JP6554703B2 - system - Google Patents

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Publication number
JP6554703B2
JP6554703B2 JP2016567741A JP2016567741A JP6554703B2 JP 6554703 B2 JP6554703 B2 JP 6554703B2 JP 2016567741 A JP2016567741 A JP 2016567741A JP 2016567741 A JP2016567741 A JP 2016567741A JP 6554703 B2 JP6554703 B2 JP 6554703B2
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
solar cell
supercell
solar
module
plurality
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JP2016567741A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP2017517145A5 (en
JP2017517145A (en
Inventor
モラド、ラトソン
アルモジー、ギラド
スエズ、イタイ
フッメル、ジーン
ベケット、ナサン
リン、ヤフ
ガンノン、ジョン
ジェー. スターキー、ミカエル
ジェー. スターキー、ミカエル
スチュアート、ロバート
ランス、タミー
メイダン、ダン
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サンパワー コーポレイション
サンパワー コーポレイション
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Family has litigation
Priority to US201462003223P priority Critical
Priority to US62/003,223 priority
Priority to US201462035624P priority
Priority to US62/035,624 priority
Priority to US201462036215P priority
Priority to US62/036,215 priority
Priority to US201462042615P priority
Priority to US62/042,615 priority
Priority to US201462048858P priority
Priority to US62/048,858 priority
Priority to US62/064,260 priority
Priority to US29/506,415 priority
Priority to US201462064260P priority
Priority to US29506415 priority
Priority to US62/064,834 priority
Priority to US201462064834P priority
Priority to US29506755 priority
Priority to US29/506,755 priority
Priority to US14/530,405 priority patent/US9780253B2/en
Priority to US14/530,405 priority
Priority to US14/532,293 priority
Priority to US14/532,293 priority patent/US20150349193A1/en
Priority to US29508323 priority
Priority to US29/508,323 priority
Priority to US14/536,486 priority patent/US20150349168A1/en
Priority to US14/536,486 priority
Priority to US14/539,546 priority
Priority to US14/539,546 priority patent/US20150349169A1/en
Priority to US14/543,580 priority patent/US9882077B2/en
Priority to US14/543,580 priority
Priority to US201462081200P priority
Priority to US62/081,200 priority
Priority to US29/509,588 priority
Priority to US29/509,586 priority
Priority to US29/509,586 priority patent/USD750556S1/en
Priority to US14/548,081 priority
Priority to US29/509,588 priority patent/USD767484S1/en
Priority to US14/548,081 priority patent/US20150349701A1/en
Priority to US201462082904P priority
Priority to US62/082,904 priority
Priority to US14/550,676 priority
Priority to US14/550,676 priority patent/US20150349171A1/en
Priority to US14/552,761 priority patent/US20150349172A1/en
Priority to US14/552,761 priority
Priority to US14/560,577 priority patent/US9876132B2/en
Priority to US14/560,577 priority
Priority to US14/566,278 priority
Priority to US14/565,820 priority patent/US20150349145A1/en
Priority to US14/566,278 priority patent/US20150349703A1/en
Priority to US14/565,820 priority
Priority to US14/572,206 priority
Priority to US14/572,206 priority patent/US9401451B2/en
Priority to US14/577,593 priority
Priority to US14/577,593 priority patent/US9356184B2/en
Priority to US14/586,025 priority patent/US20150349153A1/en
Priority to US14/586,025 priority
Priority to US14/585,917 priority
Priority to US14/585,917 priority patent/US20150349162A1/en
Priority to US14/594,439 priority patent/US9397252B2/en
Priority to US14/594,439 priority
Priority to US201562103816P priority
Priority to US62/103,816 priority
Priority to US14/605,695 priority
Priority to US14/605,695 priority patent/US9484484B2/en
Priority to US201562111757P priority
Priority to US62/111,757 priority
Priority to US201562113250P priority
Priority to US62/113,250 priority
Priority to US201562134176P priority
Priority to US62/134,176 priority
Priority to US14/674,983 priority patent/US9947820B2/en
Priority to US14/674,983 priority
Priority to US62/150,426 priority
Priority to US201562150426P priority
Priority to PCT/US2015/032472 priority patent/WO2015183827A2/en
Application filed by サンパワー コーポレイション, サンパワー コーポレイション filed Critical サンパワー コーポレイション
Publication of JP2017517145A publication Critical patent/JP2017517145A/en
Publication of JP2017517145A5 publication Critical patent/JP2017517145A5/ja
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP6554703B2 publication Critical patent/JP6554703B2/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=57321491&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=JP6554703(B2) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product
    • Y02P70/52Manufacturing of products or systems for producing renewable energy
    • Y02P70/521Photovoltaic generators

Description

[Cross-reference of related applications]
This international patent application includes US patent application No. 14 / 530,405 (the title of the invention is “Shingled Solar Cell Module” and the filing date is October 31, 2014), US patent application No. 14 / 532,293 ( The name of the invention is “Shingled Solar Cell Module”, the filing date is November 4, 2014, and the US patent application No. 14 / 536,486 (the name of the invention is “Shingled Solar Cell Module”, the filing date is November 2014) 7), US patent application No. 14 / 539,546 (invention name is “Shingled Solar Cell Module”, filing date is November 12, 2014), US patent application No. 14 / 543,580 (invention) Is named "Shingled Solar Cell Module" No. 14 / 548,081 (invention name is “Shingled Solar Cell Module”, filing date is November 19, 2014), US patent application No. 14 No./550,676 (invention name is “Shingled Solar Cell Module”, filing date is November 21, 2014), US patent application No. 14 / 552,761 (invention name is “Shingled Solar Cell Module”, No. 14 / 560,577 (the name of the invention is “Shinged Solar Cell Module”, the filing date is Dec. 4, 2014), No. 566,278 (the title of the invention is “Shingled Solar Cell Module ", filing date December 10, 2014), US Patent Application No. 14 / 565,820 (Invention name is" Shingled Solar Cell Module "filing date December 10, 2014), US Patent Application No. 14 / 572,206 (invention name is “Shingled Solar Cell Module”, filing date is December 16, 2014), US patent application No. 14 / 577,593 (invention name is “Shingled Solar Cell” Module ", filing date December 19, 2014), US Patent Application No. 14 / 586,025 (Invention name is" Shingled Solar Cell Module ", filing date is December 30, 2014), US Patent Application 14 / 585,917 (The name of the invention is “Sh ingled Solar Cell Module ", filing date December 30, 2014), U.S. Patent Application No. 14 / 594,439 (invention name is" Shingled Solar Cell Module "filing date January 12, 2015), US patent application No. 14 / 605,695 (the name of the invention is “Shingled Solar Cell Module”, the filing date is January 26, 2015), US provisional patent application No. 62 / 003,223 (the name of the invention is “ "Shingled Solar Cell Module", filing date May 27, 2014), US Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 036,215 (Invention name is "Shingled Solar Cell Module", filing date August 12, 2014) US Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 042,615 (The title of the invention is “Shingled Solar Cell Module” and the filing date is August 27, 2014), US Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 048,858 (the name of the invention is “Shingled Solar Cell Module”, the filing date is 2014) September 11, 2011), US Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 064,260 (the title of the invention is “Shingled Solar Cell Module”, filing date is October 15, 2014), US Provisional Patent Application No. 62/064, No. 834 (invention name is “Shingled Solar Cell Module”, filing date is October 16, 2014), US patent application No. 14 / 674,983 (invention name is “Shingled Solar Cell Panel Employing Hidden Taps”, application March 31, 2015), US Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 081,200 (the name of the invention is “Solar Cell Panel Employing Hidden Taps”, and the filing date is November 18, 2014), US Provisional Patent Application No. No. 62 / 113,250 (the name of the invention is “Shingled Solar Cell Panel Employing Hidden Taps”, the filing date is February 6, 2015), US provisional patent application No. 62 / 082,904 (the name of the invention is “High”) “Voltage Solar Panel”, filing date November 21, 2014), US provisional patent application No. 62 / 103,816 (invention name “High Voltage Solar Panel” filing date January 15, 2015), US Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 111,75 No. (Invention name is “High Voltage Solar Panel”, filing date is February 4, 2015), US Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 134,176 (Invention name is “Solar Cell Cleaning Tools and Methods”, application US Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 150,426 (the name of the invention is “Shingled Solar Cell Panel Compensating Stencil-Printed Cell Metallization”, the filing date is April 21, 2015), US Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 035,624 (Invention name is “Solar Cells with Reduced Edge Carrier Recombination”, filing date is August 11, 2014), US Takumi Application No. 29 / 506,415 (filing date: October 15, 2014), U.S. Design Application No. 29 / 506,755 (filing date: Oct. 20, 2014), U.S. Design Application No. 29/508 , 323 (filing date: November 5, 2014), US Design Application No. 29 / 509,586 (filing date: November 19, 2014), and US Design Application No. 29 / 509,588 (Application) Claims the priority of the day of November 19, 2014). Each of the patent applications in the above list is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

  The present invention generally relates to a solar cell module in which solar cells are arranged in a scaly manner.

  Alternative energy sources are needed to meet the growing global energy demand. Solar energy sources are sufficient to meet such demands in many geographic areas, in part, by providing power generated by solar (eg, photovoltaic) cells.

  A highly efficient arrangement of solar cells within a solar cell module and a method of making such a solar module are disclosed herein.

  In one aspect, the solar module includes N (≧ 25) series connected strings of rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells having an average breakdown voltage greater than about 10 volts. The plurality of solar cells are grouped to be one or a plurality of supercells, and each supercell is in a state in which the long sides of adjacent solar cells overlap and are conductively joined to each other by an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive. 2 or more of the solar cells arranged side by side. None of the single solar cells in the string of solar cells or a group of less than N solar cells are individually electrically connected in parallel with the bypass diode. The safe and reliable operation of solar modules effectively prevents or reduces the formation of hot spots on reverse-biased solar cells along the supercell through the overlapping portions of adjacent solar cells Easy heat conduction. The supercell can be encapsulated, for example, in a thermoplastic olefin polymer sandwiched between a glass front sheet and a back sheet, which further increases the module's robustness with respect to thermal damage. In some variations, N ≧ 30, ≧ 50, or ≧ 100.

  In another aspect, the supercell is a rectangular or generally rectangular shape having a shape defined by oppositely positioned parallel first and second long sides and two oppositely positioned short sides. A plurality of silicon solar cells each having a front surface (solar side) and a rear surface are included. Each solar cell includes an electrically conductive front metallization pattern including at least one front contact pad positioned adjacent to the first long side, and at least one rear surface positioned adjacent to the second long side. An electrically conductive backside metallization pattern including contact pads. In the plurality of silicon solar cells, the first long side and the second long side of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap each other, and the front and rear contact pads on the adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and conduct. The silicon solar cells that are adjacent to each other are conductively bonded to each other with a conductive adhesive bonding agent, and are arranged side by side in an electrically connected state in series. The front metallization pattern of each silicon solar cell is substantially configured to transfer the conductive adhesive bond to the at least one front contact pad prior to curing of the conductive adhesive bond during manufacture of the supercell. Includes a barrier configured for containment.

  In another aspect, the supercell is a rectangular or generally rectangular shape having a shape defined by oppositely positioned parallel first and second long sides and two oppositely positioned short sides. A plurality of silicon solar cells each including a front surface (solar side) and a rear surface are included. Each solar cell includes an electrically conductive front metallization pattern including at least one front contact pad positioned adjacent to the first long side, and at least one rear surface positioned adjacent to the second long side. An electrically conductive backside metallization pattern including contact pads. In the plurality of silicon solar cells, the first long side and the second long side of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap each other, and the front and rear contact pads on the adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and conduct. The silicon solar cells that are adjacent to each other are conductively bonded to each other with a conductive adhesive bonding agent, and are arranged side by side in an electrically connected state in series. The backside metallization pattern of each silicon solar cell substantially includes the conductive adhesive bond to the at least one back contact pad prior to curing of the conductive adhesive bond during manufacture of the supercell. Includes a barrier configured for containment.

  In another aspect, a method of making a solar cell string includes placing one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers along a plurality of lines parallel to a long edge of each pseudo-square silicon wafer among one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers. Dicing to form a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each having substantially the same length along the major axis. The method also includes the step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of the adjacent solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other and the adjacent solar cells are electrically connected in series. The plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells include at least one rectangular solar cell including two chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners of the pseudo-square wafer or a part of the plurality of corners, and a chamfered corner. One or a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells that each does not have. The interval between a plurality of parallel lines performed along the dicing of the pseudo-square wafer has a width perpendicular to the major axis of the rectangular silicon solar cell including the chamfered corner and does not have the chamfered corner. The rectangular silicon solar cells are selected to compensate for the chamfered corners by making them larger than the width perpendicular to the long axis of the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells, whereby each of the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells in the solar cell string is The front surface has substantially the same area exposed to light in the operation of the solar cell string.

  In another aspect, the supercell includes a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state in which ends of adjacent solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent solar cells are electrically connected in series. Including. At least one of the plurality of silicon solar cells has chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners or a part of the plurality of corners of the dicing-source pseudo-square silicon wafer, At least one of them does not have a chamfered corner, and each of the plurality of silicon solar cells has a front surface that has substantially the same area exposed to light during operation of the solar cell string. Have.

In another aspect, a method of making two or more supercells includes the one or more of the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each pseudo-square silicon wafer. A plurality of first rectangular silicon solar cells including a plurality of corners of the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers or chamfered corners corresponding to a part of the plurality of corners by dicing the pseudo-square silicon wafer; Forming a second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each having a first length extending across the entire width of the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers and having no chamfered corners. . The method includes removing the chamfered corners from each of the first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells, each having a second length shorter than the first length, and having chamfered corners. And forming a third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells that are not. The method is
The long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells are overlapped and conductively connected to each other, and the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state where the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Forming a solar cell string having a width equal to the first length;
The third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state where the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. And forming a solar cell string having a width equal to the second length.

In other embodiments,
A method of making two or more supercells,
The one or more pseudo square silicon wafers are diced along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each pseudo square silicon wafer among the one or more pseudo square silicon wafers, and the one or more pseudo square silicon wafers are obtained. A first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells including chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners, or a portion of the plurality of corners; and a second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having no chamfered corners; Forming a step;
The first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state where the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Process,
The long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state where the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Process.

In other embodiments, the supercell is
A plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in the first direction with the ends of adjacent silicon solar cells overlapped and conductively joined to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series,
With elongated flexible electrical interconnects,
The long axis of the elongated flexible electrical interconnect is oriented parallel to a second direction perpendicular to the first direction;
The elongated flexible electrical interconnect is
Conductive joining to the front or rear surface of the end silicon solar cell among the plurality of silicon solar cells at a plurality of discontinuous positions arranged along the second direction,
Extending over at least the full width of the end solar cell in the second direction,
A conductor thickness measured in a direction perpendicular to the front or back surface of the edge silicon solar cell is less than or equal to about 100 microns;
Providing a resistance lower than or equal to about 0.012 ohms for current flow in the second direction;
Configured to provide flexibility to accommodate differential expansion in the second direction between the end silicon solar cells and the interconnect in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 85 ° C. ing.

  The flexible electrical interconnect may be, for example, a conductor thickness measured in a direction perpendicular to the front and back surfaces of the edge silicon solar cell that is less than or equal to about 30 microns. . The flexible electrical interconnect extends in the second direction beyond the supercell and at least provides electricity to a second supercell positioned parallel to and adjacent to the supercell within the solar module. An interconnection can be provided. In addition or alternatively, the flexible electrical interconnect extends in the first direction beyond the supercell and is positioned in a solar module parallel and side by side with the supercell. An electrical interconnection to the supercell may be provided.

In another aspect, the solar module includes a plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows extending across the width of the solar module to form the front surface of the solar module. Each supercell includes a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state in which ends of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. At least the edge of the first supercell adjacent to the edge of the solar module in the first row is
Bonding to the front surface of the first supercell with an electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent at a plurality of discontinuous positions,
Extending parallel to the edge of the solar module,
At least part of which is folded around the edge of the first supercell and hidden from view from the front of the solar module,
Via flexible electrical interconnects,
Electrical connection is made to the end of the second supercell, adjacent to the same edge of the solar module in the second row.

In another embodiment, the method of making a supercell includes
Laser scribing one or more scribe lines on each of the one or more silicon solar cells to define a plurality of rectangular regions on the one or more silicon solar cells;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive bond to the scribed one or more silicon solar cells at one or more positions adjacent to the long side of each rectangular region;
A plurality of rectangles each including a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent arranged on the front surface adjacent to the long side by separating the one or more silicon solar cells along the one or more scribe lines. Providing a silicon solar cell;
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of the adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells are partially overlapped with a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent interposed therebetween, and
Curing the electrically conductive bonding agent, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells together and electrically connecting them in series.

In another embodiment, the method of making a supercell includes
Laser scribing one or more scribe lines on each of the one or more silicon solar cells to define a plurality of rectangular regions on the one or more silicon solar cells;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to a portion of the top surface of the one or more silicon solar cells;
A vacuum is drawn between the bottom surface and the curved support surface of the one or more silicon solar cells to bend the one or more silicon solar cells toward the curved support surface, thereby providing the one or more silicon solar cells. Cleaving the one or more silicon solar cells along the scribe line to provide a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each including a part of the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive disposed on the front surface adjacent to the long side And a process of
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of the adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells are partially overlapped with a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent interposed therebetween, and
Curing the electrically conductive bonding agent, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells together and electrically connecting them in series.

In another aspect, a method of making a solar module includes a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state where a plurality of ends on the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlap in a flaky manner. Assembling a plurality of supercells each of which has. The method also cures the electrically conductive adhesive disposed between the overlapping ends of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells by heating and pressurizing the plurality of supercells, thereby adjacent and overlapping. Joining the rectangular silicon solar cells to each other and electrically connecting them in series. The method is also
Placing and interconnecting the plurality of supercells in a desired solar module configuration in a layer stack including an encapsulant;
Heating and pressing the layer stack to form a laminated structure.

  Some variations of the method include heating and pressurizing the layer stack to heat and pressurize the plurality of supercells prior to the step of forming the stacked structure, thereby providing the electrically conductive bonding agent. Curing or partially curing, thereby forming a supercell that is cured or partially cured as an intermediate product prior to formation of the laminated structure. In some variations, as each additional rectangular silicon solar cell is added to the supercell during assembly of the supercell, the newly added solar cell and its adjacent overlapping solar cell The electrically conductive adhesive bond with the cell is cured or partially cured before any other rectangular silicon solar cell is added to the supercell. Alternatively, some variations include curing or partially curing all of the above electrically conductive bonding agents in the supercell in the same process.

  If the supercell is formed as a partially cured intermediate product, the method includes the step of heating and pressurizing the layer stack to complete the curing of the electrically conductive adhesive to form the laminated structure. Can be included.

  Some variations of the method include the step of heating and pressurizing the layer stack prior to forming the laminated structure without forming a supercell that has been cured or partially cured as an intermediate product. A step of curing the agent to form a laminated structure.

  The method may include dicing one or more standard size silicon solar cells into a plurality of smaller rectangular rectangles to provide the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells. The electrically conductive adhesive adhesive is applied to the one or more silicon solar cells before the step of dicing the one or more silicon solar cells, and has an electrically conductive adhesive adhesive applied in advance. A plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells may be provided. Alternatively, the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive may be applied to the rectangular silicon solar cell after dicing the one or more silicon solar cells to provide the rectangular silicon solar cell.

In one aspect, the solar module includes a plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows. Each supercell has a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicons arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are directly conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series Includes solar cells. Solar panels are also
A first hidden tap contact pad located on the rear surface of the first solar cell located at an intermediate position along the first supercell among the plurality of supercells;
A first electrical interconnect that is conductively coupled to the first hidden tap contact pad. The first electrical interconnect includes stress relaxation features that accommodate for differential thermal expansion between the interconnect and the silicon solar cell to which it is joined. As used herein with respect to an interconnect, the term “stress relaxation feature” refers to, for example, a geometric feature such as a kink, loop, or slot, the thickness of the interconnect (eg, very thin), and / Or may refer to the ductility of the interconnect. For example, a stress relaxation feature can be that the interconnect is formed from a very thin copper ribbon.

Solar modules
A second hidden tap contact pad located on the rear surface of the second solar cell located adjacent to the first solar cell at an intermediate position along the second supercell among the plurality of supercells in the adjacent supercell row; May include,
The first hidden tap contact pad may be electrically connected to the second hidden tap contact pad through the first electrical interconnect. In such a case, the first electrical interconnect may extend across the gap between the first supercell and the second supercell and may be conductively bonded to the second hidden tap contact pad. Alternatively, the electrical connection between the first hidden tap contact pad and the second hidden tap contact pad is a conductive junction to the second hidden tap contact pad and an electrical connection (eg, a conductive junction) to the first electrical interconnect. Other electrical interconnects may be included. Any interconnect scheme may optionally extend across additional multiple supercell rows. For example, any interconnect scheme can optionally extend across the full width of the module to interconnect the solar cells in each row via hidden tap contact pads.

Solar modules
A second hidden tap contact pad located on the rear surface of the second solar cell located at another intermediate position along the first supercell among the plurality of supercells;
A second electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the second hidden tap contact pad;
A bypass diode electrically connected by the first electrical interconnect portion and the second electrical interconnect portion in parallel with the solar cell located between the first hidden tap contact pad and the second hidden tap contact pad. May be included.

In any of the above variations, the first hidden tap contact pad is a plurality of hidden tap contacts disposed on the rear surface of the first solar cell in a row extending parallel to the long axis of the first solar cell. Could be one of the pads,
The first electrical interconnect is conductively joined to each of the plurality of hidden contact portions and substantially extends across the length of the first solar cell along the long axis. In addition or alternatively, the first hidden contact pad is one of a plurality of hidden tap contact pads disposed on the back surface of the first solar cell in a row extending perpendicular to the long axis of the first solar cell. obtain. In the latter case, the row of hidden tap contact pads may be located adjacent to the short edge of the first solar cell, for example. The first hidden contact pad may be one of a plurality of hidden tap contact pads arranged in a two-dimensional array on the back surface of the first solar cell.

Alternatively, in any of the above variations, the first hidden tap contact pad may be located adjacent to the short side of the rear surface of the first solar cell,
The first electrical interconnect does not extend substantially inward from the hidden tap contact pad along the long axis of the solar cell;
The interconnect preferably has a sheet metallization pattern on the first solar cell that is less than or equal to about 5 ohms / square, or less than or equal to about 2.5 ohms / square. Provides a conduction path to In such cases, the first interconnect may include, for example, two tabs positioned on opposite sides of the stress relaxation feature;
One of the two tabs may be conductively bonded to the first hidden tap contact pad. The two tabs can be of different lengths.

  In any of the above variations, the first electrical interconnect identifies a desired alignment with the first hidden tap contact pad or is desired with an edge of the first supercell. Alignment features may be included that identify a desired alignment with the first hidden tap contact pad and a desired alignment with an edge of the first supercell.

  In another aspect, the solar module comprises a plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows between a glass front sheet, a rear sheet, and the glass front sheet and the rear sheet. Including. Each supercell has a plurality of rectangles or abbreviations arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are directly conductively connected to each other flexibly and electrically connected in series. It has a rectangular silicon solar cell. The first flexible electrical interconnection portion is firmly conductively joined to the first supercell among the plurality of supercells. The plurality of flexible conductive junctions between the overlapping solar cells are the plurality of supercells in a direction parallel to the plurality of rows in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 100 ° C. without damaging the solar module. Providing the plurality of supercells with mechanical compliance that accommodates thermal expansion mismatch between the glass and the glass front sheet. A strong conductive junction between the first supercell and the first flexible electrical interconnect provides a first flexible electrical interconnect in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 180 ° C. without damaging the solar module. The connection is adapted to a mismatch of thermal expansion between the first supercell and the first flexible electrical interconnect in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of rows.

  The plurality of conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells in a supercell may utilize a different conductive adhesive than the plurality of conductive junctions between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect. The conductive junction on one side of at least one solar cell in the supercell may utilize a different conductive adhesive than the conductive junction on the other side. For example, the conductive adhesive that forms a strong bond between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect can be solder. In some variations, the plurality of conductive junctions between the overlapping solar cells in the supercell is formed with a non-solder conductive adhesive, and the conductive junction between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect is a solder Formed with.

  In some variations that utilize two different conductive adhesives as just described, both conductive adhesives can be processed at the same processing step (eg, at the same temperature, at the same pressure, and / or at the same time). Can be cured (within an interval).

  A plurality of the conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells can accommodate, for example, differential motion between each cell and the glass front sheet that is greater than or equal to about 15 microns.

  The plurality of conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells are, for example, less than or equal to about 50 microns in thickness in a direction perpendicular to the adjacent solar cells, and the plurality of solar junctions The thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the battery may be greater than or equal to about 1.5 W / (meter-K).

  The first flexible electrical interconnect can withstand, for example, a thermal expansion or contraction greater than or equal to about 40 microns of the first flexible interconnect.

  The portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the supercell is a ribbon formed from copper, for example, having a thickness in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to be joined. It may be less than or equal to 30 microns, or less than or equal to about 50 microns. The first flexible electrical interconnect has an integral conductive copper portion that is not joined to the solar cell, providing higher conductivity than the portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the solar cell. Can do. The first flexible electrical interconnect has a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to which it is joined that is less than or equal to about 30 microns, or less than or equal to about 50 microns. The width of the surface of the solar cell in the direction perpendicular to the current flow through the interconnect may be greater than or equal to about 10 mm. The first flexible electrical interconnect may be conductively bonded to a conductor proximate to the solar cell that provides higher conductivity than the first electrical interconnect.

  In other aspects, the solar module includes a plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows. Each supercell has a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicons arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are directly conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series Includes solar cells. A hidden tap contact pad that does not conduct substantial current in normal operation is an intermediate position along the first supercell of the plurality of supercells in the first row of the two or more parallel rows of supercells. It is located in the rear surface of the 1st solar cell located in. The hidden tap contact pad is electrically connected in parallel to at least a second solar cell in the second row of the two or more parallel rows of the supercell.

The solar module may include an electrical interconnect that joins the hidden tap contact pad and electrically interconnects the hidden tap contact pad to the second solar cell. In some variations, the electrical interconnect does not substantially extend over the length of the first solar cell,
A back metallization pattern on the first solar cell provides a conductive path to the hidden tap contact pad having a sheet resistance of less than or equal to about 5 ohms / square.

The plurality of supercells may be arranged in three or more parallel rows extending across the width of the solar module perpendicular to the plurality of rows,
The hidden tap contact pad is electrically connected to a hidden contact pad on at least one solar cell in each of the three or more parallel rows of the supercell, and the three or more supercells of the supercell. Electrically connect all of the parallel rows in parallel. In such a variation, the solar module is connected to a bypass diode or other electronic device to at least one of the hidden tap contact pads, or to an interconnect between the hidden tap contact pads. Bus connections can be included.

  The solar module may include a flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively bonded to the hidden tap contact pad and electrically connects it to the second solar cell. The portion of the flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the hidden tap contact pad is, for example, a ribbon formed from copper and has a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell of the joining destination. It may be less than or equal to 50 microns. The conductive junction between the hidden tap contact pad and the flexible electrical interconnect is connected to the flexible electrical interconnect in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 180 ° C. without damaging the solar module. Enduring the thermal expansion mismatch between the first solar cell and the flexible interconnect and adapting to the relative motion between the first solar cell and the second solar cell resulting from the thermal expansion. obtain.

  In some variations, in operation of the solar module, the first hidden contact pad may conduct a current that is greater than a current generated by any one of the plurality of solar cells.

  Typically, the front surface of the first solar cell lying on the first hidden tap contact pad is not occupied by contact pads or any other interconnect features. Typically, any area of the front surface of the first solar cell that does not overlap with a portion of the adjacent solar cells in the first supercell is occupied by contact pads or any other interconnect feature. Absent.

  In some variations, within each supercell, most of the plurality of batteries do not have hidden tap contact pads. In such a variation, the plurality of batteries having a hidden tap contact pad may have a larger light collection area than the plurality of batteries having no hidden tap contact pad.

  In another aspect, the solar module comprises a plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows between a glass front sheet, a rear sheet, and the glass front sheet and the rear sheet. Including. Each supercell has a plurality of rectangles or abbreviations arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are directly conductively connected to each other flexibly and electrically connected in series. It has a rectangular silicon solar cell. The first flexible electrical interconnection portion is firmly conductively joined to the first supercell among the plurality of supercells. The flexible conductive junction between the overlapping solar cells is formed from a first conductive adhesive and has a rigidity less than or equal to about 800 megapascals. The strong conductive joint between the first supercell and the first flexible electrical interconnect is formed from a second conductive adhesive and has a stiffness greater than or equal to about 2000 megapascals.

  The first conductive adhesive may have a glass transition temperature that is, for example, less than or equal to about 0 ° C.

  In some variations, unlike the first conductive adhesive and the second conductive adhesive, both conductive adhesives can be cured in the same processing step.

  In some variations, the plurality of conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells are less than or equal to about 50 microns in thickness perpendicular to the solar cells and perpendicular to the solar cells. Thermal conductivity in the direction is greater than or equal to about 1.5 W / (meter-K).

  In one aspect, the solar module includes N (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows. Each supercell includes a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. The supercell is electrically connected to provide a high DC voltage that is greater than or equal to about 90 volts.

  In one variation, the solar module includes one or more flexible electrical interconnects arranged to electrically connect the plurality of supercells in series to provide the high DC voltage. The solar module may include module level power electronics including an inverter that converts the high DC voltage into an AC voltage. The module level power electronics can sense the high DC voltage and operate the module at an optimal current-voltage power point.

In another variation, the solar module is
A module level module that electrically connects a plurality of individual, adjacent, series connected supercell row pairs and electrically connects one or more of the plurality of supercell row pairs in series to provide the high DC voltage. Power electronics,
An inverter that converts the high DC voltage into an AC voltage. Optionally, the module level power electronics can sense the voltage across each individual supercell row pair and operate each individual supercell row pair at the optimal current-voltage power point. Optionally, if the voltage across an individual supercell row pair falls below a threshold, the module level power electronics can switch out the row pair from the circuit providing the high DC voltage.

In another variation, the solar module is electrically connected to each individual supercell row, and two or more of the plurality of supercell rows are electrically connected in series to provide the high DC voltage. Level power electronics,
An inverter that converts the high DC voltage into an AC voltage. Optionally, the module level power electronics can sense the voltage across each individual supercell row and operate each individual supercell row at the optimal current-voltage power point. Optionally, if the voltage across an individual supercell row falls below a threshold, the module level power electronics can switch out the supercell row from the circuit providing the high DC voltage.

In another variation, the solar module is electrically connected to each individual supercell, and two or more of the plurality of supercells are electrically connected in series to provide the module level power to provide the high DC voltage. Electronics,
An inverter that converts the high DC voltage into an AC voltage. Optionally, the module level power electronics can sense the voltage across each individual supercell and operate each individual supercell at the optimal current-voltage power point. Optionally, if the voltage across an individual supercell falls below a threshold, the module level power electronics can switch out the supercell from the circuit providing the high DC voltage.

In another variation, each supercell in the module is electrically segmented into a plurality of segments by a plurality of hidden taps. The solar module includes module-level power electronics that provide the high DC voltage by electrically connecting each segment of each supercell through the plurality of hidden taps and electrically connecting two or more segments in series. Including
An inverter that converts the high DC voltage into an AC voltage; Optionally, the module level power electronics can sense the voltage across each individual segment of each supercell and operate each individual segment at the optimal current-voltage power point. Optionally, if the voltage across an individual segment falls below a threshold, the module level power electronics can switch out the segment from the circuit providing the high DC voltage.

  In any of the above variations, the optimal current-voltage power point may be the maximum current-voltage power point.

  In any of the above variations, the module level power electronics may not have a DC-DC boost component.

  In any of the above variations, N is greater than or equal to about 200, greater than or equal to about 250, greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, or equal to about Greater than or equal to 400, greater than or equal to about 450, greater than or equal to about 500, greater than or equal to, greater than or equal to about 550, greater than or equal to about 600, greater than or equal to about 650, or It can be equal to or greater than or equal to about 700.

  In any of the above variations, the high DC voltage is greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, or greater than about 300 volts. , Or equal to, greater than or equal to about 360 volts, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts, or about 600 volts. It can be a higher or equal voltage.

  In another aspect, the photovoltaic system includes two or more solar modules that are electrically connected in parallel and an inverter. Each solar module includes N (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows. Each supercell in each module has a long side of adjacent silicon solar cells overlapped with each other and conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state of being electrically connected in series. Two or more silicon solar cells are included among the plurality of silicon solar cells. Within each module, the supercell is electrically connected to provide a high voltage DC module output that is greater than or equal to about 90 volts. The inverter is electrically connected to two or more solar modules to convert their high voltage DC output to AC.

  Each solar module may include one or more flexible electrical interconnects arranged to electrically connect the plurality of supercells in the solar module in series to provide a high voltage direct current output of the solar module.

  The solar power generation system may include at least a third solar module that is electrically connected in series with the first solar module among two or more solar modules that are electrically connected in parallel. In such a case, the third solar module is N ′ (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows. A solar cell may be included. The supercells in the third solar module are arranged side by side in a state where the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Two or more silicon solar cells are included in the plurality of silicon solar cells. Within the third solar module, the supercell is electrically connected to provide a high voltage DC module output that is greater than or equal to about 90 volts.

  As just described, a variant comprising a third solar module that is electrically connected in series with the first solar module of two or more solar modules is a modification of two or more solar modules that are electrically connected in parallel. Of these, at least a fourth solar module electrically connected in series with the second solar module may also be included. The fourth solar module may include N ″ (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows. . The supercells in the fourth solar module are arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Two or more silicon solar cells are included in the plurality of silicon solar cells. Within the fourth solar module, the supercell is electrically connected to provide a high voltage DC module output that is greater than or equal to about 90 volts.

  In a photovoltaic system, a short circuit occurring in any one of the two or more solar modules dissipates the power generated by the other solar modules of the two or more solar modules. It may include a plurality of fuses and / or blocking diodes arranged to prevent it.

  The photovoltaic system may include a positive bus and a negative bus of the two or more solar modules in parallel electrical connection destination and of the inverter. Alternatively, the photovoltaic system may include a combiner box that is electrically connected by separate conductors of the two or more solar modules. The combiner box electrically connects the solar modules in parallel, and optionally a short circuit occurring in any one of the two or more solar modules dissipates the power generated by the other solar modules. It may include a plurality of fuses and / or blocking diodes arranged to prevent this.

  The inverter may be configured to operate the two or more solar modules at a DC voltage that is higher than a minimum value set to avoid reverse biasing the solar modules.

  The inverter may be configured to recognize a reverse bias condition occurring in one or more of the solar modules and operate the solar module at a voltage that avoids the reverse bias condition.

  The photovoltaic system can be located on the roof.

  In any of the above variations, N, N ′, and N ″ are greater than or equal to about 200, greater than or equal to about 250, greater than or equal to about 300, about 350 Greater than or equal to, greater than about 400, or equal to, greater than about 450, or equal to, greater than about 500, or equal to, greater than about 550, or equal to, greater than about 600, or It can be equal, greater than or equal to about 650, or greater than or equal to about 700. N, N ′, and N ″ may have the same or different values.

  In any of the above variations, the high DC voltage provided by the solar module is greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than about 240 volts, or Equal to, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, greater than or equal to about 360 volts, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts It can be equal or higher than or equal to about 600 volts.

  In another aspect, the photovoltaic system is an N (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows. Including a first solar module. Each supercell includes a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. The system also includes an inverter. The inverter can be, for example, a micro inverter integrated with the first solar module. The plurality of supercells in the first solar module are electrically connected to provide a high DC voltage, greater than or equal to about 90 volts, to the inverter that converts the DC to AC.

  The first solar module may include one or more flexible electrical interconnects arranged to electrically connect the plurality of supercells in the solar module in series to provide a high voltage direct current output of the solar module. .

  The solar power generation system may include at least a second solar module that is electrically connected in series with the first solar module. The second solar module may include N ′ (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows. The supercells in the second solar module are arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Two or more silicon solar cells are included in the plurality of silicon solar cells. Within the second solar module, the supercell is electrically connected to provide a high voltage DC module output that is greater than or equal to about 90 volts.

  An inverter (eg, a microinverter) may not have a DC-DC boost component.

  In any of the above variations, N and N ′ are greater than or equal to about 200, greater than about 250, or equal to, greater than about 300, or equal to, greater than about 350, or Equal, greater than about 400, or equal, greater than about 450, or equal, greater than about 500, or equal, greater than about 550, or equal, greater than about 600, or equal, greater than about 650 It can be greater than or equal to, or greater than or equal to about 700. N, N ′ may have the same or different values.

  In any of the above variations, the high DC voltage provided by the solar module is greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than about 240 volts, or Equal to, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, greater than or equal to about 360 volts, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts It can be equal or higher than or equal to about 600 volts.

  In other embodiments, the solar modules are N (greater than or equal to about 250) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of series-connected supercells in two or more parallel rows. Includes batteries. Each supercell includes a plurality of silicon solar cells, where the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and directly conductively join to each other with an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive, Silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state of being electrically connected in series. The solar module comprises less than one bypass diode per 25 solar cells. The electrically and thermally conductive adhesive has a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of less than or equal to about 50 microns and a thermal conductivity in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of about Form multiple junctions between adjacent solar cells that are greater than or equal to 1.5 W / (meter-K).

  The plurality of supercells may be encapsulated in a thermoplastic olefin layer between the front sheet and the rear sheet. Supercells and their encapsulants can be sandwiched between a glass front sheet and a back sheet.

  The solar module may comprise, for example, less than 1 bypass diode per 30 solar cells, or less than 1 bypass diode per 50 solar cells, or less than 1 bypass diode per 100 solar cells. A solar module may comprise, for example, no bypass diode, or only a single bypass diode, or no more than 3 bypass diodes, or no more than 6 bypass diodes, or no more than 10 bypass diodes.

  A plurality of conductive junctions between the overlapping solar cells are optional, and the plurality of parallel junctions in the direction parallel to the plurality of rows in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 100 ° C. without damaging the solar module. The plurality of supercells may be provided with mechanical compliance that accommodates thermal expansion mismatch between the supercell and the glass front sheet.

  In any of the above variations, N is greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, greater than or equal to about 400, greater than or equal to about 450, It can be a value greater than or equal to 500, greater than or equal to about 550, greater than or equal to about 600, greater than or equal to, greater than or equal to about 650, or greater than or equal to about 700.

  In any of the above variations, the plurality of supercells can be electrically connected to be greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, or Equal to, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, greater than or equal to about 360 volts, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts A high DC voltage equal to or greater than or equal to about 600 volts may be provided.

Solar energy system
One of the solar modules among the above-described modifications;
An inverter (eg, a microinverter) configured to electrically connect to the solar module and convert a DC output from the solar module to provide an AC output. The inverter may not have a DC-DC boost component. The inverter may be configured to operate the solar module at a DC voltage that is higher than a minimum value set to avoid reverse biasing the solar cell. The minimum voltage value can be temperature dependent. The inverter may be configured to recognize a reverse bias condition and operate the solar module at a voltage that avoids the reverse bias condition. For example, the inverter may be configured to operate the solar module in a maximum region of the voltage-current output curve of the solar module to avoid the reverse bias condition.

  The present specification discloses a solar cell cleavage tool and a solar cell cleavage method.

In one aspect, a method for manufacturing a solar cell comprises:
Advancing the solar cell wafer along the curved surface;
A vacuum is drawn between the curved surface and the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer, and the solar cell wafer is bent toward the curved surface, whereby the sun is moved along one or more scribe lines prepared in advance. Cleaving the battery wafer to separate the plurality of solar cells from the solar cell wafer. The solar cell wafer can be continuously advanced, for example, along a curved surface. Alternatively, the solar cell can be advanced along the curved surface in a discontinuous motion.

  The curved surface can be, for example, a curved portion on the upper surface of a vacuum manifold that draws the vacuum against the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer. The vacuum drawn by the vacuum manifold against the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer may vary along the direction of movement of the solar cell wafer, for example, the vacuum manifold of which the solar cell wafer is sequentially cleaved. It may be the strongest in the area.

  A method is the step of transporting the solar cell wafer by a perforated belt along the curved upper surface of the vacuum manifold, wherein the vacuum is applied to the solar cell wafer through a plurality of perforations of the perforated belt. A step of being pulled against the bottom surface may be included. The plurality of perforations are optional, and the front and rear edges of the solar cell wafer along the direction of movement of the solar cell wafer lie on at least one perforation of the perforated belt, and therefore the vacuum causes the curved surface to be Although it can be placed on the belt so that it is pulled toward, it is not essential.

  The method advances the solar cell wafer along a flat region of the upper surface of the vacuum manifold to reach a transition curve region of the upper surface of the vacuum manifold having a first curvature, and then the solar cell wafer. Sequentially cleaving the solar cell wafer into the cleavage region of the upper surface of the vacuum manifold, wherein the cleavage region of the vacuum manifold has a second curvature higher than the first curvature, Steps may be provided. The method may further comprise the step of advancing the plurality of cleaved solar cells into a post-cleavage region of the vacuum manifold having a third curvature higher than the second curvature.

  In any of the above variations, the method draws a stronger vacuum between the solar cell wafer and the curved surface at one end of each scribe line and then at the opposite end of each scribe line. Providing an asymmetric stress distribution along each scribe line that facilitates nucleation and propagation of a single cleaved tear along each scribe line. Alternatively, or in addition, in any of the above variations, the method includes, for each scribe line, a solar cell wafer such that one end reaches the curved cleavage region of the vacuum manifold before the other end. The top scribe line can include directing at an angle with respect to the vacuum manifold.

  In any of the above variations, the method may include removing the cleaved solar cell from the curved surface before the edges of the cleaved solar cell touch. For example, the method may include removing the battery in a direction tangent to, or approximately tangent to, the curved surface of the manifold at a speed that is faster than the speed of movement of the battery along the manifold. This can be achieved, for example, by a moving belt arranged to be tangent, or by any other suitable mechanism.

  In any of the above variations, the method includes the steps of scribing a scribe line on the solar cell wafer, and before cleaving the solar cell wafer along the scribe line. Applying an electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent to the part. Each of the resulting cleaved solar cells can then include a portion of the electrically conductive adhesive bond disposed along the cleaved edge of the top or bottom surface. The scribe line may be formed before or after the electrically conductive adhesive bond is applied using any suitable scribe method. The scribe line can be formed by, for example, laser scribe.

  In any of the above variations, the solar cell wafer may be a square or pseudo-square silicon solar cell wafer.

  In another aspect, a method of making a solar cell string includes arranging a plurality of rectangular solar cells in a state in which the long sides of adjacent rectangular solar cells with an electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent interposed therebetween overlap each other in a scaly manner. Placing and curing the electrically conductive adhesive, thereby joining adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells together and electrically connecting them in series. The solar cell can be manufactured, for example, by any of the modifications of the method for manufacturing the solar cell described above.

In one aspect, a method of making a solar cell string includes forming a backside metallization pattern on each square solar cell of one or more square solar cells;
Stencil printing a complete front metallization pattern on each square solar cell of the one or more square solar cells using a single stencil in a single stencil printing process. These steps can be performed in any order or simultaneously where appropriate. “Complete front metallization pattern” means that after the stencil printing process, no additional metallization material needs to be deposited on the front surface of the square solar cell to complete the formation of the front metallization. The method is also
Each square solar cell is separated so that there are two or more rectangular solar cells, and a plurality of rectangular solar cells, each including a complete front metallization pattern and a backside metallization pattern, are formed as described above. Forming from a square solar cell;
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of adjacent rectangular solar cells overlap each other in a sparkling manner;
A step of conductively bonding the rectangular solar cells included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells with an electrically conductive bonding agent disposed therebetween, one of the rectangular solar cells included in the pair Electrically connecting the front metal coating pattern of the rectangular solar cell to the back metal coating pattern of the other rectangular solar cell of the rectangular solar cells included in the pair, thereby connecting the plurality of rectangular solar cells in series Electrically connecting to the process.

  The stencil defines one or more features of the front metallization pattern on the one or more square solar cells, such that all portions of the stencil lie in the plane of the stencil during stencil printing. It can be configured to be secured by physical connection to other parts of the stencil.

  The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell may include, for example, a plurality of fingers oriented in a direction perpendicular to the long sides of the rectangular solar cell, and the plurality of fingers in the front metallization pattern is None are physically connected to each other by the front metallization pattern.

  The present specification describes, for example, a solar cell that does not have a cleaved edge that promotes carrier recombination and reduces carrier recombination loss at the edge of the solar cell, a method for manufacturing such a solar cell, and formation of a supercell And the use of such solar cells in a sparkling (overlapping) arrangement.

In one aspect,
A method of manufacturing a plurality of solar cells is as follows:
Depositing one or more front amorphous silicon layers on the front side of the crystalline silicon wafer;
Depositing one or more backside amorphous silicon layers on the backside of the crystalline silicon wafer on the opposite side of the frontside of the crystalline silicon wafer;
Patterning the one or more front amorphous silicon layers to form one or more front trenches in the one or more front amorphous silicon layers;
Depositing a front passivating layer on the one or more front amorphous silicon layers and in the one or more front trenches;
Patterning the one or more backside amorphous silicon layers to form one or more backside trenches in the one or more backside amorphous silicon layers;
Depositing a back surface passivation layer on the one or more back surface amorphous silicon layers and in the one or more back surface trenches. Each of the one or more backside trenches is formed alongside a corresponding one of the frontside trenches. The method includes cleaving the crystalline silicon wafer at one or more cleavage planes, wherein each cleavage plane is centered or substantially centered on a different pair of corresponding front and back trenches. The method further includes a step. In the operation of the resulting solar cell, the front amorphous silicon layer will be irradiated with light.

  In some variations, only the front trench is formed and the back trench is not formed. In another variation, only the backside trench is formed and no frontside trench is formed.

  The method includes forming the one or more front trenches, penetrating the front amorphous silicon layer to reach the front surface of the crystalline silicon wafer, and / or forming the one or more back trenches. Then, the method may include a step of penetrating the one or more back surface amorphous silicon layers to reach the back surface of the crystalline silicon wafer.

  The method can include forming the front passivating layer and / or the back passivating layer from a transparent conductive oxide.

  A pulsed laser or diamond tip can be used to initiate the cleavage point (eg, approximately 100 microns long). CW lasers and cooling nozzles are used sequentially to cause high thermal stresses to compress and stretch, induce complete cleavage propagation within the crystalline silicon wafer, and separate the crystalline silicon wafer at one or more cleavage planes Can be. Alternatively, the crystalline silicon wafer can be mechanically cleaved at one or more cleavage planes. Any suitable cleaving method can be used.

  One or more front amorphous crystalline silicon layers may form an np junction with the crystalline silicon wafer, in which case it may be preferable to cleave the crystalline silicon wafer from its back side. Alternatively, one or more backside amorphous crystalline silicon layers may form an np junction with the crystalline silicon wafer, in which case it may be preferable to cleave the crystalline silicon wafer from its front side.

In another aspect, a method of manufacturing a plurality of solar cells includes:
Forming one or more trenches in the first surface of the crystalline silicon wafer;
Depositing one or more amorphous silicon layers on the first surface of the crystalline silicon wafer;
Depositing a passivating layer in the one or more trenches on the first surface of the crystalline silicon wafer and on the one or more amorphous silicon layers;
Depositing one or more amorphous silicon layers on a second surface of the crystalline silicon wafer opposite the first surface of the crystalline silicon wafer;
Cleaving the crystalline silicon wafer at one or more cleavage planes, wherein each cleavage plane is centered or substantially centered on a different one of the one or more trenches. Includes and.

  The method can include forming the passivated layer from a transparent conductive oxide.

  A laser may be used to cause thermal stress in the crystalline silicon wafer to cleave the crystalline silicon wafer at the one or more cleavage planes. Alternatively, the crystalline silicon wafer can be mechanically cleaved at one or more cleavage planes. Any suitable cleaving method can be used.

  The one or more front amorphous crystalline silicon layers may form an np junction with the crystalline silicon wafer. Alternatively, the one or more backside amorphous crystalline silicon layers may form an np junction with the crystalline silicon wafer.

In another aspect, the solar panel includes a plurality of solar cells arranged side by side in a state in which end portions of adjacent solar cells overlap each other and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent solar cells are electrically connected in series. A plurality of supercells each having a solar cell. Each solar cell
A crystalline silicon substrate;
One or more first surface amorphous silicon layers disposed on the first surface of the crystalline silicon substrate to form an np junction;
One or more second surface amorphous silicon layers disposed on the second surface of the crystalline silicon substrate opposite the first surface of the crystalline silicon substrate;
The edge of the one or more first surface amorphous silicon layers, the edge of the one or more second surface amorphous silicon layers, or the edge of the one or more first surface amorphous silicon layers and the one or more And a plurality of passivating layers for preventing carrier recombination at the edge of the second surface amorphous silicon layer. The plurality of passivating layers may include a transparent conductive oxide.

  Solar cells can be formed, for example, by any of the methods summarized above or otherwise disclosed herein.

  These and other embodiments, features, and advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon reference to the following more detailed description of the invention in connection with the accompanying drawings, which are first briefly described. , More obvious.

FIG. 3 shows a cross-sectional view of a string of solar cells connected in series arranged in a sparkling state in a state in which a sparkling supercell in which ends of adjacent solar cells overlap is formed.

FIG. 3 shows a diagram of an exemplary rectangular solar cell front (solar side) and front metallization pattern that can be used to form a sparkling supercell.

FIG. 6 shows a diagram of the front (sun side) and front metallization patterns of two exemplary rectangular solar cells that include rounded corners that can be used to form a sparkling supercell. FIG. 6 shows a diagram of the front (sun side) and front metallization patterns of two exemplary rectangular solar cells that include rounded corners that can be used to form a sparkling supercell.

2B shows a backside and exemplary backside metallization pattern of the solar cell shown in FIG. 2A. FIG. 2B shows a backside and exemplary backside metallization pattern of the solar cell shown in FIG. 2A. FIG.

FIGS. 2A and 2C show views of the backside and exemplary backside metallization patterns of the solar cell shown in FIGS. FIGS. 2A and 2C show views of the backside and exemplary backside metallization patterns of the solar cell shown in FIGS.

FIG. 3 shows a diagram of the front (sun side) and front metallization patterns of another exemplary rectangular solar cell that can be used to form a sparkling supercell. The front metallization pattern includes discontinuous contact pads, each of which has an uncured conductive adhesive bond deposited on the contact pads flowing away from the contact pads. Surrounded by a barrier configured to prevent this.

FIG. 2H shows a cross-sectional view of the solar cell of FIG. 2H and identifies details of the front metallization pattern shown in the enlarged views of FIGS. 2J and 2K, including contact pads and a portion of the barrier surrounding the contact pads.

FIG. 2D shows an enlarged view of the details of FIG. 2I.

FIG. 2D shows a close-up view of the detail of FIG. 2I with the uncured conductive adhesive adhesive substantially encapsulated at the location of the discontinuous contact pads by the barrier.

FIG. 2H illustrates a backside and exemplary backside metallization pattern for the solar cell of FIG. 2H. The backside metallization pattern includes discontinuous contact pads, each of which has an uncured conductive adhesive bond deposited on the contact pads away from the contact pads. Surrounded by a barrier configured to prevent this.

FIG. 2L shows a cross-sectional view of the solar cell of FIG. 2L and identifies details of the backside metallization pattern shown in the enlarged view of FIG. 2N including the contact pad and a portion of the barrier surrounding the contact pad.

FIG. 2M shows an enlarged view of the details of FIG. 2M.

Fig. 6 illustrates another variation of a metallized pattern including a barrier configured to prevent uncured conductive adhesive bond from flowing away from the contact pad. The barrier contacts one side of the contact pad and is higher than the contact pad.

20 shows another variation of the metallization pattern of FIG. 2O with the barrier in contact with at least two sides of the contact pad.

FIG. 6 shows a backside and example backside metallization pattern for another example rectangular solar cell. The backside metallization pattern includes a continuous contact pad that extends substantially the length of the long side of the solar cell along the edge of the solar cell. The contact pad is surrounded by a barrier configured to prevent uncured conductive adhesive bonding deposited on the contact pad from flowing away from the contact pad.

FIG. 3 shows a diagram of the front (sun side) and front metallization patterns of another exemplary rectangular solar cell that can be used to form a sparkling supercell. The front metallization pattern includes discontinuous contact pads arranged in a row along the edge of the solar cell and long thin conductors extending inward from the row in parallel to the row of contact pads. The long thin conductor forms a barrier configured to prevent uncured conductive adhesive adhesive deposited on its contact pads from flowing away from the contact pads and onto the active area of the solar cell. .

Separate (eg, cut or fold) a standard sized and shaped pseudo-square silicon solar cell into two different length rectangular solar cells that can be used to form a sparkling supercell. FIG. 4 shows a diagram illustrating an exemplary method to obtain.

FIG. 6 shows a diagram illustrating another exemplary method by which pseudo-square silicon solar cells can be separated into rectangular solar cells. FIG. 3B shows the front surface of the wafer and an exemplary front metallization pattern. FIG. 3C shows the backside of the wafer and an exemplary backside metallization pattern. FIG. 6 shows a diagram illustrating another exemplary method by which pseudo-square silicon solar cells can be separated into rectangular solar cells. FIG. 3B shows the front surface of the wafer and an exemplary front metallization pattern. FIG. 3C shows the backside of the wafer and an exemplary backside metallization pattern.

FIG. 6 shows a diagram illustrating an exemplary method by which square silicon solar cells can be separated into rectangular solar cells. FIG. 3D shows the front surface of the wafer and an exemplary front metallization pattern. FIG. 3E shows the backside of the wafer and an exemplary backside metallization pattern. FIG. 6 shows a diagram illustrating an exemplary method by which square silicon solar cells can be separated into rectangular solar cells. FIG. 3D shows the front surface of the wafer and an exemplary front metallization pattern. FIG. 3E shows the backside of the wafer and an exemplary backside metallization pattern.

FIG. 2 shows a fragmentary view of the front side of an exemplary rectangular supercell including a plurality of rectangular solar cells, such as shown in FIG.

FIG. 2 is a front view of an exemplary rectangular supercell including a plurality of “chevron” rectangular solar cells including a plurality of beveled corners as shown in FIG. 2B, for example, as shown in FIG. Each back view is shown. FIG. 2 is a front view of an exemplary rectangular supercell including a plurality of “chevron” rectangular solar cells including a plurality of beveled corners as shown in FIG. 2B, for example, as shown in FIG. Each back view is shown.

FIG. 3 shows a diagram of an exemplary rectangular solar module. The rectangular solar module includes a plurality of rectangular sparkling supercells each having a long side that is approximately half the length of the short side of the module. Multiple pairs of supercells are placed end to end to form multiple rows with the long side of the supercell parallel to the short side of the module.

FIG. 4 shows a diagram of another exemplary rectangular solar module. The rectangular solar module includes a plurality of rectangular sparkling supercells each having a long side approximately the same length as the short side of the module. These supercells are arranged with their long sides parallel to the short sides of the module.

FIG. 4 shows a diagram of another exemplary rectangular solar module. The rectangular solar module includes a plurality of rectangular sparkling supercells each having a long side approximately the same length as the long side of the module. These supercells are arranged with their long sides parallel to the sides of the module.

FIG. 3 shows a diagram of an exemplary rectangular solar module. The rectangular solar module includes a plurality of rectangular sparkling supercells each having a long side that is approximately half the length of the long side of the module. Multiple pairs of supercells are placed end to end, forming multiple rows with the long side of the supercell parallel to the long side of the module.

FIG. 6 shows a diagram of another exemplary rectangular solar module whose configuration is similar to that of FIG. 5C. In that configuration, all of the solar cells forming the supercell are chevron solar cells that include chamfered corners corresponding to the corners of the pseudo-square wafer from which the solar cells are separated.

FIG. 6 shows a diagram of another exemplary rectangular solar module whose configuration is similar to that of FIG. 5C. In that configuration, the solar cells forming the supercell include a mix of chevron solar cells and rectangular solar cells arranged to reproduce the shape of the source pseudo-square wafer.

FIG. 5D shows a diagram of another exemplary rectangular solar module whose configuration is similar to that of FIG. 5E. The difference is that adjacent chevron solar cells in the supercell are arranged as mirror images of each other such that their overlapping edges are the same length.

FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary arrangement of three supercell rows interconnected by flexible electrical interconnects so that the supercells in each row are in series with each other and the rows are in parallel with each other. These can be, for example, three rows in the solar module of FIG. 5D.

Fig. 3 illustrates an exemplary flexible interconnect that can be used to interconnect supercells in series or in parallel. Some of the examples exhibit patterning that increases their flexibility (mechanical compliance) along their major axis, along their minor axis, or along their major and minor axes. Yes. FIG. 7A illustrates an exemplary stress relaxation long interconnect configuration that can be used in a hidden tap to a supercell as described herein or as an interconnect to a front or back supercell end contact. . 2 illustrates an example of an out-of-plane stress relaxation feature. 7B-1 and 7B-2 are exemplary long interconnects that can be used in hidden taps to supercells or as interconnects to front or back supercell end contacts, including out-of-plane stress relaxation features. The configuration is shown. 2 illustrates an example of an out-of-plane stress relaxation feature. 7B-1 and 7B-2 are exemplary long interconnects that can be used in hidden taps to supercells or as interconnects to front or back supercell end contacts, including out-of-plane stress relaxation features. The configuration is shown.

Detail A from FIG. 5D is shown. FIG. 5D is a cross-sectional view of the exemplary solar module of FIG. 5D showing details of a cross-section of a flexible electrical interconnect that joins backside end contacts of multiple supercell rows.

Detail C from FIG. 5D is shown. FIG. 5D is a cross-sectional view of the exemplary solar module of FIG. 5D, showing details of a cross section of the flexible electrical interconnect that joins the front (solar side) surface end contacts of multiple supercell rows.

Detail B from FIG. 5D is shown. FIG. 5D is a cross-sectional view of the example solar module of FIG. 5D, showing details of a cross-section of a flexible interconnect arranged to interconnect two supercells in a row in series.

FIG. 6 shows multiple additional examples of electrical interconnects that join the front end contacts of the supercell at the end of the supercell row, adjacent to the edge of the solar module. These exemplary interconnects are configured to reduce the footprint on the front of the module. FIG. 6 shows multiple additional examples of electrical interconnects that join the front end contacts of the supercell at the end of the supercell row, adjacent to the edge of the solar module. These exemplary interconnects are configured to reduce the footprint on the front of the module. FIG. 6 shows multiple additional examples of electrical interconnects that join the front end contacts of the supercell at the end of the supercell row, adjacent to the edge of the solar module. These exemplary interconnects are configured to reduce the footprint on the front of the module. FIG. 6 shows multiple additional examples of electrical interconnects that join the front end contacts of the supercell at the end of the supercell row, adjacent to the edge of the solar module. These exemplary interconnects are configured to reduce the footprint on the front of the module.

FIG. 4 shows a diagram of another exemplary rectangular solar module. The rectangular solar module includes six rectangular sparkling supercells each having a long side approximately the same length as the long side of the module. The supercells are arranged in six rows that are electrically connected in parallel with each other and in parallel with a bypass diode arranged in a connection box on the back side of the solar module. The electrical connection between the supercell and the bypass diode is established through a ribbon embedded in the module stack.

FIG. 4 shows a diagram of another exemplary rectangular solar module. The rectangular solar module includes six rectangular sparkling supercells each having a long side approximately the same length as the long side of the module. The supercells are arranged in six rows that are electrically connected in parallel with each other and in parallel with bypass diodes arranged on the back side of the solar module and in a junction box near the edge of the solar module. A second junction box is located near the opposite edge of the solar module on the same back side. The electrical connection between the supercell and the bypass diode is established through an external cable between the junction boxes.

FIG. 2 shows a diagram of an exemplary glass-glass rectangular solar module. The rectangular solar module includes six rectangular sparkling supercells each having a long side approximately the same length as the long side of the module. The supercells are arranged in six rows that are electrically connected to each other in parallel. Two junction boxes are mounted on the opposing edges of the module to maximize the active area of the module.

9D shows a side view of the solar module illustrated in FIG. 9C. FIG.

Fig. 3 shows another exemplary solar module. The solar module includes six rectangular shingle supercells each having a long side approximately the same length as the long side of the module. The supercells are arranged in 6 rows with 3 pairs of rows individually connected to the power management device on the solar module.

Fig. 3 shows another exemplary solar module. The solar module includes six rectangular shingle supercells each having a long side approximately the same length as the long side of the module. The supercells are arranged in 6 rows with each row individually connected to a power management device on the solar module.

Fig. 5 shows another embodiment of a module level power management structure using a keratin supercell. Fig. 5 shows another embodiment of a module level power management structure using a keratin supercell.

FIG. 5 shows an exemplary schematic electrical schematic of a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5B.

FIG. 10B illustrates an exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5B having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 10A. FIG. 10B illustrates an exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5B having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 10A.

FIG. 5B illustrates an exemplary schematic electrical schematic of a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A.

FIG. 11B illustrates an exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A with the schematic electrical schematic of FIG. 11A. FIG. 11B illustrates an exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A with the schematic electrical schematic of FIG. 11A.

FIG. 11B shows another exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A with the schematic electrical schematic of FIG. 11A. FIG. 11B shows another exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A with the schematic electrical schematic of FIG. 11A.

FIG. 5B shows another exemplary schematic circuit diagram of a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A.

12 illustrates an exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnections for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 12A. 12 illustrates an exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnections for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 12A.

FIG. 12 illustrates another exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 12A. FIG. 12 illustrates another exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 12A. FIG. 12 illustrates another exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 12A.

FIG. 5B shows another exemplary schematic circuit diagram of a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A.

6 shows another exemplary schematic circuit diagram of a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5B. FIG.

FIG. 14 illustrates an exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 13A. With slight modifications, the physical layout of FIGS. 13C-1 and 13C-2 is suitable for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5B having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 13B. FIG. 14 illustrates an exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 13A. With slight modifications, the physical layout of FIGS. 13C-1 and 13C-2 is suitable for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5B having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 13B.

FIG. 4 shows a diagram of another exemplary rectangular solar module. The rectangular solar module includes a plurality of rectangular sparkling supercells each having a long side that is approximately half the length of the short side of the module. Multiple pairs of supercells are placed end to end to form multiple rows with the long side of the supercell parallel to the short side of the module.

FIG. 14B illustrates an exemplary schematic circuit diagram of a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 14A.

14B illustrates an exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 14A having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 14B. 14B illustrates an exemplary physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 14A having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 14B.

FIG. 10B illustrates another example physical layout of various electrical interconnects for a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5B having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 10A.

Fig. 3 shows an exemplary arrangement of smart switches interconnecting two solar modules in series.

Fig. 4 shows a flow chart of an exemplary method of making a solar module with a supercell.

Fig. 4 shows a flowchart of another exemplary method of making a solar module with a supercell.

Fig. 3 illustrates an exemplary arrangement in which a supercell can be cured by heat and pressure. Fig. 3 illustrates an exemplary arrangement in which a supercell can be cured by heat and pressure. Fig. 3 illustrates an exemplary arrangement in which a supercell can be cured by heat and pressure. Fig. 3 illustrates an exemplary arrangement in which a supercell can be cured by heat and pressure.

1 schematically illustrates an exemplary apparatus that can be used to cleave a scribed solar cell. The apparatus can be particularly advantageous when used to cleave a scribed supercell to which a conductive adhesive bond has been applied. 1 schematically illustrates an exemplary apparatus that can be used to cleave a scribed solar cell. The apparatus can be particularly advantageous when used to cleave a scribed supercell to which a conductive adhesive bond has been applied. 1 schematically illustrates an exemplary apparatus that can be used to cleave a scribed solar cell. The apparatus can be particularly advantageous when used to cleave a scribed supercell to which a conductive adhesive bond has been applied.

Within a solar module containing multiple parallel supercell rows, dark lines that can be used to reduce the visual contrast between the supercell and a portion of the rear sheet visible from the front of the module FIG. 2 illustrates an exemplary white backsheet “striped like a zebra”.

FIG. 2 shows a top view of a conventional module utilizing a traditional ribbon connection in a hot spot condition. FIG. 2 shows a plan view of a module using thermal diffusion according to an embodiment, also in a hot spot state.

Fig. 4 shows an example of a string layout of a supercell with chamfered batteries. Fig. 4 shows an example of a string layout of a supercell with chamfered batteries.

FIG. 6 shows a simplified cross-sectional view of an array including a plurality of modules assembled in a garnet-like configuration. FIG. 6 shows a simplified cross-sectional view of an array including a plurality of modules assembled in a garnet-like configuration.

FIG. 4 shows a back (shadow) side view of the module illustrating an exemplary electrical interconnection of the front (solar side) face end electrical contacts of a glazed supercell to a junction box on the back side of the solar module .

Exemplary electricity of two or more parallel chopped supercells with the front (solar side) surface end electrical contacts of the supercell connected to each other and to the junction box on the back side of the solar module Figure 6 shows a back (shadow) side view of the module illustrating the interconnections.

Other exemplary two or more parallel pebbled supercells with the supercell front (solar side) end electrical contacts connected to each other and to the junction box on the back side of the solar module FIG. 2 shows a back (shadow) side view of a module illustrating a simple electrical interconnection.

Two supercell fragmentary pieces illustrating the use of flexible interconnects sandwiched between overlapping edges of adjacent supercells to electrically connect them in series and provide an electrical connection to a junction box A cross-sectional view and a perspective view are shown. The enlarged view of the object area of FIG. 29 is shown.

Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary supercell with electrical interconnects joined to the front and back end contacts. FIG. 30B shows two of the supercells of FIG. 30A interconnected in parallel.

FIG. 4 shows a diagram of an exemplary backside metallization pattern that can be employed to form a hidden tap to a supercell as described herein. FIG. 4 shows a diagram of an exemplary backside metallization pattern that can be employed to form a hidden tap to a supercell as described herein. FIG. 4 shows a diagram of an exemplary backside metallization pattern that can be employed to form a hidden tap to a supercell as described herein.

Fig. 4 illustrates an example of the use of a hidden tap with an interconnect that extends across approximately the entire width of the supercell. Fig. 4 illustrates an example of the use of a hidden tap with an interconnect that extends across approximately the entire width of the supercell.

FIG. 4B shows an example of an interconnect that joins a supercell back (FIG. 34A) end contact and a front (FIGS. 34B-34C) end contact. FIG. 4B shows an example of an interconnect that joins a supercell back (FIG. 34A) end contact and a front (FIGS. 34B-34C) end contact. FIG. 4B shows an example of an interconnect that joins a supercell back (FIG. 34A) end contact and a front (FIGS. 34B-34C) end contact.

An example of the use of a hidden tap with a short interconnect that extends into the gap between adjacent supercells but does not extend substantially inward along the long axis of the rectangular solar cell is shown. An example of the use of a hidden tap with a short interconnect that extends into the gap between adjacent supercells but does not extend substantially inward along the long axis of the rectangular solar cell is shown.

2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features. 2 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes in-plane stress relaxation features.

FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes an out-of-plane stress relaxation feature. FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes an out-of-plane stress relaxation feature. FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes an out-of-plane stress relaxation feature. FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes an out-of-plane stress relaxation feature.

FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes alignment features. FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes alignment features. FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes an asymmetric tab length. FIG. FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes an asymmetric tab length. FIG.

Fig. 4 shows an exemplary solar module layout employing hidden taps. Fig. 4 shows an exemplary solar module layout employing hidden taps. Fig. 4 shows an exemplary solar module layout employing hidden taps. Fig. 4 shows an exemplary solar module layout employing hidden taps. Fig. 4 shows an exemplary solar module layout employing hidden taps. Fig. 4 shows an exemplary solar module layout employing hidden taps.

FIG. 45 shows an exemplary electrical schematic of the layout of the solar modules of FIGS. 40 and 42A-44B.

Fig. 4 shows current flow in conduction state in an exemplary solar module with a bypass diode.

Each shows the relative motion between solar module components resulting from thermal cycling in a direction parallel to the plurality of supercell rows and in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of supercell rows in the solar module. Each shows the relative motion between solar module components resulting from thermal cycling in a direction parallel to the plurality of supercell rows and in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of supercell rows in the solar module.

FIG. 4 shows another exemplary solar module layout employing a hidden tap and a corresponding electrical schematic, respectively. FIG. 4 shows another exemplary solar module layout employing a hidden tap and a corresponding electrical schematic, respectively.

Fig. 4 shows an additional solar cell module layout that employs hidden taps in combination with embedded bypass diodes. Fig. 4 shows an additional solar cell module layout that employs hidden taps in combination with embedded bypass diodes.

FIG. 4 shows a block diagram of a solar module that provides a conventional DC voltage to a microinverter and a high voltage solar module as described herein that provides a high DC voltage to a microinverter, respectively. FIG. 4 shows a block diagram of a solar module that provides a conventional DC voltage to a microinverter and a high voltage solar module as described herein that provides a high DC voltage to a microinverter, respectively.

2 shows an exemplary physical layout and electrical schematic of an exemplary high voltage solar module incorporating a bypass diode. 2 shows an exemplary physical layout and electrical schematic of an exemplary high voltage solar module incorporating a bypass diode.

Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary structure for module level power management of a high voltage solar module including a brilliant supercell. Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary structure for module level power management of a high voltage solar module including a brilliant supercell. Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary structure for module level power management of a high voltage solar module including a brilliant supercell. Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary structure for module level power management of a high voltage solar module including a brilliant supercell. Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary structure for module level power management of a high voltage solar module including a brilliant supercell. Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary structure for module level power management of a high voltage solar module including a brilliant supercell. Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary structure for module level power management of a high voltage solar module including a brilliant supercell. Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary structure for module level power management of a high voltage solar module including a brilliant supercell. Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary structure for module level power management of a high voltage solar module including a brilliant supercell. Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary structure for module level power management of a high voltage solar module including a brilliant supercell.

FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary arrangement of six supercells in six parallel rows, with the ends of adjacent rows offset and interconnected in series by flexible electrical interconnects.

1 schematically illustrates a photovoltaic system that includes a plurality of high DC voltage sparkled solar cell modules that are electrically connected to each other in parallel and to a string inverter. 57B shows the photovoltaic system of FIG. 57A placed on the roof. FIG.

Preventing a high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module with a short circuit from dissipating a significant amount of power generated by another high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module with its parallel electrical connection. FIG. 5 shows the arrangement of current limiting fuses and blocking diodes that can be used in FIG. Preventing a high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module with a short circuit from dissipating a significant amount of power generated by another high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module with its parallel electrical connection. FIG. 5 shows the arrangement of current limiting fuses and blocking diodes that can be used in FIG. Preventing a high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module with a short circuit from dissipating a significant amount of power generated by another high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module with its parallel electrical connection. FIG. 5 shows the arrangement of current limiting fuses and blocking diodes that can be used in FIG. Preventing a high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module with a short circuit from dissipating a significant amount of power generated by another high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module with its parallel electrical connection. FIG. 5 shows the arrangement of current limiting fuses and blocking diodes that can be used in FIG.

FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary arrangement in which two or more high DC voltage sparkling solar cell modules are electrically connected in parallel within a combiner box that may include a current limiting fuse and a blocking diode. FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary arrangement in which two or more high DC voltage sparkling solar cell modules are electrically connected in parallel within a combiner box that may include a current limiting fuse and a blocking diode.

A current vs. voltage plot and a power vs. voltage plot for a plurality of high DC voltage sparkling solar cell modules electrically connected in parallel, respectively, are shown. The plot in FIG. 60A is for an exemplary case where none of the modules includes a reverse-biased solar cell. The plot of FIG. 60B is for an exemplary case where some of the modules include one or more reverse-biased solar cells. A current vs. voltage plot and a power vs. voltage plot for a plurality of high DC voltage sparkling solar cell modules electrically connected in parallel, respectively, are shown. The plot in FIG. 60A is for an exemplary case where none of the modules includes a reverse-biased solar cell. The plot of FIG. 60B is for an exemplary case where some of the modules include one or more reverse-biased solar cells.

FIG. 4 illustrates an example of a solar module that utilizes approximately one bypass diode per supercell. 2 illustrates an example of a solar module that utilizes nested bypass diodes. FIG. 4 illustrates an exemplary configuration of a bypass diode that connects between two neighboring supercells using a flexible electrical interconnect.

FIG. 4 schematically illustrates a side view and a plan view, respectively, of another exemplary cleaving tool. FIG. 4 schematically illustrates a side view and a plan view, respectively, of another exemplary cleaving tool.

FIG. 6 schematically illustrates the use of an exemplary asymmetric vacuum arrangement to control nucleation and propagation of tears along the scribe line when cleaving the wafer. FIG. 63B schematically illustrates the use of an exemplary symmetric vacuum arrangement that provides a lower degree of cleaving control than the arrangement of FIG. 63A.

FIG. 62 schematically illustrates a top view of a portion of an exemplary vacuum manifold that may be used in the cleavage tool of FIGS. 62A-62B.

64 provides a schematic illustration of a top view and a perspective view, respectively, of the exemplary vacuum manifold of FIG. 64 with a perforated belt lying thereon. 64 provides a schematic illustration of a top view and a perspective view, respectively, of the exemplary vacuum manifold of FIG. 64 with a perforated belt lying thereon.

FIG. 62 schematically illustrates a side view of an exemplary vacuum manifold that may be used in the cleavage tool of FIGS. 62A-62B.

1 schematically illustrates a cleaved solar cell overlying an exemplary arrangement of a perforated belt and a vacuum manifold.

1 schematically illustrates the relative position and orientation of a cleaved solar cell and an uncleaved portion of a standard size wafer from which the solar cell is cleaved in an exemplary cleavage process.

Figure 2 schematically illustrates an apparatus and method that can continuously remove a cleaved solar cell from a cleaving tool. Figure 2 schematically illustrates an apparatus and method that can continuously remove a cleaved solar cell from a cleaving tool. Figure 2 schematically illustrates an apparatus and method that can continuously remove a cleaved solar cell from a cleaving tool. Figure 2 schematically illustrates an apparatus and method that can continuously remove a cleaved solar cell from a cleaving tool. Figure 2 schematically illustrates an apparatus and method that can continuously remove a cleaved solar cell from a cleaving tool. Figure 2 schematically illustrates an apparatus and method that can continuously remove a cleaved solar cell from a cleaving tool. Figure 2 schematically illustrates an apparatus and method that can continuously remove a cleaved solar cell from a cleaving tool.

62A-62B provide views of other variations of the example cleaving tool of FIGS. 62A-62B as viewed orthogonal to each other. 62A-62B provide views of other variations of the example cleaving tool of FIGS. 62A-62B as viewed orthogonal to each other. 62A-62B provide views of other variations of the example cleaving tool of FIGS. 62A-62B as viewed orthogonal to each other.

7A provides a perspective view of the example cleavage tool of FIGS. 70A-70C in two different steps of the cleavage process. FIG. 7A provides a perspective view of the example cleavage tool of FIGS. 70A-70C in two different steps of the cleavage process. FIG.

FIG. 70 illustrates details of the perforated belt and vacuum manifold of the example cleaving tool of FIGS. 70A-70C. FIG. 70 illustrates details of the perforated belt and vacuum manifold of the example cleaving tool of FIGS. 70A-70C. FIG. 70 illustrates details of the perforated belt and vacuum manifold of the example cleaving tool of FIGS. 70A-70C. FIG. 70 illustrates details of the perforated belt and vacuum manifold of the example cleaving tool of FIGS. 70A-70C. FIG. 70 illustrates details of the perforated belt and vacuum manifold of the example cleaving tool of FIGS. 70A-70C. FIG. 70 illustrates details of the perforated belt and vacuum manifold of the example cleaving tool of FIGS. 70A-70C.

FIG. 10 illustrates details of some exemplary hole patterns that may be used for a perforated vacuum belt within the exemplary cleavage tool of FIGS. 10A-10C. FIG. 10 illustrates details of some exemplary hole patterns that may be used for a perforated vacuum belt within the exemplary cleavage tool of FIGS. 10A-10C. FIG. 10 illustrates details of some exemplary hole patterns that may be used for a perforated vacuum belt within the exemplary cleavage tool of FIGS. 10A-10C. FIG. 10 illustrates details of some exemplary hole patterns that may be used for a perforated vacuum belt within the exemplary cleavage tool of FIGS. 10A-10C. FIG. 10 illustrates details of some exemplary hole patterns that may be used for a perforated vacuum belt within the exemplary cleavage tool of FIGS. 10A-10C. FIG. 10 illustrates details of some exemplary hole patterns that may be used for a perforated vacuum belt within the exemplary cleavage tool of FIGS. 10A-10C. FIG. 10 illustrates details of some exemplary hole patterns that may be used for a perforated vacuum belt within the exemplary cleavage tool of FIGS. 10A-10C.

2 illustrates an exemplary front metallization pattern on a rectangular solar cell.

2 illustrates an exemplary backside metallization pattern on a rectangular solar cell. 2 illustrates an exemplary backside metallization pattern on a rectangular solar cell.

FIG. 77 illustrates an exemplary front metallization pattern on a square solar cell that can be diced to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells each having the front metallization pattern shown in FIG.

7B illustrates an exemplary backside metallization pattern on a square solar cell that can be diced to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells, each having the backside metallization pattern shown in FIG. 77A.

It is the schematic which shows that the conventional size HIT solar cell is diced to become a narrow strip solar cell using the conventional cleavage method, resulting in a cleavage edge that promotes carrier recombination.

FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the steps of an exemplary method for dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip that does not have cleaved edges to promote carrier recombination. FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the steps of an exemplary method for dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip that does not have cleaved edges to promote carrier recombination. FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the steps of an exemplary method for dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip that does not have cleaved edges to promote carrier recombination. FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the steps of an exemplary method for dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip that does not have cleaved edges to promote carrier recombination. FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the steps of an exemplary method for dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip that does not have cleaved edges to promote carrier recombination. FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the steps of an exemplary method for dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip that does not have cleaved edges to promote carrier recombination. FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the steps of an exemplary method for dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip that does not have cleaved edges to promote carrier recombination. FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the steps of an exemplary method for dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip that does not have cleaved edges to promote carrier recombination. FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the steps of an exemplary method for dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip that does not have cleaved edges to promote carrier recombination. FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the steps of an exemplary method for dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip that does not have cleaved edges to promote carrier recombination.

FIG. 6 schematically illustrates steps of another exemplary method of dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip without a cleave edge that promotes carrier recombination. FIG. 6 schematically illustrates steps of another exemplary method of dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip without a cleave edge that promotes carrier recombination. FIG. 6 schematically illustrates steps of another exemplary method of dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip without a cleave edge that promotes carrier recombination. FIG. 6 schematically illustrates steps of another exemplary method of dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip without a cleave edge that promotes carrier recombination. FIG. 6 schematically illustrates steps of another exemplary method of dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip without a cleave edge that promotes carrier recombination. FIG. 6 schematically illustrates steps of another exemplary method of dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip without a cleave edge that promotes carrier recombination. FIG. 6 schematically illustrates steps of another exemplary method of dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip without a cleave edge that promotes carrier recombination. FIG. 6 schematically illustrates steps of another exemplary method of dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip without a cleave edge that promotes carrier recombination. FIG. 6 schematically illustrates steps of another exemplary method of dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip without a cleave edge that promotes carrier recombination. FIG. 6 schematically illustrates steps of another exemplary method of dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell to result in a narrow solar cell strip without a cleave edge that promotes carrier recombination.

  The following detailed description should be read with reference to the drawings, in which like reference numerals refer to like elements throughout the different views. The drawings, which are not necessarily to scale, depict selected embodiments and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. The detailed description illustrates the principles of the invention by way of example and not limitation. Obviously, this description will enable one of ordinary skill in the art to make and use the invention, and this description includes several embodiments of the invention, including the best mode of carrying out the invention and what is presently considered. Application examples, variations, alternatives, and uses are described.

  As used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms “a”, “an”, and “the” include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Also, the term “parallel” means “parallel or substantially parallel” and requires that any parallel arrangement described herein be exactly parallel. Rather, it is intended to encompass some deviation from parallel geometry. The term “vertical” means “being vertical or substantially vertical” and requires that any vertical arrangement described herein be exactly vertical. Rather, it is intended to encompass some deviation from geometry that is vertical. The term “square” means “to be square or approximately square” and some deviation from the square shape, eg chamfered (eg rounded or otherwise rounded). It is intended to encompass shapes that are substantially square including corners. The term “rectangular” means “to be rectangular or nearly rectangular” and some deviation from the rectangular shape, eg chamfered (eg rounded or otherwise rounded). It is intended to encompass shapes that are generally rectangular including the corners cut off.

  The present specification discloses a high-efficiency sparkling arrangement of silicon solar cells within a solar cell module, and front and back metallization patterns and interconnects for solar cells that can be used in such an arrangement. To do. The present specification also discloses a method for manufacturing such a solar module. Solar cell modules can be advantageously employed under “single sun” (decentralized) illumination, physical dimensions and electricity that allow them to be used in place of conventional silicon solar cell modules Characteristics.

  FIG. 1 shows a cross-sectional view of a string of solar cells 10 connected in series arranged in a scaly manner, with supercells 100 being formed by overlapping the ends of adjacent solar cells and electrically connecting them. Each solar cell 10 includes a semiconductor diode structure and a plurality of electrical contacts to the semiconductor diode structure. Thereby, when the solar cell 10 is irradiated with light, a current generated in the solar cell 10 can be provided to an external load.

  In the example described herein, each solar cell 10 comprises crystalline silicon having a metallization pattern on the front (sun side) and back (shadow side) surfaces that provide electrical contact to the opposing sides of the np junction. In the solar cell, the front metal coating pattern is disposed on the n-type conductive semiconductor layer, and the back metal coating pattern is disposed on the p-type conductive semiconductor layer. However, instead of or in addition to the solar cell 10 in the solar module described herein, any other suitable material system, diode structure, physical dimensions, or any other that employs an electrical contact arrangement Any suitable solar cell may be used. For example, the front (sun side) surface metallization pattern may be disposed on a p-type conductive semiconductor layer, and the back (shadow side) surface metallization pattern may be disposed on an n-type conductive semiconductor layer.

  Referring again to FIG. 1, in the supercell 100, adjacent solar cells 10 electrically connect the front metallization pattern of one solar cell to the backside metallization pattern of the adjacent solar cell in the region where they overlap. Conductive bonding with each other is performed by an electrically conductive bonding agent. Suitable electrically conductive bonding agents can include, for example, electrically conductive adhesives, electrically conductive adhesive films and adhesive tapes, and conventional solders. Preferably, the electrically conductive adhesive is a mechanical compliance that accommodates stresses resulting from a mismatch between the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the electrically conductive adhesive and the CTE of the solar cell (eg, CTE of silicon). Provides a junction between adjacent solar cells. In order to provide such mechanical compliance, in some variations, an electrically conductive bonding agent is selected that has a glass transition temperature below or equal to about 0 ° C. In order to further reduce and accommodate the stress in the direction parallel to the overlapping edges of the solar cell resulting from CTE mismatch, the electrically conductive bonding agent is optionally a substantially edge length of the solar cell. It can be applied only to a plurality of discontinuous positions along the overlapping region of the solar cell, not to the solid line extending over the area.

  The thickness of the conductive junction between adjacent and overlapping solar cells formed by the electrically conductive adhesive, measured in a direction perpendicular to the front and back surfaces of the solar cells, can be, for example, less than about 0.1 mm. Such thin junctions reduce resistance losses in the interconnection between the batteries and promote heat flow along the supercell from any hot spot in the supercell that may appear during operation. . The thermal conductivity of the junction between the solar cells can be, for example, ≧ about 1.5 watts / (meter K).

  FIG. 2A shows the front surface of an exemplary rectangular solar cell 10 that may be used with the supercell 100. Other shapes may be used for the solar cell 10 as appropriate. In the illustrated example, the front metal coating pattern of the solar cell 10 is positioned adjacent to one edge of the long side of the solar cell 10 and is substantially parallel to the long side over the length of the long side. And a plurality of fingers 20 that are attached in a direction perpendicular to the bus bar and extend substantially in parallel with the short sides of the solar cell 10 over the length of the short sides.

  In the example of FIG. 2A, the solar cell 10 has a length of about 156 mm and a width of about 26 mm, and thus the aspect ratio (short side length / long side length) is about 1: 6. is there. Six such solar cells can be prepared on a standard 156 mm × 156 mm silicon wafer and then separated (diced) to provide a plurality of solar cells as shown. In other variations, eight solar cells 10 having dimensions of about 19.5 mm × 156 mm and an aspect ratio of about 1: 8 can be prepared from a standard silicon wafer. More generally, the solar cell 10 can have an aspect ratio of, for example, about 1: 2 to about 1:20, and can be prepared from a standard size wafer, or from any other suitable size wafer.

  FIG. 3A illustrates an exemplary sized and shaped pseudo-square silicon solar cell wafer 45 that can be cut, broken, or otherwise split to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells as just described. The method is shown. In this example, several full-width rectangular solar cells 10L are cut from the central portion of the wafer, and in addition, several shorter rectangular solar cells 10S are cut from the edge of the wafer to chamfer the wafer. Rounded or rounded corners are discarded. The solar cell 10L can be used to form one width of a sparkling supercell, and the solar cell 10S can be used to form a narrower sparkling supercell.

  Alternatively, chamfered (eg, rounded) corners can be left on solar cells cut from the edge of the wafer. 2B and 2C show the front side of an exemplary “chevron” rectangular solar cell 10 that is substantially similar to that of FIG. 2A, but includes chamfered corners left from the wafer from which the solar cell was cut. . In FIG. 2B, the bus bar 15 is positioned adjacent to the shorter of the two long sides, extends substantially parallel to the side over the length of the side, and at least partially at both ends. , Extending around the chamfered corners of the solar cell. In FIG. 2C, the bus bar 15 is positioned adjacent to the longer one of the two long sides, and extends substantially parallel to the same side over the length of the same side. 3B and 3C are a plurality of solar cells 10 diced along the dashed lines shown in FIG. 3C and having a front metallization pattern similar to that shown in FIG. 2A, and a front metallization similar to that shown in FIG. 2B. FIG. 4 shows a front view and a back view of a pseudo-square wafer 45 that can provide two chamfered solar cells 10 having a pattern.

  In the exemplary front metallization pattern shown in FIG. 2B, the two ends of the bus bar 15 that extend around the chamfered corners of the battery are each located adjacent to the long side of the battery. It may have a width that gradually decreases (becomes narrower) as the distance from the portion increases. Similarly, in the exemplary front metallization pattern shown in FIG. 3B, the two ends of the thin conductor interconnecting the discontinuous contact pads 15 extend around the chamfered corners of the solar cell and are discontinuous. As the distance from the long side of the solar cell in which the various contact pads are arranged is increased, the contact pad gradually decreases. Such a gradual reduction in width is optional, but can advantageously reduce the use of metal and reduce the shadowing of the active area of the solar cell without substantially increasing the resistance loss. .

  3D and 3E are front views of a complete square wafer 47 that can be diced along the dashed line shown in FIG. 3E to provide a plurality of solar cells 10 having a front metallization pattern similar to that shown in FIG. 2A. A back view is shown.

  Chamfered rectangular solar cells can be used to form supercells that include only chamfered solar cells. Additionally or alternatively, one or more such chamfered rectangular solar cells are combined with one or more non-chamfered rectangular solar cells (eg, FIG. 2A) to form a supercell. Can be used. For example, the solar cell at the end of the supercell can be a chamfered solar cell, and the intermediate solar cell can be an unchamfered solar cell. When chamfered solar cells are used in combination with non-chamfered solar cells in a supercell, or more generally in a solar module, the resulting chamfered solar cells and chamfered It may be desirable to use solar cell dimensions such that the area of the front surface exposed to light during solar cell operation is the same for non-solar cells. By matching the areas of the solar cells in this way, the current generated by the chamfered solar cell and the non-chamfered solar cell match, which means that the chamfered solar cell and the non-chamfered solar cell Improve the performance of series connected strings including both batteries. The area of the chamfered solar cell cut from the same pseudo-square wafer and the area of the non-chamfered solar cell are adjusted by adjusting the position of a line along which dicing of the wafer is performed, for example. The width of the solar cell in the direction perpendicular to the long axis can be made slightly wider than the non-chamfered solar cell to compensate for missing corners on the chamfered solar cell.

  The solar module may contain only supercells formed exclusively from non-chamfered rectangular solar cells, or may contain only supercells formed from chamfered rectangular solar cells, or chamfered solar It may include only supercells including batteries and non-chamfered solar cells, or may include any combination of these three variations of supercells.

  In some cases, a portion of a standard sized square or pseudo-square solar cell wafer (eg, wafer 45 or wafer 47) near the edge of the wafer is more than the portion of the wafer that is located away from those edges. It can convert light into electricity with low efficiency. To improve the efficiency of the resulting rectangular solar cell, in some variations, one or more edges of the wafer are trimmed to remove low efficiency portions before the wafer is diced. The portion that is trimmed from the edge of the wafer may be about 1 mm to about 5 mm wide, for example. Further, as shown in FIGS. 3B and 3D, the two-end solar cells 10 to be diced from the wafer have their front busbars (or discontinuous contact pads) 15 along their outer edges. Thus, it can be oriented along two of the wafer edges. Within the supercell disclosed herein, the bus bar (or discontinuous contact pad) 15 typically overlaps adjacent solar cells so that low light along those two edges of the wafer. Conversion efficiency typically does not affect solar cell performance. As a result, in some variations, the edges of a square or pseudo-square wafer oriented parallel to the short side of the rectangular solar cell are trimmed just as described, but parallel to the long side of the rectangular solar cell. The edge of the wafer directed to is not trimmed. In other variations, one, two, three, or four edges of a square wafer (eg, wafer 47 in FIG. 3D) are trimmed as just described. In other variations, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the long edges of the pseudo square wafer are trimmed as just described.

Solar cells having a long and narrow aspect ratio, as shown, and an area smaller than that of a standard 156 mm × 156 mm solar cell are the I 2 in the solar cell module disclosed herein. It can be advantageously employed to reduce R resistance power loss. In particular, the reduced area of the solar cell 10 compared to a standard size silicon solar cell reduces the current generated by the solar cell, and within the solar cell and in the series connection string of such solar cell. Directly reduce resistance power loss. In addition, by placing such a rectangular solar cell in the supercell so that the current passes through the supercell 100 parallel to the short side of the solar cell, the current can reach the finger 20 of the front metallization pattern so that the semiconductor The distance that must flow through the material can be shortened and the finger length required can be shortened, which can also reduce resistive power loss.

  As described above, joining the overlapping solar cells 10 together in the overlapping region and electrically connecting the overlapping solar cells in series is compared to a traditionally tabbed solar cell series connection string. Shorten the length of the electrical connection between adjacent solar cells. This also reduces resistive power loss.

  Referring again to FIG. 2A, in the illustrated example, the front metallization pattern on the solar cell 10 includes an optional bypass conductor 40 that extends parallel to the bus bar 15 and is spaced from the bus bar. (Such bypass conductors can also be used optionally in the metallization patterns shown in FIGS. 2B-2C, 3B and 3D, and are also shown in FIG. 2Q in combination with discontinuous contact pads 15 rather than continuous bus bars. The bypass conductor 40 interconnects the fingers 20 and electrically bypasses a tear that may be formed between the bus bar 15 and the bypass conductor 40. Such a tear that can cut the finger 20 at a location close to the bus bar 15 may otherwise separate the area of the solar cell 10 from the bus bar 15. The bypass conductor provides an alternative electrical path between such cut fingers and the bus bar. The illustrated example shows a bypass conductor 40 positioned parallel to the bus bar 15 and extending approximately the entire length of the bus bar and interconnecting all fingers 20. This arrangement may be preferred but is not essential. If present, the bypass conductor need not extend parallel to the bus bar and need not extend the entire length of the bus bar. Further, the bypass conductor interconnects at least two fingers, but not all fingers need to be interconnected. For example, two or more short bypass conductors can be used instead of longer bypass conductors. Any suitable arrangement of bypass conductors can be used. The use of such a bypass conductor is from US patent application No. 13 / 371,790 filed February 13, 2012, whose title is “Solar Cell With Metallizing Compensating For Or Presenting Cracking”. It has been explained in detail. This patent application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

  The exemplary front metallization pattern of FIG. 2A also includes an optional end conductor 42 that interconnects the fingers 20 at the far end of the fingers 20 opposite the bus bar 15. (Such end conductors may optionally be used in the metallization patterns shown in FIGS. 2B-2C, 3B and 3D and 2Q.) The width of the conductor 42 may be approximately the same as the width of the finger 20, for example. The conductor 42 interconnects the fingers 20 to electrically bypass a tear that may be formed between the bypass conductor 40 and the conductor 42, thereby, in other cases, electrically via such a tear. A current path to the bus bar 15 is provided for areas of the solar cell 10 that may be separated.

  Some of the examples shown show the front bus bar 15 with a uniform width and extending substantially the length of the long side of the solar cell 10, but this is not essential. For example, as mentioned above, the front bus bar 15 can be arranged side by side along the sides of the solar cell 10, for example as shown in FIGS. 2H, 2Q and 3B, for example. The front discontinuous contact pad 15 can be replaced. Such discontinuous contact pads may optionally be interconnected by thinner conductors extending between them, for example as shown in the drawings just touched. In such variations, the width of the contact pad, measured in the direction perpendicular to the long side of the solar cell, can be, for example, from about 2 to about 20 times the width of the thin conductor interconnecting the contact pads. There can be a separate (eg, small) contact pad for each finger in the front metallization pattern, or each contact pad can connect to two or more fingers. The front contact pad 15 may be, for example, a square or may have an elongated rectangular shape parallel to the edge of the solar cell. The front contact pad 15 may have a width in a direction perpendicular to the long side of the solar cell, for example, from about 1 mm to about 1.5 mm, and a length in a direction parallel to the long side of the solar cell, for example, It can be about 1 mm to about 10 mm. The spacing between the contact pads 15 measured in a direction parallel to the long side of the solar cell can be, for example, about 3 mm to about 30 mm.

  Alternatively, the solar cell 10 does not have both the front bus bar 15 and the discontinuous front contact pad 15 and may only include the fingers 20 in the front metallization pattern. In such a variant, the current collecting function that would otherwise be performed by the front bus bar 15 or the contact pad 15 instead joins the two solar cells 10 together in the overlapping configuration described above. Can be implemented or partially implemented by the conductive material used in

  The solar cell that does not have both the bus bar 15 and the contact pad 15 may include the bypass conductor 40 or may not include the bypass conductor 40. When the bus bar 15 and the contact pad 15 are not present, the bypass conductor 40 is arranged to bypass the tear formed between the bypass conductor and the portion of the front metallization pattern that conductively joins the overlapping solar cell. Can be done.

  A front metallization pattern including busbar or discontinuous contact pads 15, fingers 20, bypass conductors 40 (if present), and end conductors 42 (if present) may be used for such purposes, for example. It can be formed from conventionally used silver paste and deposited, for example, by conventional screen printing methods. Alternatively, the front metallization pattern can be formed from electroplated copper. Any other suitable material and process may be used. In a variation where the front metallization pattern is formed from silver, the amount of silver on the solar cell by using discontinuous front contact pads 15 rather than continuous bus bars 15 along the cell edges. Which can advantageously reduce costs. In variations where the front metallization pattern is formed from copper or from other conductors that are less expensive than silver, a continuous bus 15 may be employed without cost penalty.

  Figures 2D to 2G, 3C and 3E show exemplary backside metallization patterns for solar cells. In these examples, the backside metallization pattern covers substantially all of the discontinuous backside contact pads 25 disposed along one of the long edges of the backside of the solar cell and the remaining backside of the solar cell. Metal contact portion 30. Within the sparkling supercell, the contact pad 25 is connected to two solar cells, for example, joined to a bus bar disposed along the edge of the top surface of adjacent and overlapping solar cells or to a discontinuous contact pad. Connect batteries in series. For example, each discontinuous back contact pad 25 is aligned with a corresponding discontinuous front contact pad 15 on the front surface of the overlapping solar cell and by an electrically conductive adhesive applied only to the discontinuous contact pads. Can be joined. The discontinuous contact pads 25 can be, for example, square (FIG. 2D) or have an elongated rectangular shape parallel to the edges of the solar cell (FIGS. 2E-2G, 3C, 3E). The contact pad 25 may have a width in a direction perpendicular to the long side of the solar cell, for example, from about 1 mm to about 5 mm, and a length in a direction parallel to the long side of the solar cell, for example, from about 1 mm. It can be about 10 mm. The spacing between the contact pads 25 measured in a direction parallel to the long side of the solar cell can be, for example, about 3 mm to about 30 mm.

  The contact portion 30 can be formed from, for example, aluminum and / or electroplated copper. Formation of the aluminum back contact 30 typically provides a back field that reduces back surface recombination within the solar cell, thereby increasing solar cell efficiency. If contact 30 is formed from copper rather than aluminum, contact 30 can be used in combination with other passivating schemes (eg, aluminum oxide) to reduce backside recombination as well. The discontinuous contact pad 25 can be formed from, for example, a silver paste. By using discontinuous silver contact pads 25 rather than continuous silver contact pads along the edge of the cell, the amount of silver in the backside metallization pattern is reduced, which is cost effective. Can be reduced.

  In addition, to reduce backside recombination, solar cells use discontinuous silver contacts instead of continuous silver contacts when relying on the back field provided by the formation of aluminum contacts By doing so, the solar cell efficiency can be improved. This is because the silver back contact does not provide a back field and therefore tends to facilitate carrier recombination and create a dead volume in the solar cell above the silver contact. Traditionally ribbon tabbed solar strings, their dead volume is typically shaded by the ribbon and / or busbar on the front of the solar cell and thus did not cause any additional efficiency loss . However, within the solar cells and supercells disclosed herein, the solar cell volume above the back silver contact pads 25 is typically not shaded by any front metallization, but the silver backside. Any dead volume that results from the use of the metal coating reduces the efficiency of the battery. Therefore, by using discontinuous silver contact pads 25 rather than continuous silver contact pads along the edge of the back surface of the solar cell, the volume of any corresponding dead zone is reduced and the efficiency of the solar cell is reduced. Rise.

  In a variation that does not rely on the back field to reduce back surface recombination, the back metallization pattern extends over the length of the solar cell rather than the discontinuous contact pads 25, as shown, for example, in FIG. 2Q. A continuous bus bar 25 may be employed. Such a bus bar 25 may be formed from tin or silver, for example.

  Another variation of the backside metallization pattern may employ discontinuous tin contact pads 25. Variations of the backside metallization pattern may employ finger contact similar to that shown in the frontal metallization pattern of FIGS. 2A-2C, and may not have contact pads and bus bars.

  Although the particular exemplary solar cell shown in the drawings has been described as having a particular combination of front and back metallization patterns, more generally, any suitable combination of front and back metallization patterns is possible. Can be used. For example, one suitable combination is a silver front metallization pattern that includes discontinuous contact pads 15, fingers 20, and optional bypass conductors 40, and a discontinuity with aluminum contacts 30. A backside metallization pattern including silver contact pads 25 may be employed. Other suitable combinations include a copper front metallization pattern including a continuous bus bar 15, fingers 20, and optional bypass conductor 40, and a continuous bus bar 25 and copper contact 30. A backside metallization pattern can be employed.

  In the supercell manufacturing process (described in more detail below), the electrically conductive bonding agent used to join adjacent and overlapping solar cells in the supercell is at the edge of the front or back surface of the solar cell (not It may be distributed only on the contact pads (continuous or continuous) and not on the peripheral part of the solar cell. This reduces the use of materials and, as explained above, can reduce or adapt to stresses resulting from CTE mismatch between the electrically conductive bonding agent and the solar cell. However, during or after deposition and prior to curing, a portion of the electrically conductive bonding agent can tend to spread beyond the contact pads and onto the surrounding portion of the solar cell. For example, the binding resin portion of the electrically conductive bonding agent may move away from the contact pad and be pulled by capillary forces onto a plurality of adjacent portions that have many rough or small holes in the solar cell surface. In addition, during the deposition process, some of the conductive bonding agent may fall out of the contact pad and instead is deposited on multiple adjacent portions of the solar cell surface and possibly spread from there. It may end up. This spreading of the conductive adhesive and / or inaccurate deposition may weaken the junction between the overlapping solar cells, and one of the solar cells where the conductive adhesive has spread or has been deposited in error. May damage the part. Such spreading of the electrically conductive adhesive is reduced, for example, by a metallization pattern that forms a dam or barrier near or around each contact pad to keep the electrically conductive adhesive substantially in place. Or it can be prevented.

  As shown in FIGS. 2H-2K, for example, the front metallization pattern acts as a dam where each barrier 17 surrounds a corresponding discontinuous contact pad 15 and forms a moat between the contact pad and the barrier. In the state, the contact pad 15, the finger 20, and the barrier 17 may be included. The portion 19 of the uncured conductive adhesive bond 18 that flows away from or disengages from the contact pad when dispensed onto the solar cell can be contained in the moat by the barrier 17. This further prevents the conductive adhesive bond from spreading from the contact pad onto the peripheral portion of the battery. The barrier 17 can be formed, for example, from the same material (eg, silver) as the fingers 20 and contact pads 15, for example, can have a height from about 10 microns to about 40 microns, for example, from about 30 microns in width. It can be about 100 microns. The moat formed between the barrier 17 and the contact pad 15 can have a width of, for example, about 100 microns to about 2 mm. Although the illustrated example includes only a single barrier 17 around each front contact pad 15, in other variations, two or more such barriers are, for example, around each contact pad. Can be positioned concentrically. The front contact pad and its surrounding barrier or barriers may, for example, form a shape similar to a “Bullseye” target. As shown in FIG. 2H, for example, the barrier 17 may be interconnected with the fingers 20 and the thin conductors that interconnect the contact pads 15.

  Similarly, as shown in FIGS. 2L-2N, for example, the backside metallization pattern covers substantially all of the discontinuous back contact pads 25 (eg, silver) and the remaining backside of the solar cell (eg, Contact portions 30 (made of aluminum) and barriers 27 (e.g., made of silver) that each act as a dam that surrounds a corresponding back contact pad 25 and forms a moat between the contact pad and itself. obtain. As shown, a portion of the contact portion 30 can fill the moat. A portion of the uncured conductive adhesive adhesive that flows away from the contact pad 25 or dislodges from the contact pad when dispensed onto the solar cell can be contained in the moat by the barrier 27. This further prevents the conductive adhesive bond from spreading from the contact pad onto the peripheral portion of the battery. The barrier 27 can be, for example, about 10 microns to about 40 microns in height, for example, about 50 microns to about 500 microns in width. The moat formed between the barrier 27 and the contact pad 25 may have a width of, for example, about 100 microns to about 2 mm. Although the illustrated example includes only a single barrier 27 around each back contact pad 25, in other variations, two or more such barriers are, for example, around each contact pad. Can be positioned concentrically. The back contact pad and its surrounding barrier or barriers may, for example, form a shape similar to a “Bullseye” target.

  A continuous bus bar or contact pad that extends substantially the length of the edge of the solar cell may also be surrounded by a barrier that prevents the spread of the conductive adhesive bond. For example, FIG. 2Q shows such a barrier 27 surrounding the backside bus bar 25. The front bus bar (eg, bus bar 15 in FIG. 2A) may be surrounded by a barrier as well. Similarly, a plurality of front or back contact pad rows may be grouped by such barriers rather than individually surrounded by separate barriers.

  As just described, the front metallization pattern or backside metallization pattern feature is positioned between the barrier and the overlapping edge of the solar cell rather than surrounding the busbar or one or more contact pads. In this state, a barrier can be formed that extends substantially the length of the solar cell in a direction parallel to the edge of the solar cell. Such a barrier may serve two roles as a bypass conductor (described above). For example, in FIG. 2R, the bypass conductor 40 provides a barrier that helps prevent uncured conductive adhesive bonding on the contact pads 15 from spreading over the active area of the front surface of the solar cell. A similar arrangement can be used for the backside metallization pattern.

  Although the barrier to the spread of the conductive adhesive bond can be away from the contact pad or bus bar to form a moat just as described, this is not essential. Such a barrier could alternatively abut a contact pad or bus bar, for example as shown in FIG. 2O or 2P. In such variations, the barrier is preferably higher than the contact pad or bus bar to keep the uncured conductive adhesive adhesive on the contact pad or bus bar. 2O and 2P show a portion of the front metallization pattern, but a similar arrangement can be used for the back metallization pattern.

  A barrier to the spread of conductive adhesive bonding and / or a moat between such a barrier and a contact pad or bus bar, and any conductive adhesive bonding spread within such a moat, optionally super Adjacent solar cells in a cell can lie within the area of the solar cell surface that overlaps, and thus can be hidden from view and shielded from exposure to solar radiation.

  Alternatively, or in addition to the use of a barrier as just described, the electrically conductive adhesive may be deposited using a mask or by any other suitable method (eg, screen printing) to accurately May require a smaller amount of electrically conductive bonding agent that can be deposited more smoothly and is therefore less likely to spread beyond the contact pad or to disengage from the contact pad during deposition.

  More generally, the solar cell 10 may employ any suitable front and back metallization pattern.

  FIG. 4A shows a portion of the front surface of an exemplary rectangular supercell 100 that includes a solar cell 10 as shown in FIG. 2A, arranged in a crisp manner as shown in FIG. As a result of the sparkling geometry, there is no physical gap between the pairs of solar cells 10. In addition, the bus bar 15 of the solar cell 10 at one end of the supercell 100 is visible, but the bus bar (or front contact pad) of the other solar cell is hidden under the overlapping portion of the adjacent solar cells. As a result, the supercell 100 efficiently uses the area it occupies within the solar module. In particular, a larger portion of that area compared to the case of a solar cell arrangement tabbed as in the past and a solar cell arrangement that includes a number of visible bus bars on the irradiated surface of the solar cell Can be used to create 4B-4C include front and back views, respectively, of another exemplary supercell 100 that includes a plurality of primarily chamfered chevron rectangular silicon solar cells, but otherwise similar to that of FIG. 4A. Show.

  In the example illustrated in FIG. 4A, the bypass conductor 40 is hidden in the overlapping portion of adjacent batteries. Alternatively, a solar cell that includes the bypass conductor 40 may overlap in a similar manner as shown in FIG. 4A without covering the bypass conductor.

  The exposed front bus bar 15 at one end of the supercell 100 and the backside metallization of the solar cell at the other end of the supercell 100 can be supercelled to other supercells and / or other electrical components as desired. Provide the supercell with negative and positive (terminal) end contacts that can be used to electrically connect 100.

  Adjacent solar cells in supercell 100 may overlap by any suitable amount, for example, from about 1 millimeter (mm) to about 5 mm.

  As shown in FIGS. 5A-5G, for example, a sparkling supercell as just described can efficiently fill the area of the solar module. Such solar modules can be square or rectangular, for example. A rectangular solar module as illustrated in FIGS. 5A-5G has a short side with a length of, for example, about 1 meter and a long side with a length of, for example, about 1.5 to about 2.0 meters. Can do. Any other suitable shape and dimensions may be used for the solar module. Any suitable arrangement of supercells in the solar module can be used.

  Within a square or rectangular solar module, the supercells are typically arranged in rows parallel to the short or long sides of the solar module. Each row may include one, two, or more supercells arranged end to end. The supercell 100 that forms part of such a solar module can include any suitable number of solar cells 10 and can be of any suitable length. In some variations, each of the supercells 100 is approximately equal to the length of the short side of the rectangular solar module of which it is a part. In other variations, each of the supercells 100 is approximately equal in length to half the short side of the rectangular solar module of which it is a part. In other variations, each of the supercells 100 is approximately equal in length to the long side of the rectangular solar module of which it is a part. In other variations, each supercell 100 is approximately equal in length to half the long side of the rectangular solar module of which it is a part. The number of solar cells required to make these lengths of the supercell will, of course, depend on the size of the solar module, the size of the solar cells, and the amount by which adjacent solar cells overlap. Any other suitable length may be used for the supercell.

  In a variation where the length of the supercell 100 is approximately equal to the length of the short side of the rectangular solar module, the supercell has, for example, 56 rectangular solar cells with dimensions of about 19.5 millimeters (mm) × about 156 mm. The cells can be included with approximately 3 mm of adjacent solar cells overlapping. Eight such rectangular solar cells can be separated from a conventional square or pseudo-square 156 mm wafer. Alternatively, such a supercell may include, for example, 38 rectangular solar cells having dimensions of about 26 mm × about 156 mm, with adjacent solar cells overlapping by about 2 mm. Six such rectangular solar cells can be separated from a conventional square or pseudo-square 156 mm wafer. In a variation where the length of the supercell 100 is approximately equal to half the length of the short side of the rectangular solar module, the supercell has, for example, 28 pieces having dimensions of about 19.5 millimeters (mm) × about 156 mm. Rectangular solar cells may be included, with adjacent solar cells overlapping for about 3 mm. Alternatively, such a supercell may include, for example, 19 rectangular solar cells having dimensions of about 26 mm × about 156 mm, with adjacent solar cells overlapping by about 2 mm.

  In a variation where the length of the supercell 100 is approximately equal to the length of the long side of the rectangular solar module, the supercell comprises, for example, 72 rectangular solar cells having dimensions of about 26 millimeters (mm) × about 156 mm. Adjacent solar cells may be included in an overlapped state by about 2 mm. In a variation where the length of the supercell 100 is approximately equal to half the length of the long side of the rectangular solar module, the supercell adjoins, for example, 36 rectangular solar cells having dimensions of about 26 mm × about 156 mm. Interstitial solar cells may be included in an overlapped state for about 2 mm.

  FIG. 5A shows an exemplary rectangular solar module 200 that includes 20 rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to half the length of the short side of the solar module. These supercells are arranged in pairs and connected end to end, with 10 supercell rows oriented with the long side of the supercell parallel to the short side of the solar module. It is formed in the state. In other variations, each supercell row may include three or more supercells. Also, similarly configured solar modules may include more or fewer supercell rows than shown in this example. (For example, FIG. 14A shows a solar module including 24 rectangular supercells, each arranged in 12 rows of 2 supercells.)

  In a variation where the supercells 100 in each row are arranged such that at least one of the supercells in each row has a front end contact on the edge of the supercell adjacent to the other supercells in that row, FIG. The gap 210 shown in FIG. 5 facilitates electrical contact with the supercell front end contact (eg, exposed bus bar or discontinuous contact 15) along the centerline of the solar module. For example, two supercells in a row have one supercell with a front end contact along the solar module centerline and the other supercell with a back end contact along the solar module centerline. It can be arranged in the state. In such an arrangement, the two supercells in a row are joined along the solar module centerline to the front end contact of one supercell and to the back end contact of the other supercell. Electrical connections can be made in series by interconnects. (See, for example, FIG. 8C described below.) In variations where each supercell row includes three or more supercells, there may be additional gaps between supercells, as well as for solar modules. Electrical contact with the front end contact portion located away from the side can be facilitated.

  FIG. 5B shows an exemplary rectangular solar module 300 that includes ten rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to the length of the short side of the solar module. These supercells are arranged as 10 parallel rows with the long sides oriented parallel to the short sides of the module. A similarly configured solar module may include more or fewer rows of supercells of such side length than shown in this example.

  FIG. 5B also shows how the solar module 200 of FIG. 5A looks when there is no gap between adjacent supercells in multiple supercell rows within the solar module 200. The gap 210 in FIG. 5A can be removed, for example, by positioning the supercells so that both supercells in each row have a back end contact along the module centerline. In this case, since it is not necessary to approach the front face of the supercell along the center of the module, the supercells can be placed in close contact with each other with little or no additional gap between them. Alternatively, two supercells 100 in a row have one front end contact along the module's edge, one back end contact along the module centerline, and the other is the module's It may have a front end contact portion along the center line, a back end contact portion along the opposite side of the module, and be placed with the adjacent ends of the supercell overlapping. A flexible interconnect is sandwiched between the overlapping ends of the supercells without shadowing any part of the front of the solar module, and the front end contact of one of the supercells and the back of the other supercell An electrical connection may be provided to the end contact. For rows containing 3 or more supercells, these two approaches can be used in combination.

  The supercell and the plurality of supercell rows shown in FIGS. 5A-5B may be interconnected by any suitable combination of series and parallel electrical connections, for example, as further described below with respect to FIGS. 10A-15. Interconnection between supercells can be established using flexible interconnects, for example, as described below with respect to FIGS. 5C-5G and subsequent figures. As shown by many of the examples described herein, the supercells in the solar modules described herein are interconnected by a combination of series and parallel connections, and that of a conventional solar module. Output voltage can be provided to the module that is substantially the same. In such a case, the output current from the solar module may be substantially the same as that of the conventional solar module. Alternatively, as described further below, supercells within a solar module may be interconnected to provide a substantially higher output voltage from that solar module than that provided by conventional solar modules.

  FIG. 5C shows an exemplary rectangular solar module 350 that includes six rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to the length of the long side of the solar module. These supercells are arranged as six parallel rows with the long sides oriented parallel to the long sides of the module. A similarly configured solar module may include more or fewer rows of supercells of such side length than shown in this example. In this example (and in some of the examples below), each supercell includes 72 rectangular solar cells each having a width equal to approximately 1/6 of the width of a 156 mm square or pseudo-square wafer. Any other suitable number of rectangular solar cells of any other suitable dimensions can also be used. In this example, the front end contacts of the supercell are electrically connected to each other with the flexible interconnect 400 positioned adjacent to one short edge of the module and extending parallel to the edge. The back end contacts of the supercells are similarly connected to each other by a flexible interconnect located behind the solar module and adjacent to the other short edge and extending parallel to the edge. The backside interconnect is hidden from view in FIG. 5C. This arrangement electrically connects six module long supercells in parallel. Details of the flexible interconnects and their arrangement in this and other solar module configurations are described in more detail below with respect to FIGS. 6-8G.

  FIG. 5D shows an exemplary rectangular solar module 360 that includes twelve rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to half the length of the long side of the solar module. The supercells are placed in pairs and connected end to end, with six supercell rows oriented with the long side of the supercell parallel to the long side of the solar module. It is formed in the state. In other variations, each supercell row may include three or more supercells. Also, similarly configured solar modules may include more or fewer supercell rows than shown in this example. In this example (and in some of the examples below), each supercell includes 36 rectangular solar cells each having a width equal to approximately 1/6 the width of a 156 mm square or pseudo-square wafer. Any other suitable number of rectangular solar cells of any other suitable dimensions can also be used. The gap 410 facilitates establishing electrical contact to the front end contact of the supercell 100 along the solar module centerline. In this example, a flexible interconnect 400 positioned adjacent to and extending parallel to one short edge of the module electrically interconnects the six front end contacts of the supercell. Similarly, at the rear of the module, adjacent to the other short edge of the module and extending parallel to the edge, the flexible interconnect electrically connects the back end contacts of the other six supercells. . Flexible interconnects (not shown in this figure) positioned along the gap 410 interconnect each pair of supercells in a row in series, optionally extending laterally and adjacent Interconnecting rows in parallel. This arrangement electrically connects six supercell rows in parallel. Optionally, in the first group of supercells, the first supercell in each row is electrically connected in parallel with the first supercell in each row of the other rows, and in the second group of supercells, The two supercells are electrically connected in parallel with the second supercell in each row of the other rows, and the two groups of supercells are electrically connected in series. The latter arrangement allows each of the two groups of supercells to be individually in parallel with the bypass diode.

  Detail A in FIG. 5D identifies the location of the cross-sectional view shown in FIG. 8A of the interconnection of the back end contact of the supercell along the edge of one short side of the module. Detail B similarly identifies the location of the cross-sectional view shown in FIG. 8B of the supercell front end contact interconnect along the other short edge of the module. Detail C identifies the location of the cross-sectional view shown in FIG. 8C of the supercell series interconnections in a row along the gap 410.

  FIG. 5E shows a diagram of an exemplary rectangular solar module 370 configured similar to that of FIG. 5C. The difference is that, in this example, all of the solar cells forming the supercell are chevron solar cells that include chamfered corners corresponding to the corners of the pseudo-square wafer from which the solar cells are separated.

  FIG. 5F shows another exemplary rectangular solar module 380 configured similar to that of FIG. 5C. The difference is that, in this example, the solar cells forming the supercell include a mix of chevron solar cells and rectangular solar cells arranged to reproduce the shape of the source pseudo-square wafer. In the example of FIG. 5F, the chevron solar cell and the rectangular solar cell have the same active area exposed to solar radiation during module operation, and thus the chevron solar cell is a rectangular solar cell so that the currents match. It is wider than the batteries in the direction perpendicular to their long axis and can compensate for the missing corners on the chevron batteries.

  FIG. 5G shows another exemplary rectangular solar module configured similarly to that of FIG. 5E (ie, including only chevron solar cells). The difference is that in the solar module of FIG. 5G, adjacent chevron solar cells in the supercell are arranged as mirror images of each other such that their overlapping edges are the same length. This maximizes the length of each overlapping connection, thereby encouraging heat flow through the supercell.

  Other configurations of the rectangular solar module include one or more supercell rows formed only from rectangular (non-chamfered) solar cells and one or more supercells formed only from chamfered solar cells. Cell rows. For example, a rectangular solar module can be configured similar to that of FIG. 5C except that it has two outer supercell rows, each replaced with a supercell row formed from only chamfered solar cells. The chamfered solar cells in the rows can be arranged as a pair of mirror images, for example, as shown in FIG. 5G.

  Within the exemplary solar module shown in FIGS. 5C-5G, the rectangular solar cells forming the supercell have an active area that is approximately 1/6 that of a conventional size solar cell, so along each supercell row. Current is about 1/6 of the current in a conventional solar module of the same area. However, in these examples, six supercell rows are electrically connected in parallel, so that the exemplary solar module can generate a total current equal to the total current generated by a conventional solar module of the same area. This facilitates replacing the conventional solar module with the exemplary solar module of FIGS. 5C-5G (and other examples described below).

  FIG. 6 illustrates, in more detail than FIGS. 5C-5G, an exemplary arrangement of three supercell rows that interconnect the supercells in each row in series with each other and the flexible electrical interconnects to place the rows in parallel with each other. Show. These can be, for example, three rows in the solar module of FIG. 5D. In the example of FIG. 6, each supercell 100 has a flexible interconnect 400 that is conductively joined to its front end contact and another flexible interconnect that is conductively joined to its back end contact. The two supercells in each row are electrically connected in series by a shared flexible interconnect that is conductively joined to the front end contact of one supercell and the back end contact of the other supercell. Each flexible interconnect is positioned adjacent to the end of the supercell to which it is joined, extends parallel to the end, extends laterally beyond the supercell, and on a supercell in an adjacent row Conductive joints can be made to the flexible interconnects to electrically connect adjacent rows in parallel. The dotted lines in FIG. 6 indicate the part of the supercell that is hidden from view by the part lying on top of the supercell or the part of the supercell that is hidden from view by the part lying on the flexible interconnect. A part is depicted.

  The flexible interconnect 400 may be conductively bonded to the supercell by, for example, an electrically conductive bonding agent having mechanical compliance as described above for use in bonding overlapping solar cells. Optionally, the electrically conductive bonding agent is located only at discrete locations along the edge of the supercell, rather than in a solid line extending substantially over the length of the edge of the supercell. Can reduce or adapt to stresses in the direction parallel to the edge of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficient of the conductive bonding agent or interconnect and the thermal expansion coefficient of the supercell obtain.

  The flexible interconnect 400 may be formed from, for example, a thin copper plate, or may include a thin copper plate. The flexible interconnect 400 is optionally patterned or otherwise configured to increase mechanical compliance (flexibility) in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the edge of the supercell, The stress in the direction perpendicular to and parallel to the edge of the supercell and resulting from a mismatch between the CTE of the interconnect and the CTE of the supercell may be reduced or accommodated. Such patterning can include, for example, slits, slots, or holes. The plurality of conductive portions of the interconnect 400 have a thickness, for example, less than about 100 microns, less than about 50 microns, less than about 30 microns, or less than about 25 microns to increase the flexibility of the interconnect. obtain. The mechanical compliance of the flexible interconnect, and its joining to the supercell, during the lamination process described in more detail below with respect to the method by which the interconnecting supercell manufactures the sparkling solar cell module, It must be sufficient to withstand the stresses resulting from CTE mismatch and to withstand the stresses resulting from CTE mismatch during temperature cycling tests between about −40 ° C. and about 85 ° C.

  Preferably, the flexible interconnects 400 have a resistance to current flow in a direction parallel to the end of their joined supercell that is less than or equal to about 0.015 ohm, less than about 0.012 ohm. Low or equal to, or less than or equal to about 0.01 ohms.

  FIG. 7A shows some exemplary configurations identified by reference numbers 400A-400T that may be suitable for flexible interconnect 400. FIG.

  As shown in the cross-sectional views of FIGS. 8A-8C, for example, the solar modules described herein typically include a supercell, one or more encapsulant materials 4101, a transparent front sheet 420, and a rear surface. A stacked structure sandwiched between the sheet 430 and the sheet 430 is included. The transparent front sheet can be, for example, glass. Optionally, the back sheet can also be transparent, which can allow two-sided operation of the solar module. The rear sheet can be, for example, a polymer sheet. Alternatively, the solar module can be a glass-glass module where both the front and back sheets are glass.

  The cross-sectional view of FIG. 8A (detail A from FIG. 5D) is conductively joined to the back end contact of the supercell near the edge of the solar module, hidden from view from the front of the solar module, and inward under the supercell. An example of an extended flexible interconnect 400 is shown. Additional strips of encapsulant may be disposed between the interconnect 400 and the backside of the supercell, as shown.

  The cross-sectional view of FIG. 8B (detail B from FIG. 5B) shows an example of a flexible interconnect 400 that is conductively joined to the front end contact of the supercell.

  The cross-sectional view of FIG. 8C (detail C from FIG. 5B) shows a conductive junction between the front end contact of one supercell and the back end contact of the other supercell to electrically connect the two supercells in series. An example of a shared flexible interconnect 400 to be connected is shown.

  The flexible interconnect that electrically connects to the front end contact of the supercell may be configured or arranged to occupy only a narrow width on the front surface of the solar module, which may be located, for example, adjacent to the edge of the solar module. The area of the front face of the module occupied by such interconnects may be as narrow as, for example, ≦ about 10 mm, ≦ about 5 mm, or ≦ about 3 mm in the direction perpendicular to the edge of the supercell. In the arrangement shown in FIG. 8B, for example, the flexible interconnect 400 may be configured to extend beyond the edge of the supercell by such distance or less. 8D-8G show an additional example of an arrangement in which the flexible interconnect that electrically connects to the front end contact of the supercell can occupy only a narrow width on the front side of the module. Such an arrangement facilitates efficient use for electricity generation of the front area of the module.

  FIG. 8D shows the flexible interconnect 400 conductively bonded to the supercell end front contact and folded to the back of the supercell around the edge of the supercell. An insulating film 435 that can be pre-coated on the flexible interconnect 400 can be disposed between the flexible interconnect 400 and the back surface of the supercell.

  FIG. 8E shows a flexible interconnect 400 that includes a thin narrow ribbon 440 that is conductively joined to a thin wide ribbon 445 extending at the distal front contact of the supercell and behind the back of the supercell. An insulating film 435 that can be pre-coated on the ribbon 445 can be disposed between the ribbon 445 and the backside of the supercell.

  FIG. 8F shows a flexible interconnect 400 that is joined to the end front contact of the supercell and rolled into a flat coil that occupies only a narrow width on the front of the solar module.

  FIG. 8G shows a flexible interconnect 400 that includes a thin ribbon section that is conductively bonded to the terminal front contact of the supercell and a thick cross-sectional portion that is located adjacent to the supercell.

  8A-8G, the flexible interconnect 400 may extend along the entire length of the edge of the supercell (eg, toward the page of the drawing), for example, as shown in FIG.

  Optionally, a portion of the flexible interconnect 400, which is otherwise visible from the front of the module, is covered with a dark film or coating, or in other cases is colored to provide normal color vision. Can reduce the perceivable contrast between the interconnect and the supercell, as perceived by a person who has For example, in FIG. 8C, an optional black film or coating 425 covers a portion of the interconnect 400 that would otherwise be visible from the front of the module. Portions of the interconnect 400 shown in other drawings, which are otherwise visible, can be similarly covered or colored.

  Conventional solar modules typically include 3 or more bypass diodes, with each bypass diode connected in parallel with a series connected group of 18 to 24 silicon solar cells. This is done to limit the amount of power that can be dissipated as heat in a reverse-biased solar cell. Solar cells may be reverse-biased, for example, due to defects that reduce the ability to pass the current generated by the string, a dirty front, or uneven illumination. The heat generated in a reverse-biased solar cell depends on the voltage across the solar cell and the current through the solar cell. If the voltage across a reverse-biased solar cell exceeds the breakdown voltage of the solar cell, the heat dissipated in the cell will be equal to the breakdown voltage multiplied by the total current generated by the string. . Silicon solar cells typically have a breakdown voltage of 16 to 30 volts. Since each silicon solar cell produces a voltage of about 0.64 volts in operation, more than 24 strings of solar cells can produce a voltage above the breakdown voltage in a reverse-biased solar cell.

  It is not easy to transfer heat away from hot solar cells in a conventional solar module where the solar cells are separated from each other and interconnected by a ribbon. As a result, the power dissipated in a solar cell with a breakdown voltage can cause hot spots in the solar cell that cause considerable thermal damage, possibly firing. Thus, in a conventional solar module, a bypass diode for each group of 18 to 24 solar cells connected in series ensures that no solar cell in the string can be reverse-biased beyond the breakdown voltage. is necessary.

  Applicants have discovered that heat is easily transferred along the silicon supercell through thin electrical and thermally conductive junctions between adjacent and overlapping silicon solar cells. Furthermore, the supercells described herein typically have a rectangular solar cell each having a smaller active area (eg, 1/6) than that of conventional solar cells. As such, the current through the supercells in the solar modules described herein is typically less than the current through a string of conventional solar cells. Furthermore, the rectangular aspect ratio of solar cells typically employed herein enlarges the area of thermal contact between adjacent solar cells. As a result, less heat is dissipated in solar cells that are reverse-biased at breakdown voltage, and heat spreads easily through supercells and solar modules without creating dangerous hot spots. Applicants have therefore found that solar modules formed from supercells as described herein may employ much fewer bypass diodes than previously considered necessary.

  For example, in some variations of solar modules as described herein, N> 25 solar cells, N ≧ about 30 solar cells, N ≧ about 50 solar cells, N ≧ about 70. A single solar cell, or a supercell containing N ≧ about 100 solar cells, is individually electrically connected in parallel with a bypass diode in the supercell, or a group of fewer than N solar cells. It can be adopted without doing. Optionally, the entire supercell of these lengths can be electrically connected in parallel with a single bypass diode. Optionally, these length supercells can be employed without a bypass diode.

  Several additional and optional design features make solar modules employing supercells as described herein more resistant to heat dissipated in reverse-biased solar cells Can be. Referring again to FIGS. 8A-8C, the encapsulant 4101 can be or include a thermoplastic olefin (TPO) polymer. TPO encapsulant is more stable to light heat than standard ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant. EVA turns brown with temperature and ultraviolet light, leading to problems with hot spots caused by batteries that limit current. These problems are reduced or avoided by the TPO encapsulant. In addition, the solar module may have a glass-glass structure in which both the transparent front sheet 420 and the back sheet 430 are glass. Such glass-glass allows the solar module to operate safely at higher temperatures than conventional polymer backsheets can withstand. Furthermore, the junction box can be mounted on one or more edges of the solar module rather than behind the solar module. Here the junction box will add an additional thermal isolation layer to the module solar cell above it.

  FIG. 9A shows an exemplary rectangular solar module that includes six rectangular squeaky supercells arranged in six rows that extend the length of the long side of the solar module. The six supercells are electrically connected in parallel with each other and with bypass diodes arranged in the connection box 490 on the back side of the solar module. The electrical connection between the supercell and the bypass diode is established through a ribbon 450 embedded in the module stack.

  FIG. 9B shows another exemplary rectangular solar module that includes six rectangular squeaky supercells arranged in six rows extending across the length of the long side of the solar module. The supercells are electrically connected in parallel with each other. Separate positive terminal connection box 490P and negative terminal connection box 490N are arranged on the back surface of the solar module at the opposing ends of the solar module. The supercell is electrically connected in parallel with a bypass diode located in one of the connection boxes by an external cable 455 extending between the connection boxes.

  FIGS. 9C-9D show six rectangular glazed supercells arranged in six rows extending over the length of the long side of the solar module in a laminated structure including a glass front sheet and a back sheet. 1 illustrates an exemplary glass-glass rectangular solar module comprising: The supercells are electrically connected in parallel with each other. Separate positive terminal connection box 490P and negative terminal connection box 490N are attached to the opposing edges of the solar module.

  Sparkling supercells are unique for module layout with respect to module level power management devices (eg, DC / AC micro inverters, DC / DC module power optimizers, voltage intelligence and smart switches, and related devices) New opportunities. The main feature of the module level power management system is power optimization. Supercells as described and employed herein can produce higher voltages than traditional panels. In addition, the layout of the supercell module can further divide the module. Both higher voltage and further splits create potential benefits for power optimization.

  FIG. 9E shows one exemplary structure of module level power management using a wiggle supercell. In this figure, an exemplary rectangular solar module includes six rectangular shingle supercells arranged in six rows extending the length of the long side of the solar module. The three pairs of supercells are individually connected to the power management system 460, which allows for more personalized power optimization of the module.

  FIG. 9F shows another exemplary structure of module level power management using a sparkling supercell. In this figure, an exemplary rectangular solar module includes six rectangular shingle supercells arranged in six rows extending the length of the long side of the solar module. The six supercells are individually connected to the power management system 460, which allows for even more individualized power optimization of the module.

  FIG. 9G shows another exemplary structure of module level power management using a sparkling supercell. In this figure, an exemplary rectangular solar module includes six or more rectangular raked supercells 998 arranged in six or more rows. Here, three or more supercell pairs are individually connected to a bypass diode or power management system 460 to allow even more personalized power optimization of the module.

  FIG. 9H shows another exemplary structure of module level power management using a sparkling supercell. In this figure, an exemplary rectangular solar module includes 6 or more rectangular raked supercells 998 arranged in 6 or more rows. Here, every two supercells are connected in series, and all pairs are connected in parallel. A bypass diode or power management system 460 is connected in parallel with all pairs, which allows module power optimization.

In some variations, module level power management allows all bypass diodes on the solar module to be removed while still eliminating the risk of hot spots. This is achieved by integrating voltage intelligence at the module level. By monitoring the voltage output of a solar circuit (eg, one or more supercells) in a solar module, a “smart switch” power management device determines whether the circuit contains any reverse-biased solar cells I can do it. If a reverse-biased solar cell is detected, the power management device can disconnect the corresponding circuit from the electrical system using, for example, a relay switch or other component. For example, if the voltage of the monitored solar circuit falls below a predetermined threshold (V Limit ), the power management device shuts off the circuit while ensuring that the module or strings of modules are connected. (Open the circuit).

  In certain embodiments where the voltage of a circuit drops more than a percentage or magnitude (eg, 20% or 10V) from other circuits in the same solar array, the circuit will be shut off. The electronic device will detect this change based on inter-module communication.

  Examples of such voltage intelligence are incorporated into existing module-level power management solutions (eg, from Enhage Energy Inc., Solarage Technologies, Inc., Tiger Energy, Inc.) or through custom circuit designs. obtain.

An example of how the V Limit threshold voltage can be calculated is
CellVoc @Low Irr & High Temp × N number of cells in series -Vrb Reverse breakdown voltage ≤V Limit
It is. here,
CellVoc @Low Irr & High Temp = open circuit voltage of battery operating at low illumination and high temperature (lowest expected operating Voc).
N number of cells in series = number of batteries connected in series within each supercell being monitored.
Vrb Reverse breakdown voltage = reverse polarity voltage required to pass current through the battery.

  This approach to module-level power management using smart switches allows, for example, more than 100 silicon solar cells to be connected in series within a single module without affecting safety or module reliability. Can be possible. In addition, such a smart switch can be used to limit the string voltage towards the central inverter. Thus, longer module strings can be installed without concerns about safety or tolerance for overvoltage. If the string voltage rises against the limit, the weakest module can be bypassed (switched off).

  FIGS. 10A, 11A, 12A, 13A, 13B, and 14B, described below, provide additional exemplary schematic electrical schematics for solar modules that employ a sparkling supercell. 10B-1, 10B-2, 11B-1, 11B-2, 11C-1, 11C-2, 12B-1, 12B-2, 12C-1, 12C-2, 12C-3, 13C-1, 13C -2, 14C-1 and 14C-2 provide exemplary physical layouts corresponding to their schematic circuit diagrams. In the description of the physical layout, it is assumed that the front end contact portion of each supercell has a negative polarity, and the back end contact portion of each supercell has a positive polarity. Instead, if the module employs a supercell having a front end contact portion with positive polarity and a back end contact portion with negative polarity, the following description on the physical layout will replace the positive and negative electrodes, and It can be changed by reversing the orientation of the bypass diode. Some of the various buses mentioned in the description of these drawings may be formed, for example, with the interconnect 400 described above. The other buses described in these drawings can be implemented, for example, with ribbons embedded in a stacked structure of solar modules or with external cables.

  FIG. 10A is an exemplary schematic electrical circuit diagram of a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5B that includes ten rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to the length of the short side of the solar module. Indicates. These supercells are arranged in the solar module with their long sides oriented parallel to the short side of the module. All of these supercells are electrically connected in parallel with the bypass diode 480.

  10B-1 and 10B-2 illustrate an exemplary physical layout of the solar module of FIG. 10A. The bus 485N connects the negative electrode (front surface) end contact portion of the supercell 100 to the positive terminal of the bypass diode 480 in the connection box 490 located on the back surface of the module. The bus 485P connects the positive electrode (back surface) end contact portion of the supercell 100 to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 480. The entire bus 485P can lie behind the supercell. Bus 485N and / or its interconnection to the supercell occupies part of the front of the module.

  FIG. 11A illustrates an exemplary schematic electricity of a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A, including 20 rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to half the length of the short side of the solar module. A circuit diagram is shown, and supercells are arranged in pairs and connected end to end to form 10 supercell rows. The first supercell in each row is connected in parallel with the first supercell in the other row and in parallel with the bypass diode 500. The second supercell in each row is connected in parallel with the bypass diode 510 in parallel with the second supercell in the other row. Two groups of supercells are connected in series in the same way as two bypass diodes.

  11B-1 and 11B-2 show an exemplary physical layout of the solar module of FIG. 11A. In this layout, the first supercell in each row has a front (negative electrode) end contact portion along the first side of the module, and a back (positive electrode) end contact portion along the center line of the module. In the second supercell, the front surface (negative electrode) end contact portion is along the center line of the module, and the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion is along the second side of the module opposite to the first side. . The bus 515N connects the front (negative electrode) end contact portion of the first supercell in each row to the positive terminal of the bypass diode 500. The bus 515P connects the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion of the second supercell in each row to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 510. The bus 520 connects the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion of the first supercell in each row and the front surface (negative electrode) end contact portion of the second supercell in each row to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 500 and the positive terminal of the bypass diode 510. To do.

  The entire bus 515P can lie behind the supercell. Bus 515N and / or its interconnection to the supercell occupies part of the front of the module. The bus 520 occupies a portion of the front of the module and may require a gap 210 as shown in FIG. 5A. Alternatively, the bus 520 lies entirely behind the supercell and may be electrically connected to the supercell with the hidden interconnect sandwiched between the overlapping ends of the supercell. In such cases, little or no gap 210 is required.

  11C-1, 11C-2 and 11C-3 show other exemplary physical layouts of the solar module of FIG. 11A. In this layout, the first supercell in each row has a front (negative electrode) end contact portion along the first side of the module, and a back (positive electrode) end contact portion along the center line of the module. In the 2 supercell, the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion is along the center line of the module, and the front surface (negative electrode) end contact portion is along the second side of the module opposite to the first side. The bus 525N connects the front (negative electrode) end contact portion of the first supercell in each row to the positive terminal of the bypass diode 500. Bus 530N connects the front (negative electrode) end contact portion of the second battery in each row to the negative terminal of bypass diode 500 and the positive terminal of bypass diode 510. The bus 535 </ b> P connects the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion of the first battery in each row to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 500 and the positive terminal of the bypass diode 510. Bus 540 </ b> P connects the back (positive electrode) end contact portion of the second battery in each row to the negative terminal of bypass diode 510.

  Bus 535P and bus 540P may lie entirely behind the supercell. Bus 525N and bus 530N, and / or their interconnection to the supercell occupy part of the front of the module.

  FIG. 12A shows another exemplary solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A that includes 20 rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to half the length of the short side of the solar module. A schematic circuit diagram is shown, and supercells are arranged in pairs and connected end to end to form 10 supercell rows. In the circuit shown in FIG. 12A, supercells are arranged in four groups. In the first group, the top five rows of first supercells are connected in parallel with each other and the bypass diodes 545. In the second group, the top five rows of second supercells are connected in parallel with each other and with the bypass diodes 505. In the third group, the first supercells in the bottom five rows are connected in parallel with each other and the bypass diode 560. In the fourth group, the bottom five rows of second supercells are connected in parallel with each other and the bypass diode 555. These four groups of supercells are connected in series with each other. The fourth bypass diode is also in series.

  12B-1 and 12B-2 illustrate an exemplary physical layout of the solar module of FIG. 12A. In this layout, the first group of supercells has a front (negative electrode) end contact portion along the first side of the module, and a back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion along the center line of the module. In the supercell, the front (negative electrode) end contact portion is along the center line of the module, and the back (positive electrode) end contact portion is along the second side of the module opposite to the first side. In the supercell, the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion is along the first side of the module, the front surface (negative electrode) end contact portion is along the center line of the module, and the fourth group of supercells is the back surface ( The positive electrode) end contact is along the center line of the module, and the front (negative) end contact is along the second side of the module.

  Bus 565N connects the front (negative electrode) end contacts of the supercells included in the first group of supercells to each other and to the positive terminal of bypass diode 545. The bus 570 connects the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion of the supercell included in the first group of supercells and the front surface (negative electrode) end contact portion of the supercell included in the second group of supercells to each other of the bypass diode 545. Connect to the negative terminal and to the positive terminal of bypass diode 550. The bus 575 connects the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion of the supercell included in the second group of supercells and the front surface (negative electrode) end contact portion of the supercell included in the fourth group of supercells to each other of the bypass diode 550. Connect to the negative terminal and to the positive terminal of bypass diode 555. The bus 580 connects the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion of the supercell included in the fourth group of supercells and the front surface (negative electrode) end contact portion of the supercell included in the third group of supercells to each other of the bypass diode 555. Connect to the negative terminal and to the positive terminal of bypass diode 560. The bus 585P connects the back surface (positive electrode) end contacts of the supercells included in the third group of supercells to each other and to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 560.

  The bus 585P and the portion of the bus 575 that connects to the supercell of the second group of supercells can lie entirely behind the supercell. The remaining portions of bus 575 and bus 565N and / or their interconnection to the supercell occupy part of the front of the module.

  Bus 570 and bus 580 occupy a portion of the front of the module and may require a gap 210 as shown in FIG. 5A. Alternatively, they lie entirely behind the supercell and can be electrically connected to the supercell with the hidden interconnect sandwiched between the overlapping ends of the supercell. In such cases, little or no gap 210 is required.

  12C-1, 12C-2 and 12C-3 show alternative physical layouts of the solar module of FIG. 12A. This layout uses two junction boxes 490A and 490B instead of the single junction box 490 shown in FIGS. 12B-1 and 12B-2, but is otherwise equivalent to that of FIGS. 12B-1 and 12B-2. It is.

  FIG. 13A shows another exemplary solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5A that includes 20 rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to half the length of the short side of the solar module. A schematic circuit diagram is shown, and supercells are arranged in pairs and connected end to end to form 10 supercell rows. In the circuit shown in FIG. 13A, supercells are arranged in four groups. In the first group, the first supercells in the uppermost five rows are connected in parallel to each other. In the second group, the uppermost five rows of second supercells are connected in parallel to each other. In the third group, the first supercells in the bottom five rows are connected in parallel to each other. In the fourth group, the second supercells in the bottom five rows are connected in parallel to each other. The first group and the second group are connected in series with each other, and are therefore connected in parallel with the bypass diode 590. The third group and the fourth group are connected in series with each other, and are therefore connected in parallel with the other bypass diode 595. The first group and the second group are connected in series with the third group and the fourth group, and the two bypass diodes are also in series.

  13C-1 and 13C-2 show an exemplary physical layout of the solar module of FIG. 13A. In this layout, the first group of supercells has a front (negative electrode) end contact portion along the first side of the module, and a back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion along the center line of the module. In the supercell, the front (negative electrode) end contact portion is along the center line of the module, the back (positive electrode) end contact portion is along the second side of the module opposite to the first side, Three groups of supercells have the back (positive) end contact along the first side of the module, the front (negative) end contact along the module centerline, and the fourth group of supercells The back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion is along the center line of the module, and the front surface (negative electrode) end contact portion is along the second side of the module.

  In the bus 600, the front (negative electrode) end contact portions of the first group of super cells are connected to each other, the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion of the third group of super cells, the positive terminal of the bypass diode 590, and the bypass diode 595 Connect to the negative terminal. The bus 605 connects the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portions of the first group of supercells to each other and the front surface (negative electrode) end contact portion of the second group of supercells. The bus 610P connects the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portions of the second group of supercells to each other and to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 590. Bus 615N connects the front (negative electrode) end contacts of the fourth group of supercells to each other and to the positive terminal of bypass diode 595. A bus 620 connects the front (negative electrode) end contact portions of the third group of supercells to each other and the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion of the fourth group of supercells.

  The bus 610P and the portion of the bus 600 connected to the supercells included in the third group of supercells may lie entirely behind the supercell. The remaining portions of bus 600 and bus 615N and / or their interconnection to the supercell occupy a portion of the front of the module.

  The bus 605 and the bus 620 occupy a part of the front surface of the module, and a gap 210 as shown in FIG. 5A is required. Alternatively, they lie entirely behind the supercell and can be electrically connected to the supercell with the hidden interconnect sandwiched between the overlapping ends of the supercell. In such cases, little or no gap 210 is required.

  FIG. 13B shows an exemplary schematic electrical schematic of a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5B, where the solar modules are 10 pieces each having a length approximately equal to the length of the short side of the solar module. A rectangular supercell 100 is included. These supercells are arranged in the solar module with their long sides oriented parallel to the short side of the module. In the circuit shown in FIG. 13B, the supercells are arranged in two groups. In the first group, the top five supercells are connected in parallel with each other and the bypass diode 590, and in the second group, the bottommost five supercells are in parallel with each other and the bypass diode 595. Connect to. These two groups are connected in series with each other. A bypass diode is also connected in series.

  The schematic circuit of FIG. 13B differs from that of FIG. 13A in that each row of the two supercells of FIG. 13A is replaced with a single supercell. As a result, the physical layout of the solar module of FIG. 13B can be as shown in FIGS. 13C-1, 13C-2, and 13C-3 where the bus 605 and bus 620 are omitted.

  FIG. 14A shows an exemplary rectangular solar module 700 that includes 24 rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to half the length of the short side of the solar module. The supercells were placed in pairs and connected end to end, with 12 supercell rows oriented with the long sides of the supercells parallel to the short sides of the solar module. It is formed in a state.

  FIG. 14B shows an exemplary schematic circuit diagram of a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 14A. In the circuit shown in FIG. 14B, the supercells are arranged in three groups. In the first group, the uppermost eight rows of first supercells are connected to each other and in parallel with the bypass diode 705, and in the second group, the lowermost four rows of supercells are connected to each other and bypassed. The diodes 710 are connected in parallel, and in the third group, the uppermost eight rows of second supercells are connected to each other and to the bypass diodes 715 in parallel. Three groups of supercells are connected in series. Three bypass diodes are also in series.

  14C-1 and 14C-2 show an exemplary physical layout of the solar module of FIG. 14B. In this layout, in the first group of supercells, the front surface (negative electrode) end contact portion is along the first side of the module, and the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion is along the center line of the module. Within the second group of supercells, the first supercell included in each of the bottom four rows has a back (positive) end contact along the first side of the module, and a front (negative) end contact The second supercell included in each of the bottom four rows has a front (negative electrode) end contact portion along the module centerline, and the back (positive electrode) end. The contact portion is along the second side of the module opposite to the first side. In the third solar cell group, the back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion is along the center line of the module, and the back surface (negative electrode) end contact portion is along the second side of the module.

  Bus 720N connects the front (negative electrode) end contacts of the first group of supercells to each other and to the positive terminal of bypass diode 705. The bus 725 has a back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion of the first group of supercells, a front surface (negative electrode) end contact portion of the second group of supercells, a negative terminal of the bypass diode 705, and a positive electrode of the bypass diode 710. Connect to the terminal. The bus 730 </ b> P connects the back surface (positive electrode) end contacts of the third group of supercells to each other and to the negative terminal of the bypass diode 715. The bus 735 has a front (negative electrode) end contact portion of the third group of supercells, a back surface (positive electrode) end contact portion of the second group of supercells, a negative terminal of the bypass diode 710, and a bypass diode 715 Connect to the positive terminal.

  The part of the bus 725 connected to the supercell included in the supercell of the first group, the part of the bus 735 connected to the supercell included in the supercell included in the second group of superbuses, the bus 730P, Can lie behind the supercell. Bus 720N and the rest of bus 725 and bus 735 and / or their interconnection to the supercell occupy part of the front of the module.

  Some of the examples described above house a bypass diode in one or more junction boxes on the back side of the solar module. However, this is not essential. For example, some or all of the bypass diodes can be positioned in-plane with the supercell around the solar module or in the gap between the supercells, or positioned behind the supercell. In such a case, for example, the bypass diode can be arranged in a stacked structure in which a supercell is enclosed. Thus, the location of the bypass diode is distributed and removed from the junction box and located on the back side of the solar module, for example near the outer edge of the solar module, in the central junction box containing both positive and negative module terminals. The replacement with two separate single terminal junction boxes can be facilitated. This approach generally reduces the length of the current path in the ribbon conductors within the solar module and in the cabling between the solar modules, both of which reduce material costs and reduce resistance power loss Can increase the power of the module.

  Referring to FIG. 15, for example, the physical layout of various electrical interconnections of a solar module as illustrated in FIG. 5B having the schematic circuit diagram of FIG. 10A is shown in a bypass diode 480 located within a supercell stack. And two single terminal junction boxes 490P and 490N. FIG. 15 may be best understood by comparison with FIGS. 10B-1 and 10B-2. The layout of the other modules described above can be changed as well.

  The use of an in-stack bypass diode as just described can be facilitated by the use of rectangular solar cells with reduced current (area reduced) as described above. This is because, with reduced current solar cells, the power dissipated in the forward-biased bypass diode can be lower than the power that would be dissipated in the case of conventional size solar cells. Thus, the bypass diodes in the solar modules described herein may have less heat absorption than before, and as a result, can be moved out of the junction box on the back of the module and into the stack.

  A single solar module corresponds to two or more electrical configurations, eg, interconnects, other conductors, and / or corresponding to two or more of the electrical configurations described above A bypass diode may be included. In such cases, a particular configuration for operation of the solar module may be selected from two or more alternatives, for example in conjunction with the use of switches and / or jumpers. Between different configurations, the number of supercells in series and / or parallel may be different, providing different combinations of voltage and current output from the solar module. Thus, such solar modules may be selected, for example, between a high voltage and low current configuration and a low voltage and high current configuration to select from two or more different voltage and current combinations. It may be configurable at the factory or in the field to do.

  FIG. 16 shows an exemplary arrangement of a smart switch module level power management device 750 as described above between two solar modules.

  Referring now to FIG. 17, an exemplary method 800 for making a solar module as disclosed herein includes the following steps. In step 810, a conventional size solar cell (eg, 156 mm × 156 mm or 125 mm × 125 mm) is cut and / or cleaved to form a plurality of narrow rectangular solar cell “strips”. (See, for example, FIGS. 3A-3E and related descriptions above). The resulting solar cell strip can optionally be tested and sorted according to current-voltage performance. Batteries with matching or approximately matching current-voltage performance can be advantageously used in the same supercell or in the same row of series connected supercells. For example, batteries that are connected in series within a supercell or within a supercell row may advantageously produce currents that are matched or approximately matched under the same illumination.

  In step 815, the supercell is assembled from the strip solar cells with the conductive adhesive bonding agent disposed between the overlapping portions of adjacent solar cells in the supercell. The conductive adhesive bonding agent can be applied by, for example, inkjet printing or screen printing.

  In step 820, heating or pressurization is performed to cure or partially cure the conductive adhesive bond between solar cells in the supercell. In one variation, when each additional solar cell is added to the supercell, between the newly added solar cell and its adjacent overlapping solar cells (which are already part of the supercell) Of the conductive adhesive is cured or partially cured before the next solar cell is added to the supercell. In other variations, more than two solar cells, or all solar cells in a supercell, can be positioned in a desired overlapping manner before the conductive adhesive bond is cured or partially cured. The resulting supercell from this process can optionally be tested and sorted according to current-voltage performance. Supercells with matching or approximately matching current-voltage performance can be advantageously used in the same supercell row or in the same solar module. For example, it may be advantageous for supercells or multiple supercell rows that are electrically connected in parallel to produce a voltage that is matched or approximately matched under the same illumination.

  In step 825, the cured or partially cured supercell is in the desired modular configuration within a layered structure including encapsulant material, a transparent front (sun side) sheet, and (optionally transparent) a back sheet. Arranged and interconnected. The layered structure may be, for example, a first layer of encapsulant on a glass substrate, interconnected supercells with the sun side disposed below the first layer of encapsulant, and a second layer of encapsulant on the supercell layer. , And a rear sheet on the second layer of encapsulant. Any other suitable arrangement can also be used.

  In the lamination step 830, heating and pressurization are performed on the layered structure to form a cured laminated structure.

  In one variation of the method of FIG. 17, a conventional size solar cell is separated into a plurality of solar cell strips, after which a conductive adhesive bond is applied to each individual solar cell strip. In an alternative variation, the conductive adhesive bond is applied to conventional size solar cells before the solar cells are separated into a plurality of solar cell strips.

  In the curing step 820, the conductive adhesive bond can be fully cured or only partially cured. In the latter case, the conductive adhesive bond may first be partially cured in step 820 sufficiently to facilitate supercell handling and interconnection and may be fully cured during the subsequent lamination step 830.

  In some variations, the supercell 100 assembled as an intermediate product in the method 800 is such that the long sides of adjacent solar cells overlap and conductively join as described above, and the plurality of interconnects are supercells. A plurality of rectangular solar cells 10 arranged in a state of being joined to the terminal contact portion at the opposite ends of each other.

  FIG. 30A shows an exemplary supercell with electrical interconnects joined to the front and back end contacts. The electrical interconnect extends parallel to the end edge of the supercell and extends laterally beyond the supercell to facilitate electrical interconnection with adjacent supercells.

  FIG. 30B shows two of the supercells of FIG. 30A interconnected in parallel. In other cases, a portion of the interconnect, visible from the front of the module, is covered or colored (eg, darkly colored) and is perceived by a person with normal color vision The visible contrast between the connection and the supercell can be reduced. In the example illustrated in FIG. 30A, the interconnect 850 is conductively joined to the front end contact of the first polarity (eg, + or −) at one end of the supercell (right side of the drawing) and the other interconnect. The connection portion 850 is conductively joined to the rear end contact portion of reverse polarity at the other end (left side of the drawing) of the supercell. Similar to the other interconnects described above, the interconnect 850 can be conductively bonded to the supercell using, for example, the same conductive adhesive bond between solar cells, but this is not essential. In the illustrated example, a portion of each interconnect 850 extends beyond the edge of supercell 100 in a direction perpendicular to the major axis of the supercell (and parallel to the major axis of solar cell 10). To do. As shown in FIG. 30B, this allows two or more supercells 100 to have a conductive junction where one supercell interconnect 850 overlaps with a corresponding interconnect 850 on an adjacent supercell. Two supercells can be positioned side by side in electrical interconnection in parallel. Several such interconnects 850 that interconnect in series as just described may form a bus for the module. This arrangement may be suitable, for example, when individual supercells extend across the entire width or length of the module (eg, FIG. 5B). In addition, the interconnect 850 can also be used to electrically connect the end contacts of two adjacent supercells in a supercell row in series. Such interconnecting supercell pairs or longer strings in a row overlap one row interconnect 850 and adjacent row interconnect 850, similar to that shown in FIG. 30B. By conducting a conductive junction, it can be electrically connected in parallel with similarly interconnected supercells in adjacent rows.

  The interconnect 850 can be die cut from, for example, a conductive sheet and optionally patterned to increase its mechanical compliance in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the edges of the supercell and The stress in the direction perpendicular to and parallel to the edge of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the CTE of the connection and the CTE of the supercell may be reduced or accommodated. Such patterning can include, for example, slits, slots, or holes (not shown). The mechanical compliance of the interconnect 850 and its joining to the supercell or joints is such that the connection to the supercell withstands stresses resulting from CTE mismatch during the lamination process described in more detail below. Should be sufficient to be able to. The interconnect 850 may be joined to the supercell, for example, with an electrically conductive adhesive having mechanical compliance as described above for use in joining overlapping solar cells. Optionally, the electrically conductive bonding agent is located only at discrete locations along the edge of the supercell, rather than in a solid line extending substantially over the length of the edge of the supercell. Can reduce or adapt to stresses in the direction parallel to the edge of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficient of the conductive bonding agent or interconnect and the thermal expansion coefficient of the supercell obtain.

  The interconnect 850 can be cut from, for example, a thin copper plate, and the conventional supercell 100 is formed from a solar cell with a smaller area than a standard silicon solar cell, and thus is conventional when operating at a lower current. It may be thinner than the conductive interconnect. For example, the interconnect 850 can be formed from a copper plate having a thickness of about 50 microns to about 300 microns. Similar to the interconnects described above, the interconnects 850 are thin enough and can be flexible enough to bend around the edges of their joined supercells and behind them.

  19A-19D illustrate some exemplary arrangements that can be heated and pressurized during method 800 to cure or partially cure the conductive adhesive bond between adjacent solar cells in a supercell. . Any other suitable arrangement may be employed.

  In FIG. 19A, heating and local pressurization are performed to cure or partially cure the conductive adhesive bonding agent 12 at one connection portion (overlapping region) at a time. The supercell may be supported by the surface 1000, and the pressurization may be mechanically performed on the connection from above, for example by a bar, pin, or other mechanical contact. Heating can be applied to the connection by, for example, hot air (or other hot gas), by an infrared bulb, or by heating a mechanical contact that applies local pressure to the connection. Can be done.

  In FIG. 19B, the arrangement of FIG. 19A is extended to a batch process that simultaneously heats and locally pressurizes multiple connections in the supercell.

  In FIG. 19C, an uncured supercell is sandwiched between a release liner 1015 and a reusable thermoplastic sheet 1020 and positioned on a carrier plate 1010 supported by a surface 1000. The thermoplastic material of the sheet 1020 is selected to melt at a temperature at which the supercell is cured. Release liner 1015 can be formed, for example, from fiberglass and PTFE and does not stick to the supercell after the curing process. Preferably, the release liner 1015 is formed from a material having a CTE that matches or substantially matches the coefficient of thermal expansion of the solar cell (eg, the CTE of silicon). Because if the CTE of the release liner is too different from the CTE of the solar cell, the solar cell and the release liner will be lengthened by a different amount during the curing process, which will cause the supercell to be longer at the junction. This is because it will tend to be pulled away in the vertical direction. A vacuum bladder 1005 lies on this arrangement. The uncured supercell is heated, for example, from below through the surface 1000 and the carrier plate 1010 and a vacuum is drawn between the bladder 1005 and the support surface 1000. As a result, the bladder 1005 applies static pressure to the supercell through the molten thermoplastic sheet 1020.

  In FIG. 19D, the uncured supercell is carried by perforated moving belt 1025 through oven 1035 that heats the supercell. The vacuum drawn through the perforations in the belt pulls the solar cell 10 toward the belt, thereby applying pressure to the connection between them. The conductive adhesive bond at these connections is cured as the supercell passes through the oven. Preferably, the perforated belt 1025 is formed from a material having a CTE that matches or substantially matches the CTE of the solar cell (eg, CTE of silicon). Because, if the CTE of the belt 1025 is too different from the CTE of the solar cell, the solar cell and the belt will be lengthened by different amounts in the oven 1035, which will cause the supercell to be Because it will tend to pull away.

  The method 800 of FIG. 17 includes separate, supercell curing and lamination steps, resulting in an intermediate supercell product. In contrast, in the method 900 shown in FIG. 18, the supercell curing and lamination steps are combined. In step 910, a conventional size solar cell (eg, 156 mm × 156 mm or 125 mm × 125 mm) is cut and / or cleaved to form a plurality of narrow rectangular solar cell strips. The resulting solar cell strip can optionally be tested and sorted.

  In step 915, the solar cell strips are placed and interconnected in a desired modular configuration of a layered structure including encapsulant material, a transparent front (solar side) sheet, and a back sheet. The solar cell strip is arranged as a supercell with an uncured conductive adhesive adhesive disposed between the overlapping portions of adjacent solar cells in the supercell. (Conductive adhesive bonding can be applied, for example, by ink jet printing or screen printing.) Interconnects are arranged to electrically interconnect uncured supercells in the desired configuration. The layered structure may be, for example, a first layer of encapsulant on a glass substrate, interconnected supercells with the sun side disposed below the first layer of encapsulant, and a second layer of encapsulant on the supercell layer. , And a rear sheet on the second layer of encapsulant. Any other suitable arrangement can also be used.

  In the lamination step 920, heating and pressurization are performed on the layered structure to cure the conductive adhesive adhesive in the supercell and form a cured laminated structure. The conductive adhesive bond used to bond the interconnect to the supercell can also be cured in this step.

  In one variation of the method 900, a conventional size solar cell is separated into a plurality of solar cell strips, after which a conductive adhesive bond is applied to each individual solar cell strip. In an alternative variation, the conductive adhesive bond is applied to conventional size solar cells before the solar cells are separated into a plurality of solar cell strips. For example, a plurality of conventional sized solar cells are placed on a large template, after which a conductive adhesive bond is dispensed onto the solar cells, after which the solar cells are simultaneously It can be separated into battery strips. The resulting solar strips can then be transported as a group and placed in the desired module configuration as described above.

  As described above, in some variations of method 800 and method 900, the conductive adhesive bond is applied to a conventional size solar cell before the solar cell is separated into a plurality of solar cell strips. The When conventional size solar cells are separated to form a plurality of solar cell strips, the conductive adhesive bond is in an uncured state (ie, “not yet dry”). In some of these variations, a conductive adhesive bond is applied to a conventional sized solar cell (eg, by ink jet or screen printing), and then a laser is used to scribe a line on the solar cell. The solar cell is cleaved to define a location that will form a solar cell strip, after which the solar cell is cleaved along the scribe line. In these variations, the laser power, and / or the distance between the scribe lines, and the adhesive bond are selected to avoid accidental curing or partial curing of the conductive adhesive bond with heat from the laser. obtain. In another variation, a laser is used to scribe a line on a conventional size solar cell to define a location where the solar cell will be cleaved to form a solar cell strip, and then conductive adhesive bonding. The agent is applied to the solar cell (eg, by ink jet or screen printing), after which the solar cell is cleaved along the scribe line. In the latter variant, it may be preferable to achieve the step of applying a conductive adhesive bond without accidentally cleaving or destroying the scribed solar cell during this step.

  Referring back to FIGS. 20A-20C, FIG. 20A schematically illustrates a side view of an exemplary apparatus 1050 that can be used to cleave a scribed solar cell to which a conductive adhesive bond has been applied. . (The application of the scribe and conductive adhesive bonding may occur in any order.) In this device, the scribed conventional size solar cell 45 to which the conductive adhesive bonding was applied is a vacuum manifold. The upper part of the curved portion of 1070 is carried by the perforated moving belt 1060. As the solar cell 45 passes over the curved portion of the vacuum manifold, the vacuum drawn through the perforations of the belt approaches the vacuum manifold and pulls the bottom surface of the solar cell 45, thereby bending the solar cell. The radius of curvature R of the curved portion of the vacuum manifold can be selected to cleave the solar cell along the scribe line by bending the solar cell 45 in this manner. Advantageously, the solar cell 45 can be cleaved by the present method without contacting the top surface of the solar cell 45 to which the conductive adhesive bonding agent has been applied.

  If it is preferred that cleavage begins at one end of the scribe line (ie, one edge of the solar cell 45), this means that for each scribe line, one end reaches the curved portion of the vacuum manifold before the other end. Thus, for example, by arranging the scribe line to be oriented at an angle θ relative to the vacuum manifold, it can be achieved with the apparatus 1050 of FIG. 20A. As shown in FIG. 20B, for example, solar cells are oriented with their scribe lines angled with respect to a manifold oriented in the direction of belt movement and in a direction perpendicular to the direction of belt movement. Can be. As another example, FIG. 20C shows a battery oriented with the scribe line perpendicular to the direction of belt travel and a manifold oriented at an angle.

  Any other suitable device can also be used to cleave the scribed solar cell with the conductive adhesive bond applied to form a strip solar cell with the pre-applied conductive adhesive bond. obtain. Such an apparatus may use, for example, a roller to apply pressure to the top surface of the solar cell to which the conductive adhesive bonding agent has been applied. In such a case, it is preferable that the roller touches the top surface of the solar cell only in the region where the conductive adhesive bonding agent is not applied.

  In some variations, solar modules are not initially absorbed by the solar cells, and some of the solar radiation that passes through the solar cells is reflected by the backsheet and returned into the solar cells to generate electricity. As such, it includes supercells arranged in multiple rows on a white or otherwise reflective backsheet. The reflective backsheet may be visible through the gaps between the plurality of supercell rows, and as a result, the solar module has a plurality of parallel bright (eg, white) lines extending across its front surface. It may appear to have a line. Referring to FIG. 5B, for example, a plurality of parallel dark lines extending between rows of a plurality of supercells 100 appear as white lines when the supercell 100 is placed on a white backsheet. It may be. This may be aesthetically unpleasant for some solar module applications, such as rooftop applications.

  Referring to FIG. 21, in order to improve the aesthetic appearance of the solar module, some variations include a plurality of locations located at positions corresponding to the gaps between the rows of supercells that are to be placed on the backsheet. A white back sheet 1100 including dark stripes 1105 is employed. The stripes 1105 are sufficiently wide so that the white portion of the rear sheet cannot be seen through the gaps between the plurality of supercell rows in the assembled module. This reduces the visual contrast between the supercell and the rear sheet that is perceived by a person with normal color vision. The resulting module includes a white backsheet, but may have a front surface with an appearance similar to that of the module illustrated in FIGS. 5A-5B, for example. The dark stripe 1105 may be generated, for example, in multiple lengths of dark tape, or in any other suitable manner.

  As previously mentioned, the shadowing of the individual cells in the solar module can create a “hot spot” in which the power of the unshadowed battery is dissipated in the shadowed battery. This dissipated power creates local temperature spikes that can degrade the module.

  Conventionally, bypass diodes are inserted as part of the module to minimize the potential severity of these hot spots. The maximum number of batteries between the bypass diodes is set to limit the maximum temperature of the module and prevent irreversible damage to the module. A standard layout for silicon cells may utilize one bypass diode for every 20 or 24 cells, this number being determined by the typical breakdown voltage of silicon cells. In certain embodiments, the breakdown voltage can be in the range between about 10-50V. In certain embodiments, the breakdown voltage can be about 10V, about 15V, about 20V, about 25V, about 30V, or about 35V.

  According to an embodiment, the thermal contact between solar cells is improved by scrubbing a strip of a plurality of cut solar cells with a thin thermally conductive adhesive. This enhanced thermal contact allows a higher degree of thermal diffusion than traditional interconnect technology. Such thermal thermal diffusion design, based on scorching, is longer than 24 (or fewer) solar cells per bypass diode, which was a limitation for conventional designs A string of solar cells can be used. The thermal diffusion facilitated by scorching according to the embodiment can thus alleviate the requirement for providing bypass diodes at short intervals and provide one or more advantages. For example, this allows the creation of module layouts of various solar cell string lengths without being hindered by the need to provide multiple bypass diodes.

  According to embodiments, thermal diffusion is achieved by maintaining physical and thermal bonding with adjacent cells. This allows sufficient heat dissipation through the joined joints.

  In certain embodiments, the connection is maintained at a thickness of about 200 micrometers or less and extends across the length of the solar cell in a segmented pattern. Depending on the embodiment, the coupling has a thickness of about 200 micrometers or less, about 150 micrometers or less, about 125 micrometers or less, about 100 micrometers or less, It may be about 90 micrometers or thinner, about 80 micrometers or thinner, about 70 micrometers or thinner, about 50 micrometers or thinner, or about 25 micrometers or thinner.

  Accurate adhesive curing may be important to ensure that a reliable connection is maintained while remaining thin to facilitate heat diffusion between the joined cells.

  The possibility of longer extending strings (eg, more than 24 cells) provides flexibility in solar cell and module design. For example, in certain embodiments, a plurality of severed strings of solar cells that are assembled in a scorching manner may be utilized. Such a configuration may utilize substantially more batteries per module than conventional modules.

  In the absence of thermal diffusivity, one bypass diode would be required for every 24 cells. When the solar cell is cut to 1/6, the bypass diode per module is 6 times that of the conventional module (consisting of 3 uncut cells), for a total of 18 diodes Will. Thus, thermal diffusion allows a significant reduction in the number of bypass diodes.

  Further, a bypass circuit is required for each bypass diode to complete the bypass electrical path. Each diode requires two interconnection points and conductor routing to connect them to such interconnection points. This creates a complex circuit and leads to significant costs that exceed the standard layout costs associated with assembling solar modules.

  In contrast, thermal diffusion techniques require only one bypass diode per module, or even no bypass diode at all. Such a configuration streamlines the module assembly process and allows a simple automated tool to perform the layout manufacturing process.

  Thus, avoiding the need to bypass protect every 24 batteries makes battery module manufacturing easier. Complex tap-outs in the middle of the modules and long parallel connections for bypass circuits are avoided. This heat spreading is implemented by creating a long, sparkling strip of cells extending across the width and / or length of the module.

  In addition to providing thermal thermal diffusion, scorching according to embodiments also allows improved hot spot performance by reducing the amount of current dissipated in the solar cell. And Specifically, the amount of current dissipated in the solar cell during hot spot conditions depends on the area of the cell.

  The amount of current that passes through one battery in a hot spot state is a function of the dimension to be cut, because the sparkling can cut the battery into a smaller area. During hot spot conditions, the current passes through the path with the lowest resistance, usually a battery-level defective interface or grain boundary. Reducing this current is an advantage, minimizing reliability risk failures in hot spot conditions.

  FIG. 22A shows a plan view of a conventional module 2200 that utilizes a traditional ribbon connection 2201 in a hot spot condition. Here, as a result of the shadow 2202 on one battery 2204, heat is concentrated on that single battery.

  In contrast, FIG. 22B shows a plan view of a module that utilizes thermal diffusion, also in a hot spot condition. Here, the shadow 2250 on the battery 2252 generates heat within the battery. However, this heat is spread to other electrically and thermally bonded batteries 2254 in the module 2256.

  Furthermore, the advantage of reducing the current that is dissipated is several times greater for polycrystalline solar cells. Such polycrystalline batteries are known to perform poorly in hot spot conditions due to high levels of defective contact surfaces.

  As indicated above, certain embodiments may employ scorching chamfered and cut batteries. In such a case, there is a similar thermal diffusion advantage along the junction line between each cell and the adjacent cell.

  This maximizes the joint length of each overlapping connection. Since the joined joint is the main contact surface for heat diffusion between the batteries, maximizing this length may ensure that optimum heat diffusion is obtained.

  FIG. 23A shows an example of a super cell string layout 2300 that includes a chamfered battery 2302. In this configuration, the chamfered cells are oriented in the same direction, so the conduction paths of all joined connections are the same (125 mm).

  As a result of the shadow 2306 on one battery 2304, that battery is reverse biased. Heat diffuses to adjacent batteries. The non-joined end 2304a of the chamfered battery is hottest due to the longer conduction length to the next battery.

  FIG. 23B shows another example of a supercell string layout 2350 that includes a chamfered battery 2352. In this configuration, the chamfered batteries are oriented in different directions, and some of the long edges of the chamfered battery face each other. As a result of this, the lengths of the conduction paths of the joined joints are two, 125 mm and 156 mm.

  When battery 2354 is shaded 2356, the configuration of FIG. 23B exhibits improved thermal diffusion along a longer bond length. Accordingly, FIG. 23B shows thermal diffusion in the supercell with the chamfered batteries facing each other.

  The above description has focused on assembling a plurality of solar cells (which can be cut solar cells) on a common substrate. As a result of this, a module with a single electrical interconnect-junction box (or j-box) is formed.

  However, in order to collect a sufficient amount of solar energy to be useful, the installation typically includes a number of such modules that will themselves be assembled together. According to the embodiment, a plurality of solar cell modules can also be assembled in a scorching manner to increase the area efficiency of the array.

  In certain embodiments, the module may include an upper conductive ribbon facing in the direction of solar energy and a lower conductive ribbon facing away from the direction of solar energy.

  The lower ribbon is embedded under the battery. Therefore, it does not block incident light and does not adversely affect the area efficiency of the module. In contrast, the upper ribbon is exposed and blocks incident light, which can adversely affect efficiency.

  According to an embodiment, the module itself can be shredded so that the upper ribbon can be covered by neighboring modules. FIG. 24 shows a simplified cross-sectional view of such an arrangement 2400 in which the end 2401 of the adjacent module 2402 functions to overlap the upper ribbon 2404 of the instant module 2406. Each module itself includes a plurality of sparkling solar cells 2407.

  The lower ribbon 2408 of the module 2406 to be examined is embedded. It lies on the raised side of the subject sparkling module to overlap the adjacent adjacent sparkling module.

  This sparkling module configuration may also provide additional area on the module for other elements without adversely affecting the final exposed area of the module array. Examples of modular elements that may be positioned in overlapping areas may include, but are not limited to, a junction box (j box) 2410 and / or a bus ribbon.

  FIG. 25 shows another embodiment of a sparkling module configuration 2500. Here, the j-boxes 2502, 2504 of each adjacent flared module 2506 and 2508 are mated 2510 to achieve an electrical connection therebetween. This simplifies the configuration of the array of sparkling modules by removing the wiring.

  In certain embodiments, the j-box can be enhanced with additional structural standoffs and / or combined with standoffs. Such a configuration may create an integrated, tilted modular roof mount rack solution where the junction box dimensions determine the tilt. Such an embodiment may be particularly useful when an array of glazed modules is mounted on a flat roof.

  If the module includes a glass substrate and a glass cover (glass-glass module), the module reduces the overall module length (and thus the exposed length L resulting from scorching) Can be used without additional frame members. Such a shortening would allow the tilted array module to withstand the expected physical loads (e.g., the 5400 Pa snow load limit) without breaking due to strain.

  Emphasize, by using a supercell structure that includes multiple individual solar cells assembled in a scorching manner, the module can be adapted to the specific length required by physical loads and other requirements It becomes possible to easily adapt to the change of the length of.

  FIG. 26 is an illustration of the back (shadow) side of the module illustrating an exemplary electrical interconnection of the front (solar side) end electrical contacts of the sparkling supercell to the junction box on the back side of the solar module. The figure is shown. The front end contact of the sparkling supercell may be located adjacent to the edge of the module.

  FIG. 26 illustrates the use of a flexible interconnect 400 that makes electrical contact with the front end contact of the supercell 100. In the illustrated example, the flexible interconnect 400 includes a ribbon portion 9400A that extends parallel to and adjacent to the end of the supercell 100, and extends in a direction perpendicular to the ribbon portion to form a conductive junction destination supercell. Finger 9400B that contacts the front end metallization pattern (not shown) of the inner end solar cell. Ribbon conductor 9410 conductively joined to interconnect 9400 passes behind supercell 100 to connect interconnect 9400 to the electrical components (eg, junction box) on the back of the solar module that the supercell forms part of. To the module terminals and / or bypass diodes in the An insulating film 9420 can be disposed between the conductor 9410 and the edge and back surface of the supercell 100 to electrically insulate the ribbon conductor 9410 from the supercell 100.

  The interconnect 400 may optionally be folded around the edge of the supercell so that the ribbon portion 9400A lies behind or partially behind the supercell. In such cases, an electrically insulating layer is typically provided between the interconnect 400 and the edges and backside of the supercell 100.

  The interconnect 400 may be die cut from, for example, a conductive sheet and optionally patterned to increase its mechanical compliance in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the edges of the supercell and The stress in the direction perpendicular to and parallel to the edge of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the CTE of the connection and the CTE of the supercell may be reduced or accommodated. Such patterning can include, for example, slits, slots, or holes (not shown). The mechanical compliance of the interconnect 400 and its joining to the supercell is sufficient so that the connection to the supercell can withstand the stresses resulting from CTE mismatch during the lamination process described in more detail below. Should be. The interconnect 400 may be joined to the supercell, for example, with an electrically conductive adhesive having mechanical compliance as described above for use in joining overlapping solar cells. Optionally, the electrically conductive bonding agent is not in the form of a solid line extending substantially over the length of the edge of the supercell (for example, corresponding to the location of the discontinuous contact pads on the edge solar cell Supercell, located only at discrete locations along the edge of the supercell, resulting from a mismatch between the coefficient of thermal expansion of the electrically conductive adhesive or interconnect and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the supercell The stress in a direction parallel to the edge of the substrate can be reduced or adapted to the same stress.

  The interconnect 400 may be cut from, for example, a thin copper plate, and the conventional supercell 100 is formed from a solar cell with a smaller area than a standard silicon solar cell, and thus is conventional when operating at a smaller current. It may be thinner than the conductive interconnect. For example, interconnect 400 may be formed from a copper plate having a thickness of about 50 microns to about 300 microns. The interconnect 400, even if not patterned as described above, results from a mismatch between the CTE of the interconnect and the CTE of the supercell, and the direction perpendicular to the edge of the supercell and It should be thin enough to accommodate stress in parallel directions. Ribbon conductor 9410 can be made of copper, for example.

  FIG. 27 shows two or more parallel chopped supercells with the supercell front (solar side) end electrical contacts connected to each other and to the junction box on the back of the solar module. FIG. 4 shows a back (shadow) view of a module illustrating an exemplary electrical interconnect. The front end contact of the sparkling supercell may be located adjacent to the edge of the module.

  FIG. 27 illustrates the use of two flexible interconnects 400 as just described that are in electrical contact with the front end contacts of two adjacent supercells 100. A bus 9430 extending parallel to and adjacent to the end of the supercell 100 is conductively joined to the two flexible interconnects to electrically connect the supercells in parallel. This scheme can be extended to interconnect additional supercells 100 in parallel if desired. The bus 9430 may be formed from a copper ribbon, for example.

  Similar to that described above with respect to FIG. 26, interconnect 400 and bus 9430 are optional such that ribbon portion 9400A and bus 9430 lie behind or partially behind the supercell. In addition, it can be folded around the edge of the supercell. In such cases, an electrically insulating layer is typically provided between the interconnect 400 and the edges and back of the supercell 100, and between the bus 9430 and the edges and back of the supercell 100. The

  FIG. 28 shows two or more parallel chopped supercells with the supercell front (solar side) end electrical contacts connected to each other and to the junction box on the back side of the solar module. FIG. 4 shows a back (shadow) view of a module illustrating another exemplary electrical interconnection. The front end contact of the sparkling supercell may be located adjacent to the edge of the module.

  FIG. 28 illustrates the use of another exemplary flexible interconnect 9440 that is in electrical contact with the front end contact of the supercell 100. In this example, the flexible interconnect 9440 includes a ribbon portion 9440A that extends parallel to and adjacent to the end of the supercell 100, and extends in a direction perpendicular to the ribbon portion, and ends in the supercell at the conductive junction. Fingers 9440B that contact the front metallization pattern (not shown) of the solar cell and fingers 9440C that extend in a direction perpendicular to the ribbon portion and behind the supercell. Finger 9440C is conductively joined to bus 9450. A bus 9450 extends along and extends along the back surface of the supercell 100, parallel to and adjacent to the edge of the supercell 100, and overlaps adjacent supercells that may be their similar electrical destination. Thereby, supercells can be connected in parallel. Ribbon conductor 9410 conductively joined to bus 9450 electrically interconnects the supercell to electrical components on the backside of the solar module (eg, module terminals and / or bypass diodes in the junction box). Electrical insulating films 9420 are provided between the fingers 9440C and the edges and back of the supercell 100, between the bus 9450 and the back of the supercell 100, and between the ribbon conductor 9410 and the back of the supercell 100. Can be done.

  The interconnect 9440 can be die cut, for example, from a conductive sheet and optionally patterned to increase its mechanical compliance in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the edges of the supercell and The stress in the direction perpendicular to and parallel to the edge of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the CTE of the connection and the CTE of the supercell may be reduced or accommodated. Such patterning can include, for example, slits, slots, or holes (not shown). The mechanical compliance of the interconnect 9440 and its joining to the supercell is sufficient so that the connection to the supercell can withstand the stresses resulting from CTE mismatch during the lamination process described in more detail below. Should be. The interconnect 9440 can be bonded to the supercell, for example, with an electrically conductive bonding agent having mechanical compliance as described above for use in bonding overlapping solar cells. Optionally, the electrically conductive bonding agent is not in the form of a solid line extending substantially over the length of the edge of the supercell (for example, corresponding to the location of the discontinuous contact pads on the edge solar cell Supercell, located only at discrete locations along the edge of the supercell, resulting from a mismatch between the coefficient of thermal expansion of the electrically conductive adhesive or interconnect and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the supercell The stress in a direction parallel to the edge of the substrate can be reduced or adapted to the same stress.

  The interconnect 9440 can be cut, for example, from a thin copper plate, and the conventional supercell 100 is formed from a solar cell with a smaller area than a standard silicon solar cell, and thus is conventional when operating at a lower current. It may be thinner than the conductive interconnect. For example, the interconnect 9440 can be formed from a copper plate having a thickness of about 50 microns to about 300 microns. The interconnect 9440, even if not patterned as described above, results from a mismatch between the interconnect CTE and the supercell CTE in a direction perpendicular to the edge of the supercell and It should be thin enough to accommodate stress in parallel directions. The bus 9450 may be formed from a copper ribbon, for example.

  Finger 9440C may be joined to bus 9450 after finger 9440B is joined to the front surface of supercell 100. In such a case, when the finger 9440C is joined to the bus 9450, the finger 9440C may be bent away from the back surface of the supercell 100, for example, in a direction perpendicular to the supercell 100. Thereafter, the fingers 9440C may be bent and extend along the back surface of the supercell 100 as shown in FIG.

  FIG. 29 shows two supermarkets that illustrate the use of a flexible interconnect that is sandwiched between overlapping edges of adjacent supercells to electrically connect them in series and provide an electrical connection to a junction box. A fragmentary cross-sectional view and perspective view of the cell are shown. FIG. 29A shows an enlarged view of the target area of FIG.

  29 and 29A are partially sandwiched between the overlapping ends of two supercells 100, electrically connecting the ends to one front end contact portion of the supercells, and the other supercell. The use of an exemplary flexible interconnect 2960 to provide electrical connections to the back end contacts of the cells, thereby interconnecting the supercells in series is shown. In the example shown, the interconnect 2960 is hidden from view from the front of the solar module by the upper of the two overlapping solar cells. In other variations, the adjacent ends of the two supercells do not overlap and the portion of the interconnect 2960 that connects to the front end contact of one of the two supercells is visible from the front of the solar module. It can be done. Optionally, in such variations, the portion of the interconnect, which is otherwise visible from the front of the module, is covered or colored (e.g. darkly colored) with normal color vision Can reduce the perceivable contrast between the interconnect and the supercell, as perceived by a person who has Interconnect 2960 extends beyond the side edges of the two supercells and extends parallel to adjacent edges of the supercells, in parallel with a similarly arranged pair of supercells in adjacent rows. A pair of cells may be electrically connected.

  Ribbon conductor 2970 is conductively joined to interconnect 2960 as shown so that the adjacent ends of the two supercells are connected to the electrical components on the back of the solar module (eg, module terminals in the junction box and (Or bypass diode). In another variation (not shown), the ribbon conductor 2970 is electrically connected to one back contact of the overlapping supercells in a direction away from their overlapping ends, instead of being conductively bonded to the interconnect 2960. Can do. The configuration may also provide a hidden tap to one or more bypass diodes or other electrical components on the back of the solar module.

  The interconnect 2960 can optionally be die cut from, for example, a conductive sheet, and optionally patterned to increase its mechanical compliance in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the supercell edge. The stress in the direction perpendicular and parallel to the edge of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the CTE of the interconnect and the CTE of the supercell may be reduced or adapted to that stress. Such patterning may include, for example, slits, slots (as shown), or holes. The mechanical compliance of the flexible interconnect and its joining to the supercell or joints is such that the interconnecting supercell can withstand the stresses resulting from CTE mismatch during the lamination process described in more detail below. Should be sufficient to be able to. The flexible interconnect can be joined to the supercell, for example, with an electrically conductive adhesive having mechanical compliance as described above for use in joining overlapping solar cells. Optionally, the electrically conductive bonding agent is located only at discrete locations along the edge of the supercell, rather than in a solid line extending substantially over the length of the edge of the supercell. Can reduce or adapt to stresses in the direction parallel to the edge of the supercell resulting from a mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficient of the conductive bonding agent or interconnect and the thermal expansion coefficient of the supercell obtain. The interconnect 2960 can be cut from a thin copper plate, for example.

  Embodiments can include one or more features described in the following US Patent Publications. US Patent Publication No. 2014/0124013 and US Patent Publication No. 2014/0124014. Both of these are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety for all purposes.

  The present specification describes a silicon solar cell that is arranged in a scintillating manner and electrically connected in series to form a supercell in a state where the supercell is arranged in a plurality of physically parallel rows in the solar module. A highly efficient solar module is disclosed. The supercell can have a length that extends essentially over the entire length or width of the solar module, for example, or two or more supercells can be placed end-to-end in a row . This arrangement hides the electrical interconnection between solar cells and thus forms a visually attractive solar module with little or no contrast between adjacent series connected solar cells. Can be used.

  A supercell may include any number of solar cells, including at least 19 solar cells in some embodiments, and in certain embodiments, for example, a number of silicon solar cells greater than or equal to 100. An electrical contact at an intermediate position along the supercell electrically segments the supercell to be two or more series connected segments while maintaining a physically continuous supercell. May be desirable. The present specification describes that such electrical connections are established with the back contact pads of one or more silicon solar cells in the supercell and are hidden from view from the front of the solar module. Disclosed are arrangements that provide an electrical tap connection point called a “tap”. A hidden tap is an electrical connection between the back surface of the solar cell and the conductive interconnect.

  This specification provides a flexible interconnect that electrically interconnects a front supercell end contact pad, a backside supercell end contact pad, or a hidden tap contact pad to other solar cells or to other electrical components within a solar module. The use of parts is also disclosed.

  In addition, the present specification provides a machine for directly joining adjacent solar cells in a supercell to accommodate thermal expansion mismatch between the supercell and the glass front sheet of the solar module. Flexible interconnects with mechanically rigid joints that adapt the use of electrically conductive adhesives to provide conductive bonds with mechanical compliance to the flexible interconnects to thermal expansion mismatch between the flexible interconnects and the supercell. Disclosed in combination with the use of an electrically conductive adhesive to join the connection to the supercell. This avoids damage to the solar module that could otherwise occur as a result of thermal cycling of the solar module.

  As described further below, electrical connection to the hidden tap contact pad can electrically connect a segment of a supercell in parallel with a corresponding segment of one or more supercells in adjacent rows, and / or Or, for various applications including but not limited to power optimization (eg, bypass diodes, AC / DC micro-inverters, DC / DC converters) and reliability, electrical connections to solar module circuits Can be used to provide.

  The use of hidden taps as just described may further improve the aesthetic appearance of the solar module by combining it with a hidden battery-to-battery connection to provide the solar module with a substantially all black appearance. By allowing the active area to fill a larger portion of the module's surface area, the efficiency of the solar module may also be increased.

  Turning now to the drawings for a more detailed understanding of the solar modules described herein, FIG. 1 shows that the ends of adjacent solar cells overlap and are electrically connected to form a supercell 100. FIG. 2 shows a cross-sectional view of a string of solar cells 10 connected in series, arranged in a sparkling state, in a state of being lit. Each solar cell 10 includes a semiconductor diode structure and a plurality of electrical contacts to the semiconductor diode structure. Thereby, the electric current produced | generated in the solar cell 10 when the solar cell 10 is irradiated with light can be provided to an external load.

  In the example described herein, each solar cell 10 is a rectangular having a metal coating pattern on the front (sun side) and back (shadow side) surfaces that provide electrical contact to the opposing sides of the np junction. In the crystalline silicon solar cell, the front metal coating pattern is arranged on the n-type conductive semiconductor layer, and the back metal coating pattern is arranged on the p-type conductive semiconductor layer. However, other material systems, diode structures, physical dimensions, or electrical contact arrangements can be used where appropriate. For example, the front (sun side) surface metallization pattern may be disposed on a p-type conductive semiconductor layer, and the back (shadow side) surface metallization pattern may be disposed on an n-type conductive semiconductor layer.

  Referring again to FIG. 1, in the supercell 100, adjacent solar cells 10 electrically connect the front metallization pattern of one solar cell to the backside metallization pattern of the adjacent solar cell in the region where they overlap. Directly conductively bonded to each other with an electrically conductive bonding agent. Suitable electrically conductive bonding agents can include, for example, electrically conductive adhesives, electrically conductive adhesive films and adhesive tapes, and conventional solders.

  FIGS. 31AA and 31A are partially sandwiched between the overlapping ends of two supercells 100, electrically connecting the ends to one front end contact of the supercells, and the other supercell. The use of an exemplary flexible interconnect 3160 is shown to provide electrical connections to the backside edge contacts of each other, thereby interconnecting the supercells in series. In the example shown, the interconnect 3160 is hidden from view from the front of the solar module by the top of the two overlapping solar cells. In other variations, the adjacent ends of the two supercells do not overlap and the portion of the interconnect 3160 that connects to the front end contact of one of the two supercells is visible from the front of the solar module. It can be done. Optionally, in such variations, the portion of the interconnect, which is otherwise visible from the front of the module, is covered or colored (e.g. darkly colored) with normal color vision Can reduce the perceivable contrast between the interconnect and the supercell, as perceived by a person who has The interconnect 3160 extends beyond the side edges of the two supercells in parallel with the adjacent edges of the supercell and in parallel with a similarly arranged pair of supercells in adjacent rows. A pair of cells may be electrically connected.

  Ribbon conductor 3170 is conductively joined to interconnect 3160 as shown so that the adjacent ends of the two supercells are connected to the electrical components on the back of the solar module (eg, module terminals in the junction box and (Or bypass diode). In another variation (not shown), the ribbon conductor 3170 is electrically connected to one back contact of the overlapping supercells in a direction away from their overlapping ends, instead of being conductively bonded to the interconnect 3160. Can do. The configuration may also provide a hidden tap to one or more bypass diodes or other electrical components on the back of the solar module.

  2A-2R illustrate an exemplary rectangular solar module 200 that includes six rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to the length of the long side of the solar module. These supercells are arranged as six parallel rows with the long sides oriented parallel to the long sides of the module. A similarly configured solar module may include more or fewer rows of supercells of such side length than shown in this example. In another variation, each of the supercells has a length approximately equal to the length of the short side of the rectangular solar module, with the long sides oriented parallel to the short side of the module in parallel rows. Can be placed. In yet other arrangements, each row may include two or more supercells that are electrically interconnected in series. The module may have a short side that is about 1 meter in length and a long side that is about 1.5 to about 2.0 meters in length, for example. Any other suitable shape (eg, square) and dimensions may be used for the solar module.

  Each supercell in this example includes 72 rectangular solar cells, each having a width approximately equal to 1/6 the width of a 156 mm square or pseudo-square wafer. Any other suitable number of rectangular solar cells of any other suitable dimensions can also be used.

Solar cells having a long and narrow aspect ratio, as shown, and an area smaller than that of a standard 156 mm × 156 mm solar cell are the I 2 in the solar cell module disclosed herein. It can be advantageously employed to reduce R resistance power loss. In particular, the area of the solar cell 10 that is small compared to a standard size silicon solar cell reduces the current generated by the solar cell, and the resistance in that solar cell and in the series connection string of such solar cell. Reduce power loss directly.

  The hidden tap to the back surface of the supercell can be established, for example, using an electrical interconnect that is conductively bonded to one or more hidden tap contact pads located only at the edge portion of the backside metallization pattern of the solar cell. . Alternatively, the hidden taps can be established using interconnects that extend substantially the entire length of the solar cell (perpendicular to the long axis of the supercell), to the length of the solar cell in the backside metallization pattern. Conductive bonding to a plurality of hidden tap contact pads distributed along.

  FIG. 31A shows an exemplary solar cell back metallization pattern 3300 suitable for use with edge-tapped hidden taps. The metal coating pattern includes a continuous aluminum electrical contact portion 3310, a plurality of silver contact pads 3315 arranged in parallel with and adjacent to the long side edge of the solar cell rear surface, and the short side of the solar cell rear surface. Silver hidden tap contact pads 3320 each disposed parallel to one adjacent edge. When the solar cell is disposed in the supercell, the front surface of the adjacent rectangular solar cell overlaps the contact pad 3315 and directly joins. The interconnect may be conductively bonded to one or the other of the hidden tap contact pads 3320 to provide a hidden tap to the supercell. (If desired, two such interconnects can be employed to provide two hidden taps.)

  In the arrangement shown in FIG. 31A, the current flow to the hidden tap reaches the interconnection set point (contact 3320) through the rear cell metallization substantially parallel to the long side of the solar cell. To facilitate current flow along this path, the resistance of the back metallized sheet is preferably less than or equal to about 5 ohms / square, or less than or equal to about 2.5 ohms / square.

  FIG. 31B shows another exemplary solar cell backside metallization pattern 3301 suitable for use with a hidden tap that employs a bus-like interconnect along the length of the backside of the solar cell. The metal coating pattern includes a continuous aluminum electrical contact portion 3310, a plurality of silver contact pads 3315 arranged in parallel with and adjacent to the edge of the long side of the rear surface of the solar cell, and the long side of the solar cell. And a plurality of silver hidden tap contact pads 3325 centered about the back of the solar cell. Interconnects extending substantially the entire length of the solar cell may be conductively joined to the hidden tap contact pad 3325 to provide a hidden tap to the supercell. The current flow to the hidden tap mainly passes through the bus-like interconnects, making the conductivity of the back metallization pattern less important for the hidden tap.

  The location and number of hidden tap contact pads at the junction of the hidden tap interconnect on the back of the solar cell will affect the length of the current path through the back metallization of the solar cell, the hidden tap contact pad, and the interconnect. give. As a result, the placement of hidden tap contact pads can be selected to minimize resistance to current collection into and through the hidden tap interconnect. In addition to the configuration shown in FIGS. 31A-31B (and FIG. 31C described below), a suitable hidden tap contact pad arrangement may include, for example, a two-dimensional array and rows extending perpendicular to the long axis of the solar cell. . In the latter case, the row of hidden tap contact pads may be located adjacent to the short edge of the first solar cell, for example.

  FIG. 31C shows another exemplary solar cell suitable for use with either a hidden tap that connects edges along the length of the rear surface of the solar cell, or a hidden tap that employs a bus-like interconnect. A rear metal coating pattern 3303 is shown. The metal coating pattern is connected to a continuous copper contact pad 3315 and a contact pad 3315 arranged in parallel with and adjacent to the edge of the long side of the rear surface of the solar cell, and a plurality of metal coating patterns extending vertically from the contact pad 3315. Copper fingers 3317 and a continuous copper bus hidden tap contact pad 3325 extending parallel to the long side of the solar cell and located approximately in the center of the back surface of the solar cell. Edge-connecting interconnects can be joined to the end of the copper bus 3325 to provide a hidden tap to the supercell. (If desired, two such interconnects may be employed at both ends of the copper bus 3325 to provide two hidden taps.) Alternatively, over substantially the entire length of the solar cell. An interconnecting interconnect can be conductively joined to the copper bus 3325 to provide a hidden tap to the supercell.

  The interconnect employed to form the hidden tap may be joined to the hidden tap contact pad in the rear metallization pattern by soldering, welding, conductive adhesive, or any other suitable manner. For metallization patterns that employ silver pads as illustrated in FIGS. 31A-31B, the interconnects may be formed from, for example, tin coated copper. Another approach is to directly contact the aluminum back contact 3310 with an aluminum conductor forming an aluminum-aluminum bond, which can be formed, for example, by electrical or laser welding, soldering, or conductive adhesive. Is to establish a hidden tap. In certain embodiments, the contact portion can include tin. In the case just described, the back metallization of the solar cell may not have silver contact pads 3320 (FIG. 31A) or 3325 (FIG. 31B), but is edge-connected or made of bath-like aluminum. Can be joined to aluminum (or tin) contacts 3310 at locations corresponding to the contact pads.

  For the differential thermal expansion between the hidden tap interconnect (or the interconnect to the front or back supercell end contact) and the silicon solar cell, and the resulting solar cell and interconnect Stress can lead to tears and other failure forms that can degrade the performance of the solar module. As a result, hidden taps and other interconnects are preferably configured to accommodate such differential expansion without substantial stress appearing. The interconnect is made of, for example, a highly ductile material (eg, soft copper, very thin copper plate), so that the material has a low coefficient of thermal expansion (eg, Kovar, Invar, or other, low thermal expansion) Iron-nickel alloy) or from materials having a coefficient of thermal expansion that approximately matches that of silicon, to accommodate differential thermal expansion between interconnects and silicon solar cells Out-of-plane geometry such as kinks, jogs, or indents that incorporate in-plane geometric expansion features such as slits, slots, holes, or truss structures to perform and / or accommodate such differential thermal expansion Employing features may provide relaxation of stress and thermal expansion. A portion of the interconnect that is bonded to the hidden tap contact pad (or bonded to the front or back end contact pad of the supercell as described below) has a thickness of, for example, less than about 100 microns, about Less than 50 microns, less than about 30 microns, or less than about 25 microns can increase the flexibility of the interconnect.

  Referring back to FIGS. 7A, 7B-1 and 7B-2, these drawings employ stress relaxation geometry features for use as hidden tap interconnects, or front or back supercell ends. FIG. 9 illustrates some exemplary interconnect configurations identified by reference numbers 400A-400U that may be suitable for electrical connection to contacts. The length of these interconnects is typically approximately equal to the length of the long sides of the rectangular solar cells to which they are joined, but can be any other suitable length. The exemplary interconnects 400A-400T shown in FIG. 7A employ various in-plane stress relaxation features. The exemplary interconnect 400U shown in the in-plane (xy) view of FIG. 7B-1 and in the out-of-plane (xz) view of FIG. 7B-2 is an out-of-plane stress relaxation feature in a thin metal ribbon. A bent portion 3705 is employed. The bent portion 3705 reduces the apparent tensile rigidity of the ribbon metal. The bends allow the ribbon material to bend locally instead of only becoming longer when tension is applied to the ribbon. For thin ribbons this can substantially reduce the apparent tensile stiffness, for example 90% or more. The exact amount of apparent decrease in tensile stiffness depends on several factors, including the number of bends, bend geometry, and ribbon thickness. The interconnect may also employ a combination of in-plane and out-of-plane stress relaxation features.

  FIGS. 37A-1 through 38B-2, described further below, employ in-plane and / or out-of-plane stress relaxation geometric features and may be suitable for use as edge-connecting interconnects for hidden taps. Several exemplary interconnection configurations that are not shown are shown.

  A hidden tap interconnect bus can be utilized to reduce or minimize the number of extended conductors required to connect each hidden tap. In this approach, hidden tap contact pads of adjacent supercells are connected to each other by using a hidden tap interconnect. (Electrical connections are typically positive-positive, or negative-negative, ie, the same polarity at each end.)

  For example, FIG. 32 shows a first hidden tap interconnect that extends substantially across the entire width of the solar cell 10 in the first supercell 100 and is conductively bonded to a hidden tap contact pad 3325 arranged as shown in FIG. 31B. 3400 and a second hidden tap interconnect that extends across the entire width of the corresponding solar cell in the supercell 100 in the adjacent row and is similarly conductively joined to the hidden tap contact pad 3325 located as shown in FIG. 31B. 3400. The two interconnects 3400 are arranged side by side and optionally abutting or overlapping each other, in conductive connection with each other, or in other cases in electrical connection, to make two adjacent supermarkets A bus may be formed that interconnects the cells. This scheme can be extended over additional rows of supercells (eg, all rows) as desired to form parallel segments of solar modules that include multiple segments of several adjacent supercells. Can do. FIG. 33 shows a perspective view of a portion of the supercell of FIG.

  FIG. 35 shows that supercells in adjacent rows extend into the gap between the supercells, to the hidden tap contact pad 3320 on one supercell, and to the other hidden tap contact pad 3320 on the other supercell. An example of interconnecting by a short interconnect 3400 that is conductively joined is shown. Here, the contact pads are arranged as shown in FIG. FIG. 36 shows that a short interconnect extends into the gap between two supercells in adjacent rows, at the end of the copper bus part in the center of the rear metallization on one supercell, and on the other supercell. A similar arrangement is shown for conductive bonding to the adjacent end of the copper bus portion in the center of the back metallization of the cell. Here, the rear metal coating made of copper is configured as shown in FIG. 31C. In both of these examples, the interconnection scheme is extended over additional rows of supercells (eg, all rows) as desired to allow multiple segments of several adjacent supercells. The parallel segments of the solar modules that it contains can be formed.

  FIGS. 37A-1 to 37F-3 show in-plane (xy) and out-of-plane (xz) views of an exemplary short hidden tap interconnect 3400 that includes an in-plane stress relaxation feature 3405. FIG. (The xy plane is the plane of the back metal coating pattern of the solar cell.) In the example of FIGS. 37A-1 to 37E-2, each interconnect 3400 is opposed to one or more in-plane stress relaxation features. It includes tabs 3400A and 3400B positioned on mating sides. Exemplary in-plane stress relaxation features include 1, 2, or more hollow diamond-shaped arrangements, zigzags, and 1, 2, or more slot arrangements.

  As used herein, the term “in-plane stress relaxation feature” can also refer to the thickness or ductility of an interconnect, or a portion of an interconnect. For example, the interconnect 3400 shown in FIGS. 37F-1 to 37F-3 has a straight, flat length and a thickness T in the xy plane that is, for example, less than or equal to about 100 microns. Formed from a thin copper ribbon, or copper foil, less than or equal to less than about 50 microns, less than or equal to about 30 microns, or less than or equal to about 25 microns to increase the flexibility of the interconnect Increase. The thickness T can be, for example, about 50 microns. The length L of the interconnect can be, for example, about 8 centimeters (cm), and the width W of the interconnect can be, for example, about 0.5 cm. FIGS. 37F-3 and 37F-1 show front and back views of the interconnect in the xy plane, respectively. The front of the interconnect faces the back of the solar module. Since the interconnect can span across the gap between two parallel supercell rows in the solar module, a portion of the interconnect can be seen through the gap from the front of the solar module. Optionally, the visible portion of the interconnect can be blackened and coated with, for example, a black polymer layer to reduce its visibility. In the example shown, the front central portion 3400C of the interconnect having a length L2 of about 0.5 cm is coated with a thin black polymer layer. Typically, L2 is greater than or equal to the width of the gap between supercell rows. The black polymer layer can be about 20 microns in thickness, for example. Such thin copper ribbon interconnects are optional and may also employ in-plane or out-of-plane stress relaxation features as described above. For example, the interconnect may include a stress relaxation out-of-plane bend as described above in connection with FIGS. 7B-1 and 7B-2.

  38A-1 to 38B-2 show in-plane (xy) and out-of-plane (xz) views of an exemplary short hidden tap interconnect 3400 that includes an out-of-plane stress relaxation feature 3407. FIG. In these examples, each interconnect 3400 includes tabs 3400A and 3400B positioned on opposite sides of one or more out-of-plane stress relaxation features. Exemplary out-of-plane stress relaxation features include one, two, or more bend arrangements, kinks, depressions, jogs, or ridges.

  The types and arrangement of stress relaxation features illustrated in FIGS. 37A-1 to 37E-2 and 38A-1 to 38B-2, and the interconnections described above in connection with FIGS. 37F-1 to 37F-3 Ribbon thicknesses may also be employed, as appropriate, in long hidden tap interconnects as described above, and in interconnects that join the back or front end contacts of the supercell. The interconnect may include a combination of both in-plane and out-of-plane stress relaxation features. The in-plane and out-of-plane stress relaxation features are designed to reduce or minimize the effects of strain and stress on the solar cell connections, thereby forming a reliable and resilient electrical connection.

  FIGS. 39A-1 and 39A-2 illustrate a short hidden tap interconnect that includes battery contact pad alignment and supercell edge alignment features to improve automation, ease of manufacture, and placement accuracy. A typical configuration is shown. 39B-1 and 39B-2 show an exemplary configuration of a short hidden tap interconnect that includes asymmetric tab lengths. Such asymmetric interconnects can be used in opposite orientations to avoid overlapping conductors extending parallel to the major axis of the supercell. (See description of FIGS. 42A-42B below.)

  Hidden taps as described herein may form the electrical connections required in the module layout to provide the desired module electrical circuit. Hidden tap connections can be established, for example, at intervals of 12, 24, 36, or 48 solar cells along the supercell, or at any other suitable interval. The spacing between hidden taps can be determined depending on the application.

  Each supercell typically includes a front end contact at one end of the supercell and a back end contact at the other end of the supercell. In a variation where the supercell extends over the length or width of the solar module, these end contacts are located adjacent to the opposing edges of the solar module.

  A flexible interconnect may be conductively joined to the front or back end contact of the supercell to electrically connect the supercell to other solar cells or to other electrical components in the module. For example, FIG. 34A shows a cross-sectional view of an exemplary solar module with interconnect 3410 conductively joined to a back end contact at the end of the supercell. The back end contact interconnect 3410 has, for example, a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to which it is joined that is less than or equal to about 100 microns, less than or equal to about 50 microns, Less than or equal to about 30 microns, less than or equal to about 25 microns, or a thin copper ribbon or foil, or including them, may increase the flexibility of the interconnect. The interconnect can improve conductivity by having a width in a direction perpendicular to the current flow through the interconnect in the plane of the surface of the solar cell, for example, greater than or equal to about 10 mm. As shown, the back end contact interconnect 3410 may lie behind the solar cell with no portion of the interconnect extending beyond the supercell in a direction parallel to the supercell row.

  Similar interconnects can be used to connect to the front end contact. Alternatively, to reduce the area of the front surface of the solar module occupied by the front end interconnect, the front interconnect provides a thin flexible portion that joins directly to the supercell and higher conductivity. And a thicker portion. This arrangement reduces the width of the interconnect necessary to achieve the desired conductivity. The thicker portion of the interconnect can be, for example, an integral part of the interconnect, or can be a separate piece that joins the thinner portion of the interconnect. For example, FIGS. 34B-34C each show a cross-sectional view of an exemplary interconnect 3410 that conductively joins the front end contact at the end of the supercell. In both examples, the thin flexible portion 3410A of the interconnect that directly joins the supercell has a thickness in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to which it is joined, less than about 100 microns. Or a thin copper ribbon or foil less than or equal to, less than about 50 microns, or less than, less than about 30 microns, or less than, or less than about 25. The thicker copper ribbon portion 3410B of the interconnect joins the thin portion 3410A to improve the conductivity of the interconnect. In FIG. 34B, the electrically conductive tape 3410C on the back side of the thin interconnect portion 3410A joins the thin interconnect portion to the supercell and to the thick interconnect portion 3410B. In FIG. 34C, thin interconnect portion 3410A is joined to thick interconnect portion 3410B by electrically conductive adhesive 3410D and joined to the supercell by electrically conductive adhesive 3410E. The electrically conductive adhesives 3410D and 3410E can be the same or different. The electrically conductive adhesive 3410E can be, for example, solder.

  The solar module described herein includes a laminated structure as shown in FIG. 34A with a supercell and one or more encapsulant materials 3610 sandwiched between a transparent front sheet 3620 and a rear sheet 3630. obtain. The transparent front sheet can be, for example, glass. The back sheet can also be glass or any other suitable material. An additional strip of encapsulant may be disposed between the back end interconnect 3410 and the back of the supercell as shown.

  As mentioned above, hidden taps bring beauty to the “all black” module. Since these connections are typically established with highly reflective conductors, they will usually have a high contrast to the attached solar cells. However, the various conductors are hidden from view by making connections on the back of the solar cell and by routing other conductors in the solar module circuit behind the solar cell. This allows multiple connection points (hidden taps) while still maintaining an “all black” appearance.

  Hidden taps can be used to create various module layouts. In the example of FIG. 40 (physical layout) and FIG. 41 (electrical schematic), the solar module includes six supercells each extending over the length of the module. Hidden tap contact pads and short interconnects 3400 segment each supercell into one third and electrically connect adjacent supercell segments in parallel, thereby providing a parallel connection of three groups of supercells. A segment is formed. Each group connects in parallel with a different one of the bypass diodes 1300A-1300C incorporated (embedded therein) in the module stack. The bypass diode may be located, for example, directly behind the supercell or between the supercells. The bypass diode may be located approximately along the center line of the solar module, for example, parallel to the long side of the solar module.

  In the example of FIGS. 42A-42B (which also corresponds to the electrical schematic of FIG. 41), the solar module includes six supercells, each extending over the length of the module. Hidden tap contact pads and short interconnects 3400 segment each supercell into one third and electrically connect adjacent supercell segments in parallel, thereby providing a parallel connection of three groups of supercells. A segment is formed. Each group is located behind the supercell and connects bypass diodes 1300A-1300C through bus connections 1500A-1500C that connect hidden tap contact pads and short interconnects to bypass diodes located on the back of the module in the junction box. Are connected in parallel with one of them.

  FIG. 42B provides a detailed view of the connection between the short hidden tap interconnect 3400 and the conductors 1500B and 1500C. As depicted, these conductors do not overlap each other. In the example shown, this is made possible by the use of an asymmetrical interconnect 3400 arranged in the opposite orientation. An alternative approach to avoid overlapping conductors is to employ a first symmetric interconnect 3400 having a length of tabs and a second symmetric interconnect 3400 having tabs of different lengths.

  In the example of FIG. 43 (which also corresponds to the electric circuit diagram of FIG. 41), the solar module is configured in the same manner as shown in FIG. 42A. The difference is that the hidden tap interconnect 3400 forms a continuous bus that extends across substantially the entire width of the solar module. Each bus may be a single long interconnect 3400 that is conductively bonded to the back metallization of each supercell. Alternatively, the bus may be a plurality of, each extending across a single supercell, conductively connected to each other, or otherwise electrically interconnected as described above in connection with FIG. Individual interconnects may be included. 43 shows a supercell end interconnect 3410 that forms a continuous bus along one end of the solar module to electrically connect the front end contact of the supercell, and along the opposite end of the solar module. An additional supercell end interconnect 3410 is also shown which forms a continuous bus to electrically connect the back end contact of the supercell.

  The exemplary solar module of FIGS. 44A-44B also corresponds to the electrical schematic of FIG. This example includes a short hidden tap interconnect 3400 as in FIG. 42A and an interconnect 3410 that forms a continuous bus for the supercell front and back end contacts as in FIG. adopt.

  In the example of FIG. 47A (physical layout) and FIG. 47B (electrical schematic), the solar module includes six supercells each extending over the entire length of the solar module. Hidden tap contact pads and short interconnects 3400 segment each supercell into 2/3 length sections and 1/3 length sections. Interconnection 3410 at the lower edge of the solar module (as depicted in the drawing) has 3 rows on the left hand side in parallel with each other, 3 rows on the right hand side in parallel with each other, and 3 rows on the left hand side on the right hand side Are interconnected in series with the three rows. This arrangement forms three groups of parallel connected supercell segments each having a length that is 2/3 of the length of the supercell. Each group is connected in parallel with a different one of the bypass diodes 2000A-2000C. This arrangement instead provides about twice the voltage that would be provided by the supercell and about half of the current that would be provided if the same supercell would instead be electrically connected as shown in FIG. To do.

  As described above with reference to FIG. 34A, the interconnect that joins the supercell backside end contact lies entirely behind the supercell and may be hidden from view from the front (sun) side of the solar module. The interconnect 3410 that joins the supercell front end contact may be visible in the back view of the solar module (eg, as in FIG. 43). Because they extend beyond the edge of the supercell (eg, as in FIG. 44A), or they fold around and below the edge of the supercell. It is.

  Using hidden taps facilitates reducing the number of solar cells grouped per bypass diode. In the example of FIGS. 48A-48B (each showing a physical layout), the solar module includes six supercells, each extending over the length of the module. Hidden tap contact pads and short interconnects 3400 segment each supercell by a factor of five and electrically connect adjacent supercell segments in parallel, thereby providing five groups of supercell segments to be connected in parallel Is formed. Each group connects in parallel with a different one of the bypass diodes 2100A-2100E incorporated into (embedded in) the module stack. The bypass diode may be located, for example, directly behind the supercell or between the supercells. The supercell end interconnect 3410 forms a continuous bus along one end of the solar module to electrically connect the front end contacts of the supercell, and the additional supercell end interconnect 3410 is connected to the solar module. A continuous bus is formed along the opposite end of the cell to electrically connect the back end contact of the supercell. In the example of FIG. 48A, a single junction box 2110 is electrically connected to the front and back end interconnect buses by conductors 2115A and 2115B. However, since there is no diode in the junction box (FIG. 48B), the long return conductors 2215A and 2115B can be removed, and a single junction box 2110 can be located, for example, at the opposite edges of the module 2. One unipolar (+ or-) junction box 2110A-2110B. This eliminates resistance losses on long return conductors.

  The examples described herein use hidden taps to electrically segment each supercell into 3 or 5 solar cell groups, but these examples are intended to be illustrative and not limiting Has been. More generally, the hidden taps are super, so that there are more or fewer solar cell groups shown and / or more or fewer solar cells shown per group. It can be used to electrically segment cells.

  In normal operation of the solar modules described herein, little or no current flows through any hidden tap contact pads without a forward biased and conductive bypass diode. Instead, current flows through the length of each supercell through inter-cell conductive junctions formed between adjacent and overlapping solar cells. In contrast, FIG. 45 shows the current flow when a portion of the solar module is bypassed through a forward-biased bypass diode. As indicated by the arrows, in this example, the current of the leftmost supercell flows along the supercell until it reaches the solar cell to be tapped, and then the rear metallization of the solar cell, Hidden tap contact pads (not shown), interconnect 3400 to a second solar cell in an adjacent supercell, other hidden tap contact pads to which the interconnect is joined on the second solar cell ( (Not shown), through the back metallization of the second solar cell, through the additional hidden tap contact pads, interconnects, and solar cell back metallization to the bus connection 1500 to the bypass diode. To reach. The current flow through the other supercells is similar. As is apparent from the illustration, under such circumstances, the hidden tap contact pad conducts current from two or more supercell rows, and thus, in any single solar cell in the module. A current larger than the generated current can be conducted.

  Typically, there are no bus bars, contact pads, or other light shielding elements (other than the front metallized fingers or overlapping portions of adjacent solar cells) on the front side of the solar cell opposite the hidden tap contact pads. As a result, when the hidden tap contact pad is formed from silver on a silicon solar cell, the photoconversion efficiency of the solar cell in the area of the hidden tap contact pad prevents that silver contact pad from back carrier recombination If the effect of the rear field is reduced, it can be reduced. To avoid this loss of efficiency, typically most of the solar cells in the supercell do not contain hidden tap contact pads. (For example, in some variations, only solar cells that require a hidden tap contact pad for the bypass diode circuit will include such a hidden tap contact pad. In order to match the current generation of the solar cell to that of the solar cell without the hidden tap contact pad, the solar cell with the hidden tap contact pad has a larger collection area than the solar cell without the hidden tap contact pad. Can have.

  An individual hidden tap contact pad may have a rectangular dimension that is, for example, less than or equal to about 2 mm x less than or equal to about 5 mm.

  Solar modules undergo thermal cycling as a result of temperature changes during operation and during testing in the environment in which they are installed. As shown in FIG. 46A, during such temperature cycling, as a result of thermal expansion mismatch between the silicon solar cells in the supercell and other parts of the module, eg, the glass front sheet of the module. Relative motion will occur between the supercell and those other parts of the module along the long axis of the supercell row. This discrepancy tends to stretch or compress the supercell and can damage the solar cell or the conductive junction between solar cells in the supercell. Similarly, as shown in FIG. 46B, during temperature cycling, the thermal expansion mismatch between the solar cell and the interconnect junction to the solar cell results in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of supercell rows. The relative movement between the interconnect and the solar cell will occur. This mismatch can pull and damage the solar cells, interconnects, and conductive junctions between them. This can occur for interconnects that join to hidden tap contact pads and for interconnects that join supercell front or back end contacts.

  Similarly, periodic mechanical loads of solar modules, for example during transportation or received from the weather (eg wind and snow), are interconnected at and between the solar cells in the supercell. A local shearing force can be generated at the joint between the parts. These shear forces can also damage the solar module.

  Conductive bonds used to join adjacent and overlapping solar cells together to prevent problems arising from relative motion between the supercell and other parts of the solar module along the long axis of the supercell row The agent expands between the supercell and the glass front sheet of the module in a direction parallel to the rows at a temperature range of about -40 ° C to about 100 ° C without damaging the solar module. Can be selected to form a flexible conductive junction 3515 (FIG. 46A) between overlapping solar cells that provides the supercell with mechanical compliance that accommodates the mismatch. The conductive adhesive is at standard test conditions (ie, 25 ° C.), for example, lower than or equal to about 100 megapascals (MPa), lower than or equal to about 200 MPa, lower than about 300 MPa, or Equal to, lower than or equal to about 400 MPa, lower than or equal to about 500 MPa, lower than or equal to about 600 MPa, lower than or equal to about 700 MPa, lower than or equal to about 800 MPa, about 900 MPa It may be selected to form a conductive joint having a stiffness that is lower or equal to or less than or equal to about 1000 MPa. The plurality of flexible conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells can accommodate, for example, differential motion between each cell and a glass front sheet that is greater than or equal to about 15 microns. Suitable conductive adhesives can include, for example, ECM 1541-S3 available from Engineered Conductive Materials LLC.

  A supercell that reduces the risk of damage to the solar module from hot spots that can occur during operation of the solar module if the solar cells in the solar module are reverse biased as a result of shadows or for some other reason For example, the thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the solar cell is about 1.5 W / thickness that is less than or equal to about 50 microns in thickness in the direction perpendicular to the solar cell. A conductive junction between overlapping adjacent solar cells higher than or equal to (meter-K) may be formed.

  The conductive adhesive used to join the interconnect to the solar cell damages the solar module to prevent problems arising from relative movement between the interconnect and the solar cell to which it is joined A solar cell and an interconnect that are sufficiently rigid to accommodate the thermal expansion mismatch between the solar cell and the interconnect without the temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 180 ° C. Can be selected to form a conductive junction between the two. The conductive adhesive may be, for example, greater than or equal to about 1800 MPa, greater than or equal to about 1900 MPa, greater than or equal to about 2000 MPa at standard test conditions (ie, 25 ° C.), Greater than or equal to 2100 MPa, greater than or equal to about 2200 MPa, greater than or equal to about 2300 MPa, greater than or equal to about 2400 MPa, greater than or equal to about 2500 MPa, greater than about 2600 MPa, or Equal to, higher than or equal to about 2700 MPa, higher than or equal to about 2800 MPa, higher than or equal to about 2900 MPa, about 3000 MP Higher than or equal to, higher than or equal to about 3100 MPa, higher than or equal to about 3200 MPa, higher than or equal to about 3300 MPa, higher than or equal to about 3400 MPa, higher than or equal to about 3500 MPa Equal, greater than or equal to about 3600 MPa, greater than or equal to about 3700 MPa, greater than or equal to about 3800 MPa, greater than or equal to about 3900 MPa, or greater than or equal to about 4000 MPa. May be selected to form a conductive junction having. In such variations, the interconnect can withstand the thermal expansion or contraction of the interconnect, for example, greater than or equal to about 40 microns. Suitable conductive adhesives can include, for example, Hitachi CP-450, and solder.

  Thus, the plurality of conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells in the supercell may utilize a different conductive adhesive than the plurality of conductive junctions between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect. For example, the conductive junction between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect can be formed from solder, and the conductive junction between overlapping adjacent solar cells can be formed from a non-solder conductive adhesive. In some variations, both conductive adhesives can be cured in a single process step, for example, a process window of about 150 ° C. to about 180 ° C.

  The above description has focused on assembling a plurality of solar cells (which can be cut solar cells) on a common substrate. As a result of this, a module is formed.

  However, in order to collect a sufficient amount of solar energy to be useful, the installation typically includes a number of such modules that will themselves be assembled together. According to the embodiment, a plurality of solar cell modules can also be assembled in a scorching manner to increase the area efficiency of the array.

  In certain embodiments, the module may include an upper conductive ribbon facing in the direction of solar energy and a lower conductive ribbon facing away from the direction of solar energy.

  The lower ribbon is embedded under the battery. Therefore, it does not block incident light and does not adversely affect the area efficiency of the module. In contrast, the upper ribbon is exposed and blocks incident light, which can adversely affect efficiency.

  According to an embodiment, the module itself can be shredded so that the upper ribbon can be covered by neighboring modules. This sparkling module configuration may also provide additional area on the module for other elements without adversely affecting the final exposed area of the module array. Examples of modular elements that can be positioned in overlapping areas can include, but are not limited to, a junction box (j-box) and / or a bus ribbon.

  In certain embodiments, the j-boxes of each adjacent sparkling module are mated to achieve an electrical connection between them. This simplifies the configuration of the array of sparkling modules by removing the wiring.

  In certain embodiments, the j-box can be enhanced with additional structural standoffs and / or combined with standoffs. Such a configuration may create an integrated, tilted modular roof mount rack solution where the junction box dimensions determine the tilt. Such an embodiment may be particularly useful when an array of glazed modules is mounted on a flat roof.

  Sparkling supercells are unique for module layout with respect to module level power management devices (eg, DC / AC micro inverters, DC / DC module power optimizers, voltage intelligence and smart switches, and related devices) New opportunities. The main feature of the module level power management system is power optimization. Supercells as described and employed herein can produce higher voltages than traditional panels. In addition, the layout of the supercell module can further divide the module. Both higher voltage and further splits create potential benefits for power optimization.

  The present specification is a narrow rectangle that is arranged in a scissors shape and electrically connected in series to form a supercell with the supercells arranged in a plurality of physically parallel rows within the solar module. A highly efficient solar module (i.e., solar panel) including a silicon solar cell is disclosed. The supercell can have a length that extends essentially over the entire length or width of the solar module, for example, or two or more supercells can be placed end-to-end in a row . Any supercell, including, for example, at least 19 solar cells in some variations, and more than or equal to 100 silicon solar cells in certain variations A number of solar cells may be included. Each solar module has a conventional size and shape and yet contains hundreds of silicon solar cells so that the supercells in a single solar module are electrically interconnected, for example, about 90 volts It may be possible to provide a direct current (DC) voltage from (V) to about 450V or higher.

  As described further below, this high DC voltage can be converted from direct current to alternating current (AC) by an inverter (eg, a microinverter located on a solar module), DC- Facilitates by eliminating or reducing the need for DC boost (raising DC voltage). Also, as further described below, the high DC voltage is a high voltage DC output from two or more high voltage sparkling solar cell modules whose DC / AC conversions are electrically connected in parallel with each other. It also facilitates the use of the arrangement performed by the central inverter receiving.

  Turning now to the drawings for a more detailed understanding of the solar modules described herein, FIG. 1 shows that the ends of adjacent solar cells overlap and are electrically connected to form a supercell 100. FIG. 2 shows a cross-sectional view of a string of solar cells 10 connected in series, arranged in a sparkling state, in a state of being lit. Each solar cell 10 includes a semiconductor diode structure and a plurality of electrical contacts to the semiconductor diode structure. Thereby, the electric current produced | generated in the solar cell 10 when the solar cell 10 is irradiated with light can be provided to an external load.

  In the example described herein, each solar cell 10 is a rectangular having a metal coating pattern on the front (sun side) and back (shadow side) surfaces that provide electrical contact to the opposing sides of the np junction. In the crystalline silicon solar cell, the front metal coating pattern is arranged on the n-type conductive semiconductor layer, and the back metal coating pattern is arranged on the p-type conductive semiconductor layer. However, other material systems, diode structures, physical dimensions, or electrical contact arrangements can be used where appropriate. For example, the front (sun side) surface metallization pattern may be disposed on a p-type conductive semiconductor layer, and the back (shadow side) surface metallization pattern may be disposed on an n-type conductive semiconductor layer.

  Referring again to FIG. 1, in the supercell 100, adjacent solar cells 10 electrically connect the front metallization pattern of one solar cell to the backside metallization pattern of the adjacent solar cell in the region where they overlap. Conductive bonding with each other is performed by an electrically conductive bonding agent. Suitable electrically conductive bonding agents can include, for example, electrically conductive adhesives, electrically conductive adhesive films and adhesive tapes, and conventional solders.

  2A-2R illustrate an exemplary rectangular solar module 200 that includes six rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to the length of the long side of the solar module. These supercells are arranged as six parallel rows with the long sides oriented parallel to the long sides of the module. A similarly configured solar module may include more or fewer rows of supercells of such side length than shown in this example. In another variation, each of the supercells has a length approximately equal to the length of the short side of the rectangular solar module, with the long sides oriented parallel to the short side of the module in parallel rows. Can be placed. In yet other arrangements, each row may include two or more supercells that are electrically interconnected in series. The module may have a short side that is about 1 meter in length and a long side that is about 1.5 to about 2.0 meters in length, for example. Any other suitable shape (eg, square) and dimensions may be used for the solar module.

  In some variations, the plurality of conductive junctions between the overlapping solar cells can include a plurality of conductive junctions in a direction parallel to the plurality of rows in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 100 ° C. without damaging the solar module. Mechanical compliance is provided to multiple supercells that accommodates thermal expansion mismatch between the supercell and the glass front sheet of the solar module.

  Each supercell in the illustrated example has a width equal to or approximately equal to one-sixth the width of a conventional 156 mm square or quasi-square silicon wafer, and the length of a square or quasi-square wafer. Includes 72 rectangular solar cells equal to or approximately equal in width. More generally, the rectangular silicon solar cells employed in the solar modules described herein have a length equal to, or approximately equal to, the width of a conventional size square or pseudo-square silicon wafer, for example, For example, the width may be equal to or approximately equal to 1 / M of the width of a conventional sized square or pseudo-square wafer. M is an arbitrary integer satisfying ≦ 20. M can be, for example, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 12. M may be greater than 20. A supercell may include any suitable number of such rectangular solar cells.

  The supercells in the solar module 200 are interconnected in series by electrical interconnects (optionally flexible electrical interconnects) or by module-level power electronics as described below to provide a conventional size solar module. Therefore, it is possible to provide a higher voltage than before. The reason for this is that the just-described method has more batteries per module. For example, a conventional size solar module including a supercell made from 1/8 cut silicon solar cells may include more than 600 solar cells per module. In comparison, conventional sized solar modules that include conventionally sized conventional interconnected silicon solar cells typically include about 60 solar cells per module. Within conventional silicon solar modules, square or pseudo-square solar cells are typically interconnected by copper ribbons and separated from each other to accommodate the interconnect. In such a case, cutting a conventional sized square or pseudo-square wafer into a narrow rectangle will reduce the total amount of working solar cell area in the module, and thus the additional required The battery-to-battery interconnect will cause the module power to drop. In contrast, within the solar modules disclosed herein, the scorching arrangement hides the cell-to-cell electrical interconnections under the active solar cell area. As a result, the solar modules described herein have little or no trade-off between module power and the number of solar cells (and required inter-cell interconnections) in the solar module. High output voltage can be provided without reducing module output power.

  When all solar cells are connected in series, a sparkling solar cell module as described herein can provide a DC voltage, for example, in the range of about 90 volts to about 450 volts, or higher. . As mentioned above, this high DC voltage can be advantageous.

  For example, a microinverter located on or near a solar module can be used for module level power optimization and DC-AC conversion. Referring now to FIGS. 49A-49B, conventionally, the microinverter 4310 receives a 25V to 40V DC input from a single solar module 4300 and outputs a 230V AC output to match the connected grid. A microinverter typically includes two main components, a DC / DC boost, and a DC / AC inversion. DC / DC boost is used to increase the DC bus voltage required for DC / AC conversion and is typically the most costly and lossy component (2% efficiency loss). Since the solar modules described herein provide high voltage output, the need for DC / DC boost may be reduced or eliminated (FIG. 49B). This can reduce the cost of the solar module 200 and increase efficiency and reliability.

In a conventional arrangement using a central (“string”) inverter rather than a micro inverter, conventional low DC power solar modules are electrically connected in series with each other and the string inverter. The voltage generated by the strings of solar modules is equal to the sum of the individual module voltages since they are connected in series. The allowable voltage range determines the maximum and minimum number of modules in the string. The maximum number of modules is set by the module voltage and the specified voltage limit. For example, N max × V oc <600 V (residential standard in the United States) or N max × V oc <1,000 V (commercial standard). The minimum number of modules in series is set by the module voltage and the minimum operating voltage required by the string inverter. N min × V mp > V Invertermin . The minimum operating voltage (V Invertermin ) required by a string inverter (eg, Fronius, Powerone, or SMA inverter) is typically between about 180V and about 250V. Typically, the optimum operating voltage for string inverters is about 400V.

  A single high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module as described herein can provide a voltage greater than the minimum operating voltage required by the string inverter, optionally at the optimum operating voltage of the string inverter. Or a voltage close thereto. As a result, the high DC voltage sparkling solar cell modules described herein can be electrically connected to the string inverter in parallel with each other. This avoids the requirement for string length of series connected modules that can complicate system design and installation. Also, in the series connection string of solar modules, the module with the lowest current dominates and the system can be configured for different modules in the string, as may occur for modules on different roof slopes or as a result of tree shadows. If the module receives different illumination, it cannot operate efficiently. Since the current through each solar module is independent of the current through the other solar modules, these problems can also be avoided by the parallel high voltage module configuration described herein. Furthermore, such an arrangement does not require module level power electronics and thus can improve the reliability of the solar module, which is particularly important in variants where the solar module is placed on the roof. possible.

  Referring now to FIGS. 50A-50B, as described above, the supercell may extend approximately the entire length or width of the solar module. To allow electrical connection along the length of the supercell, hidden electrical tap connection points (from the front view) can be integrated into the solar module structure. This can be accomplished by connecting the electrical conductor to the back metallization of the solar cell at the end of the supercell or at an intermediate position. Such hidden taps allow electrical segmentation of the supercell, including bypass diodes, module level power electronics (eg, microinverters, power optimizers, voltage intelligence and Smart switches and related devices), or other components can be interconnected. The use of hidden taps is further described in US Provisional Application No. 62 / 081,200, US Provisional Application No. 62 / 133,205, and US Application No. 14 / 674,983. Each of these is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

  In the example of FIG. 50A (exemplary physical layout) and FIG. 50B (exemplary electrical schematic), the illustrated solar modules 200 are each electrically connected in series to provide six DCs that provide a high DC voltage. A supercell 100 is included. With each solar cell group electrically connected in parallel with a different bypass diode 4410, each supercell is electrically segmented by hidden taps 4400 to form several solar cell groups. In these examples, the bypass diodes are arranged in a stacked structure of solar modules, i.e. the solar cells are in the encapsulant between the front transparent sheet and the backing sheet. Alternatively, the bypass diode may be placed in a junction box located on the back or edge of the solar module and interconnected to the hidden tap by an extended conductor.

  In the example of FIG. 51A (physical layout) and FIG. 51B (corresponding electrical schematic), the illustrated solar module 200 also includes six supercells 100 that are electrically connected in series to provide a high DC voltage. In this example, the solar modules are electrically segmented to form three pairs of supercells connected in series with each pair of supercells electrically connected in parallel with different bypass diodes. In this example, the bypass diode is arranged in a junction box 4500 located on the rear surface of the solar module. The bypass diodes may instead be located in the solar module stack or in a junction box attached to the edge.

  In the example of FIGS. 50A-51B, during normal operation of the solar module, each solar cell is forward biased, and thus all bypass diodes are reverse biased and not conducting. However, if one or more solar cells in a group are reverse biased at a sufficiently high voltage, the bypass diode corresponding to that group is turned on and the current flow through the module is reverse biased Will bypass the solar cell. This prevents the formation of dangerous hot spots in shadowed or broken solar cells.

  Alternatively, bypass diode functionality can be achieved in module-level power electronics, eg, microinverters located on or near solar modules. (Module level power electronics and their use may also be referred to herein as module level power management devices or systems, and module level power management. Such modules optionally integrated with solar modules. Level of power electronics from a supercell group (eg, by operating a supercell group, supercell, or supercell segment within an electrically segmented supercell at its maximum power point), The power from each supercell, or from each individual supercell segment, can be optimized, thereby enabling individual power optimization within the module. Module-level power electronics can determine when to bypass one or more specific individual supercells and / or one or more specific supercell segments. It can eliminate the need.

  This can be achieved, for example, by integrating voltage intelligence at the module level. By monitoring the voltage output of a solar cell circuit (eg, one or more supercells or segments of a supercell) in a solar module, it can be determined whether the circuit contains any reverse-biased solar cells. “The power management device can judge. If a reverse-biased solar cell is detected, the power management device can disconnect the corresponding circuit from the electrical system using, for example, a relay switch or other component. For example, if the voltage of a monitored solar circuit falls below a predetermined threshold, the power management device will shut off that circuit (open the circuit). The predetermined threshold can be, for example, a certain percentage or magnitude (eg, 20% or 10V) compared to normal operation of the circuit. Examples of such voltage intelligence are incorporated into existing module-level power electronics products (eg, from Enhage Energy Inc., Solarage Technologies, Inc., Tiger Energy, Inc.) or through custom circuit designs. obtain.

  FIG. 52A (physical layout) and FIG. 52B (corresponding electrical schematic) show an exemplary structure of module-level power management for a high voltage solar module including a sparkling supercell. In this example, the rectangular solar module 200 includes six rectangular shingle supercells 100 arranged in six rows extending over the length of the long side of the solar module. The six supercells are electrically connected in series to provide a high DC voltage. Module level power electronics 4600 may perform module-wide voltage sensing, power management, and / or DC / AC conversion.

  FIG. 53A (physical layout) and FIG. 53B (corresponding electrical schematic) illustrate another exemplary structure of module level power management for a high voltage solar module including a raked supercell. In this example, the rectangular solar module 200 includes six rectangular shingle supercells 100 arranged in six rows extending over the length of the long side of the solar module. The six supercells are electrically grouped into three pairs of supercells connected in series. Each pair of supercells may individually perform voltage sensing and power optimization on each pair of supercells, and two or more of them may be connected in series to provide a high DC voltage, and And / or connect to module level power electronics 4600 that may perform DC / AC conversion.

  FIG. 54A (physical layout) and FIG. 54B (corresponding electrical schematic) show another exemplary structure of module level power management for a high voltage solar module including a squeaky supercell. In this example, the rectangular solar module 200 includes six rectangular shingle supercells 100 arranged in six rows extending over the length of the long side of the solar module. Each supercell may individually perform voltage sensing and power optimization on each supercell, and two or more of them may be connected in series to provide a high DC voltage and / or DC / Connect to module level power electronics 4600 that can perform AC conversion.

  FIG. 55A (physical layout) and FIG. 55B (corresponding electrical schematic) illustrate another exemplary structure of module level power management for a high voltage solar module including a rake supercell. In this example, the rectangular solar module 200 includes six rectangular shingle supercells 100 arranged in six rows extending over the length of the long side of the solar module. Each supercell is electrically segmented by hidden taps 4400 to be two or more solar cell groups. Each resulting solar cell group may individually perform voltage sensing and power optimization on each solar cell group, and connect multiple groups in series to provide a high DC voltage, and / or Connect to module level power electronics 4600 that can perform DC / AC conversion.

  In some variations, two or more high voltage DC sparkling solar cell modules as described herein are electrically connected in series and converted to AC by an inverter. Provides DC output. The inverter can be, for example, a micro inverter integrated with one of the solar modules. In such a case, the microinverter may optionally be a component of module level power management electronics that also performs additional sensing and connection functions as described above. Alternatively, the inverter may be a central “string” inverter as described further below.

  As shown in FIG. 56, when stringing multiple supercells in series within a solar module, adjacent supercell rows are slightly offset in a staggered fashion along their long axes. Can be. This offset from each other saves module area (space / length) and streamlines manufacturing while allowing adjacent ends of a supercell row to be on top of one supercell and on the other supercell. It is possible to make an electrical connection in series by an interconnect 4700 that joins to the bottom of the substrate. Adjacent supercell rows can be offset by, for example, about 5 millimeters.

  Differential thermal expansion between the electrical interconnect 4700 and the silicon solar cells, and the resulting stress on the solar cells and interconnects, tears and other defects that can degrade the performance of the solar module It can be connected to the form. As a result, the interconnect is preferably flexible and configured to accommodate such differential expansion without substantial stress. The interconnect is made of, for example, a highly ductile material (eg, soft copper, very thin copper plate), so that the material has a low coefficient of thermal expansion (eg, Kovar, Invar, or other, low thermal expansion) Iron-nickel alloy) or from materials having a coefficient of thermal expansion that approximately matches that of silicon, to accommodate differential thermal expansion between interconnects and silicon solar cells Out-of-plane geometry such as kinks, jogs, or indents that incorporate in-plane geometric expansion features such as slits, slots, holes, or truss structures to perform and / or accommodate such differential thermal expansion Employing features may provide relaxation of stress and thermal expansion. The conductive portion of the interconnect can be, for example, less than about 100 microns, less than about 50 microns, less than about 30 microns, or less than about 25 microns to increase the flexibility of the interconnect. (The generally low current in these solar modules allows the use of thin flexible and conductive ribbons without excessive power loss resulting from the electrical resistance of the thin interconnects.)

  In some variations, the conductive junction between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect is connected to the flexible electrical interconnect at a temperature range of about -40 ° C to about 180 ° C without damaging the solar module. Adapt to thermal expansion mismatch between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect.

  FIG. 7A (described above) shows several exemplary interconnect configurations identified by reference numbers 400A-400T that employ in-plane stress relaxation geometric features (also described above). 7B-1 and 7B-2 illustrate exemplary interconnect configurations identified by reference numbers 400U and 3705 that employ out-of-plane stress relaxation geometric features. Any one of these interconnect configurations employing stress relaxation features, or any combination thereof, electrically interconnects supercells as described herein in series to provide a high DC voltage May be suitable for.

  The description associated with FIGS. 51A-55B has focused on module level power management, possibly using DC / AC conversion of high DC module voltage with module level power electronics providing AC output from the module. As described above, DC / AC conversion of high DC voltage from the sparkling solar cell module as described herein may instead be performed by a central string inverter. For example, FIG. 57A illustrates a light including a plurality of high DC voltage sparkling solar cell modules 200 that are electrically connected in parallel to a string inverter 4815 via a high DC voltage negative bus 4820 and a high DC voltage positive bus 4810. An electromotive force system 4800 is schematically illustrated. Each solar module 200 typically includes a plurality of sparkling supercells that are electrically connected in series with electrical interconnects to provide a high DC voltage, as described above. Solar module 200 may optionally include, for example, a bypass diode arranged as described above. FIG. 57B shows an exemplary arrangement of the photovoltaic system 4800 on the roof.

  In some variations of the photovoltaic system 4800, two or more short series connected strings of high DC voltage sparkled solar cell modules may be electrically connected in parallel with the string inverter. Referring back to FIG. 57A, for example, each solar module 200 may be replaced with a series connection string of two or more high DC voltage sparkling solar cell modules 200. This may be done, for example, to maximize the voltage provided to the inverter while complying with regulatory standards.

  Conventional solar modules typically produce about 8 amps Isc (short circuit current), about 50 Voc (open circuit voltage), and about 35 Vmp (maximum power point voltage). As described above, described herein, including M times as many solar cells (each having about 1 / M area compared to the area of a conventional solar cell). Such a high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module generally generates a voltage M times higher than a conventional solar module and a current of 1 / M. As noted above, M can be any suitable integer, typically ≦ 20, but may be greater than 20. M can be, for example, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 12.

  In the case of M = 6, the Voc of the high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module may be about 300V, for example. Connecting two such modules in series would provide approximately 600V DC to the bus. This is in accordance with the maximum set by US housing standards. When M = 4, the Voc of the high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module can be about 200V, for example. Connecting three such modules in series would provide approximately 600V DC to the bus. When M = 12, Voc of the high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module may be about 600V, for example. A system having a bus voltage of less than 600V can also be constructed. In such variations, the high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module is, for example, in a combiner box, paired, or three in one set, or any other suitable combination To provide an optimum voltage to the inverter.

  The problem arising from the parallel configuration of the high DC voltage sparkling solar cell modules described above is that if one solar module is short-circuited, the other solar modules potentially have their power shorted It can be thrown up (ie, the current can be driven through the shorted module and the power can be dissipated by the shorted module), creating a danger. This problem can be caused, for example, by using a blocking diode arranged to prevent other modules from driving current through the shorted module, using a current limiting fuse, or a current limiting fuse in combination with a blocking diode. Can be avoided by using FIG. 57B schematically illustrates the use of two current limiting fuses 4830 on the positive and negative terminals of the high DC voltage sparkling solar cell module 200.

  Arrangements aimed at protecting blocking diodes and / or fuses may depend on whether the inverter includes a transformer. A system using an inverter including a transformer typically grounds the negative conductor. Systems that use an inverter without a transformer typically do not ground the negative conductor. For an inverter without a transformer, it may be preferable to have a current limiting fuse aligned with the positive terminal of the solar module and another current limiting fuse aligned with the negative terminal.

  Blocking diodes and / or current limiting fuses may be mounted, for example, with each module in a junction box or in a module stack. Suitable junction boxes, blocking diodes (eg, side-by-side blocking diodes), and fuses (eg, side-by-side fuses) can include those available from Shoals Technology Group.

  FIG. 58A shows an exemplary high voltage DC sparkling solar cell module that includes a junction box 4840 in which a blocking diode 4850 is aligned with the positive terminal of the solar module. The junction box does not include a current limiting fuse. This configuration can be preferably used in combination with one or more current limiting fuses located alongside the positive and / or negative terminals of the solar module at other locations (eg, in a combiner box) (eg, See FIG. 58D). FIG. 58B shows an exemplary high voltage DC sparkled solar cell module including a junction box 4840 with blocking diodes aligned with the positive terminal of the solar module and current limiting fuse 4830 aligned with the negative terminal. FIG. 58C shows an exemplary high voltage DC sparkling solar cell module including a junction box 4840 in which a current limiting fuse 4830 is aligned with the positive terminal of the solar module and another current limiting fuse 4830 is aligned with the negative terminal. Indicates. FIG. 58D illustrates an exemplary high voltage DC burner including a junction box 4840 configured as in FIG. 58A and a fuse located outside the junction box alongside the positive and negative terminals of the solar module. 1 shows a solar cell module.

  Referring now to FIGS. 59A-59B, as an alternative to the configuration described above, all blocking diodes and / or current limiting fuses of the high DC voltage sparkled solar cell module are mounted together in the combiner box 4860. Can be placed. In these variations, one or more individual conductors extend separately from each module to the combiner box. In one option, as shown in FIG. 59A. A single conductor of one polarity (eg, negative as shown) is shared between all modules. In another option (FIG. 59B), both polarities have individual conductors for each module. Although FIGS. 59A-59B show only the fuses located in the combiner box 4860, any suitable combination of fuses and / or blocking diodes may be located in the combiner box. In addition, electronics that perform other functions such as, for example, monitoring, maximum power point tracking, and / or disconnecting individual modules or groups of modules may be implemented in the combiner box.

  The reverse bias operation of the solar module is shaded by one or more solar cells in the solar module, or otherwise generates a small current, the solar module is compatible with the low current solar cell This can occur when operating at a voltage-current point that drives larger currents through the small current solar cells. A reverse-biased solar cell can become hot and create a dangerous situation. For example, the parallel arrangement of high DC voltage sparkling solar cell modules as shown in FIG. 58A may allow the modules to be protected from reverse bias operation by setting a suitable operating voltage for the inverter. This is illustrated, for example, in FIGS. 60A-60B.

  FIG. 60A shows a current versus voltage plot 4870 and a power versus voltage plot 4880 for a parallel connected string of approximately 10 high DC voltage sparkling solar modules. These curves were calculated for a model in which none of the solar modules included a reverse-biased solar cell. Since the solar modules are electrically connected in parallel, they all have the same operating voltage and their currents are summed. Typically, the inverter varies the load on the circuit, looks on the power-voltage curve, identifies the maximum pole on the curve, and then operates the module circuit at that point to maximize the output power. Turn into.

  In contrast, FIG. 60B shows a current vs. voltage plot 4890 and the power of the model system of FIG. 60A for the case where some of the solar modules in the circuit include one or more reverse-biased solar cells. A plot of voltage vs. 4900 is shown. A reverse-biased module is a knee that transitions from about 10 amps at a voltage down to about 210 volts to about 16 amps at a voltage below about 200 volts in an exemplary current-voltage curve. Appears due to shape formation. At a voltage less than about 210 volts, the shaded module includes a solar cell that is reverse biased. A reverse-biased module also appears in the power-voltage curve due to the presence of two maxima, an absolute maxima at about 200 volts and a maxima at about 240 volts. The inverter may be configured to recognize such indications of a reverse-biased solar module and operate the solar module at an absolute maximum or maximum power point voltage that does not reverse bias any module. In the example of FIG. 60B, the inverter may operate the module at the maximum power point to ensure that no reverse bias is applied to any module. In addition, or alternatively, a minimum operating voltage below which the likelihood that any module will be reverse biased may be selected for the inverter. The minimum operating voltage may be adjusted based on other parameters such as ambient temperature, operating current, calculated or measured solar module temperature, and other information received from an external source, such as brightness.

  In some embodiments, the high DC voltage solar modules are themselves arranged with adjacent solar modules arranged in a partially overlapping manner and optionally electrically interconnected in their overlapping regions. It can be made in the form of a sparkle. Such a sparkling configuration is optionally related to a high voltage solar module that is electrically connected in parallel, providing a high DC voltage to the string inverter, or a micro inverter that converts the high DC voltage of the solar module into an AC module output. Can be used for high voltage solar modules each including The pair of high voltage solar modules can be, for example, chopped as just described and electrically connected in series to provide the desired DC voltage.

Conventional string inverters are often 1) they must be able to accommodate different string lengths of modules in series, 2) some modules in a string may be totally or partially 3) Since changes in ambient temperature and radiation change the module voltage, it is necessary to have a fairly wide range of potential input voltages (or “dynamic range”). The length of the string of solar modules connected in parallel does not affect the voltage in a system that employs a parallel structure as described in Section 2. In addition, some modules are partially shaded, If is not in the shadow, decide to operate the system with the voltage of the unshadowed module (eg, as explained above) Therefore, the input voltage range of the inverter in the parallel structure system may only need to accommodate the “dynamic range” of “temperature and radiation changes” in element # 3. For example, because it is about 30% of the conventional dynamic range required for an inverter, an inverter employed with a parallel structure system as described herein has a narrower range, eg, about 250 in standard conditions. Between about 175 volts at high temperature and low radiation, or about 450 volts at normal conditions and about 350 volts at high temperature and low radiation (in this case, 450 volt MPPT (maximum power point tracking) operation is may have a MPPT between the lowest may correspond to the V OC of less than 600 volts at a temperature of operation). in addition, as described above The inverter can receive sufficient DC voltage to convert directly to AC without a boost stage, resulting in a simpler string inverter employed with a parallel structure system as described herein. Yes, it is less costly and can operate with higher efficiency than string inverters employed in conventional systems.

  For both micro inverters and string inverters employed with the high voltage dc sparkling solar module described herein, the solar module (or short of the solar module) to eliminate the need for DC boost of the inverter. It may be preferable to configure the series connected string) to provide a DC voltage that operates beyond the peak-to-peak of AC (eg, maximum power point Vmp). For example, for 120V AC, the peak-to-peak is sqrt (2) * 120V = 170V. Thus, the solar module may be configured to provide a minimum Vmp of, for example, about 175V. Standard state Vmp may be about 212V (assuming a negative voltage temperature coefficient of 0.35% and a maximum operating temperature of 75 ° C.), and Vmp at the lowest temperature operating state (eg, −15 ° C.) , (Depending on module fill factor) may be about 242V, and thus Voc below about 300V. For a single phase 120V AC (or 240V AC), all of these numbers are doubled, since 600V DC is the maximum allowed in the United States for many residential applications. Convenient. For commercial applications that require and allow higher voltages, these numbers can be even greater.

A high voltage sparkling solar cell module as described herein may be configured to operate at> 600 V OCs or> 1000 V OCs , where the module is provided by the module. It may include integrated power electronics that prevent external voltages from exceeding specified requirements. Such an arrangement may allow the operating V mp to be sufficient for a single phase 120V (240V, requiring about 350V) without the problem of low temperature V OC exceeding 600V.

  If a building is disconnected from the grid, for example by a firefighter, a solar module that provides electricity to the building (eg on the roof of the building) will still generate power if the sun shines I can do it. The concern that arises from this is that such a solar module allows the roof to remain “live” with dangerous voltages after disconnecting the building from the grid. In order to address this concern, the high voltage direct current solar cell modules described herein may optionally include a disconnector, for example, in or adjacent to the module junction box. The disconnector can be, for example, a physical disconnector or a solid state disconnector. The disconnector may be configured to be “normally off”, for example, to disconnect the high voltage output of the solar module from the roof circuit when it no longer receives a particular signal (eg, from an inverter). Communication to the disconnector can occur, for example, on a high voltage cable, through a separate wire, or wirelessly.

  An important advantage of making high voltage solar modules sparkling is that heat is diffused between the solar cells in the sparkling supercell. Applicants have discovered that heat can be easily transferred along the silicon supercell through thin electrical and thermally conductive junctions between adjacent and overlapping silicon solar cells. The thickness of the conductive junction between adjacent and overlapping solar cells formed by the electrically conductive adhesive, measured in a direction perpendicular to the front and back surfaces of the solar cell, for example, is less than or equal to about 200 microns. Or less than or equal to about 150 microns, or less than or equal to about 125 microns, or less than or equal to about 100 microns, or less than or less than about 90 microns, or greater than about 80 microns. Small or equal, or less than or equal to about 70 microns, or less than or equal to about 60 microns, or less than or equal to or less than about 50 microns, or less than about 25 microns At the same it may be the same thickness. Such thin junctions reduce resistance losses in the interconnection between the batteries and promote heat flow along the supercell from any hot spots in the supercell that may appear during operation. . The thermal conductivity of the junction between the solar cells can be, for example, ≧ about 1.5 watts / (meter K). Furthermore, the rectangular aspect ratio of solar cells typically employed herein enlarges the area of thermal contact between adjacent solar cells.

  In contrast, in a conventional solar module that employs a ribbon interconnect between adjacent solar cells, the heat generated in one solar cell is routed through the ribbon interconnect to the other solar cells in the module. Does not spread easily. This makes conventional solar modules more likely to generate hot spots than the solar modules described herein.

  Furthermore, the supercells described herein typically have a rectangular solar cell each having a smaller active area (eg, 1/6) than that of conventional solar cells. As such, the current through the supercells in the solar modules described herein is typically less than the current through a string of conventional solar cells.

  As a result, within the solar module disclosed herein, the amount of heat dissipated in a solar cell that is reverse-biased with a breakdown voltage is reduced and supercells and solar modules are produced without creating dangerous hot spots. Heat can easily diffuse through.

  Several additional and optional features make high voltage solar modules employing supercells as described herein even more resistant to heat dissipated in reverse-biased solar cells It may have. For example, the supercell can be encapsulated within an olefinic thermoplastic (TPO) polymer. TPO encapsulant is more stable to light heat than standard ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant. EVA turns brown with temperature and ultraviolet light, leading to problems with hot spots caused by batteries that limit current. Furthermore, the solar module may have a glass-glass structure in which the enclosed supercell is sandwiched between a glass front sheet and a glass back sheet. Such a glass-glass structure allows solar modules to operate safely at higher temperatures than conventional polymer backsheets can withstand. Furthermore, if present, the junction box can be mounted on one or more edges of the solar module rather than behind the solar module. Here the junction box will add an additional thermal isolation layer to the module solar cell above it.

  Accordingly, Applicants have determined that the flow of heat through the supercell may allow the module to operate without substantial risk associated with one or more solar cells that are reverse biased. It has been recognized that high voltage solar modules formed from supercells as described in the document can employ much fewer bypass diodes than are employed in conventional solar modules. For example, in some variations, a high voltage solar module as described herein includes less than 1 bypass diode per 25 solar cells, less than 1 bypass diode per 30 solar cells, 50 Less than 1 bypass diode per 75 solar cells, less than 1 bypass diode per 75 solar cells, less than 1 bypass diode per 100 solar cells, only a single bypass diode may be employed, or A bypass diode may not be used.

  Referring now to FIGS. 61A-61C, an exemplary high voltage solar module utilizing a bypass diode is provided. When a part of the solar module is shaded, the use of a bypass diode can prevent or reduce damage to the module. For the exemplary solar module 4700 shown in FIG. 61A, ten supercells 100 are connected in series. As shown, the ten supercells are arranged in parallel rows. Each supercell includes 40 solar cells 10 connected in series, each of which is made up of approximately one-sixth of a square or pseudo-square, as described herein. It has been. In normal, unshaded operation, current flows in from the junction box 4716 through each of the supercells 100 connected in series through the connector 4715, and then the current flows out through the junction box 4717. Optionally, a single junction box can be used instead of separate junction boxes 4716 and 4717 so that the current returns to one junction box. The example shown in FIG. 61A shows an embodiment using approximately one bypass diode per supercell. As shown, a single bypass diode electrically connects between neighboring supercell pairs at approximately the midpoint along the supercell (eg, a single bypass diode 4901A is connected to the first supercell And the second bypass diode 4901B is electrically connected between the second supercell and the third supercell. Connect, etc.). The first and last battery strings have only about half the number of solar cells in the supercell per bypass diode. For the example shown in FIG. 61A, the first and last battery strings include only 22 batteries per bypass diode. For the variation of the high voltage solar module illustrated in FIG. 61A, the total number of bypass diodes (11) is equal to the number of supercells plus one additional bypass diode.

  Each bypass diode may be incorporated into a flex circuit, for example. Referring now to FIG. 61B, an enlarged view of the bypass diode connection region of two neighboring supercells is shown. The view of FIG. 61B is seen from the side where the sun does not hit. As shown, two solar cells 10 on neighboring supercells are electrically connected using a flex circuit 4718 that includes a bypass diode 4720. Flex circuit 4718 and bypass diode 4720 are electrically connected to solar cell 10 using contact pads 4719 located on the back surface of the solar cell. (See also further discussion below about the use of hidden contact pads to provide hidden taps for the bypass diodes.) Additional bypass diode electrical connection schemes reduce the number of solar cells per bypass diode Can be adopted. An example is illustrated in FIG. 61C. As shown, one bypass diode electrically connects between each pair of neighboring supercells at approximately the midpoint along the supercell. A bypass diode 4901A is electrically connected between neighboring solar cells on the first and second supercells, and a bypass diode 4901B is electrically connected between neighboring solar cells on the second and third supercells. 4901C electrically connects between neighboring solar cells on the third and fourth supercells, and so on. A second set of bypass diodes may be included to reduce the number of solar cells that will be bypassed if a partial shadow occurs. For example, the bypass diode 4902A is electrically connected between the first supercell and the second supercell at an intermediate point between the bypass diode 4901A and the bypass diode 4901B, and the bypass diode 4902B is electrically connected to the second supercell and the second supercell. Between the three supercells, an electrical connection is made at the midpoint between the bypass diode 4901B and the bypass diode 4901C, etc., thereby reducing the number of batteries per bypass diode. Optionally, yet another set of bypass diodes may be electrically connected to further reduce the number of solar cells that are bypassed if a partial shadow occurs. A bypass diode 4903A is electrically connected between the first supercell and the second supercell at an intermediate point between the bypass diode 4902A and the bypass diode 4901B, and the bypass diode 4903B is electrically connected to the second supercell and the third supercell. Electrical connection is made between cells at the midpoint between bypass diode 4902B and bypass diode 4901C, which further reduces the number of batteries per bypass diode. The result of this configuration is a nested configuration of bypass diodes that allow a small group of batteries to be bypassed during partial shadowing. Additional diodes are thus electrically connected until the desired number of solar cells per bypass diode is achieved, for example, about 8, about 6, about 4, or about 2 per bypass diode. Can do. In some modules, about four solar cells per bypass diode are desirable. If desired, one or more of the bypass diodes illustrated in FIG. 61C can be incorporated into a hidden flexible interconnect as illustrated in FIG. 61B.

  The present specification discloses a solar cell cleavage tool and a solar cell cleavage method that can be used, for example, to separate conventional sized square or pseudo-square solar cells into a plurality of narrow rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells. . These cleavage tools and methods were prepared in advance by drawing a vacuum between the bottom surface of the conventional size solar cell and the curved support surface to bend the conventional size solar cell against the curved support surface. Cleave the solar cell along the scribe line. The advantage of these cleavage tools and methods is that they do not require physical contact with the top surface of the solar cell. As a result, these cleavage tools and methods can be employed to cleave solar cells that contain soft and / or uncured material on the top surface that can be damaged by physical contact. In addition, in some variations, these cleavage tools and cleavage methods may require contact with only a portion of the bottom surface of the solar cell. In such variations, these cleavage tools and methods can be employed to cleave solar cells that include soft and / or uncured material on a portion of the bottom surface that is not contacted by the cleavage tool.

For example, one solar cell manufacturing method that utilizes the cleavage tools and methods disclosed herein includes:
Laser scribing one or more scribe lines on each of the one or more conventional size silicon solar cells to define a plurality of rectangular regions on the one or more silicon solar cells;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to a portion of the top surface of the one or more silicon solar cells;
A vacuum is drawn between the bottom surface of the one or more silicon solar cells and the curved support surface to bend the one or more silicon solar cells toward the curved support surface, thereby along one or more scribe lines. Cleaving one or more silicon solar cells to provide a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each including a portion of an electrically conductive adhesive adhesive disposed on a front surface adjacent to the long side. The conductive adhesive bond can be applied to conventional size silicon solar cells either before or after the solar cells are laser scribed.

  The resulting multiple rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapped in a crisp shape with a portion of the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive in between Can be done. The electrically conductive bonding agent can then be cured, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells together and electrically connecting them in series. This process forms a sparkling “supercell” as described in the patent applications listed in “Related Application Cross Reference” above.

  For a better understanding of the cleavage tools and methods disclosed herein, looking now at the drawings, FIG. 20A shows a side view of an exemplary apparatus 1050 that can be used to cleave a scribed solar cell. It is schematically illustrated. In the present apparatus, the scribed conventional size solar cell wafer 45 is carried by the moving belt 1060 with a perforation above the curved portion of the vacuum manifold 1070. As the solar cell wafer 45 passes over the curved portion of the vacuum manifold, the vacuum drawn through the perforations of the belt approaches the vacuum manifold and pulls the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer 45, thereby bending the solar cell. The radius of curvature R of the curved portion of the vacuum manifold can be selected to cleave the solar cell along the scribe line to form the rectangular solar cell 10 by bending the solar cell wafer 45 in this manner. The rectangular solar cell 10 can be used, for example, in a supercell as illustrated in FIGS. The solar cell wafer 45 can be cleaved by this method without contacting the top surface of the solar cell wafer 45 to which the conductive adhesive bonding agent is applied.

  For each scribe line, cleave the scribe line so that one end reaches the curved portion of the vacuum manifold before the other end, for example by placing the scribe line oriented at an angle θ relative to the vacuum manifold. Can be preferentially initiated at one end of the scribe line (ie, at one edge of the solar cell 45). As shown in FIG. 20B, for example, the solar cells are directed against the curved cleaved portion of the manifold with their scribe lines oriented in the direction of belt movement and in a direction perpendicular to the direction of belt movement. It can be oriented in an angled state. As another example, FIG. 20C shows a battery with the scribe line oriented perpendicular to the direction of belt travel, and a curved cleaved portion of the manifold oriented at an angle to the direction of belt travel. Indicates.

  The cleaving tool 1050 may utilize, for example, a single perforated moving belt 1060 having a width in a direction perpendicular to its moving direction that is approximately equal to the width of the solar cell wafer 45. Alternatively, the tool 1050 may include, for example, 2, 3, 4, or more perforated moving belts 1060 that are arranged side by side and optionally separated from each other. The cleaving tool 1050 may utilize a single vacuum manifold that may have a width in a direction perpendicular to the direction of movement of the solar cells, for example, approximately equal to the width of the solar cell wafer 45. Such a vacuum manifold is employed, for example, with a single full-width perforated moving belt 1060 or, for example, with two or more such belts arranged in parallel and optionally spaced apart from one another. obtain.

  The cleaving tool 1050 can include two or more curved vacuum manifolds, each having the same curvature, arranged side by side and spaced apart from each other. Such an arrangement can be employed, for example, with a single full width perforated moving belt 1060 or with two or more such belts arranged side by side and optionally spaced apart from each other. For example, the tool may include a perforated moving belt 1060 for each vacuum manifold. In the latter arrangement, the vacuum manifolds and their corresponding perforated moving belts can be arranged to contact the bottom of the solar cell wafer along only two narrow strips defined by the width of the belt. In such a case, the solar cell can include a soft material in the area of the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer that is not contacted by the belt, and there is no risk of damage to the soft material during the cleavage process.

  Any suitable arrangement of perforated moving belts and vacuum manifolds can be used in the cleaving tool 1050.

  In some variations, scribed solar cell wafers 45 are uncured conductive adhesive and / or other soft on their top and / or bottom before cleaving using cleaving tool 1050. Contains materials. The scribing of the solar cell wafer and the application of the soft material may occur in any order.

  FIG. 62A schematically illustrates a side view of another exemplary cleavage tool 5210 similar to the cleavage tool 1050 described above, and FIG. 62B schematically illustrates a top view thereof. In use of the cleaving tool 5210, a conventional sized scribed solar wafer 45 moves at a constant speed over a pair of vacuum manifolds 5235 that are parallel and spaced apart, and a corresponding pair of parallel and spaced apart perforated belts 5230. Placed on top. The vacuum manifold 5235 typically has the same curvature. As the wafer moves with the belt over the vacuum manifold through the cleavage region 5235C, the wafer is bent around the cleavage range defined by the curved support surface of the vacuum manifold by the force of the vacuum pulling the bottom of the wafer. As the wafer is bent around the cleavage range, the scribe line becomes a tear that separates the wafer into individual rectangular solar cells. As described further below, the curvature of the vacuum manifold is such that the adjacent cleaved rectangular solar cells are not coplanar and the edges of adjacent cleaved rectangular solar cells result in the cleavage process occurring. Arranged so as not to contact each other. The cleaved rectangular solar cell can be continuously unloaded from the perforated belt by any suitable method, some examples of which are described below. Typically, the lowering method further separates adjacent cleaved solar cells from each other and prevents them from contacting each other if they lie on the same plane.

  With further reference to FIGS. 62A-62B, each vacuum manifold may have, for example, a flat region 5235F that does not draw a vacuum or draws a low or high vacuum, and an optional low or high vacuum along its length. It may include a curved transition region 5235T that pulls or transitions from a low vacuum to a high vacuum, a cleavage region 5235C that pulls a high vacuum, and a post-cleavage region 5235PC with a smaller radius that pulls a low vacuum. The belt 5230 transports the wafer 45 from the flat region 5235F into and through the transition region 5235T and then into the cleavage region 5235C where the wafer is cleaved, and then the resulting cleaved sun. Battery 10 is transported out of cleavage region 5235C and into post-cleavage region 5235PC.

  Flat region 5235F typically operates at a low enough vacuum to hold wafer 45 to the belt and vacuum manifold. The vacuum here may be low (or absent) to reduce friction and hence the required belt tension and because it is easier to keep the wafer 45 on a flat surface than on a curved surface. . The vacuum in the flat region 5235F can be, for example, from about 1 to about 6 inches of mercury.

  Transition region 5235T provides a curvature that transitions from flat region 5235F to cleavage region 5235C. The curvature radius or the plurality of curvature radii in the transition region 5235T is larger than the curvature radius in the cleavage region 5235C. The bend at transition region 5235T can be, for example, part of an ellipse, but any suitable bend can be used. Bringing wafer 45 closer to cleavage region 5235C with a smaller curvature change through transition region 5235T, rather than a direct transition from a flat orientation in region 5235F to a cleavage region in cleavage region 5235C, raises the edge of wafer 45. Helps to ensure that the vacuum is gone and that it becomes difficult to keep the wafer in the cleavage region at the cleavage region 5235C. The vacuum at transition region 5235T can be, for example, the same as at cleavage region 5235C, intermediate between the vacuums at regions 5235F and 5235C, or between the vacuum at region 5235F and the vacuum at region 5235C. , And can transition along the length of region 5235T. The vacuum at transition region 5235T can be, for example, from about 2 to about 8 inches of mercury.

  The cleavage region 5235C may have a varying radius of curvature, or optionally a constant radius of curvature. Such a constant radius of curvature can be, for example, about 11.5 inches, about 12.5 inches, or between about 6 inches and about 18 inches. Any suitable range of curvature can be used and can be selected based in part on the thickness of the wafer 45 and the depth and geometry of the scribe lines in the wafer 45. Typically, the thinner the wafer, the shorter the radius of curvature required to bend the wafer to sufficiently tear the wafer along the scribe line. The scribe line can have a depth of, for example, about 60 microns to about 140 microns, although any other suitable shallower or deeper scribe line depth can also be used. Typically, the shallower the scribe, the shorter the radius of curvature required to bend the wafer to sufficiently tear the wafer along the scribe line. The cross-sectional shape of the scribe line also affects the required radius of curvature. A scribe line having a wedge shape or having a wedge-shaped bottom portion can concentrate stress more effectively than a scribe line having a round shape or a round bottom portion. A scribe line that concentrates stress more effectively may not require a smaller radius of curvature in the cleavage region than a scribe line that does not concentrate stress more effectively.

  For at least one of the two parallel vacuum manifolds, the vacuum at the cleavage region 5235C is typically higher than the vacuum at the other regions to ensure that the wafer is properly retained at the cleavage radius of curvature, Maintain a constant bending stress. Optionally, and as further described below, in this region, one manifold can draw a higher vacuum than the other to better control tearing along the scribe line. The vacuum in the cleave region 5235C can be, for example, about 4 to about 15 inches of mercury or about 4 to about 26 inches of mercury.

  The post-cleavage region 5235PC typically has a smaller radius of curvature than the cleave region 5235C. This allows the cracked surfaces of adjacent cleaved solar cells to be rubbed or not touched (these can cause solar cell failures resulting from tears or other forms of failure), It becomes easy to transport the cleaved solar cell from the belt 5230. In particular, a smaller radius of curvature results in a greater separation between the edges of adjacent cleaved solar cells on the belt. The wafer 45 has already been cleaved to become a plurality of solar cells 10, and the vacuum in the post-cleavage region 5235PC may be low because it is no longer necessary to keep the solar cells at the curved radius of the vacuum manifold ( For example, the same as or the same as that in the flat region 5235F). The edge of the cleaved solar cell 10 can be lifted away from the belt 5230, for example. Furthermore, it may be desirable that the cleaved solar cell 10 is not excessively stressed.

  The flat region, transition region, cleaved region, and post-cleavage region of the vacuum manifold can be discontinuous portions of different curves with their ends coincident. For example, the top surface of each manifold has a flat planar portion, a portion of an ellipse for the transition region, a circle arc for the cleavage region, and another arc or portion of the circle for the post-cleavage region. Can be included. Alternatively, some or all of the curved portion of the top surface of the manifold may include a continuous geometric function that increases curvature (decreases the diameter of the contact circle). Suitable such functions may include, but are not limited to, for example, helical functions such as clothoids, and natural logarithmic functions. A clothoid is a curve whose curvature increases linearly along the length of the path of the curve. For example, in some variations, the transition region, the cleave region, and the post-cleavage region are all part of a single clothoid curve with one end coinciding with the flat region. In some other variations, the transition region is a clothoid curve with one end coincident with a flat region and the other end coincident with a cleavage region having a circular curvature. In the latter variation, the post-cleavage region may have, for example, a higher radial circular curvature or a higher radial clothoid curvature.

  As described above and schematically illustrated in FIGS. 62B and 63A, in some variations, one manifold has a high vacuum in the cleavage region 5235C and the other manifold has a cleavage region 5235C. At low vacuum. The high vacuum manifold keeps the edge of the wafer it supports in the overall curvature of the manifold, which causes the end of the scribe line lying on the high vacuum manifold to initiate a tear along the scribe line. Provide enough stress to. The low-vacuum manifold does not keep the edge of the wafer it supports entirely in the curvature of the manifold, so the bend radius of the wafer on that side will cause the stress necessary to initiate a tear at the scribe line. Is not small enough. However, the stress is high enough to propagate a tear initiated at the other end of the scribe line lying on the high vacuum manifold. Without some vacuum on the "low vacuum" side to keep that edge of the wafer partly and fully in the curvature of the manifold, a tear initiated at the "high vacuum" end on the opposite side of the wafer would cross the entire wafer There is a risk that it will not propagate. In a variation as just described, one manifold can optionally draw a low vacuum along its entire length from the flat region 5235F through the post-cleavage region 5235PC.

  As just described, the asymmetric vacuum placement at the cleavage region 5235C provides asymmetric stress along the scribe line that controls the nucleation and propagation of the tear along the scribe line. For example, referring to FIG. 63B, if the two vacuum manifolds instead draw an equal (eg, high) vacuum in the cleave region 5235C, the rifts nucleate at both ends of the wafer and propagate toward each other, leading to the central region of the wafer You might meet somewhere. Under these circumstances, the tears may not align with each other, so there is a risk that they will cause a potential mechanical failure point in the resulting cleaved battery where the tears meet.

  As an alternative to or in addition to the asymmetrical vacuum arrangement described above, cleaving is preferentially scribed by placing one end of the scribe line in the cleave region of the manifold in front of the other end. It can be started at one end of the line. This can be accomplished, for example, by orienting the solar cell wafer at an angle with respect to the vacuum manifold, as described above in connection with FIG. 20B. Alternatively, one of the two manifolds may be located in the cleavage region of one manifold further along the belt path than the cleavage region of the other vacuum manifold. For example, the two vacuum manifolds may be connected to the moving belt so that the solar cell wafer reaches the cleavage region of one of the two vacuum manifolds having the same curvature before reaching the cleavage region of the other vacuum manifold. It can be slightly offset in the direction of travel.

  Referring now to FIG. 64, in the illustrated example, each vacuum manifold 5235 includes a through hole 5240 that is arranged side by side under the center of the vacuum channel 5245. As shown in FIGS. 65A-65B, the vacuum channel 5245 is recessed into the upper surface of the manifold that supports the perforated belt 5230. Each vacuum manifold also includes a central post 5250 positioned between the through holes 5240 and arranged side by side under the center of the vacuum channel 5245. The central column 5250 effectively separates the vacuum channel 5245 so that there are two parallel vacuum channels on either side of the plurality of central column rows. Center post 5250 also provides support for belt 5230. Without the center post 5250, the belt 5230 would be exposed to longer unsupported areas and could be sucked toward the through-hole 5240. As a result of this, the wafer 45 can be three-dimensionally bent (bent by the cleavage range and bent in a direction perpendicular to the cleavage range), which damages the solar cell and inhibits the cleavage process. Can do.

  As shown in FIGS. 65A-65B and 66-67, in the illustrated example, the through hole 5240 has a low vacuum chamber 5260L (flat region 5235F and transition region 5235T in FIG. 62A) and a high vacuum chamber (5260H ( 62A and the other low-vacuum chamber 5260L (post-cleavage region 5235PC in FIG. 62A) is in communication with this arrangement between the low and high vacuum regions in the vacuum channel 5245. The through-hole 5240 allows the air flow not to be completely biased into the hole if the area to which a hole corresponds is left fully open, thereby allowing other areas to maintain a vacuum, Provide sufficient flow resistance, the vacuum channel 5245 is positioned between the through holes 5240 with the vacuum belt holes 5255 always having a vacuum. It helps to ensure that it does not become a dead spot in the case that was.

  65A-65B, and with reference also to FIG. 67, the perforated belt 5230 is such that, for example, the leading and trailing edges 527 of the wafer 45 or the cleaved solar cell 10 as the belt travels along the manifold are always present. It may include two rows of holes 5255 optionally arranged to be evacuated. In particular, the staggered arrangement of the plurality of holes 5255 in the illustrated example ensures that the edge of the wafer 45 or the cleaved solar cell 10 always overlaps at least one hole 5255 of each belt 5230. . This helps to prevent the wafer 45 or the edge of the cleaved solar cell 10 from lifting away from the belt 5230 and the manifold 5235. Any other suitable arrangement of holes 5255 may be used. In some variations, the placement of the plurality of holes 5255 does not ensure that the edge of the wafer 45 or the cleaved solar cell 10 is always evacuated.

  The perforated moving belt 5230 in the illustrated example of the cleaving tool 5210 is only along the two narrow strips defined by the width of the belt along the lateral edge of the solar cell wafer. Touch the bottom of the. As a result, the solar cell wafer may include soft materials, such as uncured adhesive, in the area of the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer that is not contacted by the belt 5230, and the risk of damage to those soft materials during the cleavage process. Does not occur.

  In an alternative variation, the cleaving tool 5210 is not two perforated moving belts as just described, but has a width in a direction perpendicular to its moving direction, for example, approximately equal to the width of the solar cell wafer 45. A single perforated moving belt 5230 may be utilized. Alternatively, the cleaving tool 5210 may include three, four, or more perforated moving belts 5230 that are arranged side by side and optionally separated from each other. The cleaving tool 5210 may utilize a single vacuum manifold 5235 that may have a width in a direction perpendicular to the direction of solar cell movement, for example, approximately equal to the width of the solar cell wafer 45. Such a vacuum manifold can be employed, for example, with a single full-width perforated moving belt 5230 or with two or more such belts arranged side by side and optionally spaced apart from one another. The cleaving tool 5210 is, for example, a single perforation supported along opposing lateral edges by two curved vacuum manifolds 5235 that are arranged side by side and spaced apart from each other and each having the same curvature. An attached moving belt 5230 may be included. The cleaving tool 5210 may include three or more curved vacuum manifolds 5235 that are arranged side by side and spaced apart from one another, each having the same curvature. Such an arrangement can be employed, for example, with a single full width perforated moving belt 5230, or with three or more such belts arranged side by side and optionally spaced apart from each other. The cleaving tool can include, for example, a perforated moving belt 5230 for each vacuum manifold.

  Any suitable arrangement of perforated moving belts and vacuum manifolds can be used in the cleaving tool 5210.

  As described above, in some variations, scribed solar cell wafers 45 that are cleaved by cleaving tool 5210 are uncured conductive adhesive bonds to their top and / or bottom surfaces prior to cleaving. Agents and / or other soft materials. The scribing of the solar cell wafer and the application of the soft material may occur in any order.

  The perforated belt 5230 in the cleaving tool 5210 (and the perforated belt 1060 in the cleaving tool 1050) may be at a speed, such as from about 40 millimeters per second (mm / s) to about 2000 mm / s or faster, or About 40 mm / s to about 500 mm / s or faster, or about 80 mm / s or faster. The cleavage of the solar cell wafer 45 may be easier to perform at a faster rate than at a slower rate.

  Referring now to FIG. 68, when cleaved, there is some separation between the leading edge 527 and the trailing edge 527 of adjacent cleaved batteries 10 due to the bending geometry around the bend. Yes, thereby forming a wedge-shaped gap between adjacent cleaved solar cells. If cleaved batteries are allowed to return to the same flat surface without increasing the separation between previously cleaved batteries, the edges of adjacent cleaved batteries can touch each other and cause damage There is sex. Therefore, it is advantageous to remove them from the belt 5230 (or belt 1060) while the cleaved batteries are still supported by the curved surface.

  FIGS. 69A-69G show how many cleaved solar cells can be removed from belt 5230 (or belt 1060) and delivered to one or more additional moving belts or surfaces with increased separation between the cleaved solar cells. Such an apparatus and method are schematically illustrated. In the example of FIG. 69A, the cleaved solar cells 10 are collected from the belt 5230 by one or more transport belts 5265 that travel faster than the belt 5230 and thus increase the separation between the cleaved solar cells 10. The conveyor belt 5265 can be positioned between two belts 5230, for example. In the example of FIG. 69B, the cleaved wafer 10 is separated by sliding down a slide 5270 positioned between two belts 5230. In this example, belt 5230 advances each cleaved battery 10 into a low vacuum (eg, no vacuum) region of manifold 5235 and cleaves with the uncut portion of wafer 45 still held by belt 5230. The used battery is released on the slide 5270. Providing an air cushion between the cleaved battery 10 and the slide 5270 helps to ensure that both the battery and the slide do not wear out during this operation, and the cleaved battery 10 Can slide faster in the direction away from the wafer 45, thereby allowing faster cleaving belt operating speed.

  In the example of FIG. 69C, a carriage 5275A in a rotating “Big Ferris Wheel” arrangement 5275 carries the cleaved solar cell 10 from the belt 5230 to one or more belts 5280.

  In the example of FIG. 69D, the rotating roller 5285 draws a vacuum through the actuator 5285A, picks up the cleaved solar cells 10 from the belt 5230, and places them on the belt 5280.

  In the example of FIG. 69E, the carriage actuator 5290 includes a carriage 5290A and a telescopic actuator 5290B attached on the carriage. The carriage 5290A translates back and forth to position the actuator 5290B, removes the cleaved solar cell 10 from the belt 5230, and then positions the actuator 5290B to place the cleaved solar cell on the belt 5280.

  In the example of FIG. 69F, the carriage track arrangement 5295 positions the carriage 5295A, removes the cleaved solar cell 10 from the belt 5230, and then positions the carriage 5295A to place the cleaved solar cell 10 on the belt 5280. A carriage 5295A attached to the moving belt 5300 to be placed. The latter action occurs when the carriage falls or leaves the belt 5280 due to the path of the belt 5230.

  In the example of FIG. 69G, an inverted vacuum belt arrangement 5305 pulls the vacuum through one or more moving perforated belts and transports the cleaved solar cell 10 from belt 5230 to belt 5280.

  70A-70C provide views of additional variations of the exemplary tool described above with reference to FIGS. 62A-62B and subsequent figures, as viewed from orthogonal directions. In this modified example 5310, as in the example of FIG. 69A, the cleaved solar cell 10 is removed from the perforated belt 5230 that conveys the uncleavable wafer 45 into the cleavage region of the tool by using the transport belt 5265. . The perspective views of FIGS. 71A-71B show this variation of the cleaving tool in two different operating steps. In FIG. 71A, the uncleaved wafer 45 is approaching the cleavage region of the tool, and in FIG. 71B, the wafer 45 is in the cleavage region, and the two cleaved solar cells 10 are separated from the wafer, Thereafter, they are further separated from each other as they are conveyed by the conveyor belt 5265.

  In addition to the features previously described, FIGS. 70A-71B show a plurality of vacuum ports 5315 on each manifold. Using multiple ports per manifold may allow a greater degree of control over the change in vacuum along the length of the top surface of the manifold. For example, a plurality of different vacuum ports 5315 can optionally communicate with different vacuum chambers (eg, 5260L and 5260H in FIGS. 66 and 72B) and / or optionally connect to a plurality of different vacuum pumps. A plurality of different vacuum pressures along the manifold. 70A-70B also show the entire path of wheel 5325, the top surface of vacuum manifold 5235, and perforated belt 5230 that loops around wheel 5320. FIG. The belt 5230 can be driven by either the wheel 5320 or the wheel 5325, for example.

  72A and 72B show a perspective view of a portion of the vacuum manifold 5235 on which a portion of the perforated belt 5230 lies, with respect to the variation of FIGS. 70A-71B, and FIG. 72A approximates a portion of FIG. 72B. Provide the figure. 73A shows a top view of a portion of the vacuum manifold 5235 with the perforated belt 5230 lying thereon, and FIG. 73B shows the same vacuum manifold and perforated belt taken along line CC shown in FIG. 73A. Sectional drawing of arrangement | positioning is shown. As shown in FIG. 73B, the relative orientation of the through-holes 5240 depends on the length of the vacuum manifold so that each through-hole is arranged in a direction perpendicular to the portion of the top surface of the manifold directly above the through-hole. Can vary along. FIG. 74A shows another plan view of a portion of the vacuum manifold 5235 with the perforated belt 5230 lying thereon, and the vacuum chambers 5260L and 5260H are shown in a local perspective view. FIG. 74B shows a view close to a portion of FIG. 74A.

  75A-75G show some exemplary hole patterns that may optionally be used with a perforated vacuum belt 5230. FIG. The common feature of these patterns is that the straight edge of the wafer 45 or the cleaved solar cell 10 that traverses the pattern at any location on the belt in a direction perpendicular to the long axis of the belt is always at least within each belt. That is, it will overlap one hole 5255. The pattern can be, for example, two or more rows of square or rectangular holes that are offset from one another (FIGS. 75A, 75D), two or more rows of multiple circular holes that are offset from one another (FIG. 75B, 75E, 75G), two or more rows of angled slots (FIGS. 75C, 75F), or any other suitable arrangement of holes.

  The present specification is arranged in an overlapping manner, electrically connected in series by conductive junctions between adjacent overlapping solar cells, and supercells are arranged in a plurality of physically parallel rows within the solar module. A highly efficient solar module including a silicon solar cell that forms a supercell in a closed state is disclosed. A supercell may include any suitable number of solar cells. The supercell can have a length that extends essentially over the entire length or width of the solar module, for example, or two or more supercells can be placed end-to-end in a row . This arrangement hides the electrical interconnection between solar cells and thus forms a visually attractive solar module with little or no contrast between adjacent series connected solar cells. Can be used.

  The present specification further discloses a battery metallization pattern that facilitates stencil printing of the metallization on the front (and optionally) backside of the solar cell. As used herein, battery metallization “stencil printing” refers to a metallization material (eg, a silver paste) on a solar cell surface through a patterning opening in an otherwise impermeable sheet of material. To apply. The stencil can be, for example, a patterned stainless steel sheet. The stencil patterning opening generally does not include stencil material, for example, no mesh or screen. The absence of mesh or screen material in the patterned stencil opening distinguishes “stencil printing” from “screen printing” as used herein. In contrast, in screen printing, the metal coating material is applied to the solar cell surface through a screen (eg, a mesh) that supports the patterned impermeable material. The pattern includes openings in an impermeable material through which the metal coating material is applied to the solar cell. The supporting screen extends across an opening in the impermeable material.

  Compared with screen printing, stencil printing of battery metallization pattern has a narrower line width, higher aspect ratio (line height vs. width), better line uniformity and clarity Providing a number of advantages, including a longer stencil life compared to a screen. However, stencil printing cannot print "islands" in a single pass as would be required in a conventional three busbar metallization design. In addition, stencil printing will require the stencil to contain unsupported structures that may hinder the placement and use of the stencil that are not fastened to lie in the plane of the stencil during printing. The metal coating pattern cannot be printed in one pass. For example, stencil printing cannot print a metallized pattern in which a metallized finger placed in parallel interconnects with a bus bar or other metallized feature extending perpendicular to the fingers in a single pass. This is because a single stencil for such a design would include an unsupported tongue of sheet material defined by an opening for the bus bar and an opening for the fingers. The tongues will not be fastened by physical connection to other parts of the stencil so that they lie in the plane of the stencil during printing, and can be offset from the surface and distort the placement and use of the stencil High nature.

  As a result, attempts to use stencils to print traditional solar cells require two passes for front metallization with two different stencils or with a stencil printing process combined with a screen printing process. This increases the total number of printing steps per battery and creates the “stitching” problem where the two prints overlap and become twice as high. Stitching further complicates the process and additional printing steps and associated steps increase costs. Therefore, stencil printing is not common for solar cells.

  As described further below, the front metallization pattern described herein may include an array of fingers (eg, parallel lines) that are not connected to each other by the front metallization pattern. These patterns can be stencil printed in a single pass with a single stencil since the required stencil need not include unsupported portions or structures (eg, tongue). Such a front metallization pattern can be disadvantageous for standard size solar cells and for strings of solar cells in which distant solar cells are interconnected by copper ribbons. This is because the metallization pattern itself does not provide substantial current spreading or conduction in the direction perpendicular to the fingers. However, in the front metallization pattern described in this specification, a part of the front metallization pattern of the solar cell overlaps with the backside metallization pattern of the adjacent solar cell, and a part of the front metallization pattern is conducted to the rear metallization pattern. It can work well in a scrambled arrangement of rectangular solar cells as described herein to be joined. This is because the overlapping backside metallization of adjacent solar cells can allow current diffusion and conduction in a direction perpendicular to the fingers in the frontal metallization pattern.

  Turning now to the drawings for a more detailed understanding of the solar modules described herein, FIG. 1 shows that the ends of adjacent solar cells overlap and are electrically connected to form a supercell 100. FIG. 2 shows a cross-sectional view of a string of solar cells 10 connected in series, arranged in a sparkling state, in a state of being lit. Each solar cell 10 includes a semiconductor diode structure and a plurality of electrical contacts to the semiconductor diode structure. Thereby, the electric current produced | generated in the solar cell 10 when the solar cell 10 is irradiated with light can be provided to an external load.

  In the example described herein, each solar cell 10 is a rectangular having a metal coating pattern on the front (sun side) and back (shadow side) surfaces that provide electrical contact to the opposing sides of the np junction. In the crystalline silicon solar cell, the front metal coating pattern is arranged on the n-type conductive semiconductor layer, and the back metal coating pattern is arranged on the p-type conductive semiconductor layer. However, other material systems, diode structures, physical dimensions, or electrical contact arrangements can be used where appropriate. For example, the front (sun side) surface metallization pattern may be disposed on a p-type conductive semiconductor layer, and the back (shadow side) surface metallization pattern may be disposed on an n-type conductive semiconductor layer.

  Referring again to FIG. 1, in the supercell 100, adjacent solar cells 10 electrically connect the front metallization pattern of one solar cell to the backside metallization pattern of the adjacent solar cell in the region where they overlap. Directly conductively bonded to each other with an electrically conductive bonding agent. Suitable electrically conductive bonding agents can include, for example, electrically conductive adhesives, electrically conductive adhesive films and adhesive tapes, and conventional solders.

  Referring back to FIGS. 2A-2R, FIGS. 2A-2R illustrate an exemplary rectangular solar module 200 that includes six rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to the length of the long side of the solar module. . These supercells are arranged as six parallel rows with the long sides oriented parallel to the long sides of the module. A similarly configured solar module may include more or fewer rows of supercells of such side length than shown in this example. In another variation, each of the supercells has a length approximately equal to the length of the short side of the rectangular solar module, with the long sides oriented parallel to the short side of the module in parallel rows. Can be placed. In yet other arrangements, for example, each row may include two or more supercells that can be electrically interconnected in series. The module may have a short side that is about 1 meter in length and a long side that is about 1.5 to about 2.0 meters in length, for example. Any other suitable shape (eg, square) and dimensions may be used for the solar module. Each supercell in this example includes 72 rectangular solar cells each having a width approximately equal to 1/6 the width of a 156 millimeter (mm) square or pseudo-square wafer and a length of about 156 mm. Any other suitable number of rectangular solar cells of any other suitable dimensions can also be used.

  FIG. 76 shows an exemplary front metallization pattern on the rectangular solar cell 10 that facilitates stencil printing as described above. The front metal coating pattern can be formed from, for example, a silver paste. In the example of FIG. 76, the front metal coating pattern includes a plurality of fingers 6015 extending in parallel with each other, in parallel with the short side of the solar cell, and perpendicular to the long side of the solar cell. The front metallization pattern also includes rows of optional contact pads 6020 that extend parallel and adjacent to the long edge of the solar cell with each contact pad 6020 positioned at the end of the finger 6015. When present, each contact pad 6020 is electrically conductive adhesive (ECA), solder, or other used to conductively bond the front surface of the illustrated solar cell to the overlapping portion of the back surface of an adjacent solar cell. Forming areas for individual beads of the electrically conductive bonding agent. The pad can be, for example, circular, square, or rectangular, but any suitable pad shape can be used. As an alternative to using individual beads of electrically conductive bonding agent, a solid or dashed ECA, solder, conductive tape, or other electrically conductive bond placed along the long edge of the solar cell The agent may interconnect some or all of the fingers and may join the solar cell to adjacent and overlapping solar cells. Such dashed or solid electrical conductive bonding agents can be used in combination with or without a conductive pad at the end of a finger.

  The solar cell 10 has, for example, a length of about 156 mm and a width of about 26 mm, and thus the aspect ratio (short side length / long side length) can be about 1: 6. Six such solar cells can be prepared on a standard 156 mm × 156 mm silicon wafer and then separated (diced) to provide a plurality of solar cells as shown. In other variations, eight solar cells 10 having dimensions of about 19.5 mm × 156 mm, and thus an aspect ratio of about 1: 8, can be prepared from a standard silicon wafer. More generally, the solar cell 10 can have an aspect ratio of, for example, about 1: 2 to about 1:20, and can be prepared from a standard size wafer, or from any other suitable size wafer.

  Referring back to FIG. 76, the front metallization pattern can include, for example, about 60 to about 120 fingers, for example about 90 fingers, per battery 156 mm wide. Finger 6015 may have a width of, for example, about 10 to about 90 microns, such as about 30 microns. The finger 6015 can have a height in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell, for example, from about 10 to about 50 microns. The finger height is, for example, about 10 microns or higher, about 20 microns or higher, about 30 microns or higher, about 40 microns or higher, or about 50 microns or higher. obtain. The diameter (circle) or side length (square or rectangular) of the pad 6020 can be, for example, from about 0.1 mm to about 1 mm, such as about 0.5 mm.

  The backside metallization pattern of the rectangular solar cell 10 may be, for example, a plurality of discontinuous contact pad rows, a plurality of interconnected contact pad rows, or a continuous extending parallel to and adjacent to the long edge of the solar cell. A typical bus bar may be included. However, such contact pads or bus bars are not essential. If the front metallization pattern includes contact pads 6020 disposed along one edge of the long side of the solar cell, a plurality of contact pad rows or bus bars (if present) in the back metallization pattern are: It arrange | positions along the edge of the other long side of a solar cell. The backside metallization pattern may further include a metal back contact that covers substantially all of the remaining backside of the solar cell. The exemplary back metallization pattern of FIG. 77A includes a plurality of discontinuous contact pad 6025 rows in combination with a metal back contact 6030 as just described, and the exemplary back metallization pattern of FIG. It includes a continuous bus bar 35 in combination with a metal back contact 6030 as just described.

  Within the sparkling supercell, the front metal coating pattern of the solar cell is conductively joined to the overlapping portion of the back metal coating pattern of the adjacent solar cell. For example, if the solar cell includes a front metallized contact pad 6020, each contact pad 6020 is aligned and bonded to a corresponding back metallized contact pad 6025 (if present) or a back metallized bus bar 35 (present). Case) and can be joined to the metal post-contact 6030 (if present) on the adjacent solar cell. This is, for example, a discontinuity in the electrically conductive bonding agent disposed on each contact pad 6020 that extends parallel to the edges of the solar cell and optionally electrically interconnects two or more of the contact pads 6020. This can be accomplished by a simple part (eg, a bead) or by a dashed or solid line electrically conductive bonding agent.

  If the solar cell does not have a front metallized contact pad 6020, for example, each front metallized pattern finger 6015 can be aligned and bonded with a corresponding back metallized contact pad 6025 (if present) or It can be joined to the metallized bus bar 35 (if present) or it can be joined to the metal back contact 6030 (if present) on the adjacent solar cell. This is the case, for example, of the electrically conductive bonding agent disposed on the overlapping end of each finger 6015 that extends parallel to the edges of the solar cell and optionally electrically interconnects two or more of the fingers 6015. It can be achieved by a discontinuous part (eg a bead) or by a dashed or solid electrical conductive adhesive.

  As described above, a portion of the overlapping backside metallization of adjacent solar cells, such as backside bus bar 35 and / or back metal contact 6030, if present, is in a direction perpendicular to the fingers in the front side metallization pattern. Current diffusion and conduction. In a variation that utilizes a dashed or solid electrical conductive adhesive as described above, the electrical conductive adhesive can diffuse and conduct current in a direction perpendicular to the fingers in the front metallization pattern. It can be. Overlapping back metallization and / or electrically conductive bonding agent can carry current, for example, bypassing broken fingers in the front metallization pattern, or breaking of other fingers.

  If present, the back metallized contact pads 6025 and bus bar 35 may be formed from a silver paste that may be applied, for example, by stencil printing, screen printing, or any other suitable method. The metal back contact portion 6030 can be formed of aluminum, for example.

  Any other suitable backside metallization pattern and material can also be used.

  FIG. 78 shows an exemplary front metallization pattern for a square solar cell 6300 that can be diced to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells, each having the front metallization pattern shown in FIG.

  FIG. 79 shows an exemplary backside metallization pattern of a square solar cell 6300 that can be diced to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells, each having the backside metallization pattern shown in FIG. 77A.

  The front metallization pattern described herein may allow stencil printing of the front metallization on a standard three printer solar cell production line. For example, the manufacturing process uses a first printer to stencil or screen print a silver paste on the back of a square solar cell to form a back contact pad or back silver bus bar, to dry the back silver paste, Use a second printer to stencil or screen print aluminum contacts on the back of the solar cell, dry the aluminum contacts, and use a third printer to create a single stencil in a single stencil process. And stencil printing a silver paste on the front surface of the solar cell to form a complete front metallization pattern, drying the silver paste, and firing the solar cell. These printing steps and related steps may occur in any other order, as appropriate, or may be omitted.

  Printing the front metallization pattern with a stencil allows for the production of narrower fingers than is possible with screen printing, which improves solar cell efficiency and uses silver, and therefore the production cost. Can be reduced. By stenciling a front metallization pattern with a single stencil in a single stencil printing process, to overlap printing to define features having a uniform height, for example, extending in different directions In addition, it is possible to produce a front metallization pattern without exhibiting stitching that may occur when stencil printing is used in combination with multiple stencils or screen printing.

  After the front and back metallization patterns are formed on the square solar cells, each square solar cell can be separated into two or more rectangular solar cells. This can be achieved, for example, by laser scribing followed by cleavage or by any other suitable method. The rectangular solar cells can then be placed in overlapping rakes and conductively joined together to form a supercell, as described above. This specification discloses, for example, a method for manufacturing a solar cell that does not have a cleave edge that promotes carrier recombination and that reduces carrier recombination loss at the edge of the solar cell. The solar cell can be, for example, a silicon solar cell, and more specifically can be a HIT silicon solar cell. The present specification also discloses a sparkling (overlapping) supercell arrangement of such solar cells. Individual solar cells in such a supercell may have a narrow rectangular geometry (eg, strip-like shape) with the long sides of adjacent solar cells arranged to overlap.

  A major challenge for cost-effective implementation of high efficiency solar cells such as HIT solar cells is the large volume of carrying large currents from one such high efficiency solar cell to the adjacent series connected high efficiency solar cells. This is a recognized need for metals. Dicing such high efficiency solar cells into a plurality of narrow rectangular solar cell strips, and then overlapping the resulting solar cells with conductive junctions between overlapping portions of adjacent solar cells ( Arranging in a (sparkling) pattern to form a series connected solar string in a supercell provides the opportunity to reduce module costs through process simplification. This is because the process step of attaching the tabs conventionally required to interconnect adjacent solar cells with a metallic ribbon can be eliminated. This sparkling technique reduces the current through the solar cells (because individual solar cell strips can have a smaller area than the traditional active area) and between adjacent solar cells. Reducing the current path length can also increase module efficiency, both of which help reduce resistance losses. Also, by reducing the current, there is substantially no loss of performance, but a cheaper but more resistive conductor (eg, copper), a more expensive but less resistive conductor (eg, silver) It can be used instead of. In addition, this sparkling technique can reduce the non-functional module area by removing the interconnect ribbon and associated contacts from the front of the solar cell.

  Conventional size solar cells can have, for example, a substantially square front and back surface with dimensions of about 156 millimeters (mm) × about 156 mm. In the sparkling scheme just described, such solar cells are diced into two or more (eg, 2 to 20) long 156 mm long solar cell strips. The potential difficulty with this sparkling technique is that by dicing a conventional size solar cell into a thin strip, the cell edge length per active area of the solar cell compared to a conventional size solar cell. Is that this can degrade performance due to carrier recombination at the edges.

  For example, FIG. 80 shows the front and back to be several solar cell strips (7100a, 7100b, 7100c, and 7100d), each having a front and back surface that are narrow rectangles of dimensions about 156 mm × about 40 mm. 6 schematically illustrates dicing a HIT solar cell 7100 having a back surface dimension of about 156 mm × about 156 mm. (The long 156 mm side of the solar cell strip extends into the page.) In the illustrated example, the HIT cell 7100 can be about 180 microns in thickness, for example, with dimensions of about 156 mm × about It includes an n-type single crystal substrate 5105 that may have 156 mm front and back square faces. Intrinsic amorphous Si: H (a-Si: H) layer with a thickness of about 5 nanometers (nm) and n + doped a-Si: H layer with a thickness of about 5 nm (both layers are referenced Is shown on the front surface of the crystalline silicon substrate 7105. A film 5120 of about 65 nm thick transparent conductive oxide (TCO) is disposed on the a-Si: H layer 7110. Conductive metal grid lines 7130 disposed on the TCO layer 7120 provide electrical contact to the front surface of the solar cell. A layer of intrinsic a-Si: H thickness of about 5 nm and a layer of p + doped a-Si: H thickness of about 5 nm (both layers are indicated by reference numeral 7115) are included in the crystalline silicon substrate 7105. It is arranged on the back. A film 7125 having a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thickness of about 65 nm is disposed on the a-Si: H layer 7115, and the conductive metal lattice line 7135 disposed on the TCO layer 7125 is a solar cell. Bring electrical contact to the back of the. (The dimensions and materials referred to above are intended to be illustrative rather than limiting and may be varied as appropriate.)

  Still referring to FIG. 80, when the HIT solar cell 7100 is cleaved by conventional methods to form strip solar cells 7100a, 7100b, 7100c and 7100d, the newly formed cleavage edge 7140 is not passivated. These non-passivated edges contain high density dangling chemical bonds that promote carrier recombination and reduce solar cell performance. In particular, the cleaved surface 7145 exposing the np junction and the cleaved surface exposing the heavily doped front field (in layer 7110) are not passivated and can substantially facilitate carrier recombination. Further, if a conventional laser cutting or laser scribing process is used for dicing the solar cell 7100, thermal damage such as amorphous silicon recrystallization 7150 may occur on the newly formed edge. As a result of the non-passivated edges and thermal damage, the new edges formed on the cleaved solar cells 7100a, 7100b, 7100c and 7100d are the short circuit current of the solar cells when conventional manufacturing processes are used. It can be expected to reduce the open circuit voltage, and the pseudo fill factor. This overlaps, leading to a substantial decrease in the performance of the solar cell.

  The formation of edges that promote recombination while dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell into a narrower solar cell strip can be avoided by the method illustrated in FIGS. 81A-81J. The method uses the front and back isolation trenches of a conventional size solar cell 7100, from a cleaved edge that may otherwise serve as a recombination site for minority carriers, and a pn junction and heavily doped front surface. Electrically isolate the field. The edge of the trench is not defined by conventional cleavage, but instead by chemical etching or laser patterning, followed by the deposition of a passivating layer such as a TCO that passivates both the front and back trenches. Compared to the heavily doped region, the substrate doping is sufficiently low and the probability that electrons at the junction will reach the non-passivated cutting edge of the substrate is low. In addition, a groove-less wafer dicing technique, Thermal Laser Separation (TLS), can be used to cut the wafer, thereby avoiding potential thermal damage.

  In the example illustrated in FIGS. 81A-81J, the starting material is a square of about 156 mm, the bulk resistance can be, for example, about 1 to about 3 ohm centimeters, and the thickness can be, for example, about 180 microns. N-type single crystal silicon as-cut wafer. (Wafer 7105 forms the substrate of the solar cell.)

  Referring to FIG. 81A, as-cut cut wafer 7105 is texture etched, acid cleaned, rinsed and dried as conventional.

  Next, in FIG. 81B, an intrinsic a-Si: H layer having a thickness of about 5 nm and a doped n + a-Si: H layer having a thickness of about 5 nm (both layers are indicated by reference numeral 7110). Is deposited on the front surface of the wafer 7105 by, for example, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), for example, at a temperature of about 150 ° C. to about 200 ° C.

  Next, in FIG. 81C, an intrinsic a-Si: H layer with a thickness of about 5 nm and a doped p + a-Si: H layer with a thickness of about 5 nm (both layers are indicated by reference numeral 7115). Is deposited on the back surface of the wafer 7105, for example, by PECVD at a temperature of about 150 ° C. to about 200 ° C., for example.

  Next, in FIG. 81D, the front a-Si: H layer 7110 is patterned to form an isolation trench 7112. Isolation trench 7112 typically passes through layer 7110 to reach wafer 7105, and can be, for example, about 100 microns to about 1000 microns in width, for example about 200 microns. Typically, the trench has the narrowest width that can be used depending on the accuracy of the patterning technique and the subsequent cleavage technique applied. The patterning of the trench 7112 can be achieved using, for example, laser patterning, or chemical etching (eg, inkjet wet patterning).

  Next, in FIG. 81E, the back a-Si: H layer 7115 is patterned to form isolation trenches 7117. Similar to isolation trench 7112, isolation trench 7117 typically passes through layer 7115 to reach wafer 7105 and can be, for example, about 100 microns to about 1000 microns, for example, about 200 microns. . The patterning of the trench 7117 can be achieved using, for example, laser patterning or chemical etching (eg, inkjet wet patterning). Each trench 7117 is aligned with a corresponding trench 7112 on the front of the structure.

  Next, in FIG. 81F, a TCO layer 7120 with a thickness of about 65 nm is deposited on the patterned pre-a-Si: H layer 7110. This can be achieved, for example, by physical vapor deposition (PVD) or by ion plating. TCO layer 7120 fills trench 7112 in a-Si: H layer 7110 and coats the outer edge of layer 7110, thereby passivating the surface of layer 7110. The TCO layer 7120 also functions as an antireflection coating.

  Next, in FIG. 81G, a TCO layer 7125 having a thickness of about 65 nm is deposited on the patterned back a-Si: H layer 7115. This can be achieved, for example, by PVD or by ion plating. The TCO layer 7125 fills the trench 7115 in the a-Si: H layer 7117 and coats the outer edge of the layer 115, thereby passivating the surface of the layer 7115. The TCO layer 7125 also functions as an antireflection coating.

  Next, in FIG. 81H, a conductive (eg, metal) front grid line 7130 is screen printed onto the TCO layer 7120. The grid lines 7130 can be formed from, for example, a low-temperature silver paste.

  Next, in FIG. 81I, conductive (eg, metal) backside grid lines 7135 are screen printed onto the TCO layer 7125. The grid lines 7135 can be formed from, for example, a low-temperature silver paste.

  Next, after the deposition of grid lines 7130 and grid lines 7135, the solar cells are cured at a temperature of about 200 ° C., for example, for about 30 minutes.

  Next, in FIG. 81J, by dicing the solar cell at the center of the trench, the solar cells are separated into solar cell strips 7155a, 7155b, 7155c and 7155d. Dicing can be accomplished, for example, by cleaving the solar cell along the trench using conventional laser scribing and mechanical cleavage at the center of the trench. Alternatively, dicing is accomplished using a Thermal Laser Separation process (such as that developed by Jenoptik AG) that causes laser-induced heating at the center of the trench to cause mechanical stress that leads to cleavage of the solar cell along the trench. Can be done. The latter approach can avoid thermal damage to the edge of the solar cell.

  The resulting strip solar cells 7155a-7155d are different from the strip solar cells 7100a-7100d shown in FIG. In particular, the edges of a-Si: H layer 7110 and a-Si: H layer 7115 in solar cells 7140a-7140d are formed by etching or laser patterning rather than by mechanical cleavage. In addition, the edges of layers 7110 and 7115 in solar cells 7155a-7155d are passivated by the TCO layer. As a result, solar cells 7140a-7140d do not have the cleavage edges present in solar cells 7100a-7100d that facilitate carrier recombination.

  The method described in connection with FIGS. 81A-81J is intended to be illustrative rather than limiting. The steps described as being performed in a particular order may be performed in other orders or in parallel, as appropriate. Processes and material layers may be omitted, added, or replaced as appropriate. For example, if a copper plated metallization is used, an additional patterning or seed layer deposition step can be included in the process. Further, in some variations, only the front a-Si: H layer 7110 is patterned to form isolation trenches, and no isolation trench is formed in the back a-Si: H layer 7115. In another variation, only the back a-Si: H layer 7115 is patterned to form an isolation trench, and no isolation trench is formed in the front a-Si: H layer 7115. In these variations, as in the example of FIGS. 81A-81J, dicing occurs at the center of the trench.

  The formation of an edge that promotes recombination while dicing a conventional size HIT solar cell into a narrower solar cell strip is employed in the method described in connection with FIGS. 81A-81J. It can also be avoided by the method illustrated in FIGS. 82A-82J, which also uses isolation trenches.

  Referring to FIG. 82A, in this example, the starting material is again a square of about 156 mm, where the bulk resistance can be, for example, from about 1 to about 3 ohm centimeters, and the thickness can be, for example, about 180 microns. N-type single crystal silicon as-cut wafer 7105.

  Referring to FIG. 82B, a trench 7160 is formed on the front surface of the wafer 7105. These trenches can be, for example, about 80 microns to about 150 microns, such as about 90 microns, and can have a width of, for example, about 10 microns to about 100 microns. Isolation trench 7160 defines the geometry of the solar cell strip that will be formed from wafer 7105. As described below, the wafer 7105 will be cleaved along these trenches. These trenches 7160 can be formed, for example, by conventional laser wafer scribe.

  Next, in FIG. 82C, the wafer 7105 is texture etched, pickled, rinsed and dried as conventional. Etching typically removes damage originally present on the surface of as-cut wafer 7105 or caused during formation of trench 7160. Etching can also widen and deepen trench 7160.

  Next, in FIG. 82D, an intrinsic a-Si: H layer with a thickness of about 5 nm and a doped n + a-Si: H layer with a thickness of about 5 nm (both layers are indicated by reference numeral 7110). Is deposited on the front surface of the wafer 7105 by, for example, PECVD, for example at a temperature of about 150 ° C. to about 200 ° C.

  Next, in FIG. 82E, an intrinsic a-Si: H layer with a thickness of about 5 nm and a doped p + a-Si: H layer with a thickness of about 5 nm (both layers are indicated by reference numeral 7115). Is deposited on the back surface of the wafer 7105 by, for example, PECVD, for example at a temperature of about 150 ° C. to about 200 ° C.

  Next, in FIG. 82F, a TCO layer 7120 having a thickness of about 65 nm is deposited on the pre-a-Si: H layer 7110. This can be achieved, for example, by physical vapor deposition (PVD) or by ion plating. The TCO layer 7120 fills the trench 7160 and typically coats the walls and bottom of the trench 7160 and the outer edge of the layer 7110, thereby passivating the coated surface. The TCO layer 7120 also functions as an antireflection coating.

  Next, in FIG. 82G, a TCO layer 7125 having a thickness of about 65 nm is deposited on the back a-Si: H layer 7115. This can be achieved, for example, by PVD or by ion plating. TCO layer 7125 passivates the surface of layer 7115 (eg, including the outer edge) and also functions as an anti-reflective coating.

  Next, in FIG. 82H, a conductive (eg, metal) front grid line 7130 is screen printed onto the TCO layer 7120. The grid lines 7130 can be formed from, for example, a low-temperature silver paste.

  Next, in FIG. 82I, conductive (eg, metal) backside grid lines 7135 are screen printed onto the TCO layer 7125. The grid lines 7135 can be formed from, for example, a low-temperature silver paste.

  Next, after the deposition of grid lines 7130 and grid lines 7135, the solar cells are cured at a temperature of about 200 ° C., for example, for about 30 minutes.

  Next, in FIG. 82J, by dicing the solar cell at the center of the trench, the solar cells are separated into solar cell strips 7165a, 7165b, 7165c, and 7165d. Dicing can be accomplished, for example, by cleaving the solar cell along the trench using conventional mechanical cleavage at the center of the trench. Alternatively, dicing can be achieved using, for example, a Thermal Laser Separation process as described above.

  The resulting strip solar cells 7165a-7165d are different from the strip solar cells 7100a-7100d shown in FIG. In particular, the edges of the a-Si: H layer 7110 in the solar cells 7165a-7165d are formed by etching rather than by mechanical cleavage. In addition, the edges of layer 7110 in solar cells 7165a-7165d are passivated by the TCO layer. As a result, solar cells 7165a-7165d do not have the cleavage edges present in solar cells 7100a-7100d that facilitate carrier recombination.

  The method described in connection with FIGS. 82A-82J is intended to be illustrative rather than limiting. The steps described as being performed in a particular order may be performed in other orders or in parallel, as appropriate. Processes and material layers may be omitted, added, or replaced as appropriate. For example, if a copper plated metallization is used, an additional patterning or seed layer deposition step can be included in the process. Further, in some variations, the trench 7160 may be formed on the back surface of the wafer 7105 rather than on the front surface of the wafer 7105.

  The methods described above in connection with FIGS. 81A-81J and 86A-86J are applicable to both n-type and p-type HIT solar cells. The solar cell can be a front emitter or a back emitter. It may be preferable to apply a separation process on the non-emitter side. In addition, the use of isolation trenches and passivating layers as described above to reduce recombination on the cleaved wafer edge is applicable to other solar cell designs and solar cells using material systems other than silicon. is there.

  Referring again to FIG. 1, a string of a plurality of series connected solar cells 10 formed by the method described above advantageously forms a supercell 100 by overlapping and electrically connecting the ends of adjacent solar cells. In such a state, it can be arranged in a scaly manner. In supercell 100, adjacent solar cells 10 are connected to each other by an electrically conductive adhesive that electrically connects the front metallization pattern of one solar cell to the backside metallization pattern of the adjacent solar cell in the region where they overlap. Conductive joining. Suitable electrically conductive bonding agents can include, for example, electrically conductive adhesives, electrically conductive adhesive films and adhesive tapes, and conventional solders.

  Referring back to FIGS. 5A-5B, FIG. 5A shows an exemplary rectangular solar module 200 that includes 20 rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to the length of the short half of the solar module. . The supercells were placed in pairs and connected end to end, with 10 supercell rows oriented with the long sides of the supercells parallel to the short sides of the solar module. It is formed in a state. In other variations, each supercell row may include three or more supercells. In another variation, the supercells are oriented in rows, with the rows and the long sides of the supercell oriented parallel to the long sides of the rectangular solar module, or parallel to the sides of the square solar module. In this state, the ends can be connected to each other. Further, the solar module may include more or fewer supercells and more or fewer supercell rows than shown in this example.

  In a variation where the supercells 100 in each row are arranged such that at least one of the supercells in each row has a front end contact on the edge of the supercell adjacent to the other supercells in that row, FIG. An optional gap 210 shown in FIG. 5 may be present to facilitate electrical contact with the front end contact of the supercell along the centerline of the solar module. In variations where each supercell row includes three or more supercells, there may be additional optional gaps between supercells, as well as front end contacts located away from the sides of the solar module. Electrical contact with can be facilitated.

  FIG. 5B shows another exemplary rectangular solar module 300 that includes ten rectangular supercells 100 each having a length approximately equal to the length of the short side of the solar module. These supercells are arranged with their long sides oriented parallel to the short sides of the module. In other variations, the supercell may have a length that is approximately equal to the length of the long sides of the rectangular solar module, and those long sides may be oriented parallel to the long sides of the solar module. The supercell also has a length approximately equal to the length of the sides of the square solar module, and those long sides can be oriented parallel to the sides of the solar module. Further, the solar module may include more or fewer such side length supercells than shown in this example.

  FIG. 5B also shows how the solar module 200 looks when there are no gaps between adjacent supercells in multiple supercell rows in the solar module 200 of FIG. 5A. Any other suitable arrangement of the supercell 100 in the solar module can also be used.

  The following listed paragraphs provide additional non-limiting aspects of the present disclosure.

1. N (≧ 25) series connected strings of rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells having an average breakdown voltage higher than about 10 volts, the rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells being one or more supercells, The plurality of solar cells that are grouped and arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of the adjacent solar cells overlap each other and are electrically conductively bonded to each other by an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive Comprising a series or string of rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells, including two or more of the cells,
A solar module in which no single solar cell in the above string of solar cells or a group of less than N solar cells are individually electrically connected in parallel with a bypass diode.

  2. Item 2. The solar module according to Item 1, wherein N is greater than or equal to 30.

  3. Item 2. The solar module according to Item 1, wherein N is greater than or equal to 50.

  4). Item 2. The solar module according to Item 1, wherein N is greater than or equal to 100.

  5. The adhesive has a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of less than or equal to about 0.1 mm and a thermal conductivity in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of about 1.5 w / Item 2. The solar module according to Item 1, which forms a plurality of junctions between adjacent solar cells that are higher than or equal to m / k.

  6). Item 2. The solar module according to Item 1, wherein the N solar cells are grouped into a single supercell.

  7). Item 2. The solar module according to Item 1, wherein the plurality of supercells are enclosed in a polymer.

  7A. Item 8. The solar module according to Item 7, wherein the polymer includes a thermoplastic olefin polymer.

  7B. Item 8. The solar module according to Item 7, wherein the polymer is sandwiched between a glass front sheet and a rear sheet.

  7C. The solar module according to Item 7B, wherein the rear sheet includes glass.

  8). Item 2. The solar module according to Item 1, wherein the plurality of solar cells are silicon solar cells.

9. A solar module,
A supercell extending substantially over the entire length or width of the solar module parallel to the edge of the solar module, wherein the supercell is formed by overlapping the long sides of adjacent solar cells, and an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive A supercell having a series connection string of N or rectangular solar cells having an average breakdown voltage higher than about 10 volts, arranged side by side in conductive connection with each other,
A solar module wherein no single solar cell in the supercell or a group of less than N solar cells is individually electrically connected in parallel with a bypass diode.

  10. Item 10. The solar module according to Item 9, wherein N> 24.

  11 Item 10. The solar module of Item 9, wherein the length of the supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.

  12 Item 10. The solar module according to Item 9, wherein the plurality of supercells are enclosed in a thermoplastic olefin polymer sandwiched between a glass front sheet and a rear sheet.

13. A supercell,
With multiple silicon solar cells,
Each silicon solar cell
A rectangular or substantially rectangular front and rear surface having a shape defined by opposite first and second parallel long sides and two opposite short sides, the front surface At least a portion of which is exposed to solar radiation during operation of the solar cell string; and
An electrically conductive front metallization pattern including at least one front contact pad disposed on the front surface and positioned adjacent to the first long side;
An electrically conductive backside metallization pattern including at least one backside contact pad disposed on the backside and positioned adjacent to the second long side;
In the plurality of silicon solar cells, the first long side and the second long side of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap each other, and the front and rear contact pads on the adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and conduct. Conductive bonding with each other by the adhesive adhesive, the adjacent silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state of being electrically connected in series,
The front metallization pattern of each silicon solar cell substantially encapsulates the conductive adhesive bond to at least one front contact pad prior to curing of the conductive adhesive bond during manufacture of the supercell. A supercell, including a barrier configured to:

  14 For each pair of adjacent and overlapping silicon solar cells, a portion of the other silicon solar cell of the silicon solar cells overlaps the barrier on the front side of one of the silicon solar cells, and the barrier is Hidden in part, thereby substantially encapsulating the conductive adhesive in the overlapping area of the front surface of the silicon solar cell prior to curing of the conductive adhesive in the manufacture of the supercell Item 14. The supercell according to item 13.

  15. The barrier includes a continuous conductive line extending substantially over the entire length of the first long side in parallel with the first long side, and the at least one front contact pad includes the continuous conductive line and the continuous conductive line. Item 14. The supercell according to item 13, which is located between the first long side of the solar cell.

  16. The front metallization pattern includes the fingers electrically connected to the at least one front contact pad and extending in a direction perpendicular to the first long side, and the continuous conductive wire electrically interconnects the plurality of fingers. Item 16. The supercell of Item 15, wherein the supercell provides a plurality of conductive paths from each finger to at least one front contact pad.

  17. The front metallization pattern includes a plurality of discontinuous contact pads disposed in a row adjacent to and parallel to the first long side, and the barrier is disposed on the supermarket for each discontinuous contact pad. Including a plurality of features that form a plurality of separate barriers that substantially enclose the conductive adhesive bond to the discontinuous contact pads prior to curing of the conductive adhesive bond during manufacture of a cell; Item 14. The supercell according to item 13.

  18. Item 18. The supercell of item 17, wherein the plurality of discrete barriers abut and are higher than their corresponding discontinuous contact pads.

19. A supercell,
With multiple silicon solar cells,
Each silicon solar cell
A rectangular or substantially rectangular front and rear surface having a shape defined by opposite first and second parallel long sides and two opposite short sides, the front surface At least a portion of which is exposed to solar radiation during operation of the solar cell string; and
An electrically conductive front metallization pattern including at least one front contact pad disposed on the front surface and positioned adjacent to the first long side;
An electrically conductive backside metallization pattern including at least one backside contact pad disposed on the backside and positioned adjacent to the second long side;
In the plurality of silicon solar cells, the first long side and the second long side of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap each other, and the front and rear contact pads on the adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and conduct. Conductive bonding with each other by the adhesive adhesive, the adjacent silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state of being electrically connected in series,
The backside metallization pattern of each silicon solar cell substantially includes the conductive adhesive bond to the at least one back contact pad prior to curing of the conductive adhesive bond during manufacture of the supercell. A supercell that includes a barrier configured to contain.

  20. The back metallization pattern includes one or more discontinuous contact pads disposed in a row adjacent to and parallel to the second long side, the barrier for each discontinuous contact pad, A plurality of features that form a plurality of separate barriers that substantially contain the conductive adhesive adhesive in the discontinuous contact pads prior to curing of the conductive adhesive adhesive during manufacture of the supercell. Item 20. The supercell according to Item 19, comprising.

  21. Item 21. The supercell of item 20, wherein the plurality of discrete barriers abut and are higher than their corresponding discontinuous contact pads.

22. A method of making a solar cell string,
Dicing the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each pseudo-square silicon wafer among the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers, and substantially the same along the major axis Forming a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each having a length;
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of adjacent solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent solar cells are electrically connected in series;
The plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells include at least one rectangular solar cell including two chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners of the pseudo-square wafer or a part of the plurality of corners, and a chamfered corner. One or more rectangular silicon solar cells each not having,
The interval between a plurality of parallel lines performed along the dicing of the pseudo-square wafer has a width perpendicular to the major axis of the rectangular silicon solar cell including the chamfered corner and does not have the chamfered corner. The width of the one or more rectangular silicon solar cells is selected to compensate for the chamfered corners by making it larger than the width perpendicular to the major axis, and thus, among the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells in the solar cell string A method wherein each has a front surface that has substantially the same area exposed to light in operation of the solar cell string.

23. A solar cell string,
A plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state in which the ends of adjacent solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent solar cells are electrically connected in series;
At least one of the plurality of silicon solar cells has chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners or a part of the plurality of corners of the dicing-source pseudo-square silicon wafer, At least one of them does not have a chamfered corner, and each of the plurality of silicon solar cells has a front surface that has substantially the same area exposed to light during operation of the solar cell string. A solar cell string.

24.2 a method of making a solar cell string or more,
The one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers are diced along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each pseudo-square silicon wafer among the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers to obtain the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers. A first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells including chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners or a part of the plurality of corners, and a first extending over the entire width of the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers Forming a second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each having a length and having no chamfered corners;
The chamfered corners are removed from each of the first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells, and each has a second length shorter than the first length and does not have a chamfered corner. 3 forming a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells,
The second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively connected to each other, and the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Forming a solar cell string having a width equal to the first length;
The third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively connected to each other, and the third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. And forming a solar cell string having a width equal to the second length.

25.2 or more methods of making solar cell strings,
The one or more pseudo square silicon wafers are diced along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each pseudo square silicon wafer among the one or more pseudo square silicon wafers, and the one or more pseudo square silicon wafers are obtained. A first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells including chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners, or a portion of the plurality of corners; and a second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having no chamfered corners; Forming a step;
The first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively joined to each other, and the first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Process,
The second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively joined to each other, and the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. A method comprising the steps of:

26. A method of making a solar module,
A chamfered corner corresponding to a plurality of corners of the plurality of pseudo-square silicon wafers by dicing the wafer along a plurality of lines parallel to a long edge of each pseudo-square silicon wafer among the plurality of pseudo-square silicon wafers Forming a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells including a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having no chamfered corners from the plurality of pseudo-square silicon wafers;
Arranging at least some of the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having no chamfered corners, the long sides of the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping each other, and conductively bonding to each other, the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells Forming a first plurality of supercells, each including only rectangular silicon solar cells that are arranged side by side in electrical connection in series and have no chamfered corners;
Arranging at least some of the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells including the chamfered corners, the long sides of the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping each other, and conducting bonding with each other, the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells in series Forming a second plurality of supercells each including only rectangular silicon solar cells having chamfered corners arranged side by side in an electrically connected state;
A plurality of parallel supercell rows of substantially equal length, each row including only a plurality of supercells from the first plurality of supercells or only a plurality of supercells from the second plurality of supercells. And arranging the plurality of supercells to form a front surface of the solar module.

  27. Two of the plurality of supercell rows adjacent to parallel opposing edges of the solar module include only a plurality of supercells from the second plurality of supercells, and all other plurality of supercells. Item 27. The solar module of Item 26, wherein the cell row includes only supercells from the first plurality of supercells.

  28. Item 28. The solar module according to Item 27, wherein the solar module includes a total of six supercell rows.

29. A plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in the first direction with the ends of adjacent silicon solar cells overlapped and conductively joined to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series,
With elongated flexible electrical interconnects,
The long axis of the elongated flexible electrical interconnect is oriented parallel to a second direction perpendicular to the first direction;
The elongated flexible electrical interconnect is
Conductive joining to the front or rear surface of the silicon solar cell at the end of the plurality of silicon solar cells at three or more discontinuous positions arranged along the second direction,
Extending over at least the full width of the end solar cell in the second direction,
A conductor thickness measured in a direction perpendicular to the front or back surface of the edge silicon solar cell is less than or equal to about 100 microns;
Providing a resistance lower than or equal to about 0.012 ohms for current flow in the second direction;
Configured to provide flexibility to accommodate differential expansion in the second direction between the end silicon solar cells and the interconnect in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 85 ° C. A super cell.

  30. 30. The supercell of clause 29, wherein the flexible electrical interconnect has a conductor thickness measured in a direction perpendicular to the front and back surfaces of the edge silicon solar cell of less than or equal to about 30 microns. .

  31. The flexible electrical interconnect extends in the second direction beyond the supercell and at least provides electricity to a second supercell positioned parallel to and adjacent to the supercell within the solar module. Item 30. The supercell of Item 29, which provides interconnection.

  32. The flexible electrical interconnect extends in the first direction beyond the supercell to provide electrical interconnect to a second supercell positioned parallel and side-by-side with the supercell in the solar module. Item 30. The supercell according to Item 29.

33. A solar module,
Arranged in two or more parallel rows extending across the width of the solar module to form the front surface of the solar module, the ends of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and conductively join to each other A plurality of supercells each including a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state where the silicon solar cells that are in contact with each other are electrically connected in series,
At least the edge of the first supercell adjacent to the edge of the solar module in the first row is
Bonding to the front surface of the first supercell with an electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent at a plurality of discontinuous positions,
Extending parallel to the edge of the solar module,
At least part of which is folded around the edge of the first supercell and hidden from view from the front of the solar module,
Via flexible electrical interconnects,
Electrically connected to an end of a second supercell adjacent to the same edge of the solar module in a second row;
Solar module.

  34. Item 34. The solar module of paragraph 33, wherein a surface of the flexible electrical interconnect on the front surface of the solar module is covered or colored to reduce visible contrast to the supercell.

35. The two or more parallel rows of supercells are placed on a white backsheet to form the front surface of the solar module that will be illuminated by solar radiation during operation of the solar module;
The white backsheet includes a plurality of parallel dark stripes having positions and widths corresponding to the positions and widths of a plurality of gaps between two or more parallel rows of the supercell;
Item 34. The solar module of Item 33, wherein a plurality of white portions of the plurality of rear sheets are not visible through the plurality of gaps between two or more parallel rows of the supercell.

36. A method of making a solar cell string,
Laser scribing one or more scribe lines on each of the one or more silicon solar cells to define a plurality of rectangular regions on the one or more silicon solar cells;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive bond to the scribed one or more silicon solar cells at one or more positions adjacent to the long side of each rectangular region;
A plurality of rectangles each including a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent arranged on the front surface adjacent to the long side by separating the one or more silicon solar cells along the one or more scribe lines. Providing a silicon solar cell;
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of the adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells are partially overlapped with a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent interposed therebetween, and
Curing the electrically conductive bonding agent, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells to each other and electrically connecting them in series.

37. A method of making a solar cell string,
Of the one or more silicon solar cells each having a top surface and an opposed bottom surface, laser scribing one or more scribe lines on each of the silicon solar cells, the one or more silicon solar cells Defining a plurality of rectangular regions on the battery;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to a portion of the top surface of the one or more silicon solar cells;
A vacuum is drawn between the bottom surface and the curved support surface of the one or more silicon solar cells to bend the one or more silicon solar cells toward the curved support surface, thereby providing the one or more silicon solar cells. Cleaving the one or more silicon solar cells along the scribe line to provide a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each including a part of the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive disposed on the front surface adjacent to the long side And a process of
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of the adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells are partially overlapped with a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent interposed therebetween, and
Curing the electrically conductive bonding agent, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells to each other and electrically connecting them in series.

  38. Applying the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent to the one or more silicon solar cells and then laser-scribing the one or more scribe lines on each silicon solar cell of the one or more silicon solar cells; 38. The method according to Item 37.

  39. Laser scribing the one or more scribe lines on each silicon solar cell among the one or more silicon solar cells, and then applying the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to the one or more silicon solar cells 38. The method according to Item 37.

40. A solar module,
Comprising a plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows to form the front face of the solar module, each supercell overlapping the ends of adjacent silicon solar cells and conductively joining to each other, Having a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state where the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series;
Each supercell has a front end contact at one end of the supercell and a back end contact of reverse polarity at the opposite end of the supercell;
The first supercell row includes a first supercell having a front end contact portion disposed adjacent to and parallel to the first edge of the solar module;
The solar module is elongated in parallel with the first edge of the solar module, conductively joined to the front end contact portion of the first supercell, and adjacent to the first edge of the solar module. A solar module comprising a first flexible electrical interconnect that occupies only a narrow portion of the front surface of the solar module having a width measured in a direction perpendicular to the first edge of about 1 centimeter or less.

  41. Item 40. A portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect portion extends closest to the first edge of the solar module and around the end of the first supercell behind the first supercell. Solar module as described in

  42. Item 40. The first flexible interconnect includes a thin ribbon portion that is conductively joined to the front end contact portion of the first supercell and a thicker portion that extends parallel to the first edge of the solar module. Solar module as described in

  43. The first flexible interconnect includes a thin ribbon portion that is conductively joined to the front end contact portion of the first supercell and a coiled ribbon portion that extends parallel to the first edge of the solar module. Item 41. The solar module according to Item 40.

  44. The second supercell row includes a second supercell having a front end contact portion disposed adjacent to and parallel to the first edge of the solar module, the front end contact of the first supercell. Item 41. The solar module according to Item 40, wherein the unit is electrically connected to the front end contact portion of the second supercell via the first flexible electrical interconnection unit.

45. The rear end contact portion of the first supercell is adjacent to and parallel to the second edge of the solar module opposite to the first edge of the solar module;
A second flexible electrical interconnect that extends elongated parallel to the second edge of the solar module, is conductively joined to the rear end contact of the first supercell, and lies entirely behind the supercell. 40. The solar module according to 40.

46. The second supercell row has a front end contact portion adjacent to and parallel to the first edge of the solar module, and a rear end contact portion adjacent to the second edge of the solar module. And including a second supercell arranged in a parallel position,
The front end contact of the first supercell is electrically connected to the front end contact of the second supercell via the first flexible electrical interconnect;
46. The solar module according to Item 45, wherein the rear end contact portion of the first supercell is electrically connected to the rear end contact portion of the second supercell via the second flexible electrical interconnect.

47. A rear end contact portion is disposed in the first supercell row in series with the first supercell in a state adjacent to the second edge of the solar module opposite to the first edge of the solar module. 2 supercells,
A second flexible electrical interconnect that extends elongated parallel to the second edge of the solar module, is conductively joined to the back end contact portion of the first supercell, and lies entirely behind the supercell. Item 41. The solar module according to Item 40.

48. The second supercell row has a front end contact portion of the third supercell adjacent to the first edge of the solar module and a rear end contact portion of the fourth supercell adjacent to the second edge of the solar module. Including the third supercell and the fourth supercell arranged in series in a state,
The front end contact portion of the first supercell is electrically connected to the front end contact portion of the third supercell via the first flexible electrical interconnect, and the rear end contact of the second supercell. Item 48. The solar module according to Item 47, wherein the unit is electrically connected to the rear end contact portion of the fourth supercell via the second flexible electrical interconnect.

49. The plurality of supercells includes a white back surface including a plurality of parallel dark stripes having positions and widths corresponding to the positions and widths of the gaps between the two or more parallel rows of the supercell. Placed on the sheet,
41. The solar module of paragraph 40, wherein a plurality of white portions of the plurality of back sheets are not visible through the plurality of gaps between two or more parallel rows of the supercell.

  50. 41. The solar of clause 40, wherein all portions of the first flexible electrical interconnect located on the front surface of the solar module are covered or colored to reduce visible contrast to the supercell. module.

51. Each silicon solar cell
A rectangular or substantially rectangular front and rear surface having a shape defined by opposite first and second parallel long sides and two opposite short sides, the front surface At least a portion of which is exposed to solar radiation during operation of the solar cell string; and
A plurality of fingers disposed on the front surface and extending perpendicularly to the first long side and the second long side; and a plurality of discontinuous front contact pads positioned in a row adjacent to the first long side. An electrically conductive front metallization pattern, wherein each front contact pad electrically connects to at least one of the plurality of fingers;
An electrically conductive backside metallization pattern including a plurality of discontinuous backside contact pads disposed on the backside and positioned in a row adjacent to the second long side;
Within each supercell, the plurality of silicon solar cells are in a state where the first long side and the second long side of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap with each other, and the corresponding non-matching on the adjacent silicon solar cells. A continuous front contact pad and a discontinuous rear contact pad are aligned with each other, overlapped, conductively bonded with a conductive adhesive bonding agent, and arranged side by side in the state where the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Item 42. The solar module according to Item 40.

  52. The front metallization pattern of each silicon solar cell includes a plurality of thin conductors that electrically interconnect adjacent discontinuous front contact pads, each thin conductor being perpendicular to the long sides of the plurality of solar cells. Item 52. The solar module according to Item 51, which is thinner than a width of the plurality of discontinuous contact pads measured in the direction.

  53. The conductive adhesive bond includes a plurality of features of the front metallization pattern that form one or more barriers adjacent to the plurality of discontinuous front contact pads. Item 52. The solar module according to Item 51, which is substantially contained in the plurality of positions.

  54. The conductive adhesive bonding agent has a plurality of features of the rear metallization pattern that form one or more barriers adjacent to the plurality of discontinuous rear contact pads. Item 52. The solar module according to Item 51, which is substantially contained in the plurality of positions.

55. A process of assembling a plurality of supercells, each of a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state where a plurality of ends on the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlap in a flaky manner By heating and pressurizing the process and the plurality of supercells included in the supercell, the electrically conductive bonding agent disposed between the overlapping ends of the adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells is cured, thereby adjacent Joining the overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells to each other and electrically connecting them in series;
Placing and interconnecting the plurality of supercells in a desired solar module configuration in a layer stack including an encapsulant;
Heating and pressing the layer stack to form a laminated structure.

  56. Heating and pressurizing the layer stack to cure or partially cure the electrically conductive bonding agent by heating and pressurizing the plurality of supercells prior to the step of forming the laminated structure. 56. The method of paragraph 55, comprising the step of forming a supercell that is cured or partially cured as an intermediate product prior to the formation of the laminated structure.

  57. When each additional rectangular silicon solar cell is added to the supercell during supercell assembly, the electricity between the newly added solar cell and its adjacent overlapping solar cells 58. The method of paragraph 56, wherein the conductive adhesive bond is cured or partially cured before another rectangular silicon solar cell is added to the supercell.

  58. Item 56. The method according to Item 56, comprising the step of curing or partially curing all of the electrically conductive bonding agent in the supercell in the same step.

59. Heating and pressurizing the layer stack to form the laminated structure before heating and pressurizing the plurality of supercells to partially cure the electrically conductive bonding agent, Before forming the laminated structure, forming a partially cured supercell as an intermediate product, and heating and pressurizing the layer stack while completing the curing of the electrically conductive bonding agent, The method according to Item 56, further comprising: forming the laminated structure.

  60. Before forming the laminated structure, the electrically conductive bonding agent is cured while heating and pressurizing the layer stack without forming a supercell cured or partially cured as an intermediate product. Item 56. The method according to Item 55, comprising the step of forming.

  61. 56. The method of paragraph 55, comprising dicing one or more silicon solar cells to form a plurality of rectangles to provide the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells.

  62. Applying the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to the one or more silicon solar cells before the step of dicing the one or more silicon solar cells, and having a plurality of electrically conductive adhesive adhesives applied in advance. 62. The method according to Item 61, comprising the step of providing a rectangular silicon solar cell.

  63. Applying the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to the one or more silicon solar cells, and then scribing one or more lines on each silicon solar cell of the one or more silicon solar cells using a laser 63. The method according to Item 62, further comprising cleaving the one or more silicon solar cells along the one or more scribed lines.

  64. Using a laser, scribe one or more lines on each silicon solar cell among the one or more silicon solar cells, and then apply the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to the one or more silicon solar cells. 63. The method according to Item 62, further comprising cleaving the one or more silicon solar cells along the one or more scribed lines.

65. The electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent is applied to a top surface of each silicon solar cell among the one or more silicon solar cells, and is positioned facing each silicon solar cell among the one or more silicon solar cells. Does not apply to the bottom
A vacuum is drawn between the bottom surface and the curved support surface of the one or more silicon solar cells, and the one or more silicon solar cells are bent toward the curved support surface, thereby forming a plurality of scribe lines. 63. The method of clause 62, comprising cleaving the one or more silicon solar cells along.

  66. A step of applying the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells after the step of dicing the one or more silicon solar cells to provide the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells. 61. The method according to 61.

  67. 56. The method of paragraph 55, wherein the conductive adhesive bond has a glass transition temperature of less than or equal to about 0 ° C.

1A. A solar module,
Comprising a plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows to form the front face of the solar module;
Each supercell has a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in the state where the ends of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. ,
Each supercell has a front end contact at one end of the supercell and a back end contact of reverse polarity at the opposite end of the supercell;
The first supercell row includes a first supercell having a front end contact portion disposed adjacent to and parallel to the first edge of the solar module;
The solar module is elongated in parallel with the first edge of the solar module, conductively joined to the front end contact portion of the first supercell, and adjacent to the first edge of the solar module. A solar module comprising a first flexible electrical interconnect that occupies only a narrow portion of the front surface of the solar module having a width measured in a direction perpendicular to the first edge of about 1 centimeter or less.

  2A. Item 1A wherein a portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect extends closest to the first edge of the solar module and around the end of the first supercell behind the first supercell. Solar module as described in

  3A. Item 1A, wherein the first flexible interconnect includes a thin ribbon portion that is conductively joined to the front end contact portion of the first supercell and a thicker portion that extends parallel to the first edge of the solar module. Solar module as described in

  4A. The first flexible interconnect includes a thin ribbon portion that is conductively joined to the front end contact portion of the first supercell and a coiled ribbon portion that extends parallel to the first edge of the solar module. The solar module according to Item 1A.

  5A. The second supercell row includes a second supercell having a front end contact portion disposed adjacent to and parallel to the first edge of the solar module, the front end contact of the first supercell. The solar module according to Item 1A, wherein the unit is electrically connected to the front end contact portion of the second supercell via the first flexible electrical interconnection unit.

6A. The rear end contact portion of the first supercell is adjacent to and parallel to the second edge of the solar module opposite to the first edge of the solar module;
A second flexible electrical interconnect that extends parallel to the second edge of the elongated solar module, is conductively joined to the rear end contact of the first supercell, and lies entirely behind the supercell; Item 10. A solar module according to item 1A.

7A. The second supercell row has a front end contact portion adjacent to and parallel to the first edge of the solar module, and a rear end contact portion adjacent to the second edge of the solar module. And including a second supercell arranged in a parallel position,
The front end contact of the first supercell is electrically connected to the front end contact of the second supercell via the first flexible electrical interconnect;
Item 6. The solar module according to Item 6A, wherein the rear end contact portion of the first supercell is electrically connected to the rear end contact portion of the second supercell through the second flexible electrical interconnect.

8A. A rear end contact portion is disposed in the first supercell row in series with the first supercell in a state adjacent to the second edge of the solar module opposite to the first edge of the solar module. 2 supercells,
A second flexible electrical interconnect that extends elongated parallel to the second edge of the solar module, is conductively joined to the back end contact portion of the first supercell, and lies entirely behind the supercell. Item 10. A solar module according to item 1A.

9A. The second supercell row has a front end contact portion of the third supercell adjacent to the first edge of the solar module and a rear end contact portion of the fourth supercell adjacent to the second edge of the solar module. Including the third supercell and the fourth supercell arranged in series in a state,
The front end contact portion of the first supercell is electrically connected to the front end contact portion of the third supercell via the first flexible electrical interconnect, and the rear end contact of the second supercell. The solar module according to Item 8A, wherein the unit is electrically connected to the rear end contact portion of the fourth supercell via the second flexible electrical interconnect.

  10A. The solar module of paragraph 1A, wherein there is no electrical interconnection between the plurality of supercells in a direction away from the plurality of outer edges of the solar module, which reduces an active area of the front surface of the solar module.

  11A. At least one supercell pair is arranged in a row with the back surface contact end of one supercell included in the supercell pair adjacent to the back surface contact end of the other supercell included in the supercell pair. Item 10. The solar module according to Item 1A, which is arranged.

12A. At least one supercell pair is disposed side by side in a row with adjacent ends of two supercells having opposite polarity end contacts;
The adjacent ends of the supercell pair overlap,
Item 2. The solar module according to Item 1A, wherein the two supercells included in the pair of supercells are sandwiched between overlapping ends and electrically connected in series by a flexible interconnect that does not shade the front surface.

13A. The plurality of supercells comprises a white backing comprising a plurality of parallel dark stripes having positions and widths corresponding to the positions and widths of the gaps between two or more parallel rows of the supercell Placed on the sheet,
The solar module of paragraph 1A, wherein the plurality of white portions of the plurality of backing sheets are not visible through the plurality of gaps between two or more parallel rows of the supercell.

  14A. The solar of clause 1A, wherein all portions of the first flexible electrical interconnect located on the front surface of the solar module are covered or colored to reduce the visible contrast to the supercell. module.

15A. Each silicon solar cell
A rectangular or substantially rectangular front and rear surface having a shape defined by opposite first and second parallel long sides and two opposite short sides, the front surface At least a portion of which is exposed to solar radiation during operation of the solar cell string; and
A plurality of fingers disposed on the front surface and extending perpendicularly to the first long side and the second long side; and a plurality of discontinuous front contact pads positioned in a row adjacent to the first long side. An electrically conductive front metallization pattern, wherein each front contact pad electrically connects to at least one of the plurality of fingers;
An electrically conductive backside metallization pattern including a plurality of discontinuous backside contact pads disposed on the backside and positioned in a row adjacent to the second long side;
Within each supercell, the plurality of silicon solar cells are in a state where the first long side and the second long side of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap with each other, and the corresponding non-matching on the adjacent silicon solar cells. A continuous front contact pad and a discontinuous rear contact pad are aligned with each other, overlapped, conductively bonded with a conductive adhesive bonding agent, and arranged side by side in the state where the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Item 10. The solar module according to Item 1A.

  16A. The front metallization pattern of each silicon solar cell includes a plurality of thin conductors that electrically interconnect adjacent discontinuous front contact pads, each thin conductor being perpendicular to the long sides of the plurality of solar cells. Item 15. The solar module according to Item 15A, which is thinner than a width of the plurality of discontinuous contact pads measured in a direction.

  17A. The conductive adhesive bond may be located at the plurality of locations of the plurality of discontinuous front contact pads due to the plurality of features of the front metallization pattern that form a plurality of barriers around each discontinuous front contact pad. Item 15. The solar module according to Item 15A, which is substantially contained.

  18A. The conductive adhesive bonding agent forms a plurality of barriers around each discontinuous back contact pad, and is provided at the plurality of positions of the discontinuous back contact pad due to the plurality of features of the back metal coating pattern. Item 15. The solar module according to Item 15A, which is substantially contained.

  19A. The plurality of discontinuous back contact pads are a plurality of discontinuous silver back contact pads, except for the plurality of discontinuous silver back contact pads, the back metal coating pattern of each silicon solar cell is: Item 15. The solar module according to Item 15A, which does not include a silver contact portion at any position lying below a part of the front surface of the solar cell where adjacent silicon solar cells do not overlap.

20A. A solar module,
A plurality of silicon solar cells, which are a plurality of supercells, which are arranged side by side in a state in which ends of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Each supercell has a plurality of supercells,
Each silicon solar cell
A rectangular or substantially rectangular front and rear surface having a shape defined by opposite first and second parallel long sides and two opposite short sides, the front surface At least a portion of which is exposed to solar radiation during operation of the solar cell string; and
A plurality of fingers disposed on the front surface and extending perpendicularly to the first long side and the second long side; and a plurality of discontinuous front contact pads positioned in a row adjacent to the first long side. An electrically conductive front metallization pattern, wherein each front contact pad electrically connects to at least one of the plurality of fingers;
An electrically conductive backside metallization pattern including a plurality of discontinuous backside contact pads disposed on the backside and positioned in a row adjacent to the second long side;
Within each supercell, the plurality of silicon solar cells are in a state where the first long side and the second long side of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap with each other, and the corresponding non-matching on the adjacent silicon solar cells. A continuous front contact pad and a discontinuous rear contact pad are aligned with each other, overlapped, conductively bonded with a conductive adhesive bonding agent, and arranged side by side in the state where the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Has been
The plurality of supercells may be arranged in a single row that extends substantially across the length or width of the solar module, or in two or more parallel rows so that the solar module operates during solar module operation. A solar module that forms the front of the solar module to be irradiated by radiation.

  21A. The plurality of discontinuous back contact pads are a plurality of discontinuous silver back contact pads, except for the plurality of discontinuous silver back contact pads, the back metal coating pattern of each silicon solar cell is: Item 20. The solar module according to Item 20A, which does not include a silver contact portion at any position lying under a part of the front surface of the solar cell where adjacent silicon solar cells do not overlap.

  22A. The front metallization pattern of each silicon solar cell includes a plurality of thin conductors that electrically interconnect adjacent discontinuous front contact pads, each thin conductor being perpendicular to the long sides of the plurality of solar cells. The solar module of paragraph 20A, wherein the solar module is thinner than a width of the plurality of discontinuous contact pads as measured in a direction.

  23A. The conductive adhesive bond may be located at the plurality of locations of the plurality of discontinuous front contact pads due to the plurality of features of the front metallization pattern that form a plurality of barriers around each discontinuous front contact pad. Item 20. The solar module according to Item 20A, which is substantially contained.

  24A. The conductive adhesive bonding agent forms a plurality of barriers around each discontinuous back contact pad, and is provided at the plurality of positions of the discontinuous back contact pad due to the plurality of features of the back metal coating pattern. Item 20. The solar module according to Item 20A, which is substantially contained.

25A. A supercell,
With multiple silicon solar cells,
Each silicon solar cell
A rectangular or substantially rectangular front and rear surface having a shape defined by opposite first and second parallel long sides and two opposite short sides, the front surface At least a portion of which is exposed to solar radiation during operation of the solar cell string; and
A plurality of fingers disposed on the front surface and extending perpendicularly to the first long side and the second long side; and a plurality of discontinuous front contact pads positioned in a row adjacent to the first long side. An electrically conductive front metallization pattern, wherein each front contact pad electrically connects to at least one of the plurality of fingers;
An electrically conductive backside metallization pattern comprising a plurality of discontinuous silver backside contact pads disposed on the backside and positioned in a row adjacent to the second long side;
The plurality of silicon solar cells are in a state in which the first long side and the second long side of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap with each other, and corresponding discontinuous front contact pads on the adjacent silicon solar cells. Supercells in which discontinuous rear contact pads are aligned with each other, overlapped, conductively bonded by a conductive adhesive bonding agent, and arranged side by side in the state where the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series .

  26A. The plurality of discontinuous back contact pads are a plurality of discontinuous silver back contact pads, except for the plurality of discontinuous silver back contact pads, the back metal coating pattern of each silicon solar cell is: The solar module according to Item 25A, wherein the solar module does not include a silver contact portion at any position lying below a part of the front surface of the solar cell where adjacent silicon solar cells do not overlap.

  27A. The front metallization pattern includes a plurality of thin conductors that electrically interconnect adjacent discontinuous front contact pads, each thin conductor measuring in a direction perpendicular to the long sides of the plurality of solar cells; The solar cell string according to Item 25A, wherein the solar cell string is thinner than a width of the plurality of discontinuous contact pads.

  28A. The conductive adhesive bond may be located at the plurality of locations of the plurality of discontinuous front contact pads due to the plurality of features of the front metallization pattern that form a plurality of barriers around each discontinuous front contact pad. The solar cell string according to Item 25A, which is substantially contained.

  29A. The conductive adhesive bonding agent forms a plurality of barriers around each discontinuous back contact pad, and is provided at the plurality of positions of the discontinuous back contact pad due to the plurality of features of the back metal coating pattern. The solar cell string according to Item 25A, which is substantially contained.

  30A. The solar cell string according to Item 25A, wherein the conductive adhesive adhesive has a glass transition lower than or equal to about 0 ° C.

31A. A process of assembling a plurality of supercells, each of a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state where a plurality of ends on the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlap in a flaky manner By heating and pressurizing the process and the plurality of supercells included in the supercell, the electrically conductive bonding agent disposed between the overlapping ends of the adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells is cured, thereby adjacent Joining the overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells to each other and electrically connecting them in series;
Placing and interconnecting the plurality of supercells in a desired solar module configuration in a layer stack including an encapsulant;
Heating and pressing the layer stack to form a laminated structure.

  32A. Heating and pressurizing the layer stack to cure or partially cure the electrically conductive bonding agent by heating and pressurizing the plurality of supercells prior to the step of forming the laminated structure. The method of paragraph 31A, comprising the step of: forming a supercell that is cured or partially cured as an intermediate product prior to formation of the laminated structure.

  33A. When each additional rectangular silicon solar cell is added to the supercell during supercell assembly, the electricity between the newly added solar cell and its adjacent overlapping solar cells The method according to Item 32A, wherein the conductive adhesive bonding agent is cured or partially cured before another rectangular silicon solar cell is added to the supercell.

  34A. The method according to Item 32A, comprising the step of curing or partially curing all of the electrically conductive bonding agent in the supercell in the same step.

35A. Heating and pressurizing the layer stack to form the laminated structure before heating and pressurizing the plurality of supercells to partially cure the electrically conductive bonding agent, Before forming the laminated structure, forming a partially cured supercell as an intermediate product, and heating and pressurizing the layer stack while completing the curing of the electrically conductive bonding agent, The method according to Item 32A, comprising: forming the laminated structure.

  36A. Before forming the laminated structure, the electrically conductive bonding agent is cured while heating and pressurizing the layer stack without forming a supercell cured or partially cured as an intermediate product. The method according to Item 31A, comprising the step of forming.

  37A. Item 31A. The method according to Item 31A, comprising the step of dicing one or more silicon solar cells into a plurality of rectangles to provide the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells.

  38A. Applying the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to the one or more silicon solar cells before the step of dicing the one or more silicon solar cells, and having a plurality of electrically conductive adhesive adhesives applied in advance. The method of paragraph 37A, comprising the step of providing a rectangular silicon solar cell.

  39A. Applying the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to the one or more silicon solar cells, and then scribing one or more lines on each silicon solar cell of the one or more silicon solar cells using a laser And then cleaving the one or more silicon solar cells along the one or more scribed lines.

  40A. Using a laser, scribe one or more lines on each silicon solar cell among the one or more silicon solar cells, and then apply the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to the one or more silicon solar cells. Then, the method of paragraph 38A, comprising cleaving the one or more silicon solar cells along the one or more scribed lines.

41A. The electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent is applied to a top surface of each silicon solar cell among the one or more silicon solar cells, and is positioned facing each silicon solar cell among the one or more silicon solar cells. Does not apply to the bottom
A vacuum is drawn between the bottom surface and the curved support surface of the one or more silicon solar cells, and the one or more silicon solar cells are bent toward the curved support surface, thereby forming a plurality of scribe lines. The method of paragraph 38A, comprising the step of cleaving the one or more silicon solar cells along.

  42A. A step of applying the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells after the step of dicing the one or more silicon solar cells to provide the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells. The method according to 37A.

  43A. The method according to Item 31A, wherein the conductive adhesive bonding agent has a glass transition temperature lower than or equal to about 0 ° C.

44A. A method of making a supercell,
Laser scribing one or more scribe lines on each of the one or more silicon solar cells to define a plurality of rectangular regions on the one or more silicon solar cells;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive bond to the scribed one or more silicon solar cells at one or more positions adjacent to the long side of each rectangular region;
A plurality of rectangles each including a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent arranged on the front surface adjacent to the long side by separating the one or more silicon solar cells along the one or more scribe lines. Providing a silicon solar cell;
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of the adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells are partially overlapped with a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent interposed therebetween, and
Curing the electrically conductive bonding agent, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells to each other and electrically connecting them in series.

45A. A method of making a supercell,
Of the one or more silicon solar cells each having a top surface and an opposed bottom surface, laser scribing one or more scribe lines on each of the silicon solar cells, the one or more silicon solar cells Defining a plurality of rectangular regions on the battery;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to a portion of the top surface of the one or more silicon solar cells;
A vacuum is drawn between the bottom surface and the curved support surface of the one or more silicon solar cells to bend the one or more silicon solar cells toward the curved support surface, thereby providing the one or more silicon solar cells. Cleaving the one or more silicon solar cells along the scribe line to provide a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each including a part of the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive disposed on the front surface adjacent to the long side And a process of
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of the adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells are partially overlapped with a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent interposed therebetween, and
Curing the electrically conductive bonding agent, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells to each other and electrically connecting them in series.

46A. A method of making a supercell,
Dicing the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each pseudo-square silicon wafer among the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers, and substantially the same along the major axis Forming a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each having a length;
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of adjacent solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent solar cells are electrically connected in series;
The plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells include at least one rectangular solar cell including two chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners of the pseudo-square wafer or a part of the plurality of corners, and a chamfered corner. One or more rectangular silicon solar cells each not having,
The interval between a plurality of parallel lines performed along the dicing of the pseudo-square wafer has a width perpendicular to the major axis of the rectangular silicon solar cell including the chamfered corner and does not have the chamfered corner. The width of the one or more rectangular silicon solar cells is selected to compensate for the chamfered corners by making it larger than the width perpendicular to the major axis, and thus, among the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells in the solar cell string A method wherein each has a front surface that has substantially the same area exposed to light in operation of the solar cell string.

47A. A supercell,
A plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state in which the ends of adjacent solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent solar cells are electrically connected in series;
At least one of the plurality of silicon solar cells has chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners or a part of the plurality of corners of the dicing-source pseudo-square silicon wafer, At least one of them does not have a chamfered corner, and each of the plurality of silicon solar cells has a front surface that has substantially the same area exposed to light during operation of the solar cell string. Have a supercell.

48A. A method of making two or more supercells,
The one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers are diced along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each pseudo-square silicon wafer among the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers to obtain the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers. A first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells including chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners or a part of the plurality of corners, and a first extending over the entire width of the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers Forming a second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each having a length and having no chamfered corners;
The chamfered corners are removed from each of the first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells, and each has a second length shorter than the first length and does not have a chamfered corner. 3 forming a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells,
The second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively connected to each other, and the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Forming a solar cell string having a width equal to the first length;
The third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively connected to each other, and the third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. And forming a solar cell string having a width equal to the second length.

49A. A method of making two or more supercells,
The one or more pseudo square silicon wafers are diced along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each pseudo square silicon wafer among the one or more pseudo square silicon wafers, and the one or more pseudo square silicon wafers are obtained. A first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells including chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners, or a portion of the plurality of corners; and a second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having no chamfered corners; Forming a step;
The first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively joined to each other, and the first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Process,
The second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively joined to each other, and the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. A method comprising the steps of:

50A. N (≧ 25) series connected strings of rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells having an average breakdown voltage higher than about 10 volts, the rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells being one or more supercells, The plurality of solar cells that are grouped and arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of the adjacent solar cells overlap each other and are electrically conductively bonded to each other by an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive Comprising a series or string of rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells, including two or more of the cells,
A solar module in which no single solar cell in the above string of solar cells or a group of less than N solar cells are individually electrically connected in parallel with a bypass diode.

  51A. The solar module of paragraph 50A wherein N is greater than or equal to 30.

  52A. The solar module of paragraph 50A wherein N is greater than or equal to 50.

  53A. The solar module of paragraph 50A wherein N is greater than or equal to 100.

  54A. The adhesive has a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of less than or equal to about 0.1 mm and a thermal conductivity in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of about 1.5 w / The solar module of paragraph 50A, wherein the solar module forms a plurality of junctions between adjacent solar cells that are greater than or equal to m / k.

  55A. The solar module of paragraph 50A, wherein the N solar cells are grouped into a single supercell.

  56A. The solar module according to Item 50A, wherein the plurality of solar cells are silicon solar cells.

57A. A solar module,
A supercell extending substantially over the entire length or width of the solar module parallel to the edge of the solar module, wherein the supercell is formed by overlapping the long sides of adjacent solar cells, and an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive A supercell having a series connection string of N or rectangular solar cells having an average breakdown voltage higher than about 10 volts, arranged side by side in conductive connection with each other,
A solar module wherein no single solar cell in the supercell or a group of less than N solar cells is individually electrically connected in parallel with a bypass diode.

  58A. The solar module according to Item 57A, wherein N> 24.

  59A. The solar module of paragraph 57A, wherein the length of the supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.

60A. A supercell,
With multiple silicon solar cells,
Each silicon solar cell
A rectangular or substantially rectangular front and rear surface having a shape defined by opposite first and second parallel long sides and two opposite short sides, the front surface At least a portion of which is exposed to solar radiation during operation of the solar cell string; and
An electrically conductive front metallization pattern including at least one front contact pad disposed on the front surface and positioned adjacent to the first long side;
An electrically conductive backside metallization pattern including at least one backside contact pad disposed on the backside and positioned adjacent to the second long side;
In the plurality of silicon solar cells, the first long side and the second long side of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap each other, and the front and rear contact pads on the adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and conduct. Conductive bonding with each other by the adhesive adhesive, the adjacent silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state of being electrically connected in series,
The front metallization pattern of each silicon solar cell is substantially configured to transfer the conductive adhesive bond to the at least one front contact pad prior to curing of the conductive adhesive bond during manufacture of the supercell. A supercell that includes a barrier configured to contain.

  61A. For each pair of adjacent and overlapping silicon solar cells, a portion of the other silicon solar cell of the silicon solar cells overlaps the barrier on the front side of one of the silicon solar cells, and the barrier is Hidden in part, thereby substantially encapsulating the conductive adhesive adhesive in the overlapping area of the front surface of the silicon solar cell prior to curing of the conductive adhesive adhesive during manufacture of the supercell 60. The supercell according to Item 60A.

  62A. The barrier includes a continuous conductive line extending substantially over the entire length of the first long side in parallel with the first long side, and the at least one front contact pad includes the continuous conductive line and the continuous conductive line. The supercell according to Item 60A, which is located between the first long side of the solar battery.

  63A. The front metallization pattern includes the fingers electrically connected to the at least one front contact pad and extending in a direction perpendicular to the first long side, and the continuous conductive wire electrically interconnects the plurality of fingers. 62. The supercell of clause 62A, providing a plurality of conductive paths from each finger to at least one front contact pad.

  64A. The front metallization pattern includes a plurality of discontinuous contact pads disposed in a row adjacent to and parallel to the first long side, and the barrier is disposed on the supermarket for each discontinuous contact pad. Including a plurality of features that form a plurality of separate barriers that substantially enclose the conductive adhesive bond to the discontinuous contact pads prior to curing of the conductive adhesive bond during manufacture of a cell; Item 60A. Supercell according to Item 60A.

  65A. The supercell of clause 64A, wherein the plurality of separate barriers abut and are higher than their corresponding discontinuous contact pads.

66A. A supercell,
With multiple silicon solar cells,
Each silicon solar cell
A rectangular or substantially rectangular front and rear surface having a shape defined by opposite first and second parallel long sides and two opposite short sides, the front surface At least a portion of which is exposed to solar radiation during operation of the solar cell string; and
An electrically conductive front metallization pattern including at least one front contact pad disposed on the front surface and positioned adjacent to the first long side;
An electrically conductive backside metallization pattern including at least one backside contact pad disposed on the backside and positioned adjacent to the second long side;
In the plurality of silicon solar cells, the first long side and the second long side of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap each other, and the front and rear contact pads on the adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and conduct. Conductive bonding with each other by the adhesive adhesive, the adjacent silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state of being electrically connected in series,
The backside metallization pattern of each silicon solar cell substantially includes the conductive adhesive bond to the at least one back contact pad prior to curing of the conductive adhesive bond during manufacture of the supercell. A supercell that includes a barrier configured to contain.

  67A. The back metallization pattern includes one or more discontinuous contact pads disposed in a row adjacent to and parallel to the second long side, the barrier for each discontinuous contact pad, A plurality of features that form a plurality of separate barriers that substantially contain the conductive adhesive adhesive in the discontinuous contact pads prior to curing of the conductive adhesive adhesive during manufacture of the supercell. The supercell according to Item 66A, comprising:

  68A. The supercell of clause 67A, wherein the plurality of discrete barriers abut and are higher than their corresponding discontinuous contact pads.

69A. A method of making a solar cell string,
Dicing the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each pseudo-square silicon wafer among the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers, and substantially the same along the major axis Forming a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each having a length;
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of adjacent solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent solar cells are electrically connected in series;
The plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells include at least one rectangular solar cell including two chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners of the pseudo-square wafer or a part of the plurality of corners, and a chamfered corner. One or more rectangular silicon solar cells each not having,
The interval between a plurality of parallel lines performed along the dicing of the pseudo-square wafer has a width perpendicular to the major axis of the rectangular silicon solar cell including the chamfered corner and does not have the chamfered corner. The width of the one or more rectangular silicon solar cells is selected to compensate for the chamfered corners by making it larger than the width perpendicular to the major axis, and thus, among the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells in the solar cell string A method wherein each has a front surface that has substantially the same area exposed to light in operation of the solar cell string.

70A. A solar cell string,
A plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state in which the ends of adjacent solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent solar cells are electrically connected in series;
At least one of the plurality of silicon solar cells has chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners or a part of the plurality of corners of the dicing-source pseudo-square silicon wafer, At least one of them does not have a chamfered corner, and each of the plurality of silicon solar cells has a front surface that has substantially the same area exposed to light during operation of the solar cell string. A solar cell string.

71A. A method of making two or more solar cell strings,
The one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers are diced along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each pseudo-square silicon wafer among the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers to obtain the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers. A first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells including chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners or a part of the plurality of corners, and a first extending over the entire width of the one or more pseudo-square silicon wafers Forming a second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each having a length and having no chamfered corners;
The chamfered corners are removed from each of the first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells, and each has a second length shorter than the first length and does not have a chamfered corner. 3 forming a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells,
The second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively connected to each other, and the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Forming a solar cell string having a width equal to the first length;
The third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively connected to each other, and the third plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. And forming a solar cell string having a width equal to the second length.

72A. A method of making two or more solar cell strings,
The one or more pseudo square silicon wafers are diced along a plurality of lines parallel to the long edge of each pseudo square silicon wafer among the one or more pseudo square silicon wafers, and the one or more pseudo square silicon wafers are obtained. A first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells including chamfered corners corresponding to a plurality of corners, or a portion of the plurality of corners; and a second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having no chamfered corners; Forming a step;
The first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively joined to each other, and the first plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Process,
The second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side with the long sides of adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively joined to each other, and the second plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. A method comprising the steps of:

73A. A method of making a solar module,
A chamfered corner corresponding to a plurality of corners of the plurality of pseudo-square silicon wafers by dicing the wafer along a plurality of lines parallel to a long edge of each pseudo-square silicon wafer among the plurality of pseudo-square silicon wafers Forming a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells including a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having no chamfered corners from the plurality of pseudo-square silicon wafers;
Arranging at least some of the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells having no chamfered corners, the long sides of the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping each other, and conductively bonding to each other, the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells Forming a first plurality of supercells, each including only rectangular silicon solar cells that are arranged side by side in electrical connection in series and have no chamfered corners;
Arranging at least some of the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells including the chamfered corners, the long sides of the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells overlapping each other, and conducting bonding with each other, the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells in series Forming a second plurality of supercells each including only rectangular silicon solar cells that are arranged side by side in an electrically connected state and do not have chamfered corners;
A plurality of parallel supercell rows of substantially equal length, each row including only a plurality of supercells from the first plurality of supercells or only a plurality of supercells from the second plurality of supercells. And arranging the plurality of supercells to form a front surface of the solar module.

  74A. Two of the plurality of supercell rows adjacent to parallel opposing edges of the solar module include only a plurality of supercells from the second plurality of supercells, and all other plurality of supercells. The solar module of paragraph 73A, wherein the cell row includes only supercells from the first plurality of supercells.

  75A. The solar module of paragraph 74A, wherein the solar module includes a total of six supercell rows.

76A. A plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in the first direction with the ends of adjacent silicon solar cells overlapped and conductively joined to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series,
With elongated flexible electrical interconnects,
The long axis of the elongated flexible electrical interconnect is oriented parallel to a second direction perpendicular to the first direction;
The elongated flexible electrical interconnect is
Conductive joining to the front or rear surface of the silicon solar cell at the end of the plurality of silicon solar cells at three or more discontinuous positions arranged along the second direction,
Extending over at least the full width of the end solar cell in the second direction,
A conductor thickness measured in a direction perpendicular to the front or back surface of the edge silicon solar cell is less than or equal to about 100 microns;
Providing a resistance lower than or equal to about 0.012 ohms for current flow in the second direction;
Configured to provide flexibility to accommodate differential expansion in the second direction between the end silicon solar cells and the interconnect in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 85 ° C. A super cell.

  77A. The supercell of paragraph 76A, wherein the flexible electrical interconnect has a conductor thickness measured in a direction perpendicular to the front and back surfaces of the edge silicon solar cell of less than or equal to about 30 microns. .

  78A. The flexible electrical interconnect extends in the second direction beyond the supercell and at least provides electricity to a second supercell positioned parallel to and adjacent to the supercell within the solar module. The supercell according to clause 76A, which provides interconnection.

  79A. The flexible electrical interconnect extends in the first direction beyond the supercell to provide electrical interconnect to a second supercell positioned parallel and side-by-side with the supercell in the solar module. The supercell according to Item 76A, provided.

80A. A solar module,
Arranged in two or more parallel rows extending across the width of the solar module to form the front surface of the solar module, the ends of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and conductively join to each other A plurality of supercells each including a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state where the silicon solar cells that are in contact with each other are electrically connected in series,
At least the edge of the first supercell adjacent to the edge of the solar module in the first row is
Bonding to the front surface of the first supercell with an electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent at a plurality of discontinuous positions,
Extending parallel to the edge of the solar module,
At least part of which is folded around the edge of the first supercell and hidden from view from the front of the solar module,
Via flexible electrical interconnects,
Electrically connected to an end of a second supercell adjacent to the same edge of the solar module in a second row;
Solar module.

  81A. The solar module of paragraph 80A, wherein a surface of the flexible electrical interconnect on the front surface of the solar module is covered or colored to reduce visible contrast to the supercell.

82A. The two or more parallel rows of supercells are placed on a white backing sheet to form the front surface of the solar module that will be illuminated by solar radiation during operation of the solar module;
The white backing sheet includes a plurality of parallel dark stripes having positions and widths corresponding to the positions and widths of a plurality of gaps between two or more parallel rows of the supercell;
The solar module of paragraph 80A, wherein the plurality of white portions of the plurality of backing sheets are not visible through the plurality of gaps between two or more parallel rows of the supercell.

83A. A method of making a solar cell string,
Laser scribing one or more scribe lines on each of the one or more silicon solar cells to define a plurality of rectangular regions on the one or more silicon solar cells;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive bond to the scribed one or more silicon solar cells at one or more positions adjacent to the long side of each rectangular region;
A plurality of rectangles each including a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent arranged on the front surface adjacent to the long side by separating the one or more silicon solar cells along the one or more scribe lines. Providing a silicon solar cell;
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of the adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells are partially overlapped with a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent interposed therebetween, and
Curing the electrically conductive bonding agent, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells to each other and electrically connecting them in series.

84A. A method of making a solar cell string,
Laser scribing one or a plurality of scribe lines on each silicon solar cell out of one or a plurality of silicon solar cells each having a top surface and a bottom surface positioned to face each other, and a plurality of the silicon solar cells on the silicon solar cell Defining a rectangular region of
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to a portion of the top surface of the one or more silicon solar cells;
A vacuum is drawn between the bottom surface and the curved support surface of the one or more silicon solar cells to bend the one or more silicon solar cells toward the curved support surface, thereby providing the one or more silicon solar cells. Cleaving the one or more silicon solar cells along the scribe line to provide a plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells each including a part of the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive disposed on the front surface adjacent to the long side And a process of
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular silicon solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of the adjacent rectangular silicon solar cells are partially overlapped with a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent interposed therebetween, and
Curing the electrically conductive bonding agent, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping rectangular silicon solar cells to each other and electrically connecting them in series.

  85A. Applying the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent to the one or more silicon solar cells and then laser-scribing the one or more scribe lines on each silicon solar cell of the one or more silicon solar cells; The method of paragraph 84A comprising:

  86A. Laser scribing the one or more scribe lines on each silicon solar cell among the one or more silicon solar cells, and then applying the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to the one or more silicon solar cells The method of paragraph 84A comprising:

1B. A series connection string of at least 25 solar cells connected in parallel with a common bypass diode;
Each solar cell has a breakdown voltage higher than about 10 volts, resulting in a supercell comprising the at least 25 solar cells arranged with the long sides of adjacent solar cells overlapped and conductively joined by an adhesive. The devices are grouped as such.

  2B. The apparatus of clause 1B, wherein N is greater than or equal to 30.

  3B. The apparatus of clause 1B wherein N is greater than or equal to 50.

  4B. The apparatus of clause 1B wherein N is greater than or equal to 100.

  5B. The apparatus of paragraph 1B, wherein the adhesive is less than or equal to about 0.1 mm in thickness and has a thermal conductivity greater than or equal to about 1.5 W / m / K.

  6B. The apparatus of paragraph 1B, wherein the N solar cells are grouped into a single supercell.

  7B. The apparatus of paragraph 1B, wherein the N solar cells are grouped into a plurality of supercells on the same backing.

  8B. The apparatus according to Item 1B, wherein the at least 25 solar cells are silicon solar cells.

  9B. The apparatus of paragraph 1B, wherein the length of the supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.

  10B. The apparatus of clause 1B, wherein the at least 25 solar cells include features configured to contain the adhesive spread.

  11B. The apparatus of clause 10B, wherein the features include raised features.

  12B. The apparatus of clause 10B wherein the feature includes a metal coating.

13B. The metal coating includes a line extending over the entire length of the first long side,
The apparatus of clause 12B, further comprising at least one contact pad positioned between the line and the first long side.

14B. The metal coating further includes a plurality of fingers that are electrically connected to the at least one contact pad and extend in a direction perpendicular to the first long side,
The apparatus of clause 13B, wherein the conductive wire interconnects the plurality of fingers.

  15B. Item 10. The device according to Item 10B, wherein the feature is on the front side of the solar cell.

  16B. Item 10. The device according to Item 10B, wherein the feature is on the rear side of the solar cell.

  17B. The apparatus of clause 10B, wherein the feature includes a recessed feature.

  18B. Item 10. The device according to Item 10B, wherein the feature is hidden in a solar cell adjacent to the supercell.

  19B. The first solar cell of the supercell has a plurality of chamfered corners, and the second solar cell of the supercell does not have a chamfered corner, and the first solar cell and the second solar cell. The apparatus according to Item 1B, wherein the areas exposed to light are the same.

20B. A flexible electrical interconnect having a long axis parallel to a second direction perpendicular to the first direction;
The apparatus of clause 1B, wherein the flexible electrical interconnect is conductively bonded to the surface of the solar cell and accommodates two-dimensional thermal expansion of the solar cell.

  21B. The apparatus of clause 20B, wherein the flexible electrical interconnect provides a resistance less than or equal to about 100 microns in thickness and less than or equal to about 0.012 ohms.

  22B. The apparatus according to Item 20B, wherein the surface includes a rear surface.

  23B. The apparatus of clause 20B, wherein the flexible electrical interconnect is in contact with another supercell.

  24B. The device according to Item 23B, wherein the other supercell is aligned with the supercell.

  25B. The apparatus according to Item 23B, wherein the other supercell is adjacent to the supercell.

  26B. The apparatus of clause 20B, wherein the first portion of the interconnect folds around the edge of the supercell such that the remaining second interconnect portion is behind the supercell.

  27B. The apparatus of clause 20B, wherein the flexible electrical interconnect is electrically connected to a bypass diode.

28B. A plurality of supercells are arranged in two or more parallel rows on the backing sheet to form a solar module front surface,
The apparatus of paragraph 1B, wherein the backing sheet is white and includes dark stripes of positions and widths corresponding to the gaps between the plurality of supercells.

  29B. The apparatus of clause 1B, wherein the supercell includes at least one battery string pair connected to a power management system.

30B. A power management device that performs electrical communication with the supercell;
The power management device is
Receive the voltage output of the supercell
Based on the above voltage, determine whether the solar cell is reverse biased,
The apparatus of paragraph 1B, wherein the apparatus is configured to disconnect the solar cell that is reverse-biased from the supercell module circuit.

31B. The supercell is disposed on a first backing to form a first module having an upper conductive ribbon on a first side facing in the direction of solar energy;
Further comprising another supercell disposed on the second backing to form a second module having a second side lower ribbon facing away from the direction of the solar energy;
The apparatus according to Item 1B, wherein the second module overlaps with and joins a part of the first module including the upper ribbon.

  32B. Item 32. The apparatus according to Item 31B, wherein the second module is bonded to the first module with an adhesive.

  33B. Item 32. The apparatus according to Item 31B, wherein the second module is joined to the first module by a fitting arrangement.

  34B. Item 32. The device according to Item 31B, further comprising a junction box where the second modules overlap.

  35B. The apparatus according to Item 34B, wherein the second module is joined to the first module by a fitting arrangement.

  36B. Item 35B. The apparatus according to Item 35B, wherein the fitting arrangement is between the junction box and another junction box on the second module.

  37B. The apparatus according to Item 31B, wherein the first backing includes glass.

  38B. Item 31B. The device according to Item 31B, wherein the first backing includes materials other than glass.

  39B. The apparatus of paragraph 1B, wherein the solar cell includes a chamfered portion cut from a larger component.

40B. The supercell further includes another solar cell having a chamfered portion,
The apparatus according to Item 39B, wherein a long side of the solar cell is in electrical contact with a long side of the other solar cell having a similar length.

1C1. Forming a supercell comprising a series connected string of at least N (≧ 25) solar cells on the same backing, each solar cell having a breakdown voltage higher than about 10 volts and adjacent to each other A process in which the long sides of the solar cell overlap and are arranged in a conductively bonded state with an adhesive, and
Connecting each supercell with at most a single bypass diode.

  2C1. The method of clause 1C1 wherein N is greater than or equal to 30.

  3C1. The method of clause 1C1 wherein N is greater than or equal to 50.

  4C1. The method of clause 1C1 wherein N is greater than or equal to 100.

  5C1. The method of paragraph 1C1, wherein the adhesive is less than or equal to about 0.1 mm in thickness and has a thermal conductivity greater than or equal to about 1.5 w / m / k.

  6C1. The method according to Item 1C1, wherein the plurality of solar cells are silicon solar cells.

  7C1. The method of paragraph 1C1 wherein the length of the supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.

  8C1. The first solar cell of the supercell has a plurality of chamfered corners, and the second solar cell of the supercell does not have a chamfered corner, and the first solar cell and the second solar cell. The method according to Item 1C1, wherein the areas exposed to light are the same.

  9C1. The method according to Item 1C1, further comprising the step of confining the spread of the adhesive using the characteristics of the solar cell surface.

  10C1. The method of clause 9C1 wherein the features include raised features.

  11C1. The method of clause 9C1 wherein the feature includes a metal coating.

12C1. The metal coating includes a line extending over the entire length of the first long side,
The method according to clause 11C1, wherein at least one contact pad is located between the line and the first long side.

13C1. The metal coating further includes a plurality of fingers that are electrically connected to the at least one contact pad and extend in a direction perpendicular to the first long side,
The method according to clause 12C1, wherein the conductive wire interconnects the plurality of fingers.

  14C1. The method according to Item 9C1, wherein the feature is on the front side of the solar cell.

  15C1. The method according to Item 9C1, wherein the feature is on the back side of the solar cell.

  16C1. The method of clause 9C1 wherein the features include recessed features.

  17C1. The method according to Item 9C1, wherein the feature is hidden in a solar cell adjacent to the supercell.

  18C1. The method of paragraph 1C1, further comprising forming another supercell on the same backing.

19C1. Conductively bonding a flexible electrical interconnect having a long axis parallel to a second direction perpendicular to the first direction on the surface of the solar cell;
The method of paragraph 1C1, further comprising adapting the flexible electrical interconnect to thermal expansion of the solar cell in two dimensions.

  20C1. The method of clause 19C1, wherein the flexible electrical interconnect provides a resistance less than or equal to about 100 microns in thickness and less than or equal to about 0.012 ohms.

  21C1. The method of paragraph 19C1 wherein the surface includes a back surface.

  22C1. The method of paragraph 19C1, further comprising contacting another supercell with the flexible electrical interconnect.

  23C1. The method according to Item 22C1, wherein the other supercell is aligned with the supercell.

  24C1. The method according to Item 22C1, wherein the other supercell is adjacent to the supercell.

  25C1. The method of clause 19C1, further comprising the step of folding the first portion of the interconnect around the edge of the supercell such that the remaining second interconnect is behind the supercell.

  26C1. The method of paragraph 19C1, further comprising electrically connecting the flexible electrical interconnect to a bypass diode.

27C1. Arranging a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows on the same backing to form a solar module front surface;
The method according to paragraph 1C1, wherein the backing sheet is white and includes dark stripes at positions and widths corresponding to gaps between a plurality of supercells.

  28C1. The method of clause 1C1, further comprising connecting at least one battery string pair to a power management system.

29C1. Electrically connecting a power management device to the supercell;
Allowing the power management device to receive a voltage output of the supercell;
Based on the voltage, causing the power management device to determine whether the solar cell is reverse biased; and
The method according to Item 1C1, further comprising: causing the power management device to disconnect the solar cell that is reverse-biased from the supercell module circuit.

30C1. The supercell is disposed on the backing to form a first module having a first side upper conductive ribbon facing in the direction of solar energy;
Further comprising placing another supercell on another backing to form a second module having a second side lower ribbon facing away from the direction of the solar energy;
The method according to Item 1C1, wherein the second module overlaps a part of the first module including the upper ribbon and is joined to the part.

  31C1. The method according to Item 30C1, wherein the second module is bonded to the first module with an adhesive.

  32C1. The method according to Item 30C1, wherein the second module is joined to the first module by a fitting arrangement.

  33C1. The method of paragraph 30C1, further comprising the step of overlapping a junction box with the second module.

  34C1. The method according to Item 33C1, wherein the second module is joined to the first module by a fitting arrangement.

  35C1. The method according to Item 34C1, wherein the fitting arrangement is between the junction box and another junction box on the second module.

  36C1. The method of paragraph 30C1 wherein the backing comprises glass.

  37C1. The method according to Item 30C1, wherein the backing includes other than glass.

38C1. Electrically connecting a relay switch in series between the first module and the second module;
Sensing the output voltage of the first module by a controller;
The method of paragraph 30C1, further comprising: activating the relay switch by the controller when the output voltage falls below a limit.

  39C1. The method of paragraph 1C1 wherein the solar cell comprises a chamfered portion cut from a larger part.

  40C1. The method according to Item 39C1, wherein the step of forming the supercell includes the step of bringing the long side of the solar cell into electrical contact with the long side of a similar length of another solar cell having a chamfered portion.

1C2. Solar comprising a front surface comprising a first series connection string of at least 19 solar cells grouped to be first supercells arranged such that the long sides of adjacent solar cells overlap and are conductively bonded by an adhesive Module,
A ribbon conductor that is electrically connected to the back contact portion of the first supercell and provides a hidden tap to the electrical component.

  2C2. The apparatus of clause 1C2 wherein the electrical component includes a bypass diode.

  3C2. The apparatus according to Item 2C2, wherein the bypass diode is located on a back surface of the solar module.

  4C2. The apparatus according to Item 3C2, wherein the bypass diode is located outside the junction box.

  5C2. The apparatus of paragraph 4C2 wherein the junction box includes a single terminal.

  6C2. The apparatus of paragraph 3C2 wherein the bypass diode is positioned near an edge of the solar module.

  7C2. The device of clause 2C2 wherein the bypass diode is positioned in the stacked structure.

  8C2. The apparatus according to Item 7C2, wherein the first supercell is enclosed in the stacked structure.

  9C2. The apparatus of paragraph 2C2 wherein the bypass diode is positioned around the solar module.

  10C2. Item 1C2 wherein the electrical component includes a module terminal, junction box, power management system, smart switch, relay, voltage sensing controller, central inverter, DC / AC micro inverter, or DC / DC module power optimizer. Equipment.

  11C2. The apparatus of paragraph 1C1 wherein the electrical component is located on the back side of the solar module.

  12C2. In paragraph 1C1, the solar module further includes a second series connection string of at least 19 solar cells grouped such that the first end is a second supercell that electrically connects the first supercell in series. The device described.

  13C2. The apparatus according to Item 12C2, wherein the second supercell overlaps the first supercell and is electrically connected in series with the first supercell by a conductive adhesive.

  14C2. The apparatus according to item 12C2, wherein the back contact portion is located away from the first end.

  15C2. The apparatus of clause 12C2, further comprising a flexible interconnect between the first end and the first supercell.

  16C2. The flexible interconnect extends beyond the side edges of the first supercell and the second supercell, and electrically connects the first supercell and the second supercell in parallel with other supercells. The apparatus according to Item 15C2.

  17C2. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C2, wherein the adhesive is less than or equal to about 0.1 mm in thickness and has a thermal conductivity greater than or equal to about 1.5 w / m / k.

  18C2. The apparatus of paragraph 1C2 wherein the plurality of solar cells are silicon solar cells having a breakdown voltage greater than about 10V.

  19C2. The apparatus of paragraph 1C2 wherein the length of the first supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.

  20C2. The apparatus of paragraph 1C2 wherein the solar cell of the first supercell includes a feature configured to contain the spread of the adhesive.

  21C2. The device of clause 20C2 wherein the features include raised features.

  22C2. The apparatus of clause 21C2 wherein the feature includes a metal coating.

23C2. The metal coating includes a conductive wire extending over the entire length of the first long side,
The apparatus of paragraph 22C2, further comprising at least one contact pad positioned between the conductive line and the first long side.

24C2. The metal coating further includes a plurality of fingers that are electrically connected to the at least one contact pad and extend in a direction perpendicular to the first long side,
The apparatus of clause 23C2, wherein the conductive wire interconnects the plurality of fingers.

  25C2. The device according to Item 20C2, wherein the feature is on the front side of the solar cell.

  26C2. The device according to Item 20C2, wherein the feature is on the rear side of the solar cell.

  27C2. The device of clause 20C2 wherein the features include recessed features.

  28C2. The apparatus according to Item 20C2, wherein the feature is hidden in a solar cell adjacent to the first supercell.

  29C2. The device according to Item 1C2, wherein the solar cell of the first supercell includes a chamfered portion.

30C2. The first supercell further includes another solar cell having a chamfered portion,
The apparatus according to Item 29C2, wherein the long side of the solar cell is in electrical contact with the long side of the other solar cell having a similar length.

31C2. The first supercell further includes another solar cell having no chamfered corners,
The device according to Item 29C2, wherein the solar cell and the other solar cell have the same area exposed to light.

32C2. The first supercell, together with the second supercell, is arranged in a plurality of parallel rows on the front surface of the backing sheet,
The apparatus of paragraph 1C2 wherein the backing sheet is white and includes dark stripes at a position and width corresponding to the gap between the first supercell and the second supercell.

  33C2. The apparatus according to Item 1C2, wherein the first supercell includes at least one battery string pair connected to a power management system.

34C2. A power management device in electrical communication with the first supercell;
The power management device is
Receiving the voltage output of the first supercell,
Based on the voltage, determine whether a reverse bias is applied to the solar cell of the first supercell,
The apparatus of paragraph 1C2, wherein the apparatus is configured to disconnect the solar cell that is reverse-biased from the supercell module circuit.

  35C2. The apparatus according to paragraph 34C2, wherein the power management device includes a relay.

36C2. The first supercell is disposed on a first backing to form the module having an upper conductive ribbon on a first side facing a direction of solar energy;
Further comprising another supercell disposed on a second backing to form a different module having a lower ribbon on the second side facing away from the direction of the solar energy;
The apparatus according to Item 1C2, wherein the different module overlaps a part of the module including the upper ribbon and is joined to the part.

  37C2. The apparatus according to Item 36C2, wherein the different modules are bonded to the module with an adhesive.

  38C2. The apparatus according to Item 36C2, wherein the different modules are joined to the module by a fitting arrangement.

  39C2. The apparatus according to Item 36C2, further comprising a junction box in which the different modules overlap.

  40C2. The apparatus of paragraph 39C2 wherein the different modules are joined to the module by a mating arrangement between the junction box and other junction boxes on different solar modules.

1C3. A first supercell having a plurality of solar cells disposed in front of the solar module and each having a breakdown voltage higher than about 10V;
A first ribbon conductor in electrical connection with the back contact portion of the first supercell to provide a first hidden tap to the electrical component;
A second supercell having a plurality of solar cells disposed on the front surface of the solar module and each having a breakdown voltage higher than about 10V;
A second ribbon conductor in electrical connection with the back contact portion of the second supercell to provide a second hidden tap.

  2C3. The apparatus of clause 1C3 wherein the electrical component includes a bypass diode.

  3C3. The apparatus according to Item 2C3, wherein the bypass diode is located on a back surface of the solar module.

  4C3. The apparatus according to Item 3C3, wherein the bypass diode is located outside the junction box.

  5C3. The apparatus of clause 4C3, wherein the junction box includes a single terminal.

  6C3. The apparatus of clause 3C3, wherein the bypass diode is positioned near an edge of the solar module.

  7C3. The device of clause 2C3, wherein the bypass diode is positioned in a stacked structure.

  8C3. The apparatus according to Item 7C3, wherein the first supercell is enclosed in the stacked structure.

  9C3. The apparatus of paragraph 8C3, wherein the bypass diode is positioned around the solar module.

  10C3. The apparatus according to Item 1C3, wherein the first supercell is connected in series with the second supercell.

11C3. The first supercell and the second supercell form a first pair,
The apparatus of paragraph 10C3, further comprising two additional supercells included in a second pair connected in parallel with the first pair.

  12C3. The apparatus of clause 10C3, wherein the second hidden tap connects to the electrical component.

  13C3. The device of clause 12C3 wherein the electrical component includes a bypass diode.

  14C3. The device according to Item 13C3, wherein the first supercell includes 19 or more solar cells.

  15C3. The apparatus of clause 12C3, wherein the electrical component comprises a power management system.

  16C3. The device of clause 1C3 wherein the electrical component includes a switch.

  17C3. The apparatus of clause 16C3, further comprising a voltage sensing controller in communication with the switch.

  18C3. The apparatus of clause 16C3, wherein the switch communicates with a central inverter.

19C3. The electrical component further includes a power management device,
The power management device is
Receiving the voltage output of the first supercell,
Based on the voltage, determine whether a reverse bias is applied to the solar cell of the first supercell,
The apparatus according to paragraph 1C3, wherein the apparatus is configured to disconnect the solar cell that is reverse-biased from the supercell module circuit.

  20C3. Item 2. The apparatus according to Item 1, wherein the electrical component includes an inverter.

  21C3. The apparatus according to Item 20C3, wherein the inverter includes a DC / AC micro inverter.

  22C3. The apparatus of paragraph 1C3 wherein the electrical component includes a solar module terminal.

  23C3. The apparatus of paragraph 22C3 wherein the solar module terminal is a single solar module terminal in a junction box.

  24C3. The apparatus of paragraph 1C3 wherein the electrical component is located on the back side of the solar module.

  25C3. The apparatus according to Item 1C3, wherein the back contact portion is located away from an end of the first supercell, overlapping the second supercell.

  26C3. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C3 wherein the length of the first supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.

  27C3. The apparatus of paragraph 1C3, wherein the solar cell of the first supercell includes a feature configured to contain the spread of the adhesive.

  28C3. The apparatus according to paragraph 27C3, wherein the characteristic includes an elevated characteristic.

  29C3. The device according to paragraph 28C3 wherein the feature includes a metal coating.

  30C3. The apparatus according to paragraph 27C3, wherein the feature includes a recessed feature.

  31C3. The device according to Item 27C3, wherein the feature is on the rear side of the solar cell.

  32C3. The apparatus according to Item 27C3, wherein the feature is hidden in a solar cell adjacent to the first supercell.

  33C3. The apparatus according to Item 1C3, wherein the solar cell of the first supercell includes a chamfered portion.

34C3. The first supercell further includes another solar cell having a chamfered portion,
The device according to Item 33C3, wherein a long side of the solar cell is in electrical contact with a long side of the other solar cell having a similar length.

35C3. The first supercell further includes another solar cell having no chamfered corners,
The device according to Item 33C3, wherein the solar cell and the other solar cell have the same area exposed to light.

36C3. The first supercell, together with the second supercell, is arranged in a plurality of parallel rows on the front surface of the backing sheet,
The apparatus according to paragraph 1C3, wherein the backing sheet is white and includes a dark stripe having a position and width corresponding to a gap between the first supercell and the second supercell.

37C3. The first supercell is disposed on a first backing to form the module having an upper conductive ribbon on the front side of the module facing in the direction of solar energy;
A third supercell disposed on a second backing to form a different module having a second side lower ribbon facing away from the direction of the solar energy;
The apparatus according to paragraph 1C3, wherein the different module overlaps a part of the module including the upper ribbon and joins the part.

  38C3. The apparatus according to Item 37C3, wherein the different modules are bonded to the module with an adhesive.

  39C3. The apparatus of paragraph 37C3, further comprising a junction box in which the different modules overlap.

  40C3. The apparatus according to Item 39C3, wherein the different module is joined to the module by a fitting arrangement between the connection box and another connection box on the different module.

1C4. A solar module including a front surface including a first series-connected solar cell string grouped to be first supercells arranged with adjacent solar cell sides overlapped and conductively joined by an adhesive;
A solar cell surface feature configured to contain the adhesive.

  2C4. The apparatus of paragraph 1C4 wherein the solar cell surface features include recessed features.

  3C4. The apparatus of paragraph 1C4, wherein the solar cell surface features include elevated features.

  4C4. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C4, wherein the elevated feature is on the front surface of the solar cell.

  5C4. The apparatus according to paragraph 4C4, wherein the raised feature includes a metallized pattern.

  6C4. The apparatus according to Item 5C4, wherein the metal coating pattern includes a conductive wire extending in parallel with a long side of the solar cell and substantially along the long side.

  7C4. The apparatus according to paragraph 6C4, further comprising a contact pad between the conductive wire and the long side.

8C4. The metal coating pattern further includes a plurality of fingers,
The apparatus according to clause 7C4, wherein the conductive wire electrically interconnects the plurality of fingers to provide a plurality of conductive paths from each finger to the contact pad.

9C4. A plurality of discontinuous contact pads arranged in a row adjacent to the long side and in parallel;
The apparatus according to paragraph 7C4, wherein the metallization pattern forms a plurality of discrete barriers to encapsulate the adhesive in the plurality of discontinuous contact pads.

  10C4. The apparatus of clause 8C4, wherein the plurality of discrete barriers abuts a plurality of corresponding discontinuous contact pads.

  11C4. The apparatus of paragraph 8C4, wherein the plurality of discrete barriers is higher than a plurality of corresponding discrete contact pads.

  12C4. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C4, wherein the solar cell surface feature is hidden on an overlapping side of another solar cell.

  13C4. The device according to Item 12C4, wherein the other solar cell is a part of the supercell.

  14C4. The apparatus according to Item 12C4, wherein the other solar cell is a part of another supercell.

  15C4. The apparatus according to Item 3C4, wherein the enhanced feature is on the rear surface of the solar cell.

  16C4. The apparatus according to paragraph 15C4, wherein the raised feature includes a metallized pattern.

  17C4. The apparatus of paragraph 16C4, wherein the metallization pattern forms a plurality of separate barriers to encapsulate the adhesive in a plurality of discontinuous contact pads located in front of another solar cell on which the solar cells overlap. .

  18C4. The apparatus of clause 17C4, wherein the plurality of discrete barriers abuts a plurality of corresponding discontinuous contact pads.

  19C4. The apparatus of clause 17C4, wherein the plurality of discrete barriers is higher than a plurality of corresponding discontinuous contact pads.

  20C4. The apparatus of paragraph 1C1 wherein each solar cell of the supercell has a breakdown voltage of 10V or higher.

  21C4. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C1 wherein the supercell has a length in the direction of current flow of at least about 500 mm.

  22C4. The apparatus according to Item 1C1, wherein the solar cell of the first supercell includes a chamfered portion.

23C4. The supercell further includes another solar cell having a chamfered portion,
The apparatus according to item 22C4, wherein a long side of the solar cell is in electrical contact with a long side of the other solar cell having a similar length.

24C4. The supercell further includes other solar cells that do not have chamfered corners,
The device according to Item 22C4, wherein the solar cell and the other solar cell have the same area exposed to light.

  25C4. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C4, wherein the supercell is disposed in front of the first backing sheet together with the second supercell to form a first module.

  26C4. The apparatus according to paragraph 25C4, wherein the backing sheet is white and includes a plurality of dark stripes at a position and width corresponding to a gap between the supercell and the second supercell.

27C4. The first module has an upper conductive ribbon on the front of the first module facing in the direction of solar energy;
A third supercell forming a second module disposed on the second backing and having a lower ribbon on the side of the second module facing away from solar energy;
The apparatus according to Item 25C4, wherein the second module overlaps with and joins a part of the first module including the upper ribbon.

  28C4. The apparatus according to Item 27C4, wherein the second module is bonded to the first module with an adhesive.

  29C4. The apparatus according to Item 27C4, further comprising a junction box where the second modules overlap.

  30C4. The apparatus according to Item 29C4, wherein the second module is joined to the first module by the fitting arrangement between the junction box and another junction box on the second module.

  31C4. The apparatus of paragraph 29C4 wherein the junction box houses a single module terminal.

  32C4. The apparatus of paragraph 27C4, further comprising a switch between the first module and the second module.

  33C4. The apparatus of clause 32C4, further comprising a voltage sensing controller in communication with the switch.

  34C4. The apparatus of paragraph 27C4, wherein the supercell includes 19 or more solar cells that are individually electrically connected in parallel with a single bypass diode.

  35C4. The apparatus of clause 34C4, wherein the single bypass diode is positioned near an edge of the first module.

  36C4. The device of clause 34C4 wherein the single bypass diode is positioned in a stacked structure.

  37C4. The apparatus according to Item 36C4, wherein the supercell is enclosed in the stacked structure.

  38C4. The apparatus of paragraph 34C4, wherein the single bypass diode is positioned around the first module.

  39C4. The apparatus according to Item 25C4, wherein the super cell and the second super cell constitute a pair individually connected to a power management device.

40C4. A power management device,
The power management device is
Receive the voltage output of the supercell
Based on the voltage, determine if the supercell solar cell is reverse biased,
The apparatus of paragraph 25C4, configured to disconnect the solar cell from which the reverse bias is applied from the supercell module circuit.

1C5. A solar module including a front surface including a first series connection string of a plurality of silicon solar cells grouped to be a first supercell;
The first supercell includes a first silicon solar cell having a plurality of chamfered corners and having a side overlapped with the second silicon solar cell and conductively joined by an adhesive.

2C5. The second silicon solar cell does not have chamfered corners,
The apparatus according to Item 1C5, wherein the silicon solar cells of the first supercell have substantially the same front surface area exposed to light.

3C5. The first silicon solar cell and the second silicon solar cell have the same length,
The apparatus according to Item 2C5, wherein a width of the first silicon solar cell is larger than a width of the second silicon solar cell.

  4C5. The apparatus according to Item 3C5, wherein the length reproduces the shape of the pseudo-square wafer.

  5C5. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C5, wherein the length is 156 mm.

  6C5. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C5, wherein the length is 125 mm.

  7C5. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C5 wherein the aspect ratio between the width and the length of the first solar cell is between about 1: 2 and about 1:20.

  8C5. The device according to Item 3C5, wherein the first silicon solar cell overlaps the second silicon solar cell by about 1 mm to about 5 mm.

  9C5. The apparatus of paragraph 3C5, wherein the first supercell includes at least 19 silicon solar cells, each having a breakdown voltage greater than about 10 volts.

  10C5. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C5 wherein the length of the first supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.

11C5. The first supercell is connected in parallel with the second supercell on the front surface,
The apparatus according to paragraph 3C5, wherein the front surface includes a white backing having a plurality of dark stripes at a position and width corresponding to a gap between the first supercell and the second supercell.

  12C5. The apparatus according to Item 1C5, wherein the second silicon solar cell includes chamfered corners.

  13C5. The device according to Item 12C5, wherein a long side of the first silicon solar cell overlaps a long side of the second silicon solar cell.

  14C5. The apparatus according to Item 12C5, wherein a long side of the first silicon solar cell overlaps a short side of the second silicon solar cell.

15C5. The front is
A first row comprising said first supercell consisting of a plurality of solar cells comprising a plurality of chamfered corners;
A second row including a second series connection string of silicon solar cells connected in parallel with the first supercell and grouped to be a second supercell composed of a plurality of solar cells without chamfered corners Including and
The apparatus of clause 1C5 wherein the length of the second row is substantially the same as the length of the first row.

  16C5. The apparatus according to clause 15C5, wherein the first row is adjacent to a module edge and the second row is not adjacent to the module edge.

17C5. The first supercell includes at least 19 solar cells each having a breakdown voltage greater than about 10 volts;
The device according to clause 15C5 wherein the length of the first supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.

  18C5. The apparatus according to paragraph 15C5, wherein the front surface includes a white backing having a plurality of dark stripes at a position and width corresponding to a gap between the first supercell and the second supercell.

  19C5. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C5, further comprising a metal coating pattern on a front side of the second solar cell.

  20C5. The apparatus according to paragraph 19C5, wherein the metallization pattern includes a tapered portion extending around a chamfered corner.

  21C5. The apparatus according to paragraph 19C5, wherein the metallization pattern includes raised features that contain the spread of the adhesive.

22C5. The metal coating pattern is
A plurality of discontinuous contact pads;
A plurality of fingers electrically connected to the plurality of discontinuous contact pads;
The apparatus of paragraph 19C5, comprising: a conductive wire interconnecting the plurality of fingers.

  23C5. The apparatus according to paragraph 22C5, wherein the metallization pattern forms a plurality of discrete barriers to encapsulate the adhesive in the plurality of discontinuous contact pads.

  24C5. The apparatus of clause 23C5, wherein the plurality of discrete barriers abut a plurality of corresponding discontinuous contact pads and are higher than the plurality of corresponding discontinuous contact pads.

  25C5. The apparatus of paragraph 1C5, further comprising a flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively bonded to a surface of the first solar cell and accommodates thermal expansion of the first solar cell in two dimensions.

  26C5. The apparatus of paragraph 25C5, wherein the first portion of the interconnect folds around an edge of the first supercell such that the remaining second interconnect portion is behind the first supercell.

27C5. The module has an upper conductive ribbon on the front surface facing in the direction of solar energy,
Another module having a second supercell disposed on the front surface, wherein the lower ribbon on the other module further comprises the other module facing away from the solar energy;
The apparatus according to Item 1C5, wherein the second module overlaps a part of the first module including the upper ribbon and is joined to the part.

  28C5. The apparatus according to Item 27C5, wherein the other module is bonded to the module with an adhesive.

  29C5. The apparatus according to Item 27C5, further comprising a junction box in which the other modules overlap.

  30C5. The apparatus according to Item 29C5, wherein the other module is joined to the module by a fitting arrangement between the junction box and another junction box on the other module.

  31C5. The apparatus according to paragraph 29C5, wherein the junction box accommodates a single module terminal.

  32C5. The device of clause 27C5 further comprising a switch between the module and the other module.

  33C5. The device of clause 32C5 further comprising a voltage sensing controller in communication with the switch.

  34C5. The apparatus according to Item 27C5, wherein the first supercell includes 19 or more solar cells electrically connected to a single bypass diode.

  35C5. The apparatus of paragraph 34C5, wherein the single bypass diode is positioned near an edge of the first module.

  36C5. The device of clause 34C5 wherein the single bypass diode is positioned in a stacked structure.

  37C5. The apparatus according to Item 36C5, wherein the supercell is enclosed in the stacked structure.

  38C5. The apparatus according to paragraph 34C5, wherein the single bypass diode is positioned around the first module.

  39C5. The apparatus according to Item 27C5, wherein the first super cell and the second super cell constitute a pair connected to a power management device.

40C5. A power management device,
The power management device is
Receiving the voltage output of the first supercell,
Based on the voltage, determine whether a reverse bias is applied to the solar cell of the first supercell,
The apparatus according to paragraph 27C5, wherein the apparatus is configured to disconnect the reverse-biased solar cell from the supercell module circuit.

1C6. A solar module including a front surface including a first series connection string of silicon solar cells grouped to be a first supercell;
The first supercell includes a first silicon solar cell having a plurality of chamfered corners and having a side overlapped with the second silicon solar cell and conductively joined by an adhesive.

2C6. The second silicon solar cell does not have chamfered corners,
The apparatus according to Item 1C6, wherein the silicon solar cells of the first supercell have substantially the same front surface area exposed to light.

3C6. The first silicon solar cell and the second silicon solar cell have the same length,
The apparatus according to Item 2C6, wherein a width of the first silicon solar cell is larger than a width of the second silicon solar cell.

  4C6. The apparatus according to Item 3C6, wherein the length reproduces the shape of the pseudo-square wafer.

  5C6. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C6, wherein the length is 156 mm.

  6C6. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C6, wherein the length is 125 mm.

  7C6. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C6 wherein the aspect ratio between the width and the length of the first solar cell is between about 1: 2 and about 1:20.

  8C6. The device according to Item 3C6, wherein the first silicon solar cell overlaps the second silicon solar cell by about 1 mm to about 5 mm.

  9C6. The apparatus of paragraph 3C6, wherein the first supercell includes at least 19 silicon solar cells, each having a breakdown voltage greater than about 10 volts.

  10C6. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C6 wherein the length of the first supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.

11C6. The first supercell is connected in parallel with the second supercell on the front surface,
The apparatus according to clause 3C6, wherein the front surface includes a white backing having a plurality of dark stripes at a position and width corresponding to a gap between the first supercell and the second supercell.

  12C6. The apparatus of paragraph 1C6 wherein the second silicon solar cell includes chamfered corners.

  13C6. The device according to Item 12C6, wherein a long side of the first silicon solar cell overlaps a long side of the second silicon solar cell.

  14C6. The device according to Item 12C6, wherein a long side of the first silicon solar cell overlaps a short side of the second silicon solar cell.

15C6. The front is
A first row comprising said first supercell consisting of a plurality of solar cells comprising a plurality of chamfered corners;
A second row including a second series connection string of silicon solar cells connected in parallel with the first supercell and grouped to be a second supercell composed of a plurality of solar cells without chamfered corners Including and
The apparatus according to clause 1C6, wherein a length of the second row is substantially the same as a length of the first row.

  16C6. The apparatus according to clause 15C6, wherein the first row is adjacent to a module edge and the second row is not adjacent to the module edge.

17C6. The first supercell includes at least 19 solar cells each having a breakdown voltage greater than about 10 volts;
The apparatus according to paragraph 15C6 wherein the length of the first supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.

  18C6. The apparatus according to paragraph 15C6, wherein the front surface includes a white backing having a plurality of dark stripes at a position and width corresponding to a gap between the first supercell and the second supercell.

  19C6. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C6, further comprising a metal coating pattern on a front side of the second solar cell.

  20C6. The apparatus according to paragraph 19C6, wherein the metallization pattern includes a tapered portion extending around a chamfered corner.

  21C6. The apparatus according to paragraph 19C6, wherein the metallization pattern includes raised features that contain the spread of the adhesive.

22C6. The metal coating pattern is
A plurality of discontinuous contact pads;
A plurality of fingers electrically connected to the plurality of discontinuous contact pads;
The apparatus of paragraph 19C6, comprising: a conductive wire interconnecting the plurality of fingers.

  23C6. The apparatus according to paragraph 22C6, wherein the metallization pattern forms a plurality of discrete barriers to encapsulate the adhesive in the plurality of discontinuous contact pads.

  24C6. The apparatus of clause 23C6, wherein the plurality of discrete barriers abut a plurality of corresponding discontinuous contact pads and are higher than the plurality of corresponding discontinuous contact pads.

  25C6. The apparatus of paragraph 1C6, further comprising a flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively bonded to a surface of the first solar cell and accommodates thermal expansion of the first solar cell in two dimensions.

  26C6. The apparatus of paragraph 25C6, wherein the first portion of the interconnect folds around an edge of the first supercell such that the remaining second interconnect portion is behind the first supercell.

27C6. The module has an upper conductive ribbon on the front surface facing in the direction of solar energy,
Another module having a second supercell disposed on the front surface, wherein the lower ribbon on the other module further comprises the other module facing away from the solar energy;
The apparatus according to Item 1C6, wherein the second module overlaps with and joins a part of the first module including the upper ribbon.

  28C6. The apparatus according to Item 27C6, wherein the other module is bonded to the module with an adhesive.

  29C6. The apparatus according to Item 27C6, further comprising a junction box where the other modules overlap.

  30C6. The apparatus according to Item 29C6, wherein the other module is joined to the module by a fitting arrangement between the junction box and another junction box on the other module.

  31C6. The apparatus of paragraph 29C6 wherein the junction box contains a single module terminal.

  32C6. The apparatus of paragraph 27C6, further comprising a switch between the module and the other module.

  33C6. The apparatus of clause 32C6, further comprising a voltage sensing controller in communication with the switch.

  34C6. The apparatus according to Item 27C6, wherein the first supercell includes 19 or more solar cells electrically connected to a single bypass diode.

  35C6. The apparatus of clause 34C6, wherein the single bypass diode is positioned near an edge of the first module.

  36C6. The device of clause 34C6 wherein the single bypass diode is positioned in a stacked structure.

  37C6. The apparatus according to Item 36C6, wherein the supercell is enclosed in the stacked structure.

  38C6. The apparatus of paragraph 34C6, wherein the single bypass diode is positioned around the first module.

  39C6. The apparatus according to Item 27C6, wherein the first super cell and the second super cell constitute a pair connected to a power management device.

40C6. A power management device,
The power management device is
Receiving the voltage output of the first supercell,
Based on the voltage, determine whether a reverse bias is applied to the solar cell of the first supercell,
The apparatus according to paragraph 27C6, wherein the apparatus is configured to disconnect the reverse-biased solar cell from the supercell module circuit.

1C7. A solar module having a front surface comprising a first series connection string of at least 19 solar cells, each of the at least 19 solar cells having a breakdown voltage higher than about 10V, the end being a second silicon solar cell A solar module grouped to be a supercell including a first silicon solar cell disposed in a conductively bonded state with an adhesive overlapping the battery;
And an interconnection part that is conductively bonded to the surface of the solar cell.

  2C7. The said solar cell surface is an apparatus of claim | item 1C7 containing the back surface of the said 1st silicon solar cell.

  3C7. The apparatus according to paragraph 2C7, further comprising a ribbon conductor that electrically connects the supercell to an electrical component.

  4C7. The apparatus according to Item 3C7, wherein the ribbon conductor is conductively bonded to the surface of the solar cell in a direction away from the overlapping end.

  5C7. The apparatus of paragraph 4C7 wherein the electrical component is on the back of the solar module.

  6C7. The apparatus of clause 4C7 wherein the electrical component includes a junction box.

  7C7. The apparatus of clause 6C7, wherein the junction box is in meshing engagement with other junction boxes on different modules with which the modules overlap.

  8C7. The device of clause 4C7 wherein the electrical component includes a bypass diode.

  9C7. The apparatus of paragraph 4C7 wherein the electrical component includes a module terminal.

  10C7. The apparatus of paragraph 4C7 wherein the electrical component includes an inverter.

  11C7. The apparatus according to paragraph 10C7, wherein the inverter includes a DC / AC micro inverter.

  12C7. The apparatus according to Item 11C7, wherein the DC / AC micro-inverter is on the back surface of the solar module.

  13C7. The apparatus of clause 4C7, wherein the electrical component includes a power management device.

  14C7. The apparatus of clause 13C7, wherein the power management device includes a switch.

  15C7. The apparatus of clause 14C7, further comprising a voltage sensing controller in communication with the switch.

16C7. The power management device is
Receive the voltage output of the supercell
Based on the voltage, determine if the supercell solar cell is reverse biased,
The apparatus of paragraph 13C7, wherein the apparatus is configured to disconnect the solar cell from the supercell module circuit that is reverse biased.

  17C7. The apparatus of paragraph 16C7, wherein the power management device is in electrical communication with a central inverter.

  18C7. The apparatus of clause 13C7, wherein the power management device includes a DC / DC module power optimizer.

  19C7. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C7, wherein the interconnect is sandwiched between the supercell and another supercell on the front surface of the solar module.

  20C7. The apparatus of clause 3C7 wherein the ribbon conductor is conductively joined to the interconnect.

  21C7. The apparatus of clause 3C7 wherein the interconnect provides a resistance to current flow that is less than or equal to about 0.012 ohms.

  22C7. The interconnect is configured to accommodate differential expansion between the first silicon solar cell and the interconnect in a temperature range between about −40 ° C. and about 85 ° C. The device according to 3C7.

  23C7. The apparatus of paragraph 3C7, wherein the thickness of the interconnect is less than or equal to about 100 microns.

  24C7. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C7 wherein the thickness of the interconnect is less than or equal to about 30 microns.

  25C7. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C7 wherein the length of the supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.

  26C7. The apparatus of paragraph 3C7, further comprising another supercell on the front surface of the solar module.

  27C7. The apparatus according to Item 26C7, wherein the interconnection unit connects the other supercell in series with the supercell.

  28C7. The apparatus according to Item 26C7, wherein the interconnecting unit connects the other supercell in parallel with the supercell.

  29C7. The apparatus according to paragraph 26C7, wherein the front surface includes a white backing having a plurality of dark stripes at a position and width corresponding to a gap between the supercell and the other supercell.

  30C7. The apparatus of clause 3C7 wherein the interconnect includes a pattern.

  31C7. The apparatus according to paragraph 30C7, wherein the pattern includes slits, slots, and / or holes.

  32C7. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C7 wherein a portion of the interconnect is dark.

33C7. The first silicon solar cell includes a plurality of chamfered corners,
The second silicon solar cell does not have chamfered corners,
The apparatus according to Item 3C7, wherein each silicon solar battery of the supercell has substantially the same front surface area exposed to light.

34C7. The first silicon solar cell includes a plurality of chamfered corners,
The second silicon solar cell includes a plurality of chamfered corners,
The apparatus according to Item 3C7, wherein the side includes a long side that overlaps a long side of the second silicon solar cell.

  35C7. The apparatus of clause 3C7 wherein the interconnect forms a bus.

  36C7. The apparatus according to Item 3C7, wherein the interconnecting part is conductively bonded to the surface of the solar cell with an adhesive connection part.

  37C7. The apparatus according to clause 3C7, wherein the first part of the interconnect is folded around the edge of the supercell such that the remaining second part is located behind the supercell.

38C7. Further comprising a metallization pattern on the front surface and including a line extending along the long side;
The apparatus according to paragraph 3C7, further comprising a plurality of discontinuous contact pads positioned between the line and the long side.

39C7. The metallization further includes a plurality of fingers extending in a direction perpendicular to the long side and electrically connected to each discrete contact pad;
The apparatus according to paragraph 38C7, wherein the conductive wire interconnects the plurality of fingers.

  40C7. The apparatus according to paragraph 38C7, wherein the metallization pattern includes raised features that contain the spread of the adhesive.

1C8. A plurality of supercells arranged in a plurality of rows on the front surface of the solar module, wherein each supercell has an end portion of adjacent silicon solar cells overlapped and conductively joined, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are connected in series. Comprising a plurality of supercells comprising at least 19 silicon solar cells having a breakdown voltage of at least 10V, arranged side by side in electrical connection;
The end of the first supercell adjacent to the module edge in the first row is connected to the front surface of the first supercell via a flexible electrical interconnect, and the second supercell adjacent to the module edge in the second row. A device that makes electrical connections to the end of the device.

  2C8. The apparatus of paragraph 1C8 wherein a portion of the flexible electrical interconnect is covered with a dark film.

  3C8. The apparatus of paragraph 2C8, wherein the solar module front surface includes a backing sheet having low visual contrast to the flexible electrical interconnect.

  4C98. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C8, wherein a portion of the flexible electrical interconnect is colored.

  5C8. The apparatus of paragraph 4C8, wherein the solar module front surface includes a backing sheet having low visual contrast to the flexible electrical interconnect.

  6C8. The apparatus according to Item 1C8, wherein the front surface of the solar module includes a white backing sheet.

  7C8. The apparatus according to clause 6C8, further comprising a plurality of dark stripes corresponding to the gaps between the plurality of rows.

  8C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 6C8, wherein the n-type semiconductor layer of the silicon solar cell faces the backing sheet.

9C8. The front side of the solar module includes a backing sheet,
The apparatus according to paragraph 1C8, wherein the backing sheet, the flexible electrical interconnect, the first supercell, and the encapsulant form a laminated structure.

  10C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 9C8, wherein the encapsulant includes a thermoplastic polymer.

  11C8. Item 10. The apparatus according to Item 10C8, wherein the thermoplastic polymer includes a thermoplastic olefin polymer.

  12C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 9C8, further comprising a front sheet made of glass.

  13C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 12C8, wherein the backing sheet comprises glass.

  14C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C8 wherein the flexible electrical interconnect is joined at a plurality of discontinuous locations.

  15C8. The apparatus according to Item 1C8, wherein the flexible electrical interconnection part is joined by an electrically conductive adhesive adhesive.

  16C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C8, further comprising a bonded connection part.

  17C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C8, wherein the flexible electrical interconnect extends parallel to the module edge.

  18C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C8, wherein a part of the flexible electrical interconnect is folded and hidden around the first supercell.

  19C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C8, further comprising a ribbon conductor that electrically connects the first supercell to an electrical component.

  20C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 19C8, wherein the ribbon conductor is conductively bonded to the flexible electrical interconnect.

  21C8. The apparatus of paragraph 19C8, wherein the ribbon conductor is conductively bonded to the solar cell surface in a direction away from the overlapping edge.

  22C8. The apparatus of paragraph 19C8, wherein the electrical component is on the back side of the solar module.

  23C8. The apparatus of paragraph 19C8 wherein the electrical component includes a junction box.

  24C8. The apparatus according to Item 23C8, wherein the connection box is meshingly engaged with another connection box in front of another solar module.

  25C8. The apparatus of paragraph 23C8, wherein the junction box comprises a single terminal junction box.

  26C8. The apparatus of clause 19C8 wherein the electrical component includes a bypass diode.

  27C8. The apparatus of clause 19C8 wherein the electrical component includes a switch.

28C8. A voltage sensing controller;
The voltage sensing controller is
Receiving the voltage output of the first supercell,
Based on the voltage, determine whether a reverse bias is applied to the solar cell of the first supercell,
The apparatus according to paragraph 27C8, configured to communicate with the switch to disconnect the reverse-biased solar cell from the supercell module circuit.

  29C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C8, wherein the first supercell is in series with the second supercell.

30C8. The first silicon solar cell of the first supercell includes a plurality of chamfered corners,
The second silicon solar cell of the first supercell has no chamfered corners,
The apparatus according to Item 1C8, wherein the silicon solar cells of the first supercell have substantially the same front surface area exposed to light.

31C8. The first silicon solar cell of the first supercell includes a plurality of chamfered corners,
The second silicon solar cell of the first supercell includes a plurality of chamfered corners
The apparatus according to Item 1C8, wherein a long side of the first silicon solar cell overlaps a long side of the second silicon solar cell.

  32C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C8, wherein the silicon solar battery of the first supercell includes a strip having a length of about 156 mm.

  33C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C8, wherein the silicon solar battery of the first supercell includes a strip having a length of about 125 mm.

  34C8. The apparatus of paragraph 1C8, wherein the silicon solar cell of the first supercell includes a strip having an aspect ratio between a width and a length between about 1: 2 and about 1:20.

35C8. The adjacent silicon solar cells that overlap the first supercell are conductively bonded by an adhesive,
The device of clause 1C8 further comprising features configured to contain the spread of the adhesive.

  36C8. The apparatus according to paragraph 35C8 wherein the feature includes a moat.

  37C8. The apparatus according to Item 36C8, wherein the moat is formed by a metal coating pattern.

38C8. The metal coating pattern includes a line extending along the long side of the silicon solar cell,
The apparatus of paragraph 37C8, further comprising a plurality of discontinuous contact pads positioned between the line and the long side.

  39C8. The apparatus according to Item 37C8, wherein the metal coating pattern is located on a front portion of the silicon solar battery of the first supercell.

  40C8. The apparatus according to Item 37C8, wherein the metal coating pattern is located on a back surface of the silicon solar battery of the second super cell.

1C9. A solar module including a front surface including a plurality of silicon solar cells connected in series,
The plurality of silicon solar cells are grouped to be a first supercell including a first cut strip having a front metallization pattern along a first outer edge where the second cut strips overlap.

  2C9. The length of the said 1st cut strip and the said 2nd cut strip reproduce | regenerates the shape of the wafer of the division | segmentation origin of the said 1st cut strip, The apparatus of claim | item 1C9.

  3C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 2C9, wherein the length is 156 mm.

  4C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 2C9, wherein the length is 125 mm.

  5C9. The device of clause 2C9 wherein the aspect ratio between the width of the first cut strip and the length is between about 1: 2 and about 1:20.

  6C9. The apparatus of paragraph 2C9, wherein the first cut strip includes a first chamfered corner.

  7C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 6C9, wherein the first chamfered corner is along the first outer edge.

  8C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 6C9, wherein the first chamfered corner does not follow the first outer edge.

  9C9. The apparatus of clause 6C9, wherein the second cut strip includes a second chamfered corner.

  10C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 9C9, wherein the overlapping edge of the second cut strip includes the second chamfered corner.

  11C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 9C9, wherein overlapping edges of the second cut strip do not include the second chamfered corner.

  12C9. The apparatus according to Item 6C9, wherein the length reproduces the shape of the pseudo square wafer from which the first cut strip is divided.

  13C9. The apparatus according to clause 6C9, wherein a width of the first cut strip is different from a width of the second cut strip such that the first cut strip and the second cut strip have approximately the same area.

  14C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C9, wherein the second cut strip overlaps the first cut strip by about 1 to 5 mm.

  15C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C9, wherein the front metal coating pattern includes a bus bar.

  16C9. The device according to clause 15C9 wherein the bus bar includes a tapered portion.

  17C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C9, wherein the front metal coating pattern includes discontinuous contact pads.

18C9. The second cut strip is bonded to the first cut strip with an adhesive,
The apparatus according to paragraph 17C9, wherein the discontinuous contact pad further includes a feature to contain adhesive spread.

  19C9. The apparatus of paragraph 18C9 wherein the feature includes a moat.

  20C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C9, wherein the front metal coating pattern includes a bypass conductor.

  21C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C9, wherein the front metal coating pattern includes fingers.

  22C9. The apparatus of clause 1C9, wherein the first cut strip further includes a backside metallization pattern along a second outer edge opposite the first outer edge.

  23C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 22C9, wherein the back-side metallization pattern includes a contact pad.

  24C9. The apparatus of paragraph 22C9, wherein the backside metallization pattern includes a bus bar.

  25C9. The apparatus of paragraph 1C9, wherein the supercell includes at least 19 silicon cut strips each having a breakdown voltage greater than about 10 volts.

  26C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C9, wherein the supercell is connected to another supercell on the front surface of the solar module.

  27C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 26C9, wherein the front surface of the solar module includes a white backing having a plurality of dark stripes corresponding to a gap between the supercell and the other supercell.

28C9. The front surface of the solar module includes a backing sheet,
The apparatus according to Item 26C9, wherein the backing sheet, the interconnect portion, the supercell, and the encapsulant form a laminated structure.

  29C9. The device according to Item 28C9, wherein the encapsulant includes a thermoplastic polymer.

  30C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 29C9, wherein the thermoplastic polymer includes a thermoplastic olefin polymer.

  31C9. The apparatus of clause 26C9, further comprising an interconnect between the supercell and the other supercell.

  32C9. The apparatus according to Item 31C9, wherein a part of the interconnect is covered with a dark-colored film.

  33C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 31C9, wherein a portion of the interconnect is colored.

  34C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 31C9, further comprising a ribbon conductor that electrically connects the supercell to an electrical component.

  35C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 34C9, wherein the ribbon conductor is conductively bonded to a back side of the first cut strip.

  36C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 34C9, wherein the electrical component includes a bypass diode.

  37C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 34C9, wherein the electrical component includes a switch.

  38C9. The apparatus according to paragraph 34C9, wherein the electrical component includes a junction box.

  39C9. The apparatus according to Item 38C9, wherein the junction box overlaps with another junction box and is fitted and disposed with the other junction box.

  40C9. The apparatus according to Item 26C9, wherein the supercell and the other supercell are connected in series.

1C10. Laser scribing a scribe line on a silicon wafer to define a solar cell region;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to the top surface of the scribed silicon wafer adjacent to the long side of the solar cell region;
Separating the silicon wafer along the scribe line, and providing a solar cell strip including a part of the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive disposed adjacent to a long side of the solar cell strip. ,Method.

  2C10. The method of paragraph 1C10, further comprising providing the metal coating pattern on the silicon wafer such that the separating step produces the solar cell strip having a metal coating pattern along the long side. .

  3C10. The method according to paragraph 2C10, wherein the metallization pattern includes a bus bar or discontinuous contact pads.

  4C10. The method according to Item 2C10, wherein the providing step includes a step of printing the metal coating pattern.

  5C10. The method according to Item 2C10, wherein the providing step includes a step of electroplating the metal coating pattern.

  6C10. The method according to paragraph 2C10, wherein the metal coating pattern includes a feature configured to contain a spread of the electrically conductive adhesive bond.

  7C10. The apparatus of clause 6C10 wherein the feature includes a moat.

  8C10. The method according to Item 1C10, wherein the applying step includes a printing step.

  9C10. The method according to Item 1C10, wherein the applying step includes a step of depositing using a mask.

  10C10. The method according to Item 1C10, wherein the length of the long side of the solar cell strip reproduces the shape of the wafer.

  11C10. The method according to paragraph 10C10, wherein the length is 156 mm or 125 mm.

  12C10. The method of paragraph 10C10 wherein the aspect ratio between the width of the solar cell strip and the length is between about 1: 2 and about 1:20.

  13C10. The separating step draws a vacuum between the bottom surface of the wafer and the curved support surface, draws the solar cell region toward the curved support surface, thereby bending the silicon wafer along the scribe line. The method according to Item 1C10, wherein the method is cleaved.

14C10. A step of arranging a plurality of solar cell strips in a state where the long sides of adjacent solar cell strips overlap and a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent is disposed therebetween;
The method of paragraph 1C10, further comprising: curing the electrically conductive bonding agent, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping solar cell strips together and electrically connecting them in series.

  15C10. The method according to Item 14C10, wherein the curing step includes a heating step.

  16C10. The method according to Item 14C10, wherein the step of curing includes a step of applying pressure.

  17C10. The method according to Item 14C10, wherein the arranging step includes a step of forming a layered structure.

  18C10. The method according to Item 17C10, wherein the curing step includes a step of pressurizing and heating the layered structure.

  19C10. The method according to paragraph 17C10, wherein the layered structure includes an encapsulant.

  20C10. The method according to paragraph 19C10, wherein the encapsulant comprises a thermoplastic polymer.

  21C10. The method according to paragraph 20C10, wherein the thermoplastic polymer includes a thermoplastic olefin polymer.

  22C10. The method according to paragraph 17C10, wherein the layered structure comprises a backing sheet.

23C10. The backing sheet is white,
The method according to paragraph 22C10, wherein the layered structure further includes dark stripes.

  24C10. The method according to Item 14C10, wherein the arranging step includes a step of arranging at least 19 solar cell strips side by side.

  25C10. The method of paragraph 24C10 wherein each of the at least 19 solar cell strips has a breakdown voltage of at least 10V.

  26C10. The method of paragraph 24C10, further comprising bringing the at least nineteen solar cell strips into communication with only a single bypass diode.

  27C10. The method of paragraph 26C10, further comprising forming a ribbon conductor between one of the at least 19 solar cell strips and the single bypass diode.

  28C10. The method of paragraph 27C10 wherein the single bypass diode is located in a junction box.

  29C10. The method of paragraph 28C10, wherein the junction box is on the back side of the solar module in a mating arrangement with other junction boxes of different solar modules.

  30C10. The method of paragraph 14C10, wherein the overlapping cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips overlap the solar cell strip by about 1 to 5 mm.

  31C10. The method of paragraph 14C10, wherein the solar cell strip includes a first chamfered corner.

  32C10. The method according to Item 31C10, wherein a long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips does not include the second chamfered corner.

  33C10. The method of paragraph 32C10 wherein the width of the solar cell strip is greater than the width of the overlapping solar cell strip so that the solar cell strip and the overlapping solar cell strip have approximately the same area.

  34C10. The method of paragraph 31C10, wherein a long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips includes a second chamfered corner.

  35C10. The method of paragraph 34C10, wherein the long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips overlaps the long side of the cell strip including the first chamfered corner.

  36C10. The method of paragraph 34C10, wherein the long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips overlaps the long side of the battery strip not including the first chamfered corner.

  37C10. The method of paragraph 14C10, further comprising connecting the plurality of solar cell strips to another plurality of solar cell strips using an interconnect.

  38C10. The method of paragraph 37C10 wherein a portion of the interconnect is covered with a dark film.

  39C10. The method of paragraph 37C10 wherein a portion of the interconnect is colored.

  40C10. The method of paragraph 37C10, wherein the plurality of solar cell strips are connected in series with the other plurality of solar cell strips.

1C11. Providing a silicon wafer having a length;
Scribing a scribe line on the silicon wafer to define a solar cell region;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent to the surface of the silicon wafer;
Separating the silicon wafer along the scribe line, and providing a solar cell strip including a part of the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive disposed adjacent to a long side of the solar cell strip. ,Method.

  2C11. The method according to Item 1C11, wherein the scribe includes a laser scribe.

  3C11. The method according to Item 2C11, comprising the step of laser scribing the scribe line and then applying the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent.

  4C11. The method according to paragraph 2C11, comprising the step of applying the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent to the wafer and then laser-scribing the scribe line.

5C11. The step of applying has a step of applying an uncured electrically conductive adhesive adhesive,
The method according to Item 4C11, wherein the laser scribing step includes a step of avoiding curing the uncured conductive adhesive bonding agent with heat from the laser.

  6C11. The method according to Item 5C11, wherein the avoiding step includes a step of selecting a laser power and / or a distance between the scribe line and the uncured conductive adhesive bonding agent.

  7C11. The method according to Item 1C11, wherein the applying step includes a printing step.

  8C11. The method according to Item 1C11, wherein the applying step includes a step of depositing using a mask.

  9C11. The method according to Item 1C11, wherein the scribe line and the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent are on the surface.

  10C11. The separating step draws a vacuum between the surface of the silicon wafer and the curved support surface, and bends the solar cell region toward the curved support surface, thereby the silicon wafer along the scribe line. The method according to Item 1C11, wherein

  11C11. The method according to Item 10C11, wherein the separating step includes disposing the scribe line at an angle with respect to the vacuum manifold.

  12C11. The method according to Item 1C11, wherein the separating step includes a step of pressurizing the wafer using a roller.

  13C11. The providing step includes providing the metal coating pattern on the silicon wafer such that the solar cell strip having the metal coating pattern along the long side is generated by the separating step. The method described in 1.

  14C11. The method according to paragraph 13C11, wherein the metallization pattern includes a bus bar or discontinuous contact pads.

  15C11. The method according to Item 13C11, wherein the providing step includes a step of printing the metal coating pattern.

  16C11. The method according to Item 13C11, wherein the providing step includes electroplating the metal coating pattern.

  17C11. The method according to paragraph 13C11, wherein the metal coating pattern includes a feature configured to contain a spread of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent.

  18C11. The method according to Item 1C11, wherein the length of the long side of the solar cell strip reproduces the shape of the wafer.

  19C11. The method of paragraph 18C11 wherein the length is 156 mm or 125 mm.

  20C11. The method of paragraph 18C11 wherein the aspect ratio between the width of the solar cell strip and the length is between about 1: 2 and about 1:20.

21C11. A step of arranging a plurality of solar cell strips in a state where the long sides of adjacent solar cell strips overlap and a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent is disposed therebetween;
The method of paragraph 1C11, further comprising: curing the electrically conductive bonding agent, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping solar cell strips together and electrically connecting them in series.

22C11. The step of arranging includes a step of forming a layered structure,
The method according to Item 21C11, wherein the curing step includes a step of heating and / or pressurizing the layered structure.

  23C11. Item 22. The method according to Item 22C11, wherein the layered structure includes an encapsulant of a thermoplastic olefin polymer.

24C11. The method according to Item 22C11, wherein the layered structure includes a white backing sheet and dark stripes on the white backing sheet.

25C11. Multiple wafers are provided on the template,
The conductive adhesive bonding agent is distributed on the plurality of wafers,
Item 22. The method according to Item 21C11, wherein the plurality of wafers are cells that are simultaneously separated into a plurality of solar cell strips by a fixture.

26C11. Further comprising transporting the plurality of solar cell strips as a group,
The method of paragraph 25C11, wherein the placing step comprises placing the plurality of solar cell strips in a module.

  27C11. The method of paragraph 21C11 wherein the placing step comprises placing only a single bypass diode and at least 19 solar cell strips having a breakdown voltage of at least 10V side by side.

  28C11. The method of clause 27C11 further comprising forming a ribbon conductor between one of the at least 19 solar cell strips and the single bypass diode.

  29C11. The method of paragraph 28C11, wherein the single bypass diode is located within a first junction box of a first solar module that is mated with a second junction box of a second solar module.

  30C11. The method of clause 27C11 further comprising forming a ribbon conductor between one of the at least 19 solar cell strips and the smart switch.

  31C11. The method of paragraph 21C11, wherein the overlapping cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips overlap the solar cell strip by about 1 to 5 mm.

  32C11. The method of paragraph 21C11 wherein the solar cell strip includes a first chamfered corner.

  33C11. The method of paragraph 32C11, wherein the long sides of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips do not include a second chamfered corner.

  34C11. The method of paragraph 33C11 wherein the width of the solar cell strip is greater than the width of the overlapping solar cell strip so that the solar cell strip and the overlapping solar cell strip have approximately the same area.

  35C11. The method of paragraph 32C11, wherein a long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips includes a second chamfered corner.

  36C11. The method of paragraph 35C11, wherein the long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips overlaps the long side of the cell strip including the first chamfered corner.

  37C11. The method of paragraph 35C11, wherein the long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips overlaps the long side of the battery strip not including the first chamfered corner.

  38C11. The method of paragraph 21C11, further comprising the step of connecting the plurality of solar cell strips to another plurality of solar cell strips using an interconnect.

  39C11. The method of paragraph 38C11 wherein a portion of the interconnect is covered or colored with a dark film.

  40C11. The method of paragraph 38C11, wherein the plurality of solar cell strips are connected in series with the other plurality of solar cell strips.

1C12. Providing a silicon wafer having a length;
Scribing a scribe line on the silicon wafer to define a solar cell region;
Separating the silicon wafer along the scribe line to provide a solar cell strip;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive bond disposed adjacent to the long side of the solar cell strip.

  2C12. The method according to Item 1C12, wherein the scribing step includes a laser scribing step.

  3C12. The method according to Item 1C12, wherein the applying step includes a step of screen printing.

  4C12. The method according to Item 1C12, wherein the applying step includes a step of inkjet printing.

  5C12. The method according to Item 1C12, wherein the applying step includes a step of depositing using a mask.

  6C12. The method according to Item 1C12, wherein the separating step includes a step of drawing a vacuum between a surface of the wafer and a curved surface.

  7C12. The method according to paragraph 6C12, wherein the curved surface includes a vacuum manifold, and the step of separating includes the step of directing the scribe line at an angle with respect to the vacuum manifold.

  8C12. The method according to paragraph 7C12, wherein the angle is vertical.

  9C12. The method according to paragraph 7C12, wherein the angle is other than vertical.

  10C12. The method according to paragraph 6C12, wherein the vacuum is pulled through a moving belt.

11C12. A step of arranging a plurality of solar cell strips side by side in a state where the long sides of adjacent solar cell strips overlap with the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent disposed therebetween;
The method of paragraph 1C12, further comprising: curing the electrically conductive bonding agent to bond adjacent and overlapping solar cell strips that are electrically connected in series.

12C12. The step of arranging includes a step of forming a layered structure including an encapsulant,
The method according to paragraph 11C12, further comprising the step of laminating the layered structure.

  13C12. The method according to paragraph 12C12, wherein the curing step occurs at least partially during the laminating step.

  14C12. The method according to Item 12C12, wherein the curing step occurs separately from the laminating step.

  15C12. The method according to Item 12C12, wherein the laminating step includes a step of drawing a vacuum.

  16C12. The method according to paragraph 15C12, wherein the vacuum is pulled against a bladder.

  17C12. The method according to paragraph 15C12, wherein the vacuum is pulled against the belt.

  18C12. The method according to paragraph 12C12, wherein the encapsulant includes a thermoplastic olefin polymer.

19C12. The method according to Item 12C12, wherein the layered structure includes a white backing sheet and dark stripes on the white backing sheet.

  20C12. The providing step includes providing the metal coating pattern on the silicon wafer such that the separating step generates the solar cell strip having the metal coating pattern along the long side. The method described in 1.

  21C12. The method according to paragraph 20C12, wherein the metallization pattern includes a bus bar or discontinuous contact pads.

  22C12. The method according to Item 20C12, wherein the providing step includes printing or electroplating the metal coating pattern.

  23C12. The method according to Item 20C12, wherein the arranging step includes a step of containing a spread of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent using the metal coating pattern feature.

  24C12. The method of paragraph 23C12 wherein the feature is on the front side of the solar cell strip.

  25C12. The method of paragraph 23C12 wherein the feature is on the back side of the solar cell strip.

  26C12. The method according to Item 11C12, wherein the length of the long side of the solar cell strip reproduces the shape of the wafer.

  27C12. The method according to paragraph 26C12, wherein the length is 156 mm or 125 mm.

  28C12. The method of paragraph 26C12 wherein the aspect ratio between the width of the solar cell strip and the length is between about 1: 2 and about 1:20.

  29C12. The method according to Item 11C12, wherein the disposing step includes disposing only a single bypass diode and at least 19 solar cell strips having a breakdown voltage of at least 10 V side by side as the first supercell.

  30C12. The method of paragraph 29C12, further comprising applying the electrically conductive adhesive bond between the first supercell and the interconnect.

  31C12. The method according to Item 30C12, wherein the interconnecting unit connects the first supercell in parallel with a second supercell.

  32C12. The method according to Item 30C12, wherein the interconnecting unit connects the first supercell in series with a second supercell.

  33C12. The method of paragraph 29C12, further comprising forming a ribbon conductor between the first supercell and the single bypass diode.

  34C12. The method of paragraph 33C12, wherein the single bypass diode is located within the first junction box of the first solar module that is mated with the second junction box of the second solar module.

  35C12. The method according to paragraph 11C12 wherein the solar cell strip includes a first chamfered corner.

  36C12. The method of paragraph 35C12, wherein the long sides of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips do not include the second chamfered corner.

  37C12. The method of paragraph 36C12 wherein the width of the solar cell strip is greater than the width of the overlapping solar cell strip so that the solar cell strip and the overlapping solar cell strip have approximately the same area.

  38C12. The method of paragraph 35C12, wherein a long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips includes a second chamfered corner.

  39C12. The method of paragraph 38C12, wherein the long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips overlaps the long side of the battery strip including the first chamfered corner.

  40C12. The method according to Item 38C12, wherein the long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips overlaps the long side of the battery strip not including the first chamfered corner.

1C13. A semiconductor wafer having a first surface including a first metallization pattern along a first outer edge and a second metallization pattern along a second outer edge opposite to the first outer edge;
The semiconductor wafer further includes a first scribe line between the first metal coating pattern and the second metal coating pattern.

  2C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C13, wherein the first metallization pattern includes discontinuous contact pads.

  3C13. The apparatus of clause 1C13, wherein the first metallization pattern includes a first finger that points away from the first outer edge toward the second metallization pattern.

  4C13. The apparatus according to Item 3C13, wherein the first metallization pattern further includes a bus bar extending along the first outer edge and intersecting the first finger.

5C13. The second metal coating pattern is
A second finger pointing away from the second outer edge toward the first metallization pattern;
The apparatus according to item 4C13, further comprising: a second bus bar extending along the second outer edge and intersecting the second finger.

  6C13. The apparatus of clause 3C13, further comprising an electrically conductive adhesive extending along the first outer edge and in contact with the first finger.

  7C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C13, wherein the first metallization pattern further includes a first bypass conductor.

  8C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 3C13, wherein the first metallization pattern further includes a first end conductor.

  9C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C13, wherein the first metal coating pattern contains silver.

  10C13. The apparatus according to Item 9C13, wherein the first metal coating pattern includes a silver paste.

  11C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 9C13, wherein the first metal coating pattern includes discontinuous contacts.

  12C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C13, wherein the first metal coating pattern includes tin, aluminum, or another conductor cheaper than silver.

  13C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C13, wherein the first metal coating pattern includes copper.

  14C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 13C13, wherein the first metal coating pattern includes electroplated copper.

  15C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 13C13, further comprising a passivating scheme that reduces recombination.

16C13. A third metallization pattern on the first surface of the semiconductor wafer not proximate to the first outer edge or the second outer edge;
A second scribe line between the third metal coating pattern and the second metal coating pattern;
The apparatus according to Item 1C13, wherein the first scribe line is between the first metal coating pattern and the third metal coating pattern.

  17C13. The ratio of the first width defined between the first scribe line and the second scribe line divided by the length of the semiconductor wafer is between about 1: 2 and about 1:20. The device described in 1.

  18C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 17C13, wherein the length is about 156 mm or about 125 mm.

  19C13. The apparatus of paragraph 17C13, wherein the semiconductor wafer includes chamfered corners.

20C13. The first scribe line defines a first rectangular region including two chamfered corners and the first metallization pattern together with the first outer edge;
The first rectangular region has an area corresponding to a value obtained by subtracting an area obtained by combining the two chamfered corners from a product of the length and a second width larger than the first width. ,
The second scribe line, together with the first scribe line, defines a second rectangular region that does not include chamfered corners and includes the third metallization pattern;
The apparatus according to item 19C13, wherein the second rectangular area has an area corresponding to a product of the length and the first width.

  21C13. The apparatus of paragraph 16C13, wherein the third metallization pattern includes fingers pointing to the second metallization pattern.

  22C13. The apparatus of paragraph 1C13, further comprising a third metallization pattern on the second surface of the semiconductor wafer that is opposite the first surface.

  23C13. The apparatus according to Item 22C13, wherein the third metal coating pattern has a contact pad proximate to a position of the first scribe line.

  24C13. The apparatus according to Item 1C13, wherein the first scribe line is formed by a laser.

  25C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C13, wherein the first scribe line is in the first surface.

  26C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C13, wherein the first metallization pattern includes a feature configured to contain the spread of the electrically conductive adhesive.

  27C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 26C13, wherein the characteristic includes an elevated characteristic.

  28C13. The apparatus of clause 27C13, wherein the first metallization pattern includes a contact pad, and the feature includes a dam that abuts the contact pad and is higher than the contact pad.

  29C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 26C13, wherein the feature includes a recessed feature.

  30C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 29C13, wherein the recessed feature includes a moat.

  31C13. The apparatus of paragraph 26C13, further comprising the electrically conductive adhesive in contact with the first metal coating pattern.

  32C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 31C13, wherein the electrically conductive adhesive is printed.

  33C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 1C13, wherein the semiconductor wafer includes silicon.

  34C13. The apparatus according to Item 33C13, wherein the semiconductor wafer includes crystalline silicon.

  35C13. The apparatus according to Item 33C13, wherein the first surface is n-type conductive.

  36C13. The apparatus according to paragraph 33C13, wherein the first surface is p-type conductive.

37C13. The first metallization pattern is 5 mm or less from the first outer edge;
The second metallization pattern is 5 mm or less from the second outer edge;
The device according to Item 1C13.

  38C13. The apparatus of clause 1C13, wherein the semiconductor wafer includes a plurality of chamfered corners, and the first metallization pattern includes a tapered portion extending around the chamfered corners.

  39C13. The apparatus of clause 38C13 wherein the tapered portion includes a bus bar.

  40C13. The apparatus of clause 38C13, wherein the tapered portion includes a conductor connecting discontinuous contact pads.

1C14. Scribing a first scribe line on the wafer;
Separating the wafer along the first scribe line using a vacuum to provide a solar cell strip.

  2C14. The method according to Item 1C14, wherein the scribing step includes a laser scribing step.

  3C14. The method according to Item 2C14, wherein the separating step includes a step of drawing the vacuum between a surface of the wafer and a curved surface.

  4C14. The method of clause 3C14 wherein the curved surface comprises a vacuum manifold.

5C14. The wafer is supported on a belt that moves to the vacuum manifold,
The method of paragraph 4C14, wherein the vacuum is pulled through the belt.

6C14. The separation step is
Directing the first scribe line at an angle to the vacuum manifold;
The method according to Item 5C14, further comprising: cleaving at one end of the first scribe line.

  7C14. The method according to paragraph 6C14, wherein the angle is substantially vertical.

  8C14. The method according to paragraph 6C14, wherein the angle is an angle other than substantially vertical.

  9C14. The method of paragraph 3C14, further comprising applying an uncured electrically conductive adhesive adhesive.

  10C14. The method according to Item 9C14, wherein the first scribe line and the uncured electrically conductive adhesive adhesive are on the same surface of the wafer.

  11C14. The laser scribing step includes curing the uncured conductive adhesive bonding agent by selecting a laser power and / or a distance between the first scribe line and the uncured conductive adhesive bonding agent. The method of paragraph 10C14, which is avoided.

  12C14. The method of paragraph 10C14 wherein the same surface is on the opposite side of the wafer surface supported by a belt that moves the wafer to the curved surface.

  13C14. The method according to paragraph 12C14, wherein the curved surface includes a vacuum manifold.

  14C14. The method according to Item 9C14, wherein the applying step occurs after the scribing step.

  15C14. The method according to Item 9C14, wherein the applying step occurs after the separating step.

  16C14. The method according to Item 9C14, wherein the applying step includes a step of screen printing.

  17C14. The method according to Item 9C14, wherein the applying step includes a step of performing inkjet printing.

  18C14. The method according to Item 9C14, wherein the applying step includes a step of depositing using a mask.

19C14. The first scribe line is
A first metallization pattern on the surface of the wafer along a first outer edge;
The method of paragraph 3C14, wherein the method is between a second metallization pattern on the surface of the wafer along a second outer edge.

20C14. The wafer further includes a third metallization pattern on the surface of the semiconductor wafer that is not proximate to the first outer edge or the second outer edge,
Scribing a second scribe line between the third metal coating pattern and the second metal coating pattern so that the first scribe line is between the first metal coating pattern and the third metal coating pattern. And a process of
The method of paragraph 19C14, further comprising: separating the wafer along the second scribe line to provide another solar cell strip.

  21C14. The distance between the first scribe line and the second scribe line defines an aspect ratio that is between about 1: 2 and about 1:20 for the length of the wafer, which is about 125 mm or about 156 mm. The method according to paragraph 20C14, wherein the width is formed.

  22C14. The method of paragraph 19C14, wherein the first metallization pattern includes fingers pointing to the second metallization pattern.

  23C14. The method of paragraph 22C14, wherein the first metallization pattern further includes a bus bar that intersects the fingers.

  24C14. The method according to paragraph 23C14, wherein the bus bar is within 5 mm of the first outer edge.

  25C14. The method of paragraph 22C14, further comprising an uncured electrically conductive adhesive adhesive that contacts the fingers.

  26C14. The method of paragraph 19C14, wherein the first metallization pattern includes discontinuous contact pads.

  27C14. The method of paragraph 19C14, further comprising printing or electroplating the first metallization pattern on the wafer.

28C14. A first super that includes at least 19 solar cell strips each having a breakdown voltage of at least 10V, with the long sides of adjacent solar cell strips overlapping the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive disposed therebetween. Placing the solar cell strip in a cell;
The method of claim 3, further comprising: curing the electrically conductive bonding agent to bond adjacent and overlapping solar cell strips that are electrically connected in series.

29C14. The step of arranging includes a step of forming a layered structure including an encapsulant,
The method according to paragraph 28C14, further comprising the step of laminating the layered structure.

  30C14. The method according to paragraph 29C14, wherein the curing step occurs at least partially during the laminating step.

  31C14. The method according to Item 29C14, wherein the curing step occurs separately from the laminating step.

  32C14. The method according to paragraph 29C14, wherein the encapsulant includes a thermoplastic olefin polymer.

33C14. The method according to Item 29C14, wherein the layered structure includes a white backing sheet and dark stripes on the white backing sheet.

  34C14. The method of paragraph 28C14, wherein the placing step comprises the step of containing the spread of the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive using the metallized pattern feature.

  35C14. The method of paragraph 34C14 wherein metallized pattern features are on the front surface of the solar cell strip.

  36C14. The method of paragraph 34C14 wherein metallized pattern features are on the back surface of the solar cell strip.

  37C14. The method of paragraph 28C14, further comprising applying the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive between interconnects that connect the first supercell and the second supercell in series.

38C14. Forming a ribbon conductor between the single bypass diodes of the first supercell;
The method of paragraph 28C14, wherein the single bypass diode is located within the first junction box of the first solar module in a mating arrangement with the second junction box of the second solar module.

39C14. The solar cell strip includes a first chamfered corner;
The long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips does not include the second chamfered corner,
The method of paragraph 28C14 wherein the width of the solar cell strip is greater than the width of the overlapping solar cell strips such that the solar cell strip and the overlapping solar cell strip have approximately the same area.

40C14. The solar cell strip includes a first chamfered corner,
The long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips includes a second chamfered corner,
The method according to Item 28C14, wherein the long side of the overlapping solar cell strips of the plurality of solar cell strips overlaps with a long side of the solar cell strip that does not include the first chamfered corner.

1C15. Forming a first metallization pattern along a first outer edge of a first surface of a semiconductor wafer;
Forming a second metallization pattern along the second outer edge of the first surface opposite the first outer edge;
Forming a first scribe line between the first metal coating pattern and the second metal coating pattern.

2C15. The first metal coating pattern includes a first finger pointing to the second metal coating pattern,
The method of paragraph 1C15, wherein the second metallization pattern includes a second finger pointing to the first metallization pattern.

3C15. The first metal covering pattern further includes a first bus bar located within 5 mm of the first outer edge intersecting the first finger,
The method of paragraph 2C15, wherein the second metallization pattern includes a second bus bar located within 5 mm of the second outer edge intersecting the second finger.

4C15. The method further comprises a step of forming, on the first surface, a third metal coating pattern that does not follow the first outer edge or does not follow the second outer edge.
A third bus bar parallel to the first bus bar;
A third finger pointing to the second metallization pattern,
Forming a second scribe line between the third metal coating pattern and the second metal coating pattern;
The method according to Item 3C15, wherein the first scribe line is between the first metal coating pattern and the third metal coating pattern.

  5C15. The paragraph 4C15, wherein the first scribe line and the second scribe line are separated by a width having a ratio to the length of the semiconductor wafer that is between about 1: 2 and about 1:20. the method of.

  6C15. The method of paragraph 5C15 wherein the length of the semiconductor wafer is about 156 mm or about 125 mm.

  7C15. The method according to paragraph 4C15, wherein the semiconductor wafer includes chamfered corners.

8C15. The first scribe line defines a first solar cell region including two chamfered corners and the first metallization pattern together with the first outer edge;
The first solar cell region has a first area corresponding to a value obtained by subtracting the combined area of the two chamfered corners from the product of the length of the semiconductor wafer and the first width. And
The second scribe line, together with the first scribe line, defines a second solar cell region that does not include chamfered corners and includes the third metallization pattern,
The paragraph 7C15, wherein the second solar cell region has a second area that is approximately the same as the first area, corresponding to a product of the length and a second width that is narrower than the first width. Method.

  9C15. The method according to paragraph 8C15, wherein the length is about 156 mm or about 125 mm.

  10C15. The method according to Item 4C15, wherein the step of forming the first scribe line and the step of forming the second scribe line include a step of laser scribing.

  11C15. The method according to Item 4C15, wherein the step of forming the first metal coating pattern, the step of forming the second metal coating pattern, and the step of forming the third metal coating pattern include a printing step.

  12C15. The method according to Item 11C15, wherein the step of forming the first metal coating pattern, the step of forming the second metal coating pattern, and the step of forming the third metal coating pattern include a step of screen printing. .

  13C15. Item 11. The method according to Item 11C15, wherein the step of forming the first metal coating pattern includes a step of forming a plurality of contact pads containing silver.

  14C15. The method according to Item 4C15, wherein the step of forming the first metal coating pattern, the step of forming the second metal coating pattern, and the step of forming the third metal coating pattern include a step of electroplating. .

  15C15. The method according to Item 14C15, wherein the first metal coating pattern, the second metal coating pattern, and the third metal coating pattern include copper.

  16C15. The method according to Item 4C15, wherein the first metal coating pattern includes aluminum, tin, silver, copper, and / or a conductor cheaper than silver.

  17C15. The method according to paragraph 4C15, wherein the semiconductor wafer includes silicon.

  18C15. The method according to paragraph 17C15, wherein the semiconductor wafer comprises crystalline silicon.

  19C15. The method of paragraph 4C15, further comprising forming a fourth metal coating pattern on the second surface of the semiconductor wafer between the first outer edge and within 5 mm of the position of the second scribe line.

  20C15. The method according to paragraph 4C15, wherein the first surface has a first conductivity type, and the second surface has a second conductivity type opposite to the first conductivity type.

  21C15. The method according to paragraph 4C15, wherein the fourth metallization pattern includes a contact pad.

  22C15. The method of paragraph 3C15, further comprising applying a conductive adhesive to the semiconductor wafer.

  23C15. The method of paragraph 22C15, further comprising the step of applying the conductive adhesive in contact with the first finger.

  24C15. The method according to Item 23C15, wherein the step of applying the conductive adhesive includes the step of screen printing or depositing using a mask.

  25C15. The method of paragraph 3C15, further comprising separating the semiconductor wafer along the first scribe line to form a first solar cell strip that includes the first metal coating pattern.

  26C15. The method according to Item 25C15, wherein the separating step includes a step of drawing a vacuum on the first scribe line.

  27C15. The method according to paragraph 26C15, further comprising placing the semiconductor wafer on a belt moving to the vacuum.

  28C15. The method of paragraph 25C15, further comprising applying a conductive adhesive to the first solar cell strip.

29C15. In a first supercell comprising at least 19 solar cell strips each having a breakdown voltage of at least 10 V, with the long sides of adjacent solar cell strips overlapping the conductive adhesive disposed therebetween Disposing a first solar cell strip;
The method of paragraph 25C15, further comprising: curing the conductive adhesive to bond adjacent and overlapping solar cell strips that are electrically connected in series.

30C15. The step of arranging includes a step of forming a layered structure including an encapsulant,
The method according to paragraph 29C15, further comprising the step of laminating the layered structure.

  31C15. The method according to paragraph 30C15, wherein the curing step occurs at least partially during the laminating step.

  32C15. The method according to Item 30C15, wherein the curing step occurs separately from the laminating step.

  33C15. The method according to paragraph 30C15, wherein the encapsulant comprises a thermoplastic olefin polymer.

34C15. The method according to Item 30C15, wherein the layered structure includes a white backing sheet and dark stripes on the white backing sheet.

  35C15. The method according to Item 29C15, wherein the disposing step includes a step of confining the spread of the conductive adhesive by the metal coating pattern feature.

  36C15. The method of paragraph 35C15, wherein the metallization pattern feature is on the front surface of the first solar cell strip.

  37C15. The method of paragraph 29C15, further comprising applying the conductive adhesive between interconnects connecting the first supercell and the second supercell in series.

38C15. Forming a ribbon conductor between the single bypass diodes of the first supercell;
The method of paragraph 29C15, wherein the single bypass diode is located within the first junction box of the first solar module in a mating arrangement with the second junction box of the second solar module.

39C15. The first solar cell strip includes a first chamfered corner;
The long side of the overlapping solar cell strip of the first supercell does not include the second chamfered corner,
The paragraph 29C15 wherein the width of the first solar cell strip is greater than the width of the overlapping solar cell strips such that the first solar cell strip and the overlapping solar cell strip have approximately the same area. Method.

40C15. The first solar cell strip includes a first chamfered corner;
The long side of the overlapping solar cell strip of the first supercell includes a second chamfered corner;
The method of paragraph 29C15, wherein the long side of the overlapping solar cell strips overlaps a long side of the first solar cell strip that does not include the first chamfered corner.

1C16. A first bus bar or contact pad row disposed parallel to and adjacent to the first outer edge of the silicon wafer, and a second side of the silicon wafer opposite to and parallel to the first edge of the silicon wafer. Obtaining or providing the silicon wafer including a front metallization pattern including a second bus bar or contact pad row disposed parallel to and adjacent to the outer edge;
Separating the silicon wafer along one or more scribe lines parallel to the first outer edge and the second outer edge of the silicon wafer to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells, The bus bar or contact pad row is arranged in parallel with and adjacent to the long outer edge of the first rectangular solar cell among the plurality of rectangular solar cells, and the second bus bar or contact pad row is the plurality of rectangular solar cells. Arranged parallel to and adjacent to the long outer edge of the second rectangular solar cell,
A step of forming a supercell by arranging the plurality of rectangular solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of adjacent solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent solar cells are electrically connected in series. Prepared,
A method in which a bottom surface of an adjacent rectangular solar cell in the supercell overlaps and is conductively joined to the first bus bar or contact pad row of the first rectangular solar cell among the plurality of rectangular solar cells.

  2C16. Item 1C16, wherein the bottom surface of the adjacent rectangular solar cell in the supercell overlaps and is conductively joined to the second bus bar or contact pad row on the second rectangular solar cell among the plurality of rectangular solar cells. the method of.

  3C16. The method according to paragraph 1C16, wherein the silicon wafer is a square or pseudo-square silicon wafer.

  4C16. The method of paragraph 3C16, wherein the silicon wafer has a side that is about 125 mm in length or about 156 mm in length.

  5C16. The method of paragraph 3C16 wherein the length to width ratio of each rectangular solar cell is between about 2: 1 and about 20: 1.

  6C16. The method according to paragraph 1C16, wherein the silicon wafer is a crystalline silicon wafer.

  7C16. The first bus bar or contact pad row and the second bus bar or contact pad row are arranged in a plurality of edge regions of the silicon wafer that convert light into electricity with lower efficiency than the plurality of central regions of the silicon wafer. The method according to paragraph 1C16, wherein the method is located.

  8C16. The front metallization pattern includes a first plurality of parallel fingers extending inwardly from the first outer edge of the silicon wafer and electrically connected to the first bus bar or contact pad row, and the second bus bar. Or a second plurality of parallel fingers extending inwardly from the second outer edge of the silicon wafer that electrically connects to a contact pad row.

  9C16. The front metallization pattern is oriented at least parallel to the first bus bar or contact pad row and the second bus bar or contact pad row, and the first bus bar or contact pad row and the second bus bar. Alternatively, a third bus bar or contact pad row located between the contact pad row and the third bus bar or contact pad row is oriented in a direction perpendicular to the third bus bar or contact pad row and electrically connected to the third bus bar or contact pad row. A third plurality of parallel fingers, wherein the third bus bar or contact pad row includes a plurality of rectangular solar cells after the silicon wafer is separated to form the plurality of rectangular solar cells. Item 1 is arranged parallel to and adjacent to the long outer edge of the third rectangular solar cell. The method according to 16.

  10C16. The method of paragraph 1C16, comprising applying a conductive adhesive to the first bus bar or contact pad row to conductively bond the first rectangular solar cell to an adjacent solar cell.

  11C16. The method according to paragraph 10C16, wherein the metal coating pattern includes a barrier configured to contain the spread of the conductive adhesive.

  12C16. The method of paragraph 10C16, comprising the step of applying the conductive adhesive by screen printing.

  13C16. The method of paragraph 10C16, comprising the step of applying the conductive adhesive by ink jet printing.

  14C16. The method according to paragraph 10C16, wherein the conductive adhesive is applied prior to forming the one or more scribe lines in the silicon wafer.

  15C16. The step of separating the silicon wafer along the one or more scribe lines includes drawing a vacuum between the bottom surface of the silicon wafer and the curved support surface, bending the silicon wafer toward the curved support surface, The method according to paragraph 1C16, comprising the step of cleaving the silicon wafer along the one or more scribe lines.

16C16. The silicon wafer is a pseudo-square silicon wafer including a plurality of chamfered corners, and after the step of separating the silicon wafer to form the plurality of rectangular solar cells, one or more of the rectangular solar cells A plurality includes one or more of the plurality of chamfered corners,
The interval between the scribe lines is a width perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular solar cell including a plurality of chamfered corners, and a width perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular solar cell having a plurality of chamfered corners. It is selected to compensate for the chamfered corners by increasing the size, so that each of the plurality of rectangular solar cells in the supercell has a substantial area exposed to light in the operation of the supercell. The method of paragraph 1C16 having front surfaces that are the same.

  17C16. The method according to paragraph 1C16, comprising the step of disposing the supercell in a layered structure between a transparent front sheet and a rear sheet and laminating the layered structure.

  18C16. The step of laminating the layered structure completes the curing of the conductive adhesive disposed between the adjacent rectangular solar cells in the supercell, and conductively bonds the adjacent rectangular solar cells to each other. Item 17. The method according to Item 17C16.

  19C16. The supercells are arranged in the layered structure in one of two or more parallel rows of supercells, and the backsheet is positioned between the gaps between two or more parallel rows of the supercells and A white sheet comprising a plurality of parallel dark stripes having a position corresponding to the width and a width, whereby the plurality of white portions of the rear sheet are two or two of the supercells in the assembled module The method of paragraph 17C16, wherein the method is not visible through more gaps between parallel rows.

  20C16. The method according to Item 17C16, wherein the front sheet and the rear sheet are glass sheets, and the supercell is enclosed in a thermoplastic olefin layer sandwiched between the glass sheets.

  21C16. The method of paragraph 1C16, comprising the step of placing the supercell in a first module that includes a junction box mated with a second junction box of a second solar module.

1D. A plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows, wherein each supercell has adjacent long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlapping and directly conducting junctions with each other, A plurality of supercells having a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged side by side in electrical connection in series,
A first hidden tap contact pad located on the rear surface of the first solar cell located at an intermediate position along the first supercell among the plurality of supercells;
A first electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the first hidden tap contact pad;
With
The solar module, wherein the first electrical interconnect includes stress relaxation features adapted to differential thermal expansion between the interconnect and the silicon solar cell to which it is joined.

2D. A second hidden tap contact pad located on the rear surface of the second solar cell located adjacent to the first solar cell at an intermediate position along the second supercell among the plurality of supercells;
The solar module of paragraph 1D, wherein the first hidden tap contact pad is electrically connected to the second hidden tap contact pad through the first electrical interconnect.

  3D. The solar of claim 2D, wherein the first electrical interconnect extends across a gap between the first supercell and the second supercell and is conductively joined to the second hidden tap contact pad. module.

4D. A second hidden tap contact pad located on the rear surface of the second solar cell located at another intermediate position along the first supercell among the plurality of supercells;
A second electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the second hidden tap contact pad;
A bypass diode electrically connected by the first electrical interconnect portion and the second electrical interconnect portion in parallel with the solar cell located between the first hidden tap contact pad and the second hidden tap contact pad. The solar module according to Item 1D, comprising:

5D. The first hidden tap contact pad is one of a plurality of hidden tap contact pads disposed on the rear surface of the first solar cell in a row extending parallel to the long axis of the first solar cell,
Item 1D, wherein the first electrical interconnect is conductively joined to each of the plurality of hidden contact portions and substantially extends across the length of the first solar cell along the major axis. Solar module.

6D. The first hidden tap contact pad is located adjacent to the short side of the rear surface of the first solar cell,
The first electrical interconnect does not extend substantially inward from the hidden tap contact pad along the long axis of the solar cell;
The solar module of paragraph 1D, wherein a back metallization pattern on the first solar cell provides a conduction path to the interconnect having a sheet resistance less than or equal to about 5 ohms / square.

  7D. The solar module of paragraph 6D, wherein the sheet resistance is less than or equal to about 2.5 ohms / square.

8D. The first interconnect includes two tabs positioned on opposite sides of the stress relaxation feature;
The solar module according to Item 6D, wherein one of the two tabs is conductively joined to the first hidden tap contact pad.

  9D. The solar module according to Item 8D, wherein the two tabs have different lengths.

  10D. The solar module of paragraph 1D, wherein the first electrical interconnect includes an alignment feature that specifies a desired alignment with the first hidden tap contact pad.

  11D. The solar module of paragraph 1D, wherein the first electrical interconnect includes an alignment feature that specifies a desired alignment with an edge of the first supercell.

  12D. Item 10. The solar module according to Item 1D, wherein the solar module is arranged so as to overlap with another solar module to be electrically connected in the overlapping region.

13D. A solar module,
A glass front sheet,
A rear sheet,
A plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows between the glass front sheet and the rear sheet, each supercell overlapping the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells A plurality of supercells having a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged in a flexible conductive connection directly to each other and electrically connected in series with the adjacent silicon solar cells;
A first flexible electrical interconnect that is firmly conductively joined to the first supercell of the plurality of supercells,
A plurality of flexible conductive junctions between overlapping solar cells are formed between the plurality of supercells and the glass front sheet in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 100 ° C. without damaging the solar module. Providing the plurality of supercells with mechanical compliance to accommodate thermal expansion mismatches in the direction parallel to the two or more parallel rows between,
The strong conductive junction between the first supercell and the first flexible electrical interconnect is in the temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 180 ° C. without damaging the solar module. Solar module adapted to a flexible electrical interconnect for thermal expansion mismatch between the first supercell and the first flexible interconnect in a direction perpendicular to the two or more parallel rows .

  14D. The plurality of conductive junctions between overlapping adjacent solar cells in a supercell utilize a different conductive adhesive than the plurality of conductive junctions between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect. The solar module according to 13D.

  15D. The solar module of paragraph 14D, wherein both conductive adhesives can be cured in the same processing step.

  16D. The solar module of paragraph 13D, wherein the conductive junction on one side of at least one solar cell in the supercell utilizes a different conductive adhesive than the conductive junction on the other side.

  17D. The solar module of paragraph 16D, wherein both conductive adhesives can be cured in the same processing step.

  18D. The clause of clause 13D, wherein a plurality of the conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells accommodates a differential motion between each cell and the glass front sheet that is greater than or equal to about 15 microns. Solar module.

  19D. The plurality of conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells have a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells that is less than or equal to about 50 microns and in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells. The solar module of paragraph 13D, wherein the thermal conductivity is greater than or equal to about 1.5 W / (meter-K).

  20D. The solar module of paragraph 13D, wherein the first flexible electrical interconnect withstands thermal expansion or contraction greater than or equal to about 40 microns of the first flexible interconnect.

  21D. The portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the supercell is a ribbon formed from copper and has a thickness in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to which it is joined. The solar module of paragraph 13D, wherein the solar module is less than or equal to 50 microns.

  22D. The portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the supercell is a ribbon formed from copper and has a thickness in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to which it is joined. The solar module of paragraph 21D, wherein the solar module is less than or equal to 30 microns.

  23D. The first flexible electrical interconnect has an integral conductive copper portion that is not bonded to the solar cell, providing higher conductivity than the portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively bonded to the solar cell. The solar module according to Item 21D.

  24D. Item 21D wherein the first flexible electrical interconnect has a width in a direction perpendicular to the current flow through the interconnect in the plane of the surface of the solar cell that is greater than or equal to about 10 mm. Solar module.

  25D. The solar module of paragraph 21D, wherein the first flexible electrical interconnect is conductively bonded to a conductor proximate to the solar cell that provides higher conductivity than the first electrical interconnect.

  26D. Item 14. The solar module according to Item 13D, which is arranged in a scintillating manner overlapping with another solar module to which electrical connection is made in the overlapping region.

27D. A plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows, wherein each supercell has adjacent long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlapping and directly conducting junctions with each other, A plurality of supercells having a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged side by side in electrical connection in series,
A hidden tap contact pad located on the rear surface of the first solar cell, which does not conduct substantial current in normal operation, and
The first solar cell is located at an intermediate position along the first supercell among the plurality of supercells in the first row among the two or more parallel rows of the supercell, and the hidden tap contact pad Is a solar module that is electrically connected in parallel with at least a second solar cell in a second row of two or more parallel rows of the supercell.

28D. An electrical interconnect that joins the hidden tap contact pad and electrically interconnects the hidden tap contact pad to the second solar cell;
The electrical interconnect does not substantially extend over the length of the first solar cell;
The solar module of paragraph 27D, wherein a back metallization pattern on the first solar cell provides a conduction path to the hidden tap contact pad having a sheet resistance less than or equal to about 5 ohms / square.

29D. The plurality of supercells are arranged in the three or more parallel rows extending across the width of the solar module perpendicular to the three or more parallel rows;
The hidden tap contact pad is electrically connected to a hidden contact pad on at least one solar cell in each of the three or more parallel rows of the supercell, and the three or more supercells of the supercell. Electrically connect parallel rows in parallel,
Item 27D, wherein at least one bus connection to at least one of the plurality of hidden tap contact pads or to an interconnect between the plurality of hidden tap contact pads connects to a bypass diode or other electronic device. Solar module as described in

30D. A flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the hidden tap contact pad and electrically connects it to the second solar cell;
The portion of the flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively bonded to the hidden tap contact pad is a ribbon formed from copper and has a thickness in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to which it is bonded. Less than or equal to 50 microns,
The conductive junction between the hidden tap contact pad and the flexible electrical interconnect is connected to the flexible electrical interconnect in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 180 ° C. without damaging the solar module. Endure the thermal expansion mismatch between the first solar cell and the flexible interconnect and adapt to the relative motion between the first solar cell and the second solar cell resulting from the thermal expansion The solar module according to Item 27D.

  31D. The solar module according to paragraph 27D, wherein in the operation of the solar module, the first hidden contact pad can conduct a current larger than a current generated by any one of the plurality of solar cells.

  32D. The solar module of paragraph 27D, wherein a front surface of the first solar cell lying on the first hidden tap contact pad is not occupied by contact pads or any other interconnect features.

  33D. In paragraph 27D, no area of the front surface of the first solar cell that does not overlap a portion of the adjacent solar cells in the first supercell is occupied by contact pads or any other interconnect feature. The described solar module.

  34D. The solar module of paragraph 27D, wherein within each supercell, most of the plurality of batteries do not have hidden tap contact pads.

  35D. The solar module according to Item 34D, wherein the plurality of batteries having hidden tap contact pads have a larger light collection area than the plurality of batteries not having hidden tap contact pads.

  36D. Item 27D is the solar module according to Item 27D, which is arranged so as to overlap with other solar modules to be electrically connected in the overlapping region.

37D. A glass front sheet,
A rear sheet,
A plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows between the glass front sheet and the rear sheet, each supercell overlapping the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells A plurality of supercells having a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged in a flexible conductive connection directly to each other and electrically connected in series with the adjacent silicon solar cells;
A first flexible electrical interconnect that is firmly conductively joined to the first supercell of the plurality of supercells,
The plurality of flexible conductive junctions between the overlapping solar cells are formed from a first conductive adhesive and have a rigidity less than or equal to about 800 megapascals;
The strong conductive joint between the first supercell and the first flexible electrical interconnect is formed from a second conductive adhesive and has a stiffness greater than or equal to about 2000 megapascals; Solar module.

  38D. The solar module of paragraph 37D, wherein, unlike the first conductive adhesive and the second conductive adhesive, both conductive adhesives can be cured in the same processing step.

  39D. The plurality of conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells have a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells that is less than or equal to about 50 microns and in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells. The solar module of paragraph 37D, wherein the thermal conductivity is greater than or equal to about 1.5 W / (meter-K).

  40D. Item 37D is a solar module according to Item 37D, which is arranged in a sparkling manner overlapping with other solar modules to be electrically connected in the overlapping region.

1E. Comprising N (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows;
Each supercell includes a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series,
The plurality of supercells are electrically connected to provide a high DC voltage that is greater than or equal to about 90 volts.

  2E. The solar module of paragraph 1E, comprising one or more flexible electrical interconnects arranged to electrically connect the plurality of supercells in series to provide the high DC voltage.

  3E. The solar module according to Item 2E, comprising module-level power electronics including an inverter that converts the high DC voltage into an AC voltage.

  4E. The solar module of paragraph 3E, wherein the module level power electronics senses the high DC voltage and causes the module to operate at an optimal current-voltage power point.

5E. A module level module that electrically connects a plurality of individual, adjacent, series connected supercell row pairs and electrically connects one or more of the plurality of supercell row pairs in series to provide the high DC voltage. Power electronics,
The solar module according to Item 1E, comprising: an inverter that converts the high DC voltage into an AC voltage.

  6E. The solar module of paragraph 5E, wherein the module level power electronics senses a voltage across each individual supercell row pair and operates each individual supercell row pair at an optimal current-voltage power point.

  7E. The solar module of paragraph 6E, wherein when the voltage across an individual supercell row pair falls below a threshold, the module level power electronics switches out the row pair from the circuit providing the high DC voltage. .

8E. Module-level power electronics that electrically connect to each individual supercell row and electrically connect two or more of the plurality of supercell rows in series to provide the high DC voltage;
The solar module according to Item 1E, comprising: an inverter that converts the high DC voltage into an AC voltage.

  9E. The solar module of paragraph 8E, wherein the module level power electronics senses a voltage across each individual supercell row and operates each individual supercell row at an optimal current-voltage power point.

  10E. The solar module of paragraph 9E, wherein if the voltage across an individual supercell row falls below a threshold, the module level power electronics switches out the supercell row from the circuit providing the high DC voltage. .

11E. Module-level power electronics that electrically connect to each individual supercell and electrically connect two or more of the plurality of supercells in series to provide the high DC voltage;
The solar module according to Item 1E, comprising: an inverter that converts the high DC voltage into an AC voltage.

  12E. The solar module of paragraph 11E, wherein the module level power electronics senses the voltage across each individual supercell and operates each individual supercell at the optimal current-voltage power point.

  13E. The solar module of paragraph 12E, wherein if the voltage across an individual supercell falls below a threshold, the module level power electronics switches out the supercell from the circuit providing the high DC voltage.

14E. Each supercell is electrically segmented into multiple segments with multiple hidden taps,
Module-level power electronics that electrically connect to each segment of each supercell through the plurality of hidden taps and electrically connect two or more segments in series to provide the high DC voltage;
The solar module according to Item 1E, comprising: an inverter that converts the high DC voltage into an AC voltage.

  15E. The solar module of paragraph 14E, wherein the module level power electronics senses the voltage across each individual segment of each supercell and operates each individual segment at an optimal current-voltage power point.

  16E. The solar module of paragraph 15E, wherein when the voltage across the individual segments falls below a threshold, the module level power electronics switches out the segment from the circuit providing the high DC voltage.

  17E. The solar module according to any one of Items 4E, 6E, 9E, 12E, and 15E, wherein the optimum current-voltage power point is a maximum current-voltage power point.

  18E. The solar module of any one of paragraphs 3E to 17E, wherein the module level power electronics does not have a DC-DC boost component.

  19E. N is greater than or equal to about 200, greater than or equal to about 250, greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, greater than or equal to about 400, or equal to about 450 Greater than or equal to, greater than about 500, or equal to, greater than about 550, or equal to, greater than about 600, or equal to, greater than about 650, or equal to, or greater than about 700, The solar module according to any one of Items 1E to 18E, which is or equal to it.

  20E. The high DC voltage is greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, greater than about 360 volts. Higher or equal, higher than or equal to about 420 volts, higher than or equal to about 480 volts, higher than or equal to about 540 volts, or higher than or equal to about 600 volts, Section 1E The solar module as described in any one of 19E.

21E. Two or more solar modules electrically connected in parallel;
An inverter and
Each solar module has N (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows;
Each supercell in each module is arranged side by side in the module, with the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlapping and conductively connected to each other, and electrically connecting the adjacent silicon solar cells in series. Including two or more of the above silicon solar cells,
In each module, the plurality of supercells are electrically connected to provide a high voltage DC module output that is greater than or equal to about 90 volts;
The inverter is a solar power generation system in which the inverter is electrically connected to the two or more solar modules and converts their high-voltage direct current output into alternating current.

  22E. Each solar module includes one or more flexible electrical interconnects arranged to electrically connect the plurality of supercells in the solar module in series to provide a high voltage direct current output of the solar module. The solar power generation system as described in 21E.

23E. At least a third solar module electrically connected in series with the first solar module of the two or more solar modules electrically connected in parallel;
The third solar module has N ′ (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows. ,
The supercells in the third solar module are arranged in the module in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Including two or more of the silicon solar cells arranged in
The solar power generation system of clause 21E, wherein within the third solar module, the plurality of supercells are electrically connected to provide a high voltage DC module output that is greater than or equal to about 90 volts.

24E. At least a fourth solar module electrically connected in series with the second solar module of the two or more solar modules electrically connected in parallel;
The fourth solar module has N ″ (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows. And
The supercells in the fourth solar module are arranged in the module in such a manner that the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Including two or more of the silicon solar cells arranged in
The solar power generation system of clause 23E, wherein within the fourth solar module, the plurality of supercells are electrically connected to provide a high voltage DC module output that is greater than or equal to about 90 volts.

  25E. From paragraph 21E, comprising a plurality of fuses arranged to prevent a short circuit occurring in any one of the two or more solar modules from dissipating power generated by other solar modules The photovoltaic power generation system described in 24E.

  26E. Arranged to prevent a short circuit occurring in any one of the two or more solar modules from dissipating the power generated by the other solar modules of the two or more solar modules. The photovoltaic power generation system according to any one of Items 21E to 25E, comprising the plurality of blocking diodes.

  27E. The solar power generation system according to any one of Items 21E to 26E, comprising the parallel electrical connection destination of the two or more solar modules and the positive electrode bus and the negative electrode bus of the inverter.

28E. A combiner box to which the two or more solar modules are electrically connected by separate conductors;
The solar power generation system according to any one of Items 21E to 26E, wherein the combiner box electrically connects the two or more solar modules in parallel.

  29E. The combiner box includes a plurality of fuses arranged to prevent a short circuit occurring in any one of the two or more solar modules from dissipating power generated by other solar modules. Item 28E. The photovoltaic power generation system according to Item 28E.

  30E. In the combiner box, a short circuit occurring in any one of the two or more solar modules dissipates the power generated by the other solar module of the two or more solar modules. The photovoltaic power generation system according to Item 28E or Item 29E, comprising a plurality of blocking diodes arranged to prevent the occurrence of

  31E. Paragraph 21E through 30E, wherein the inverter is configured to operate the two or more solar modules at a DC voltage higher than a minimum value set to avoid reverse biasing the module. The photovoltaic power generation system according to item.

  32E. 30. The solar of any one of clauses 21E to 30E, wherein the inverter is configured to recognize a reverse bias condition and operate the two or more solar modules at a voltage that avoids the reverse bias condition. Photovoltaic system.

  33E. N is greater than or equal to about 200, greater than or equal to about 250, greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, greater than or equal to about 400, or equal to about 450 Greater than or equal to, greater than about 500, or equal to, greater than about 550, or equal to, greater than about 600, or equal to, greater than about 650, or equal to, or greater than about 700, The solar module according to any one of Items 21E to 32E, or an equivalent thereof.

  34E. The high DC voltage is greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, greater than about 360 volts. Higher or equal to, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts, or greater than or equal to about 600 volts, Section 21E The solar module as described in any one of 33E.

  35E. The photovoltaic power generation system according to any one of Items 21E to 34E, which is positioned on a roof.

36E. N (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows, each supercell being adjacent A rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cell comprising a plurality of silicon solar cells arranged in a state in which the long sides of the matching silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series A first solar module having:
An inverter and
The plurality of supercells are electrically connected to provide a high DC voltage higher than or equal to about 90 volts to the inverter that converts the DC to AC.

  37E. The solar power generation system according to Item 36E, wherein the inverter is a micro inverter integrated with the first solar module.

  38E. The first solar module includes one or more flexible electrical interconnects arranged to electrically connect the plurality of supercells in the solar module in series to provide a high voltage direct current output of the solar module. The solar power generation system according to Item 36E.

39E. At least a second solar module electrically connected in series with the first solar module;
The second solar module has N ′ (greater than or equal to about 150) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of supercells in two or more parallel rows. ,
The supercells in the second solar module are arranged in the module in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are conductively connected to each other, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Including two or more of the silicon solar cells arranged in
40. In any one of paragraphs 36E to 38E, in the second solar module, the plurality of supercells are electrically connected to provide a high voltage DC module output that is greater than or equal to about 90 volts. Solar power system.

  40E. 40. The solar module of any one of clauses 36E to 39E, wherein the inverter does not have a DC-DC boost component.

  41E. N is greater than or equal to about 200, greater than or equal to about 250, greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, greater than or equal to about 400, or equal to about 450 Greater than or equal to, greater than about 500, or equal to, greater than about 550, or equal to, greater than about 600, or equal to, greater than about 650, or equal to, or greater than about 700, The solar module according to any one of Items 36E to 40E, or equivalent thereto.

  42E. The high DC voltage is greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, greater than about 360 volts. High or equal, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts, or greater than or equal to about 600 volts, paragraph 36E The solar module as described in any one of 41E.

43E. N (greater than or equal to about 250) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of series-connected supercells in two or more parallel rows, each supercell However, it has a plurality of silicon solar cells, the long sides of the adjacent silicon solar cells overlap each other and directly conductively joined to each other by an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive, A rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cell, which is arranged side by side in a state where the plurality of silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series,
With less than 1 bypass diode per 25 solar cells,
The electrically and thermally conductive adhesive has a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of less than or equal to about 50 microns and a thermal conductivity in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of about A solar module that forms a plurality of junctions between adjacent solar cells greater than or equal to 1.5 W / (meter-K).

  44E. The solar module according to Item 43E, wherein the plurality of supercells are enclosed in a thermoplastic olefin layer between a front sheet and a rear sheet.

  45E. The solar module according to Item 43E, wherein the plurality of super cells are sealed between a glass front sheet and a rear sheet.

  46E. Less than 1 bypass diode per 30 solar cells, or less than 1 bypass diode per 50 solar cells, or less than 1 bypass diode per 100 solar cells, or only a single bypass diode The solar module according to Item 43E, which is provided or does not include a bypass diode.

  47E. The solar module of paragraph 43E, comprising no bypass diode, or comprising only a single bypass diode, or no more than three bypass diodes, or no more than six bypass diodes, or no more than ten bypass diodes.

  48E. The plurality of conductive junctions between the overlapping solar cells are formed between the plurality of supercells and the glass front sheet in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 100 ° C. without damaging the solar module. The solar module of paragraph 43E, which provides the plurality of supercells with mechanical compliance that accommodates thermal expansion mismatches in the direction parallel to the two or more parallel rows.

  49E. N is greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, greater than or equal to about 400, greater than or equal to about 450, greater than or equal to about 500, or about 550 50. The solar module of any one of clauses 43E to 48E, greater than or equal to, greater than about 600, or equal to, greater than about 650, or equal to, or greater than or equal to about 700. .

  50E. The plurality of supercells are electrically connected to greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, or Equal to, greater than or equal to about 360 volts, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts, or greater than about 600 volts, 50. A solar module according to any one of clauses 43E to 49E, which provides a high DC voltage equal to or equal thereto.

51E. The solar module according to Item 43E;
A solar energy system comprising: an inverter configured to electrically connect to the solar module and convert a DC output from the solar module to provide an AC output.

  52E. The solar energy system of paragraph 51E wherein the inverter does not have a DC-DC boost component.

  53E. The solar energy system of paragraph 51E, wherein the inverter is configured to operate the solar module at a DC voltage that is higher than a minimum value set to avoid reverse biasing the solar cell.

  54E. The solar energy system according to Item 53E, wherein the minimum voltage value is temperature-dependent.

  55E. The solar energy system of paragraph 51E, wherein the inverter is configured to recognize a reverse bias state and operate the solar module at a voltage that avoids the reverse bias state.

  56E. The solar energy system according to paragraph 55E, wherein the inverter is configured to operate the solar module in a maximum region of a voltage-current output curve of the solar module to avoid the reverse bias state.

  57E. The solar energy system according to any one of Items 51E to 56E, wherein the inverter is a micro inverter integrated with the solar module.

1F. Advancing the solar cell wafer along the curved surface;
A vacuum is drawn between the curved surface and the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer, and the solar cell wafer is bent toward the curved surface, whereby the sun is moved along one or more scribe lines prepared in advance. Cleaving the battery wafer and separating the plurality of solar cells from the solar cell wafer.

  2F. The method of paragraph 1F, wherein the curved surface is a curved portion of the top surface of a vacuum manifold that draws the vacuum against the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer.

  3F. The vacuum drawn by the vacuum manifold against the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer varies along the direction of movement of the solar cell wafer and is strongest in the region of the vacuum manifold where the solar cell wafer is cleaved. , Item 2F.

  4F. Transporting the solar cell wafer by a perforated belt along the curved upper surface of the vacuum manifold, wherein the vacuum is applied to the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer through a plurality of perforations of the perforated belt. The method of paragraph 2F or paragraph 3F, comprising the step of:

  5F. The plurality of perforations of the perforated belt are disposed such that a front edge and a rear edge of the solar cell wafer along a moving direction of the solar cell wafer lie on at least one perforation of the perforated belt. , Item 4F.

  6F. The solar cell wafer is advanced along the flat region of the upper surface of the vacuum manifold to reach the transition curve region of the upper surface of the vacuum manifold having a first curvature, after which the solar cell wafer is cleaved. A step of advancing the solar cell wafer into a cleavage region on the upper surface of the vacuum manifold, wherein the cleavage region of the vacuum manifold has a second curvature higher than the first curvature. Item 6. The method according to any one of Items 2F to 5F.

  7F. The method of clause 6F, wherein the curvature of the transition region is defined by a continuous geometric function that increases the curvature.

  8F. The method of clause 7F, wherein the curvature of the cleavage region is defined by a continuous geometric function that increases the curvature.

  9F. The method of paragraph 6F, comprising the step of advancing the plurality of cleaved solar cells in a post-cleavage region of the vacuum manifold having a third curvature higher than the second curvature.

  10F. The method of clause 9F, wherein the curvature of the transition curve region, the cleavage region, and the post-cleavage region is defined by a single continuous geometric function that increases the curvature.

  11F. The method according to Item 7F, Item 8F, or Item 10F, wherein the continuous geometric function that increases the curvature is a clothoid.

  12F. At one end of each scribe line, and then at the opposite end of each scribe line, a stronger vacuum is drawn between the solar cell wafer and the curved surface to create a single cleavage rift along each scribe line. Item 12. The method of any one of Items 1F to 11F comprising providing an asymmetric stress distribution along each scribe line that facilitates nucleation and propagation.

  13F. Removing the plurality of cleaved solar cells from the curved surface, wherein a plurality of edges of the cleaved solar cells are touched before removing the solar cells from the curved surface; Item 13. The method according to any one of Items 1F to 12F, comprising a step.

14F. Laser scribing the one or more scribe lines onto the solar cell wafer;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive adhesive to a portion of the top surface of the solar cell wafer before cleaving the solar cell wafer along the one or more scribe lines,
The method according to any one of Items 1F to 13F, wherein each cleaved solar cell includes a portion of the electrically conductive adhesive adhesive disposed along a cleaved edge of the top surface.

  15F. Item 14. The method of Item 14F, comprising laser scribing the one or more scribe lines and then applying the electrically conductive adhesive bond.

  16F. The method of paragraph 14F, comprising the step of applying the electrically conductive adhesive bond and then laser scribing the one or more scribe lines.

17F. A method of making a solar cell string from a plurality of cleaved solar cells manufactured by the method according to any one of Items 14F to 16F,
The plurality of cleaved solar cells are a plurality of rectangular solar cells,
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of the adjacent rectangular solar cells overlap each other with a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent disposed between them,
Curing the electrically conductive adhesive bond, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells together and electrically connecting them in series.

  18F. Item 18. The method according to any one of Items 1F to 17F, wherein the solar cell wafer is a square or pseudo-square silicon solar cell wafer.

1G. Forming a back metal coating pattern on each square solar cell among one or more square solar cells;
Stencil printing a complete front metallization pattern on each square solar cell of the one or more square solar cells using a single stencil in a single stencil printing process;
Each square solar cell is separated into two or more rectangular solar cells to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells each including a complete front metallization pattern and a backside metallization pattern. Forming from a solar cell;
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of adjacent rectangular solar cells overlap each other in a sparkling manner;
A step of conductively bonding the rectangular solar cells included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells with an electrically conductive bonding agent disposed therebetween, one of the rectangular solar cells included in the pair Electrically connecting the front metal coating pattern of the rectangular solar cell to the back metal coating pattern of the other rectangular solar cell of the rectangular solar cells included in the pair, thereby connecting the plurality of rectangular solar cells in series A method of making a solar cell string comprising the steps of: electrically connecting to

  2G. Other parts of the stencil such that all portions of the stencil defining one or more features of the front metallization pattern on the one or more square solar cells lie in the plane of the stencil during stencil printing. The method of paragraph 1G, wherein the method is secured by physical connection to a portion of

  3G. The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of fingers oriented in a direction perpendicular to the long sides of the rectangular solar cell, and each of the plurality of fingers in the front metallization pattern is The method of paragraph 1G, wherein the front metallization patterns are not physically connected to each other.

  4G. The method of paragraph 3G, wherein the plurality of fingers are about 10 microns to about 90 microns wide.

  5G. The method of paragraph 3G, wherein the plurality of fingers are about 10 microns to about 50 microns wide.

  6G. The method of clause 3G, wherein the plurality of fingers are about 10 microns to about 30 microns wide.

  7G. The method of clause 3G, wherein the plurality of fingers have a height in a direction perpendicular to a front surface of the rectangular solar cell of about 10 microns to about 50 microns.

  8G. The method of clause 3G, wherein the plurality of fingers have a height in a direction perpendicular to the front surface of the rectangular solar cell of about 30 microns or greater.

  9G. The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads located parallel to and adjacent to the edges of the long sides of the rectangular solar cell, each positioned at the end of a corresponding finger; Item 3. The method according to Item 3G.

10G. The back surface metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads arranged in rows adjacent to and parallel to the long edge of the rectangular solar cell,
Each pair of adjacent rectangular solar cells that overlap each other is each of the plurality of contact pads on the back surface of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair, and each of the rectangular solar cells included in the pair. The method of paragraph 3G, wherein the method is positioned in electrical connection with a corresponding finger in the front metallization pattern on the other rectangular solar cell.

11G. The back surface metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a bus bar extending parallel to and adjacent to the edge of the long side of the rectangular solar cell,
Each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells is connected to the bus bar on one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair on the other rectangular solar cell among the rectangular solar cells included in the pair. The method according to Item 3G, wherein the plurality of fingers in the front metal coating pattern are arranged in an overlapping state and electrically connected.

12G. The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads arranged parallel to and adjacent to the edge of the long side of the rectangular solar cell, each positioned at the end of a corresponding finger;
The back surface metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads arranged in rows adjacent to and parallel to the long edge of the rectangular solar cell,
Each pair of adjacent rectangular solar cells that are adjacent to each other includes a plurality of contact pads on the back surface of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair, and each of the rectangular solar cells included in the pair. Item 3. The method according to Item 3G, wherein the method is arranged in a state of overlapping and electrically connecting to a corresponding contact pad in the front metallization pattern on the other rectangular solar cell.

  13G. The rectangular solar cells included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells include a discontinuity of an electrically conductive bonding agent disposed between the plurality of contact pads on the front surface and the plurality of contact pads on the back surface. Item 12. The method according to Item 12G, in which conductive bonding is performed to each other by a part.

  14G. The rectangular solar cells included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells are included in the front metallization pattern of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair and in the rectangular solar cell pair. The method according to paragraph 3G, wherein conductive bonding is performed to each other by discontinuous portions of an electrically conductive bonding agent disposed between overlapping edges of the plurality of fingers in the back surface metallization pattern of the other rectangular solar cell.

15G. The rectangular solar cells included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells are included in the front metallization pattern of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair and in the rectangular solar cell pair. Conductively joined to each other by a dashed or solid electrical conductive adhesive disposed between the overlapping ends of the plurality of fingers in the backside metallization pattern of the other rectangular solar cell;
The method of paragraph 3G, wherein the dashed or solid electrical conductive bonding agent electrically interconnects one or more of the plurality of fingers.

16G. The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads, each positioned at the end of a corresponding finger, disposed parallel to and adjacent to the edge of the long side of the rectangular solar cell;
The rectangular solar cell included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells includes the plurality of contact pads of the front metallization pattern of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair, and the rectangular solar cell. Item 3. The method according to Item 3G, wherein conductive bonding is performed to each other by a discontinuous portion of an electrically conductive bonding agent disposed between the back surface metal coating pattern of the other rectangular solar cell included in the battery pair.

17G. The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads, each positioned at the end of a corresponding finger, disposed parallel to and adjacent to the edge of the long side of the rectangular solar cell;
The rectangular solar cell included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells includes the plurality of contact pads of the front metallization pattern of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair, and the rectangular solar cell. Conductively bonded to each other by a broken line or solid line-shaped electrically conductive bonding agent disposed between the back surface metal coating pattern of the other rectangular solar cell included in the battery pair,
The method of paragraph 3G, wherein the dashed or solid electrical conductive bonding agent electrically interconnects one or more of the plurality of fingers.

  18G. Item 18. The method according to any one of Items 1G to 17G, wherein the front metal coating pattern is formed from a silver paste.

1H. A method of manufacturing a plurality of solar cells,
Depositing one or more front amorphous silicon layers on the front side of the crystalline silicon wafer, wherein the front amorphous silicon layer is irradiated with light in the operation of the plurality of solar cells;
Depositing one or more backside amorphous silicon layers on the backside of the crystalline silicon wafer on the opposite side of the frontside of the crystalline silicon wafer;
Patterning the one or more front amorphous silicon layers to form one or more front trenches in the one or more front amorphous silicon layers;
Depositing a front passivating layer on the one or more front amorphous silicon layers and in the one or more front trenches;
Patterning the one or more backside amorphous silicon layers to form one or more backside trenches in the one or more backside amorphous silicon layers, each of the one or more backside trenches being A step formed side by side with a corresponding one of the one or more front trenches;
Depositing a back surface passivation layer on the one or more back surface amorphous silicon layers and in the one or more back surface trenches;
Cleaving the crystalline silicon wafer at one or more cleavage planes, wherein each cleavage plane is centered or substantially centered on a different pair of corresponding front and back trenches; A method comprising:

  2H. The method of paragraph 1H, comprising the step of forming the one or more front trenches to penetrate the front amorphous silicon layer to reach the front surface of the crystalline silicon wafer.

  3H. The method of paragraph 1H, comprising the step of forming the one or more backside trenches, penetrating the one or more backside amorphous silicon layers to reach the backside of the crystalline silicon wafer.

  4H. The method of paragraph 1H, comprising the step of forming the front passivated layer and the back passivated layer from a transparent conductive oxide.

  5H. The method according to Item 1H, wherein the crystalline silicon wafer is cleaved at the one or more cleavage planes by using a laser to cause thermal stress in the crystalline silicon wafer.

  6H. The method of paragraph 1H, comprising mechanically cleaving the crystalline silicon wafer at the one or more cleavage planes.

  7H. The method of paragraph 1H, wherein the one or more front amorphous crystalline silicon layers form an np junction with the crystalline silicon wafer.

  8H. Item 7. The method according to Item 7H, comprising the step of cleaving the crystalline silicon wafer from its back side.

  9H. The method of paragraph 1H, wherein the one or more backside amorphous crystalline silicon layers form an np junction with the crystalline silicon wafer.

  10H. Item 10. The method according to Item 9H, comprising the step of cleaving the crystalline silicon wafer from its front side.

11H. A method of manufacturing a plurality of solar cells,
Forming one or more trenches in the first surface of the crystalline silicon wafer;
Depositing one or more amorphous silicon layers on the first surface of the crystalline silicon wafer;
Depositing a passivating layer in the one or more trenches on the first surface of the crystalline silicon wafer and on the one or more amorphous silicon layers;
Depositing one or more amorphous silicon layers on a second surface of the crystalline silicon wafer opposite the first surface of the crystalline silicon wafer;
Cleaving the crystalline silicon wafer at one or more cleavage planes, wherein each cleavage plane is centered or substantially centered on a different one of the one or more trenches. A method comprising:

  12H. Item 11. The method according to Item 11H, comprising the step of forming the passivated layer from a transparent conductive oxide.

  13H. Item 11. The method according to Item 11H, comprising the step of cleaving the crystalline silicon wafer at the one or more cleavage planes by using a laser to cause thermal stress in the crystalline silicon wafer.

  14H. Item 11. The method according to Item 11H, comprising mechanically cleaving the crystalline silicon wafer at the one or more cleavage surfaces.

  15H. The method of paragraph 11H, wherein the one or more amorphous crystalline silicon layers on the first surface form an np junction with the crystalline silicon wafer.

  16H. The method according to Item 11H, wherein the one or more amorphous crystalline silicon layers on the second surface form an np junction with the crystalline silicon wafer.

  17H. The method according to paragraph 11H, wherein the first surface of the crystalline silicon wafer is irradiated with light during operation of the plurality of solar cells.

  18H. The method of paragraph 11H, wherein the second surface of the crystalline silicon wafer is irradiated with light during operation of the plurality of solar cells.

19H. A plurality of solar cells each having a plurality of solar cells arranged adjacent to each other in such a manner that end portions of adjacent solar cells overlap each other in a conductive manner and are electrically conductively connected in series. With a supercell
Each solar cell
A crystalline silicon substrate;
One or more first surface amorphous silicon layers disposed on the first surface of the crystalline silicon substrate to form an np junction;
One or more second surface amorphous silicon layers disposed on the second surface of the crystalline silicon substrate opposite the first surface of the crystalline silicon substrate;
The edge of the one or more first surface amorphous silicon layers, the edge of the one or more second surface amorphous silicon layers, or the edge of the one or more first surface amorphous silicon layers and the one or more And a plurality of passivating layers to prevent carrier recombination at the edge of the second surface amorphous silicon layer.

  20H. The solar panel of paragraph 19H, wherein the plurality of passivated layers include a transparent conductive oxide.

  21H. The front surface of the solar panel, wherein the plurality of supercells are arranged in a single row or in two or more parallel rows and are illuminated by solar radiation during operation of the solar panel Item 20. The solar panel according to Item 19H.

Z1. A solar module,
N (greater than or equal to about 250) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of series-connected supercells in two or more parallel rows, each supercell However, it has a plurality of silicon solar cells, the long sides of the adjacent silicon solar cells overlap each other and directly conductively joined to each other by an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive, A rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cell, which is arranged side by side in a state where the plurality of silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series,
With one or more bypass diodes,
Each pair of adjacent parallel rows in the solar module is conductively joined to a back electrical contact on a solar cell located centrally in one row included in the pair, and in the other row included in the pair. Electrically connected by a bypass diode conductively joined to the backside electrical contact on the adjacent solar cell,
Solar module.

  Z2. Each pair of adjacent parallel rows is conductively joined to a back surface electrical contact on a solar cell in one row included in the pair, and a back surface electrical contact on an adjacent solar cell in the other row included in the pair. The solar module according to paragraph Z1, wherein the solar module is electrically connected by at least one other bypass diode conductively joined to the part.

  Z3. Each pair of adjacent parallel rows is conductively joined to a back surface electrical contact on a solar cell in one row included in the pair, and a back surface electrical contact on an adjacent solar cell in the other row included in the pair. The solar module of paragraph Z2, wherein the solar module is electrically connected by at least one other bypass diode conductively joined to the part.

  Z4. The electrically and thermally conductive adhesive has a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of less than or equal to about 50 microns and a thermal conductivity in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of about The solar module of paragraph Z1, forming a plurality of junctions between adjacent solar cells that are greater than or equal to 1.5 W / (meter-K).

  Z5. The solar module according to Item Z1, wherein the plurality of supercells are sealed in a thermoplastic olefin layer between a glass front sheet and a rear sheet.

  Z6. The plurality of conductive junctions between the overlapping solar cells are formed between the plurality of supercells and the glass front sheet in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 100 ° C. without damaging the solar module. The solar module of paragraph Z1, which provides the plurality of supercells with mechanical compliance that accommodates thermal expansion mismatch in a direction parallel to the two or more parallel rows.

  Z7. N is greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, greater than or equal to about 400, greater than or equal to about 450, greater than or equal to about 500, or about 550 The solar module of any one of paragraphs Z1 to Z6, greater than or equal to, greater than or equal to about 600, greater than or equal to about 650, or greater than or equal to about 700. .

  Z8. The plurality of supercells are electrically connected to greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, or Equal to, greater than or equal to about 360 volts, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts, or greater than about 600 volts, Or the solar module of any one of paragraphs Z1 to Z7, which provides a high DC voltage equal to or equal thereto.

Z9. The solar module according to item Z1,
A solar energy system comprising: an inverter configured to electrically connect to the solar module and convert a DC output from the solar module to provide an AC output.

  Z10. The solar energy system of paragraph Z9, wherein the inverter does not have a DC-DC boost component.

  Z11. The solar energy system of paragraph Z9, wherein the inverter is configured to operate the solar module at a DC voltage that is higher than a minimum value set to avoid applying a reverse bias to the solar cell.

  Z12. The solar energy system according to Item Z11, wherein the minimum voltage value is temperature dependent.

  Z13. The solar energy system of paragraph Z9, wherein the inverter is configured to recognize a reverse bias state and operate the solar module at a voltage that avoids the reverse bias state.

  Z14. The solar energy system according to paragraph Z13, wherein the inverter is configured to operate the solar module in a maximum region of a voltage-current output curve of the solar module to avoid the reverse bias state.

  Z15. The solar energy system according to any one of Items Z9 to Z14, wherein the inverter is a micro inverter integrated with the solar module.

This disclosure is illustrative and not limiting. Further modifications will become apparent to those skilled in the art in view of the present disclosure, and such modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims.
[Item 1]
A plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows, wherein each supercell has adjacent long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlapping and directly conducting junctions with each other, A plurality of supercells having a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged side by side in electrical connection in series,
A hidden tap contact pad located on the rear surface of the first solar cell that does not conduct substantial current in normal operation;
With
The first solar cell is located at an intermediate position along the first supercell among the plurality of supercells in the first row among the two or more parallel rows of the supercell, and the hidden tap contact pad Is a solar module that is electrically connected in parallel with at least a second solar cell in a second row of two or more parallel rows of the supercell.
[Item 2]
An electrical interconnect that joins the hidden tap contact pad and electrically interconnects the hidden tap contact pad to the second solar cell;
The electrical interconnect does not substantially extend over the length of the first solar cell;
Item 2. The solar module of item 1, wherein a back metallization pattern on the first solar cell provides a conduction path to the hidden tap contact pad having a sheet resistance less than or equal to about 5 ohms / square.
[Item 3]
The plurality of supercells are arranged in the three or more parallel rows extending across the width of the solar module perpendicular to the three or more parallel rows;
The hidden tap contact pad is electrically connected to a hidden contact pad on at least one solar cell in each of the three or more parallel rows of the supercell, and the three or more supercells of the supercell. Electrically connect parallel rows in parallel,
Item 1 wherein at least one bus connection to at least one of the plurality of hidden tap contact pads or to an interconnect between the plurality of hidden tap contact pads connects to a bypass diode or other electronic device. Solar module as described in
[Item 4]
A flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the hidden tap contact pad and electrically connects it to the second solar cell;
The portion of the flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively bonded to the hidden tap contact pad is a ribbon formed from copper and has a thickness in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to which it is bonded. Less than or equal to 50 microns,
The conductive junction between the hidden tap contact pad and the flexible electrical interconnect is connected to the flexible electrical interconnect in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 180 ° C. without damaging the solar module. Endure the thermal expansion mismatch between the first solar cell and the flexible interconnect and adapt to the relative motion between the first solar cell and the second solar cell resulting from the thermal expansion The solar module according to Item 1.
[Item 5]
The solar module according to item 1, wherein in the operation of the solar module, the first hidden contact pad can conduct a current larger than a current generated by any one of the plurality of solar cells.
[Item 6]
Item 2. The solar module of item 1, wherein a front surface of the first solar cell lying on the first hidden tap contact pad is not occupied by contact pads or any other interconnect features.
[Item 7]
In item 1, any area of the front surface of the first solar cell that is not overlapped by a portion of adjacent solar cells in the first supercell is not occupied by contact pads or any other interconnect features The described solar module.
[Item 8]
Item 2. The solar module according to item 1, wherein most of the plurality of batteries do not have hidden tap contact pads in each supercell.
[Item 9]
9. The solar module according to item 8, wherein the plurality of batteries having hidden tap contact pads have a larger light collection area than the plurality of batteries not having hidden tap contact pads.
[Item 10]
Item 2. The solar module according to item 1, wherein the solar module is arranged in a sparkling manner overlapping with another solar module to which electrical connection is made in the overlapping region.
[Item 11]
A solar module,
A glass front sheet,
A rear sheet,
A plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows between the glass front sheet and the rear sheet, each having a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells, Rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are directly conductively connected to each other in a flexible manner, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Multiple supercells,
A first flexible electrical interconnect that is firmly conductively joined to the first supercell of the plurality of supercells;
With
A plurality of flexible conductive junctions between overlapping solar cells are formed between the plurality of supercells and the glass front sheet in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 100 ° C. without damaging the solar module. Providing the plurality of supercells with mechanical compliance to accommodate thermal expansion mismatches in the direction parallel to the two or more parallel rows between,
The strong conductive junction between the first supercell and the first flexible electrical interconnect is in the temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 180 ° C. without damaging the solar module. Solar module adapted to a flexible electrical interconnect for thermal expansion mismatch between the first supercell and the first flexible interconnect in a direction perpendicular to the two or more parallel rows .
[Item 12]
The plurality of conductive junctions between overlapping adjacent solar cells in a supercell utilize a different conductive adhesive than the plurality of conductive junctions between the supercell and the flexible electrical interconnect, The solar module according to 11.
[Item 13]
Item 13. The solar module of item 12, wherein both conductive adhesives can be cured in the same processing step.
[Item 14]
Item 12. The solar module according to Item 11, wherein the conductive junction on one side of at least one solar cell in the supercell uses a different conductive adhesive from the conductive junction on the other side.
[Item 15]
Item 15. The solar module of item 14, wherein both conductive adhesives can be cured in the same processing step.
[Item 16]
Item 12. The item 11 wherein a plurality of the conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells accommodates a differential motion greater than or equal to about 15 microns between each cell and the glass front sheet. Solar module.
[Item 17]
The plurality of conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells have a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells that is less than or equal to about 50 microns and in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells. Item 12. The solar module of item 11, wherein the thermal conductivity is greater than or equal to about 1.5 W / (meter-K).
[Item 18]
12. The solar module of item 11, wherein the first flexible electrical interconnect withstands a thermal expansion or contraction greater than or equal to about 40 microns of the first flexible interconnect.
[Item 19]
The portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the supercell is a ribbon formed from copper and has a thickness in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to which it is joined. Item 12. The solar module of item 11, wherein the solar module is less than or equal to 50 microns.
[Item 20]
The portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively joined to the supercell is a ribbon formed from copper and has a thickness in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the solar cell to which it is joined. Item 20. The solar module of item 19, wherein the solar module is less than or equal to 30 microns.
[Item 21]
The first flexible electrical interconnect has an integral conductive copper portion that is not bonded to the solar cell, providing higher conductivity than the portion of the first flexible electrical interconnect that is conductively bonded to the solar cell. Item 20. A solar module according to item 19.
[Item 22]
20. The first flexible electrical interconnect has a width in a direction perpendicular to the current flow through the interconnect in the plane of the surface of the solar cell that is greater than or equal to about 10 mm. Solar module.
[Item 23]
Item 20. The solar module of item 19, wherein the first flexible electrical interconnect is conductively joined to a conductor proximate to the solar cell that provides higher conductivity than the first electrical interconnect.
[Item 24]
Item 12. The solar module according to item 11, wherein the solar module is arranged in a sparkling manner overlapping with another solar module to which it is electrically connected in the overlapping region.
[Item 25]
A glass front sheet,
A rear sheet,
A plurality of supercells arranged in two or more parallel rows between the glass front sheet and the rear sheet, each having a plurality of rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells, Rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells are arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of adjacent silicon solar cells overlap and are directly conductively connected to each other in a flexible manner, and the adjacent silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series. Multiple supercells,
A first flexible electrical interconnect that is firmly conductively joined to the first supercell of the plurality of supercells;
With
The plurality of flexible conductive junctions between the overlapping solar cells are formed from a first conductive adhesive and have a rigidity less than or equal to about 800 megapascals;
The strong conductive joint between the first supercell and the first flexible electrical interconnect is formed from a second conductive adhesive and has a stiffness greater than or equal to about 2000 megapascals; Solar module.
[Item 26]
26. The solar module of item 25, wherein, unlike the first conductive adhesive and the second conductive adhesive, both conductive adhesives can be cured in the same processing step.
[Item 27]
The plurality of conductive junctions between overlapping and adjacent solar cells have a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells that is less than or equal to about 50 microns and in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells. 26. The solar module of item 25, wherein the thermal conductivity is greater than or equal to about 1.5 W / (meter-K).
[Item 28]
Item 26. The solar module according to item 25, wherein the solar module is arranged in a sparkling manner overlapping with another solar module to which electrical connection is made in the overlapping region.
[Item 29]
A first bus bar or contact pad row disposed parallel to and adjacent to the first outer edge of the silicon wafer, and a second side of the silicon wafer opposite to and parallel to the first edge of the silicon wafer. Obtaining or providing the silicon wafer including a front metallization pattern including a second bus bar or contact pad row disposed parallel to and adjacent to the outer edge;
Separating the silicon wafer along one or more scribe lines parallel to the first outer edge and the second outer edge of the silicon wafer to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells, The bus bar or contact pad row is arranged in parallel with and adjacent to the long outer edge of the first rectangular solar cell among the plurality of rectangular solar cells, and the second bus bar or contact pad row is the plurality of rectangular solar cells. Arranged parallel to and adjacent to the long outer edge of the second rectangular solar cell,
A step of forming a supercell by arranging the plurality of rectangular solar cells, with the long sides of adjacent solar cells overlapping and conductively joining to each other, and arranging the adjacent solar cells side by side in an electrically connected state in series;
With
The method wherein the bottom surfaces of adjacent rectangular solar cells in the supercell overlap and are conductively joined to the first bus bar or contact pad row on the first rectangular solar cell among the plurality of rectangular solar cells.
[Item 30]
Item 29. The bottom surface of the adjacent rectangular solar cell in the supercell overlaps and is conductively joined to the second bus bar or contact pad row on the second rectangular solar cell among the plurality of rectangular solar cells. the method of.
[Item 31]
30. The method of item 29, wherein the silicon wafer is a square or pseudo-square silicon wafer.
[Item 32]
32. The method of item 31, wherein the silicon wafer has sides that are about 125 mm in length or about 156 mm in length.
[Item 33]
32. The method of item 31, wherein the length to width ratio of each rectangular solar cell is between about 2: 1 and about 20: 1.
[Item 34]
30. A method according to item 29, wherein the silicon wafer is a crystalline silicon wafer.
[Item 35]
The first bus bar or contact pad row and the second bus bar or contact pad row are arranged in a plurality of edge regions of the silicon wafer that convert light into electricity with lower efficiency than the plurality of central regions of the silicon wafer. 30. The method according to item 29, wherein the method is located.
[Item 36]
The front metallization pattern includes a first plurality of parallel fingers extending inwardly from the first outer edge of the silicon wafer and electrically connected to the first bus bar or contact pad row, and the second bus bar. Or a second plurality of parallel fingers extending inwardly from the second outer edge of the silicon wafer that are electrically connected to a contact pad row.
[Item 37]
The front metallization pattern is oriented at least parallel to the first bus bar or contact pad row and the second bus bar or contact pad row, and the first bus bar or contact pad row and the second bus bar. Alternatively, the third bus bar or contact pad row positioned between the contact pad row and the third bus bar or contact pad row oriented in a direction perpendicular to the third bus bar or contact pad row. A third plurality of parallel fingers connected to the third bus bar or contact pad row after the silicon wafer is separated to form the plurality of rectangular solar cells. The term is arranged parallel to and adjacent to the long outer edge of the third rectangular solar cell. The method according to 29.
[Item 38]
30. The method of item 29, comprising applying a conductive adhesive to the first bus bar or contact pad row to conductively bond the first rectangular solar cell to an adjacent solar cell.
[Item 39]
40. The method of item 38, wherein the metallization pattern includes a barrier configured to contain the spread of the conductive adhesive.
[Item 40]
39. A method according to item 38, comprising the step of applying the conductive adhesive by screen printing.
[Item 41]
39. A method according to item 38, comprising the step of applying the conductive adhesive by inkjet printing.
[Item 42]
40. The method of item 38, wherein the conductive adhesive is applied prior to the formation of the one or more scribe lines on the silicon wafer.
[Item 43]
The step of separating the silicon wafer along the one or more scribe lines includes drawing a vacuum between the bottom surface of the silicon wafer and the curved support surface, bending the silicon wafer toward the curved support surface, 30. A method according to item 29, comprising the step of cleaving the silicon wafer along the one or more scribe lines.
[Item 44]
The silicon wafer is a pseudo-square silicon wafer including a plurality of chamfered corners, and after the step of separating the silicon wafer to form the plurality of rectangular solar cells, one or more of the rectangular solar cells A plurality includes one or more of the plurality of chamfered corners,
The interval between the scribe lines is a width perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular solar cell including a plurality of chamfered corners, and a width perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular solar cell having a plurality of chamfered corners. It is selected to compensate for the chamfered corners by increasing the size, so that each of the plurality of rectangular solar cells in the supercell has a substantial area exposed to light in the operation of the supercell. 30. The method of item 29, having front faces that are the same.
[Item 45]
30. A method according to item 29, comprising arranging the supercell in a layered structure between a transparent front sheet and a rear sheet and laminating the layered structure.
[Item 46]
The step of laminating the layered structure completes the curing of the conductive adhesive disposed between the adjacent rectangular solar cells in the supercell, and conductively bonds the adjacent rectangular solar cells to each other. 46. A method according to item 45.
[Item 47]
The supercells are arranged in the layered structure in one of two or more parallel rows of supercells, and the backsheet is positioned between the gaps between two or more parallel rows of the supercells and A white sheet comprising a plurality of parallel dark stripes having a position corresponding to the width and a width, whereby the plurality of white portions of the rear sheet are two or two of the supercells in the assembled module 46. A method according to item 45, which is not visible through a gap between more parallel rows.
[Item 48]
46. The method according to item 45, wherein the front sheet and the rear sheet are glass sheets, and the supercell is enclosed in a thermoplastic olefin layer sandwiched between the glass sheets.
[Item 49]
30. A method according to item 29, comprising arranging the supercell in a first module including a junction box fitted and arranged with a second junction box of a second solar module.
[Item 50]
Advancing the solar cell wafer along the curved surface;
A vacuum is drawn between the curved surface and the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer, and the solar cell wafer is bent toward the curved surface, whereby the sun is moved along one or more scribe lines prepared in advance. Cleaving the battery wafer and separating the plurality of solar cells from the solar cell wafer;
A method for manufacturing a solar cell.
[Item 51]
51. A method according to item 50, wherein the curved surface is a curved portion of an upper surface of a vacuum manifold that draws the vacuum against the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer.
[Item 52]
The vacuum drawn by the vacuum manifold against the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer varies along the direction of movement of the solar cell wafer and is strongest in the region of the vacuum manifold where the solar cell wafer is cleaved. 51. The method according to item 50.
[Item 53]
Transporting the solar cell wafer by a perforated belt along the curved upper surface of the vacuum manifold, wherein the vacuum is applied to the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer through a plurality of perforations of the perforated belt. 53. The method of item 51 or 52, comprising the step of:
[Item 54]
The plurality of perforations of the perforated belt are disposed such that a front edge and a rear edge of the solar cell wafer along a moving direction of the solar cell wafer lie on at least one perforation of the perforated belt. 54. The method according to item 53.
[Item 55]
The solar cell wafer is advanced along the flat region of the upper surface of the vacuum manifold to reach the transition curve region of the upper surface of the vacuum manifold having a first curvature, after which the solar cell wafer is cleaved. A step of advancing the solar cell wafer into a cleavage region on the upper surface of the vacuum manifold, wherein the cleavage region of the vacuum manifold has a second curvature higher than the first curvature. 55. A method according to any one of items 50 to 54.
[Item 56]
56. The method of item 55, wherein the curvature of the transition region is defined by a continuous geometric function that increases the curvature.
[Item 57]
58. The method of item 56, wherein the curvature of the cleavage region is defined by a continuous geometric function that increases the curvature.
[Item 58]
58. The method of item 57, comprising the step of advancing the plurality of cleaved solar cells into a post-cleavage region of the vacuum manifold having a third curvature higher than the second curvature.
[Item 59]
58. The method of item 57, wherein the curvature of the transition curve region, the cleavage region, and the post-cleavage region is defined by a single continuous geometric function that increases the curvature.
[Item 60]
60. A method according to item 57, 58 or 59, wherein the continuous geometric function having an increased curvature is a clothoid.
[Item 61]
At one end of each scribe line, and then at the opposite end of each scribe line, a stronger vacuum is drawn between the solar cell wafer and the curved surface to create a single cleavage rift along each scribe line. 61. A method according to any one of items 50 to 60, comprising providing an asymmetric stress distribution along each scribe line that facilitates nucleation and propagation.
[Item 62]
Removing the plurality of cleaved solar cells from the curved surface, wherein a plurality of edges of the cleaved solar cells are touched before removing the solar cells from the curved surface; 62. A method according to any one of items 50 to 61, comprising a step.
[Item 63]
Laser scribing the one or more scribe lines onto the solar cell wafer;
Applying an electrically conductive adhesive bond to a portion of the top surface of the solar cell wafer before cleaving the solar cell wafer along the one or more scribe lines;
Prepared,
63. A method according to any one of items 50 to 62, wherein each cleaved solar cell includes a portion of the electrically conductive adhesive bond disposed along the cleaved edge of the top surface.
[Item 64]
64. The method of item 63, comprising laser scribing the one or more scribe lines and then applying the electrically conductive adhesive bond.
[Item 65]
65. A method according to item 64, comprising applying the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent and then laser scribing the one or more scribe lines.
[Item 66]
A method of making a solar cell string from a plurality of cleaved solar cells produced by the method according to any one of items 63 to 65, wherein
The plurality of cleaved solar cells are a plurality of rectangular solar cells,
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of the adjacent rectangular solar cells overlap each other with a part of the electrically conductive adhesive bonding agent disposed between them,
Curing the electrically conductive adhesive bond, thereby bonding adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells together and electrically connecting them in series;
A method comprising:
[Item 67]
67. A method according to any one of items 50 to 66, wherein the solar cell wafer is a square or pseudo-square silicon solar cell wafer.
[Item 68]
Forming a back metal coating pattern on each square solar cell among one or more square solar cells;
Stencil printing a complete front metallization pattern on each square solar cell of the one or more square solar cells using a single stencil in a single stencil printing process;
Each square solar cell is separated into two or more rectangular solar cells to form a plurality of rectangular solar cells each including a complete front metallization pattern and a backside metallization pattern. Forming from a solar cell;
A step of arranging the plurality of rectangular solar cells side by side in a state where the long sides of adjacent rectangular solar cells overlap each other in a sparkling manner;
A step of conductively bonding the rectangular solar cells included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells with an electrically conductive bonding agent disposed therebetween, one of the rectangular solar cells included in the pair Electrically connecting the front metal coating pattern of the rectangular solar cell to the back metal coating pattern of the other rectangular solar cell of the rectangular solar cells included in the pair, thereby connecting the plurality of rectangular solar cells in series Electrical connection to the process and
A method of making a solar cell string comprising:
[Item 69]
Other parts of the stencil such that all portions of the stencil that define one or more features of the front metallization pattern on the one or more square solar cells lie in the plane of the stencil during stencil printing. 70. A method according to item 68, which is secured by a physical connection to the portion of
[Item 70]
The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of fingers oriented in a direction perpendicular to the long sides of the rectangular solar cell, and each of the plurality of fingers in the front metallization pattern is 70. A method according to item 68, wherein the front metallization patterns are not physically connected to each other.
[Item 71]
69. The method of item 68, wherein the plurality of fingers are about 10 microns to about 90 microns wide.
[Item 72]
69. The method of item 68, wherein the plurality of fingers are about 10 microns to about 50 microns wide.
[Item 73]
69. The method of item 68, wherein the plurality of fingers are about 10 microns to about 30 microns wide.
[Item 74]
69. The method of item 68, wherein the plurality of fingers have a height in a direction perpendicular to the front surface of the rectangular solar cell of about 10 microns to about 50 microns.
[Item 75]
70. The method of item 68, wherein the plurality of fingers have a height in a direction perpendicular to the front surface of the rectangular solar cell of about 30 microns or greater.
[Item 76]
The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads located parallel to and adjacent to the edges of the long sides of the rectangular solar cell, each positioned at the end of a corresponding finger; 70. The method according to item 68.
[Item 77]
The back surface metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads arranged in rows adjacent to and parallel to the long edge of the rectangular solar cell,
Each pair of adjacent rectangular solar cells that are adjacent to each other includes a plurality of contact pads on the back surface of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair, and each of the rectangular solar cells included in the pair. 70. A method according to item 68, wherein the method is arranged in electrical connection with a corresponding finger in the front metallization pattern on the other rectangular solar cell.
[Item 78]
The back surface metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a bus bar extending parallel to and adjacent to the edge of the long side of the rectangular solar cell,
Each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells is connected to the bus bar on one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair on the other rectangular solar cell among the rectangular solar cells included in the pair. 70. The method of item 68, wherein the method is arranged in an overlapping and electrically connected manner with the plurality of fingers in the front metal coating pattern.
[Item 79]
The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads arranged parallel to and adjacent to the edge of the long side of the rectangular solar cell, each positioned at the end of a corresponding finger;
The back surface metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads arranged in rows adjacent to and parallel to the long edge of the rectangular solar cell,
Each pair of adjacent rectangular solar cells that are adjacent to each other includes a plurality of contact pads on the back surface of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair, and each of the rectangular solar cells included in the pair. 70. A method according to item 68, wherein the method is arranged in an electrically connected state overlapping with a corresponding contact pad in the front metallization pattern on the other rectangular solar cell.
[Item 80]
The rectangular solar cells included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells include a discontinuity of an electrically conductive bonding agent disposed between the plurality of contact pads on the front surface and the plurality of contact pads on the back surface. 70. A method according to item 68, wherein the parts are conductively joined together.
[Item 81]
The rectangular solar cells included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells are included in the front metallization pattern of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair and in the rectangular solar cell pair. 70. A method according to item 68, wherein conductive joining is performed to each other by discontinuous portions of the electrically conductive adhesive disposed between the overlapping ends of the plurality of fingers in the backside metallization pattern of the other rectangular solar cell.
[Item 82]
The rectangular solar cells included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells are included in the front metallization pattern of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair and in the rectangular solar cell pair. Conductively joined to each other by a dashed or solid electrical conductive adhesive disposed between the overlapping ends of the plurality of fingers in the backside metallization pattern of the other rectangular solar cell;
70. The method of item 68, wherein the dashed or solid electrical conductive bonding agent electrically interconnects one or more of the plurality of fingers.
[Item 83]
The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads, each positioned at the end of a corresponding finger, disposed parallel to and adjacent to the edge of the long side of the rectangular solar cell;
The rectangular solar cell included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells includes the plurality of contact pads of the front metallization pattern of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair, and the rectangular solar cell. 70. The method according to item 68, wherein conductive bonding is performed to each other by a discontinuous portion of an electrically conductive bonding agent disposed between the back surface metal coating pattern of the other rectangular solar cell included in the battery pair.
[Item 84]
The front metallization pattern on each rectangular solar cell includes a plurality of contact pads, each positioned at the end of a corresponding finger, disposed parallel to and adjacent to the edge of the long side of the rectangular solar cell;
The rectangular solar cell included in each pair of adjacent and overlapping rectangular solar cells includes the plurality of contact pads of the front metallization pattern of one rectangular solar cell included in the rectangular solar cell pair, and the rectangular solar cell. Conductively bonded to each other by a broken line or solid line-shaped electrically conductive bonding agent disposed between the back surface metal coating pattern of the other rectangular solar cell included in the battery pair,
70. The method of item 68, wherein the dashed or solid electrical conductive bonding agent electrically interconnects one or more of the plurality of fingers.
[Item 85]
85. A method according to any one of items 68 to 84, wherein the front metallization pattern is formed from a silver paste.
[Item 86]
N (greater than or equal to about 250) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of series-connected supercells in two or more parallel rows, each supercell However, it has a plurality of silicon solar cells, the long sides of the adjacent silicon solar cells overlap each other and directly conductively joined to each other by an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive, A rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cell, which is arranged side by side in a state where the plurality of silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series,
Less than 1 bypass diode per 25 solar cells and
With
The electrically and thermally conductive adhesive has a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of less than or equal to about 50 microns and a thermal conductivity in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of about A solar module that forms a plurality of junctions between adjacent solar cells greater than or equal to 1.5 W / (meter-K).
[Item 87]
89. The solar module of item 86, wherein the plurality of supercells are enclosed in a thermoplastic olefin layer between a front sheet and a rear sheet.
[Item 88]
89. The solar module according to item 86, wherein the plurality of supercells are enclosed between a glass front sheet and a rear sheet.
[Item 89]
Less than 1 bypass diode per 30 solar cells, or less than 1 bypass diode per 50 solar cells, or less than 1 bypass diode per 100 solar cells, or only a single bypass diode 90. A solar module according to item 86, comprising or not comprising a bypass diode.
[Item 90]
87. A solar module according to item 86, comprising no bypass diode, or comprising only a single bypass diode, or 3 or less bypass diodes, or 6 or less bypass diodes, or 10 or less bypass diodes.
[Item 91]
The plurality of conductive junctions between the overlapping solar cells are formed between the plurality of supercells and the glass front sheet in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 100 ° C. without damaging the solar module. 89. The solar module of item 86, providing mechanical compliance to the plurality of supercells that accommodates thermal expansion mismatch in a direction parallel to the two or more parallel rows.
[Item 92]
N is greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, greater than or equal to about 400, greater than or equal to about 450, greater than or equal to about 500, or about 550 92. A solar module according to any one of items 86 through 91, greater than or equal to, greater than or equal to about 600, greater than or equal to about 650, or greater than or equal to about 700. .
[Item 93]
The plurality of supercells are electrically connected to greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, or Equal to, greater than or equal to about 360 volts, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts, or greater than about 600 volts, 93. A solar module according to any one of items 86 to 92, which provides a high direct current voltage or equal thereto.
[Item 94]
A solar module according to item 86;
An inverter configured to electrically connect to the solar module, convert a DC output from the solar module, and provide an AC output;
A solar energy system.
[Item 95]
95. The solar energy system of item 94, wherein the inverter does not have a DC-DC boost component.
[Item 96]
95. The solar energy system of item 94, wherein the inverter is configured to operate the solar module at a DC voltage that is higher than a minimum value set to avoid reverse biasing the solar cell.
[Item 97]
99. The solar energy system of item 96, wherein the minimum voltage value is temperature dependent.
[Item 98]
95. The solar energy system of item 94, wherein the inverter is configured to recognize a reverse bias condition and operate the solar module at a voltage that avoids the reverse bias condition.
[Item 99]
99. The solar energy system of item 98, wherein the inverter is configured to operate the solar module in a maximum region of the voltage-current output curve of the solar module to avoid the reverse bias state.
[Item 100]
100. The solar energy system according to any one of items 94 to 99, wherein the inverter is a micro inverter integrated with the solar module.
[Item 101]
N (≧ 25) series connected strings of rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells having an average breakdown voltage higher than about 10 volts, the rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells being one or more supercells, The plurality of solar cells that are grouped and arranged side by side in a state in which the long sides of the adjacent solar cells overlap each other and are electrically conductively bonded to each other by an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive Comprising a series or string of rectangular or substantially rectangular solar cells, including two or more of the cells,
A solar module in which no single solar cell in the above string of solar cells or a group of less than N solar cells are individually electrically connected in parallel with a bypass diode.
[Item 102]
102. The solar module of item 101, wherein N is greater than or equal to 30.
[Item 103]
102. The solar module of item 101, wherein N is greater than or equal to 50.
[Item 104]
102. The solar module of item 101, wherein N is greater than or equal to 100.
[Item 105]
The adhesive has a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of less than or equal to about 0.1 mm, and a thermal conductivity in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of about 1.5 W / 102. The solar module of item 101, forming a plurality of junctions between adjacent solar cells that are greater than or equal to m / K.
[Item 106]
102. The solar module of item 101, wherein the N solar cells are grouped into a single supercell.
[Item 107]
102. The solar module of item 101, wherein the plurality of supercells are enclosed in a polymer.
[Item 108]
108. The solar module of item 107, wherein the polymer comprises a thermoplastic olefin polymer.
[Item 109]
108. A solar module according to item 107, wherein the polymer is sandwiched between a glass front sheet and a rear sheet.
[Item 110]
110. A solar module according to item 109, wherein the rear sheet includes glass.
[Item 111]
102. The solar module of item 101, wherein the plurality of solar cells are silicon solar cells.
[Item 112]
A solar module,
A supercell extending substantially over the entire length or width of the solar module parallel to the edge of the solar module, wherein the supercell is formed by overlapping the long sides of adjacent solar cells, and an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive A supercell having a series connection string of N or rectangular solar cells having an average breakdown voltage higher than about 10 volts, arranged side by side in conductive connection with each other,
A solar module wherein no single solar cell in the supercell or a group of less than N solar cells is individually electrically connected in parallel with a bypass diode.
[Item 113]
129. A solar module according to item 112, wherein N> 24.
[Item 114]
113. The solar module of item 112, wherein the length of the supercell in the direction of current flow is at least about 500 mm.
[Item 115]
113. The solar module according to item 112, wherein the plurality of supercells are enclosed in a thermoplastic olefin polymer sandwiched between a glass front sheet and a rear sheet.
[Item 116]
A solar module,
N (greater than or equal to about 250) rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cells arranged as a plurality of series-connected supercells in two or more parallel rows, each supercell However, it has a plurality of silicon solar cells, the long sides of the adjacent silicon solar cells overlap each other and directly conductively joined to each other by an electrically and thermally conductive adhesive, A rectangular or substantially rectangular silicon solar cell, which is arranged side by side in a state where the plurality of silicon solar cells are electrically connected in series,
One or more bypass diodes and
With
Each pair of adjacent parallel rows in the solar module is conductively joined to a back electrical contact on a solar cell located centrally in one row included in the pair, and in the other row included in the pair. Electrically connected by a bypass diode conductively joined to the backside electrical contact on the adjacent solar cell,
Solar module.
[Item 117]
Each pair of adjacent parallel rows is conductively joined to a back surface electrical contact on a solar cell in one row included in the pair, and a back surface electrical contact on an adjacent solar cell in the other row included in the pair. 117. The solar module of item 116, wherein the solar module is electrically connected by at least one other bypass diode conductively joined to the part.
[Item 118]
Each pair of adjacent parallel rows is conductively joined to a back surface electrical contact on a solar cell in one row included in the pair, and a back surface electrical contact on an adjacent solar cell in the other row included in the pair. 118. The solar module of item 117, wherein the solar module is electrically connected by at least one other bypass diode conductively joined to the part.
[Item 119]
The electrically and thermally conductive adhesive has a thickness in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of less than or equal to about 50 microns and a thermal conductivity in a direction perpendicular to the plurality of solar cells of about 117. The solar module of item 116, forming a plurality of junctions between adjacent solar cells that are greater than or equal to 1.5 W / (meter-K).
[Item 120]
119. The solar module of item 116, wherein the plurality of supercells are enclosed in a thermoplastic olefin layer between a glass front sheet and a rear sheet.
[Item 121]
The plurality of conductive junctions between the overlapping solar cells are formed between the plurality of supercells and the glass front sheet in a temperature range of about −40 ° C. to about 100 ° C. without damaging the solar module. 117. The solar module of item 116, providing mechanical compliance to the plurality of supercells to accommodate thermal expansion mismatches between them in a direction parallel to the two or more parallel rows.
[Item 122]
N is greater than or equal to about 300, greater than or equal to about 350, greater than or equal to about 400, greater than or equal to about 450, greater than or equal to about 500, or about 550 122. Solar module according to any one of items 116 to 121, greater than or equal to, greater than or equal to about 600, greater than or equal to about 650, or greater than or equal to about 700. .
[Item 123]
The plurality of supercells are electrically connected to greater than or equal to about 120 volts, greater than or equal to about 180 volts, greater than or equal to about 240 volts, greater than or equal to about 300 volts, or Equal to, greater than or equal to about 360 volts, greater than or equal to about 420 volts, greater than or equal to about 480 volts, greater than or equal to about 540 volts, or greater than about 600 volts, 123. A solar module according to any one of items 116 to 122, which provides a high direct current voltage or equal thereto.
[Item 124]
The solar module according to item 116;
An inverter configured to electrically connect to the solar module, convert a DC output from the solar module, and provide an AC output;
A solar energy system.
[Item 125]
125. The solar energy system of item 124, wherein the inverter does not have a DC-DC boost component.
[Item 126]
125. The solar energy system of item 124, wherein the inverter is configured to operate the solar module at a DC voltage that is higher than a minimum value set to avoid reverse biasing the solar cell.
[Item 127]
127. The solar energy system of item 126, wherein the minimum voltage value is temperature dependent.
[Item 128]
125. The solar energy system of item 124, wherein the inverter is configured to recognize a reverse bias condition and operate the solar module at a voltage that avoids the reverse bias condition.
[Item 129]
129. The solar energy system of item 128, wherein the inverter is configured to operate the solar module in a maximum region of the voltage-current output curve of the solar module to avoid the reverse bias condition.
[Item 130]
129. The solar energy system of any one of items 124 to 129, wherein the inverter is a micro inverter integrated with the solar module.

Claims (19)

  1. A scriber for forming a plurality of scribe lines on the upper surface of the solar cell wafer;
    After the plurality of scribe lines formed by the scriber, and a printer to apply an electrically conductive bonding agent to the upper surface of the solar cell wafer,
    A wafer support surface with a curved surface for supporting the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer,
    After the electrically conductive bonding agent is applied to the upper surface of the solar cell wafer, the solar cell wafer is positioned on the curved surface of the wafer support surface and is brought close to the curved surface of the wafer support surface. Bending the solar cell wafer, thereby sequentially separating the solar cell wafer along the plurality of scribe lines to provide a plurality of physically separated solar cell strips;
    The system includes the plurality of solar cell strips such that the plurality of physically separated solar cell strips overlap a long side of an adjacent solar cell strip and are directly conductively joined to each other by the electrically conductive adhesive. The system further comprising means for electrically connecting the devices in series.
  2. The wafer support surface is a perforated belt,
    The system of claim 1, wherein a vacuum manifold draws a vacuum on the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer.
  3.   The system of claim 1 or 2, wherein the printer is a screen, ink jet, or mask printer.
  4.   The system according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the scriber is a laser scriber.
  5. With a vacuum manifold,
    The wafer support surface advances the solar cell wafer along the surface of the vacuum manifold,
    The vacuum manifold draws a vacuum against the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer through a plurality of perforations in the wafer support surface and draws the solar cell wafer to the surface of the vacuum manifold,
    As the wafer support surface advances the solar cell wafer along the surface of the vacuum manifold, the solar cell wafer is bent toward the curved surface of the vacuum manifold by the vacuum, thereby causing the plurality of scribes. 5. A system according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the solar cell wafer is cleaved along one or more of the lines.
  6.   The vacuum drawn by the vacuum manifold against the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer changes along a direction in which the solar cell wafer is advanced, and the surface of the vacuum manifold is cleaved. 6. The system of claim 5, wherein the system is strongest in the area.
  7.   The plurality of perforations in the wafer support surface are arranged such that a front edge and a rear edge of the solar cell wafer lie along at least one perforation in the wafer support surface along a direction in which the solar cell wafer travels. The system according to claim 5 or 6.
  8. The surface of the vacuum manifold has a flat region, a transition curved region adjacent to the flat region and having a first curvature, and a cleavage region adjacent to the transition curved region and having a second curvature higher than the first curvature. And
    The wafer support surface is along the flat region, then into and through the transition curve region, and then the solar cell wafer is cleaved along one or more of the plurality of scribe lines. The system according to claim 5, wherein the solar cell wafer is advanced into the cleavage region.
  9.   The system of claim 8, wherein the vacuum manifold draws a stronger vacuum in the cleavage region than in the flat region.
  10. The surface of the vacuum manifold has a post-cleavage region adjacent to the cleavage region and having a third curvature higher than the second curvature;
    The wafer support surface advances a plurality of solar cell strips cleaved from the solar cell wafer from the cleavage region to the post-cleavage region,
    The third curvature is high enough to prevent the cleaved edges of the sequentially cleaved solar cell strips from touching when the cleaved solar cell strips are advanced by the wafer support surface; The system according to claim 8 or 9.
  11.   The system of claim 10, wherein the vacuum manifold draws a stronger vacuum in the cleavage region than in the flat region and in the post-cleavage region.
  12.   The vacuum drawn by the vacuum manifold causes an asymmetric stress distribution along the scribe line that facilitates nucleation and propagation of a single cleaved tear along the scribe line. The system described in.
  13. Means for scribing the solar cell wafer to form a plurality of scribe lines on the upper surface of the solar cell wafer;
    Means for applying an electrically conductive bonding agent to the upper surface of the solar cell wafer after the plurality of scribe lines are formed by the means for scribing ;
    Separating the solar cell wafer along the plurality of scribe lines after the electrically conductive adhesive is applied to the top surface of the solar cell wafer to provide a plurality of physically separated solar cell strips. Means to
    The plurality of solar cell strips are electrically connected in series such that the plurality of physically separated solar cell strips overlap the long sides of adjacent solar cell strips and are directly conductively joined to each other by the electrically conductive adhesive. Means for connecting;
    A system comprising:
  14. A vacuum manifold having a surface;
    A wafer support surface that advances a solar cell wafer along the surface of the vacuum manifold;
    A system comprising:
    The vacuum manifold draws a vacuum against the bottom surface of the solar cell wafer to bend the solar cell wafer against a curved portion of the surface of the vacuum manifold, thereby providing a plurality of scribe lines on the solar cell wafer. Sequentially cleave the solar cell wafer along
    The system serially connects the cleaved solar cell strips such that a plurality of solar cell strips cleaved from the solar cell wafer overlap the long sides of adjacent solar cell strips and are in direct conductive contact with each other. Further comprising means for electrical connection ;
    The system, wherein the vacuum drawn by the vacuum manifold causes an asymmetric stress distribution along the scribe line that facilitates nucleation and propagation of a single cleaved tear along the scribe line .
  15. The surface of the vacuum manifold has a flat region, a transition curved region adjacent to the flat region and having a first curvature, and a cleavage region adjacent to the transition curved region and having a second curvature higher than the first curvature. And
    The wafer support surface is along the flat region, then into and through the transition curve region, and then the solar cell wafer is cleaved along one or more of the plurality of scribe lines. The system of claim 14, wherein the solar cell wafer is advanced into the cleavage region.
  16.   The system of claim 15, wherein the vacuum manifold draws a stronger vacuum in the cleavage region than in the flat region.
  17. The surface of the vacuum manifold has a post-cleavage region adjacent to the cleavage region and having a third curvature higher than the second curvature;
    The wafer support surface advances the plurality of solar cell strips cleaved from the solar cell wafer from the cleavage region to the post-cleavage region,
    The third curvature is high enough to prevent the cleaved edges of the sequentially cleaved solar cell strips from touching when the cleaved solar cell strips are advanced by the wafer support surface; The system according to claim 15 or 16.
  18. The system according to any one of claims 14 to 17 , further comprising a laser scriber that forms the plurality of scribe lines on the solar cell wafer.
  19. 19. A system according to any one of claims 14 to 18 comprising a printer that applies an electrically conductive bonding agent to the solar cell wafer before the solar cell wafer is cleaved.
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US201462003223P true 2014-05-27 2014-05-27
US62/003,223 2014-05-27
US201462035624P true 2014-08-11 2014-08-11
US62/035,624 2014-08-11
US201462036215P true 2014-08-12 2014-08-12
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US201462048858P true 2014-09-11 2014-09-11
US62/048,858 2014-09-11
US201462064260P true 2014-10-15 2014-10-15
US29506415 2014-10-15
US29/506,415 2014-10-15
US62/064,260 2014-10-15
US201462064834P true 2014-10-16 2014-10-16
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US29/506,755 2014-10-20
US29506755 2014-10-20
US14/530,405 2014-10-31
US14/530,405 US9780253B2 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-10-31 Shingled solar cell module
US14/532,293 US20150349193A1 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-11-04 Shingled solar cell module
US14/532,293 2014-11-04
US29508323 2014-11-05
US29/508,323 2014-11-05
US14/536,486 US20150349168A1 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-11-07 Shingled solar cell module
US14/536,486 2014-11-07
US14/539,546 2014-11-12
US14/539,546 US20150349169A1 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-11-12 Shingled solar cell module
US14/543,580 US9882077B2 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-11-17 Shingled solar cell module
US14/543,580 2014-11-17
US201462081200P true 2014-11-18 2014-11-18
US62/081,200 2014-11-18
US29/509,586 USD750556S1 (en) 2014-11-19 2014-11-19 Solar panel
US29/509,588 2014-11-19
US29/509,588 USD767484S1 (en) 2014-11-19 2014-11-19 Solar panel
US14/548,081 US20150349701A1 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-11-19 Shingled solar cell module
US29/509,586 2014-11-19
US14/548,081 2014-11-19
US201462082904P true 2014-11-21 2014-11-21
US14/550,676 US20150349171A1 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-11-21 Shingled solar cell module
US62/082,904 2014-11-21
US14/550,676 2014-11-21
US14/552,761 US20150349172A1 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-11-25 Shingled solar cell module
US14/552,761 2014-11-25
US14/560,577 US9876132B2 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-12-04 Shingled solar cell module
US14/560,577 2014-12-04
US14/566,278 2014-12-10
US14/565,820 US20150349145A1 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-12-10 Shingled solar cell module
US14/566,278 US20150349703A1 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-12-10 Shingled solar cell module
US14/565,820 2014-12-10
US14/572,206 2014-12-16
US14/572,206 US9401451B2 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-12-16 Shingled solar cell module
US14/577,593 2014-12-19
US14/577,593 US9356184B2 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-12-19 Shingled solar cell module
US14/585,917 2014-12-30
US14/585,917 US20150349162A1 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-12-30 Shingled solar cell module
US14/586,025 US20150349153A1 (en) 2014-05-27 2014-12-30 Shingled solar cell module
US14/586,025 2014-12-30
US14/594,439 2015-01-12
US14/594,439 US9397252B2 (en) 2014-05-27 2015-01-12 Shingled solar cell module
US201562103816P true 2015-01-15 2015-01-15
US62/103,816 2015-01-15
US14/605,695 US9484484B2 (en) 2014-05-27 2015-01-26 Shingled solar cell module
US14/605,695 2015-01-26
US201562111757P true 2015-02-04 2015-02-04
US62/111,757 2015-02-04
US201562113250P true 2015-02-06 2015-02-06
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US62/134,176 2015-03-17
US14/674,983 2015-03-31
US14/674,983 US9947820B2 (en) 2014-05-27 2015-03-31 Shingled solar cell panel employing hidden taps
US201562150426P true 2015-04-21 2015-04-21
US62/150,426 2015-04-21
PCT/US2015/032472 WO2015183827A2 (en) 2014-05-27 2015-05-26 Shingled solar cell module

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