  5. Masonry unit according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the cross-section of the cavities (6) has the shape of a trapezoidal or a rhombus.
  6. Masonry element according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it comprises two or more parallel rows of cavities (2), preferably three to seven rows or three and more parallel rows of cavities (6), preferably four to four rows. fifteen rows; the desired mutual arrangement of the cavities (2) in the element part A and the desired mutual arrangement of the cavities (6) in the element part B - chess.
  7. Masonry unit according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the walls (3) and (4) have a thickness greater than or equal to 3 mm, preferably greater than or equal to 5 mm, and the wall (1) having a greater thickness. or equal to 5 mm, preferably greater than or equal to 8 mm.
  8. Masonry unit according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the cavities (2) are filled with heat-insulating material.
  9. Masonry unit according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the cavities (6) are filled with phase transition material.
  10. Masonry unit according to claim 8 and / or 9, wherein the thermal insulation material is selected from the group consisting of: glass wool, rock wool, eco wool, polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam, polyamide foam or geopolymer foam.
LVP-13-17A 2013-02-05 2013-02-05 Building element with changeable properties of heat insulation as well as heat and moisture accumulation LV14899B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
LVP-13-17A LV14899B (en) 2013-02-05 2013-02-05 Building element with changeable properties of heat insulation as well as heat and moisture accumulation

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
LVP-13-17A LV14899B (en) 2013-02-05 2013-02-05 Building element with changeable properties of heat insulation as well as heat and moisture accumulation
EP13173542.5A EP2762651A1 (en) 2013-02-05 2013-06-25 A masonry unit with variable physico-constructional heat insulation, and heat and moisture accumulation properties

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
LV14899A LV14899A (en) 2014-08-20
LV14899B true LV14899B (en) 2014-12-20

Family

ID=48747922

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
LVP-13-17A LV14899B (en) 2013-02-05 2013-02-05 Building element with changeable properties of heat insulation as well as heat and moisture accumulation

Country Status (2)

Country Link
EP (1) EP2762651A1 (en)
LV (1) LV14899B (en)

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104563328B (en) * 2014-12-26 2017-05-03 甘肃天鸿金运置业有限公司 Composite building anti-seismic hollow brick wall

Family Cites Families (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2192226B1 (en) 1972-07-11 1974-12-27 Debrock Marcel
DE2719860A1 (en) 1977-05-04 1978-11-09 Johann Dr Vielberth Heat and sound insulated cavity type wall brick - has smaller cavities near edges and wiper ones further spaced
ATA23180A (en) 1980-01-17 1981-07-15 Wienerberger Baustoffind Ag Hollow block
DE3532590A1 (en) * 1985-09-12 1987-03-19 Fritz N Musil Wallstone
GB9108592D0 (en) 1991-04-22 1991-06-05 Hepworth Building Prod Building block
DE19741282A1 (en) 1997-09-19 1999-04-08 Diha Schneider Gmbh Building brick
DE10034342A1 (en) * 1999-09-29 2001-05-03 Xaver Winklmann Ziegelwerk Roe Brick used as heat- and sound-insulating material has chambers formed as part of sections which are placed next to each other in the impact direction
DE10058463A1 (en) 2000-11-24 2002-05-29 Stefan Geyer Brick has cavities which are partially or completely filled with mineral wool which is water-repellent and present in the cavities in cushion form
DE202005000723U1 (en) 2005-01-17 2006-05-24 Schlagmann Baustoffwerke Gmbh & Co. Kg Heat insulating bricks has boring with first area and second area whereby ratio of cross-sectional area of through-opening in second area and through-opening in first area is less than ten
DE202007006972U1 (en) * 2006-05-16 2007-07-26 Unipor-Ziegel-Marketing Gmbh Wall brick for thermal insulation wall has insulating region contains at least one channel extending between the impact sides
CN100564755C (en) 2007-12-21 2009-12-02 西北农林科技大学 A kind of light phase transition heat preserving wall building block
DE102009045329B4 (en) * 2009-10-05 2015-12-31 Denise Graul Perforated brick
CN102535730A (en) * 2012-02-15 2012-07-04 安徽工业大学 Building block compositely filled with phase change material and thermal insulation material

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP2762651A1 (en) 2014-08-06
LV14899A (en) 2014-08-20

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