JP5077403B2 - Drive device - Google Patents

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JP5077403B2
JP5077403B2 JP2010187876A JP2010187876A JP5077403B2 JP 5077403 B2 JP5077403 B2 JP 5077403B2 JP 2010187876 A JP2010187876 A JP 2010187876A JP 2010187876 A JP2010187876 A JP 2010187876A JP 5077403 B2 JP5077403 B2 JP 5077403B2
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drive
piezoelectric element
circuit
switch
member
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JP2010263788A (en
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智行 湯淺
龍一 吉田
治行 中野
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コニカミノルタホールディングス株式会社
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Description

  The present invention relates to a driving device, and more particularly to a driving device suitable for driving an XY moving stage, a camera photographing lens, a projection lens of an overhead projector, a binocular lens, and the like.

  2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, an impact type piezoelectric actuator constructed by coupling an engaging member to which a photographing lens or the like is attached to a rod-like driving member so as to have a predetermined frictional force, and fixing a piezoelectric element to one end of the driving member. A driving device is known. For example, FIG. 14 is a diagram illustrating a schematic configuration of a driving device for adjusting the position of the photographing lens of the camera.

  The driving device 100 in this figure includes a piezoelectric element 101 that is an electromechanical conversion element, a rod-shaped driving member 102 that is driven by the piezoelectric element 101, and an engagement member 103 that is coupled to the driving member 102 with a predetermined frictional force. And a drive circuit 104 for applying a drive voltage to the piezoelectric element 101.

  The piezoelectric element 101 expands and contracts according to the drive voltage applied from the drive circuit 104, and one end in the expansion / contraction direction is fixed to the support member 105, and the other end is in the axial direction of the drive member 102. One is fixed to one end. The engaging member 103 has a photographing lens L, which is a driving object, fixed to a predetermined location, and is movable along the axial direction on the driving member 102.

  For example, as shown in FIG. 15, the drive circuit 104 includes a first drive circuit 109 composed of a slow charge circuit and a rapid discharge circuit, and a second drive circuit 110 composed of a quick charge circuit and a slow discharge circuit. The drive circuits 109 and 110 are driven and controlled by a rectangular wave signal of 0 to 5 V generated by a digital circuit.

  That is, the first drive circuit 109 is configured by connecting in series the two switches 111 and 112 and the constant current source 113 with respect to the power supply voltage Vp so that the constant current source 113 is at an intermediate position. The second drive circuit 110 is configured by connecting two switches 114 and 115 and a constant current source 116 in series with respect to the power supply voltage Vp so that the constant current source 116 is at an intermediate position. The outputs between the switch 112 and the constant current source 113 and between the switch 114 and the constant current source 116 are applied to the piezoelectric element 101.

  In the drive circuit 104 shown in FIG. 15, a slow charge circuit is formed by closing the switch 111 of the first drive circuit 109, and then a rapid discharge circuit is formed by opening the switch 111 and closing the switch 112. The By repeatedly performing this switch operation with a rectangular wave signal, a drive voltage having a waveform (progress waveform) having a slow rising portion and a steep falling portion as shown in FIG. Repetitively applied, the engagement member 103 moves in the direction of arrow a which is the feeding direction (the direction away from the piezoelectric element 101) due to the expansion and contraction of the piezoelectric element 101.

  That is, since the piezoelectric element 101 is gently extended at the rising portion where the driving voltage is slow, the engaging member 103 moves in the feeding direction together with the driving member 102, while the piezoelectric element 101 is suddenly moved at the sharp falling portion. Therefore, even if the driving member 102 moves in the return direction, the engaging member 103 slips on the driving member 102 and stays at substantially the same position. For this reason, when a driving voltage having a waveform as shown in FIG. 16A is repeatedly applied to the piezoelectric element 101, the engaging member 103 moves intermittently in the direction of the arrow a.

  Further, the quick charge circuit is formed by closing the switch 114 of the second drive circuit 110, and then the slow discharge circuit is formed by opening the switch 114 and then closing the switch 115. By repeatedly executing this switch operation with a rectangular wave signal, a driving voltage having a waveform (return waveform) as shown in FIG. 16B having a steep rising portion and a slow falling portion is applied to the piezoelectric element 101. Repeatedly applied, the engagement member 103 moves in the direction opposite to the arrow a which is the return direction (direction approaching the piezoelectric element 101) due to expansion and contraction of the piezoelectric element 101.

  That is, since the piezoelectric element 101 expands suddenly at the steep rising portion of the driving voltage, the engaging member 103 slips on the driving member 102 even when the driving member 102 moves in the feeding direction, and is approximately at the same position. On the other hand, since the piezoelectric element 101 is gradually reduced at the slow falling portion, the engaging member 103 moves together with the driving member 102 in the return direction. For this reason, when a driving voltage having a waveform as shown in FIG. 16B is repeatedly applied to the piezoelectric element 101, the engaging member 103 moves intermittently in the direction opposite to the arrow a. Thereby, the lens L can be moved in the feeding direction and the returning direction.

Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-248277

By the way, when applying a driving device composed of an impact type piezoelectric actuator as a driving source of an optical system such as a photographing lens of a camera, it is desirable that the configuration of the driving device be simplified and miniaturized as much as possible. However, the conventional driving device 100 has a problem in that the circuit configuration of the constant current sources 113 and 116 is complicated, so that the driving circuit 104 is complicated and the size is limited .

The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and an object thereof is to provide a drive device capable of simplifying a drive circuit.

In order to achieve the above object, a driving apparatus according to an aspect of the present invention includes an electromechanical transducer that expands and contracts when a driving voltage is applied, a driving member that is driven by the expansion and contraction of the electromechanical transducer, comprising an engaging member engaged with a predetermined frictional force to the drive member, a drive circuit for driving the driving voltage comprising the electromechanical transducer from rectangular waves, a drive control means for controlling the operation of the driving circuit The electromechanical conversion element is a drive device that causes the drive member and the engagement member to move relative to each other by causing the electromechanical conversion element to expand and contract at different speeds, and the drive circuit includes the engagement member, In the case of moving in the first direction, the drive voltage consisting of a rectangular wave having a duty ratio larger than 0.05 and smaller than 0.45 is moved in the second direction opposite to the first direction. Is from 0.55 Hear, the driving voltage comprising a square wave of less than 0.95 the duty ratio, is characterized in that applied to the electromechanical transducer.

Also, in another aspect, in the above-described driving device, the driving circuit includes a first driving circuit for charging the first polarity charges by applying a driving voltage from the one side to said electromechanical transducer And a second drive circuit that applies a drive voltage to the electromechanical conversion element from the other side to charge a charge having a second polarity opposite to the first polarity, and the drive control means includes: It is characterized in Rukoto is driven alternately with the first driving circuit and the second driving circuit.

As described above, according to the drive device according to one aspect of the present invention, the drive circuit is larger than 0.05 and smaller than 0.45 when the engagement member is moved in the first direction. When the drive voltage consisting of a rectangular wave with a duty ratio is moved in a second direction opposite to the first direction, the drive voltage consisting of a rectangular wave with a duty ratio greater than 0.55 and less than 0.95 Is applied to the electromechanical conversion element, and the engagement member can be moved in the feeding direction and the return direction using a rectangular wave, so that the drive circuit can be simplified .

It is a figure which shows schematically the structure of the drive device which concerns on one Embodiment of this invention. It is a perspective view which shows the structural example of the drive part of the drive device shown in FIG. It is a figure which shows the structural example of the drive circuit of the drive device shown in FIG. FIGS. 4A and 4B are diagrams showing waveforms of drive pulses applied to the piezoelectric element by the drive circuit shown in FIG. 3, in which FIG. 3A is set so that the duty ratio is 0.3, and FIG. 7 is set to be 7. It is a figure which shows the relationship between fd / fr and the moving speed of an engaging member in the drive device shown in FIG. It is a figure which shows the relationship between the duty ratio of the drive voltage in the drive device shown in FIG. 1, and the moving speed of an engaging member. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing a relationship between a driving voltage applied to a piezoelectric element in the driving apparatus shown in FIG. 1 and a displacement waveform due to expansion and contraction of the piezoelectric element, and FIG. (B) shows the case where the duty ratio of the drive voltage is set to be 0.7. It is a figure which shows the waveform of the drive pulse which is output from the control circuit which controls the drive circuit shown in FIG. 3, and is applied to each switch element, and the drive voltage applied to a piezoelectric element. FIG. 4 is a diagram for explaining the operation of each switch element of the drive circuit shown in FIG. 3. FIG. 4 is a diagram for explaining the effect of the drive circuit shown in FIG. 3, where (a) is a power consumption and (b) is a graph showing a moving speed of the engaging member. It is a block diagram which shows another structural example of the drive circuit of the drive device shown in FIG. It is a figure which shows the waveform of the drive pulse which is output from the control circuit which controls the drive circuit shown in FIG. 11, and is applied to each switch element, and the drive voltage applied to a piezoelectric element. It is a figure which shows another structural example of the drive part shown in FIG. 1, (a) is the disassembled perspective view, (b) is the front view. It is a figure which shows schematically the structure of the drive device of a prior art example. FIG. 15 is a block diagram illustrating a configuration example of a drive circuit of the drive device illustrated in FIG. 14. FIGS. 15A and 15B are diagrams showing output waveforms of the drive circuit shown in FIG. 14, where FIG.

  FIG. 1 is a block diagram schematically showing a basic configuration of a drive device including an impact type piezoelectric actuator according to an embodiment of the present invention. In this figure, the drive device 10 includes a drive unit 12, a drive circuit 14 that drives the drive unit 12, a member sensor 16 that detects the position of an engagement member attached to the drive unit 12, and the drive unit 12. A proximal sensor 18 disposed at the proximal end, a distal sensor 20 disposed at the distal end of the drive unit 12, and a control unit 22 for controlling the overall operation are provided.

  FIG. 2 is a perspective view illustrating a configuration example of the drive unit 12. In this figure, the drive unit 12 has an element-fixed structure, and includes a support member 24, a piezoelectric element 26, a drive member 28, and an engagement member 30.

  The support member 24 holds the piezoelectric element 26 and the drive member 28, and is formed by scoring the inside leaving the axial both ends 241 and 242 and the substantially central partition wall 243. Storage space 244 and second storage space 245. In the first accommodation space 244, the piezoelectric element 26 is accommodated so that the expansion / contraction direction, which is the polarization direction, coincides with the axial direction of the support member 24. Further, the drive member 28 and a part of the engagement member 30 are accommodated in the second accommodation space 245.

  The piezoelectric element 26 is formed by, for example, laminating a plurality of piezoelectric substrates having a required thickness between each piezoelectric substrate via an unillustrated electrode, and a longitudinal direction that is an expansion / contraction direction (lamination direction). One end surface in the direction is fixed to the one end portion 241 side end surface of the first accommodation space 244. The other end 242 of the support member 24 and the partition wall 243 are provided with a round hole at the center position, and a rod-shaped drive member 28 having a round cross section passes through the round holes in the second housing space 245. It is accommodated so as to be movable along the axial direction.

  The end of the driving member 28 protruding into the first housing space 244 is fixed to the other end surface of the piezoelectric element 26, and the end of the driving member 28 protruding outside the second housing space 245 is required by the leaf spring 32. Is biased toward the piezoelectric element 26 by the spring pressure. The urging of the drive member 28 by the leaf spring 32 is to stabilize the axial displacement of the drive member 28 based on the expansion / contraction operation of the piezoelectric element 26.

  The engaging member 30 includes a base portion 302 having mounting portions 301 on both sides in the axial direction of the drive member 28, and a sandwiching member 303 mounted between the mounting portions 301. The base portion 302 is attached to the driving member 28. The engagement member 30 is coupled to the drive member 28 with a predetermined frictional force when the sandwiching member 303 is pressed by the leaf spring 304 and is brought into contact with the drive member 28 while being loosely fitted. When a driving force larger than the frictional force is applied, the driving member 28 can move along the axial direction. Note that a lens L (FIG. 1) that is a driving object is attached to the engaging member 30.

  FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating a configuration example of the drive circuit 14. In this figure, the drive circuit 14 includes a first switch element Q1 which is a MOS FET between a connection point a to which a drive voltage + Vp is supplied from a drive power supply (not shown) and a connection point b to be grounded. A series circuit of a switch circuit 141 and a second switch circuit 142 composed of a switch element Q2 which is a MOS type FET is connected, and a third switch circuit 143 composed of a switch element Q3 which is a MOS type FET and a switch which is a MOS type FET. A series circuit of a fourth switch circuit 144 composed of an element Q4 is connected, and a control circuit 145 is connected as a control signal supply means for supplying drive control signals Sc1, Sc2, Sc3, Sc4 to the switch circuits 141 to 144. Has been.

  The switch element Q1 constituting the first switch circuit 141 and the switch element Q3 constituting the third switch circuit 143 are P-channel FETs, and constitute the switch element Q2 and the fourth switch circuit 144 constituting the second switch circuit 142. The switch element Q4 is an N-channel FET. The switch elements Q1 and Q3 that are P-channel FETs are turned on when the drive control signal is at a low level, and the switch elements Q2 and Q4 that are N-channel FETs are turned on when the drive control signal is at a high level. The bridge circuit 146 is configured by connecting the piezoelectric element 26 between the connection point c of the first switch circuit 141 and the second switch circuit 142 and the connection point d of the third switch circuit 143 and the fourth switch circuit 144. Has been.

  In the drive circuit 14 configured as above, the first switch circuit 141 and the fourth switch circuit 144 are charged until the drive voltage + Vp is applied to the piezoelectric element 26 from one side until the inter-terminal voltage Vs becomes + Vp. The second switch circuit 142 and the third switch circuit 143 apply the drive voltage + Vp to the piezoelectric element 26 from the other side (that is, from the reverse direction). A second drive circuit (second drive means) is configured to be applied and charged until the inter-terminal voltage Vs becomes −Vp.

  When the bridge circuit 146 is configured by the drive circuit 14 and the piezoelectric element 26 as described above, a voltage of −Vp to + Vp is applied to the piezoelectric element 26, so that the drive voltage of the piezoelectric element 26 is equivalently 2 Vp. As a result, there is an advantage that the driving device 10 having a large amount of displacement can be obtained even when the driving power source is at a low voltage.

  Returning to FIG. 1, the member sensor 16 is disposed within a movable range of the engaging member 30, and includes a sensor such as an MRE (Magneto Resistive Effect) element or a PSD (Position Sensitive Device) element. The proximal sensor 18 and the distal sensor 20 are configured by sensors such as a photo interrupter. Thus, the position of the engaging member 30 is detected by the member sensor 16 so that the movement of the engaging member 30 to a predetermined position can be controlled. By detecting at 20, the further movement of the engaging member 30 is prohibited.

  The control unit 22 includes a CPU (Central Processing Unit) that performs arithmetic processing, a ROM (Read-Only Memory) that stores processing programs and data, and a RAM (Random Access Memory) that temporarily stores data. Based on a signal input from the member sensor 16 or the like, a drive pulse having a predetermined duty ratio is output from the control circuit 145, and the first drive circuit and the second drive circuit are alternately driven by the drive pulse. That is, the control unit 22 alternately drives the first drive circuit composed of the first switch circuit 141 and the fourth switch circuit 144 and the second drive circuit composed of the second switch circuit 142 and the third switch circuit 143. On the other hand, drive control means for driving a discharge circuit composed of a second switch circuit 142 and a fourth switch circuit 144 described later is configured.

  Next, prior to the description of the drive operation of the drive circuit 14 applied to the drive device 10 of the present invention, the principle operation of the drive circuit 14 will be described with reference to FIGS. That is, FIG. 4 is a diagram showing a pulse waveform of the drive voltage for explaining the principle operation of the drive circuit 14. FIG. 4A shows the drive frequency fd of the drive voltage with the support member 24 and the drive member 28. Is set to be 0.7 times the resonant frequency fr of the piezoelectric element 26 in a state where is fixed (fd = 0.7 × fr), and the duty ratio D (D = B / A) is set to 0.3. In FIG. 5B, the drive frequency fd of the drive voltage is 0.7 times the resonance frequency fr of the piezoelectric element 26 with the support member 24 and the drive member 28 fixed (fd = 0.7 × fr), and the duty ratio D (D = B / A) is set to 0.7.

  As described above, when the driving voltage composed of the rectangular wave shown in FIG. 4A is applied to the piezoelectric element 26, the engaging member 30 extends along the driving member 28 in the feeding direction (direction away from the piezoelectric element 26). When the drive voltage consisting of a rectangular wave shown in FIG. 4B is applied to the piezoelectric element 26, the engagement member 30 moves along the drive member 28 in the return direction (approaching the piezoelectric element 26). The direction of the arrow a is the opposite direction. The drive voltage is set in this way because the ratio (fd / fr) of the frequency fd of the drive voltage to the resonance frequency fr of the piezoelectric element 26 in a state where the support member 24 and the drive member 28 are fixed and the engagement member. As a result of confirming the relationship with the moving speed of 30, it became clear that the relationship shown in FIG. 5 was obtained.

  That is, in the past, it was considered that the piezoelectric element 26 is driven when a drive voltage having a sawtooth waveform is applied, so that the drive circuit is inevitably complicated, resulting in cost reduction and size reduction. Although there was a problem of being restricted, in the drive circuit 14 of the drive device 10 according to the present invention, as described above, the drive voltage may be formed of a rectangular wave that can be easily generated. Has the advantage of being promoted.

  The characteristic diagram shown in FIG. 5 is for the case where the duty ratio of the drive voltage composed of a rectangular wave is 0.3 (when the engagement member 30 moves in the feeding direction), and the duty ratio is 0.7. In this case (when the engagement member 30 moves in the return direction), it is confirmed that when the duty ratio is in the range of 0.05 to 0.95, the relationship is substantially the same. Yes.

  As is apparent from the characteristic diagram shown in FIG. 5, when the value of fd / fr is in the range of 0.3 to 1.5, the engaging member 30 is substantially movable, and fd / fr When the value of is less than 0.3 and exceeds 1.5, the engaging member 30 becomes immovable. Therefore, the frequency fd of the drive voltage with respect to the resonance frequency fr of the piezoelectric element 26 can be set as appropriate within the range of 0.3 <fd <1.5 as required, as well as that shown in FIG.

  Further, as a result of confirming the relationship between the duty ratio of the drive voltage composed of a rectangular wave and the moving direction (feeding direction and returning direction) of the engaging member 30, it is clear that the relationship shown in FIG. It has become. That is, when the duty ratio D is in the range of 0.05 to 0.45 (0.05 <D <0.45), the engagement member 30 moves in the feeding direction, and the duty ratio D is 0.55 to When it is within the range of 0.95 (0.55 <D <0.95), the engagement member 30 moves in the return direction. Therefore, the duty ratio D can be appropriately set within the range of 0.05 <D <0.45 or 0.55 <D <0.95 as required, as well as that shown in FIG.

  The resonance frequency fr of the piezoelectric element 26 in a state where the support member 24 and the drive member 28 are fixed is obtained by the following equation (1).

  In Equation 1, fro represents the free resonance frequency between the electrodes of the piezoelectric element 26 (resonance frequency in the direction between the electrodes of the piezoelectric element 26 itself), mp represents the mass of the piezoelectric element 26, and mf represents the mass of the driving member 28. Yes. The mass of the support member 24 is related to the resonance frequency fr of the piezoelectric element 26 in the resonance system, but the mass of the support member 24 is sufficiently larger than the sum of the masses of the piezoelectric element 26 and the drive member 28. Therefore, the influence on the resonance frequency fr is small, so there is no need to consider it as a calculation parameter. Further, the engaging member 30 does not have to be considered as a substantially resonant element because it slips with respect to the driving member 28 at the time of resonance of the piezoelectric element 26, and is therefore included as the calculation parameter of the above equation (1). Absent.

  FIG. 7 is a diagram showing a correspondence relationship between the pulse waveform of the driving voltage applied from the driving circuit 14 applied to the piezoelectric element 26 and the displacement due to the expansion and contraction of the piezoelectric element 26. FIG. (B) shows the case where the drive voltage shown in FIG. 4 (b) is applied. The displacement due to expansion and contraction of the piezoelectric element 26 is measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer.

  As described above, when the driving voltage shown in FIG. 4A is applied to the piezoelectric element 26, the displacement waveform of the piezoelectric element 26 has a sawtooth shape having a slow rising portion and a steep falling portion. When the drive voltage shown in FIG. 4B is applied, it was confirmed that the displacement waveform of the piezoelectric element 26 has a sawtooth shape having a steep rising portion and a slow falling portion.

  That is, when the displacement of the piezoelectric element 26 exhibits a waveform having a slow rising portion as shown in FIG. 7A (that is, when the piezoelectric element 26 is gently extended), the engaging member 30 is driven by the drive member 28. When the displacement of the piezoelectric element 26 exhibits a waveform having a steep falling portion as shown in FIG. 7A (that is, when the piezoelectric element 26 rapidly shrinks), the drive member Even if 28 moves in the return direction, the engaging member 30 slips on the driving member 28 and stays at substantially the same position. For this reason, when the driving voltage shown in FIG. 7A is repeatedly applied to the piezoelectric element 26, the engaging member 30 moves intermittently in the feeding direction.

  Further, when the displacement of the piezoelectric element 26 exhibits a waveform having a steep rising portion as shown in FIG. 7B (that is, when the piezoelectric element 26 expands rapidly), the driving member 28 moves in the feeding direction. Even so, the engaging member 30 slips on the driving member 28 and stays at substantially the same position, and the displacement of the piezoelectric element 26 exhibits a waveform having a slow falling portion as shown in FIG. At that time (that is, when the piezoelectric element 26 is gradually reduced), the engagement member 30 moves in the return direction together with the drive member 28. For this reason, when the driving voltage shown in FIG. 7B is repeatedly applied to the piezoelectric element 26, the engaging member 30 moves intermittently in the return direction.

  Thus, for example, when the drive voltage shown in FIGS. 4A and 4B is applied to the piezoelectric element 26, the displacement waveform of the piezoelectric element 26 has a sawtooth shape for the following reason. That is, the rectangular wave is composed of a sine wave that is a fundamental wave and a plurality of higher harmonics, but the drive frequency fd of the drive voltage is larger than 0.3 times the resonance frequency fr of the piezoelectric element 26. When less than 5 times (0.3 × fr <fd <1.5 × fr), 3 of the harmonic components forming a rectangular wave under the influence of the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric element 26 in the resonance system The gain of higher-order harmonics higher than the second order is greatly attenuated, and the drive voltage applied to the piezoelectric element 26 has a waveform (that is, a substantially sawtooth waveform) substantially consisting of a fundamental wave and a second-order harmonic. Because it becomes a thing.

In addition, the movement direction of the engagement member 30 is reversed between the feeding direction and the return direction at a certain value of the duty ratio of the drive voltage. The phase of the second harmonic relative to the fundamental wave corresponds to the duty ratio. This is because the slopes of the rising part and the falling part in the sawtooth waveform composed of the fundamental wave and the second harmonic change. That is, when the duty ratio D is in the range of 0.05 <D <0.45, the phase shift of the second harmonic becomes large, resulting in a sawtooth waveform having a slow rising portion and a steep falling portion. Therefore, the engaging member 30 moves in the feeding direction, and when the duty ratio D is in the range of 0.55 <D <0.95, the phase shift of the second harmonic becomes small and the steep rising portion The engagement member 30 moves in the return direction because it has a sawtooth waveform having a slow falling part.

  FIG. 8 is a diagram for explaining the operation of the drive circuit 14 applied to the drive apparatus 10 according to the present invention, and is output from the control circuit 145 that controls the drive circuit 14 shown in FIG. It is a figure which shows the drive pulse applied to Q4, and the waveform of the drive voltage applied to the piezoelectric element 26. FIG. The drive voltage shown in FIG. 8 is a rectangular wave as described above, and the drive frequency fd is relative to the resonance frequency fr of the piezoelectric element 26 in a state where the support member 24 and the drive member 28 are fixed. The duty ratio D is set to 0.3 for the waveform in the feeding direction, and the duty ratio D is set to 0.7 for the waveform in the return direction. By applying this drive voltage to the piezoelectric element 26, the engagement member 30 moves in the feeding direction and the return direction.

  As shown in FIG. 8, when the driving device 10 is driven, when the high-level drive control signals Sc1 and Sc2 are input from the control circuit 145 to the switch elements Q1 and Q2, the low-level drive control signals Sc3 and Sc4 are When the low level drive control signals Sc1 and Sc2 are input to the switch elements Q3 and Q4 and the low level drive control signals Sc1 and Sc2 are input to the switch elements Q1 and Q2, the high level drive control signals Sc3 and Sc4 are input to the switch elements Q3 and Q4.

  Among these drive control signals, the drive control signals Sc3 and Sc4 are switched from low to high at a slightly faster timing when the drive control signals Sc1 and Sc2 are switched from high to low, and the drive control signals Sc1 and Sc2 are When switching from low to high, it is set to switch from high to low at a slightly later timing.

  By repeatedly outputting the drive control signal as described above from the control circuit 145, the switch elements Q1 and Q4 and the switch elements Q2 and Q3 are alternately turned on and off in a predetermined cycle. That is, when the switch elements Q1 and Q4 are on, the piezoelectric element 26 is charged to + Vp. When the switch elements Q2 and Q3 are on, the piezoelectric element 26 is charged to -Vp. A voltage twice as high as the upper power supply voltage Vp (2 Vp) is applied, so that the moving speed of the engaging member 30 can be increased and the driving device 10 can be operated effectively. It should be noted that the engagement member 30 moves in the feeding direction when the drive voltage duty ratio D is set to 0.3, and the engagement member when the drive voltage duty ratio D is set to 0.7. 30 moves in the return direction.

  Moreover, as described above, the drive control signals Sc3 and Sc4 are switched from low to high at a slightly faster timing when the drive control signals Sc1 and Sc2 are switched from high to low, and the drive control signals Sc1 and Sc2 are switched from low to high. Since it is set to switch from high to low at a slightly later timing when switching to high, the charging period for the piezoelectric element 26, which is the driving period of the switching elements Q1, Q4, and driving of the switching elements Q2, Q3 Between the charging period for the piezoelectric element 26, which is a period, a discharge period is formed in which the electric charge charged in the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged by driving the switch elements Q2 and Q4, thereby greatly reducing power consumption. It will be. Therefore, the switch elements Q2 and Q4 constitute a discharge circuit that discharges the electric charge charged in the piezoelectric element 26 when they are driven simultaneously.

  That is, after both the switch elements Q2 and Q3 are turned on and the piezoelectric element 26 is charged by applying the drive voltage Vp from the opposite direction (Vs = −VP), both the switch elements Q1 and Q4 are turned on. A period in which both switch elements Q2 and Q4 are turned on is formed before. At this time, the charge of −VP charged in the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged through the switch elements Q2 and Q4. Then, after both the switch elements Q1 and Q4 are turned on and the piezoelectric element 26 is charged by applying the drive voltage Vp (Vs = + VP), before the switch elements Q2 and Q3 are both turned on, the switch elements A period in which both Q2 and Q4 are turned on is formed. At this time, the charge of + VP charged in the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged through the switch elements Q2 and Q4.

  As described above, since the discharge period is generated by driving the switch elements Q2 and Q4 between the drive period of the switch elements Q1 and Q4 and the drive period of the switch elements Q2 and Q3, the piezoelectric element 26 is charged to + Vp. Since it is only necessary to supply the charge necessary for charging both when charging and when charging to -Vp, unnecessary power consumption can be reduced. On the other hand, when the discharge period by driving the switching elements Q2 and Q4 is not formed, unnecessary power is consumed because the driving voltage Vp is applied to the piezoelectric element 26 even when the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged. Become.

  FIG. 9 is a diagram for explaining this state. A period during which both switch elements Q2 and Q3 are turned on (at this time, both switch elements Q1 and Q4 are turned off) is a first period, after this first period. A period in which both of the formed switch elements Q2 and Q4 are turned on (at this time, both of the switch elements Q1 and Q3 are turned off) is a second period, and both of the switch elements Q1 and Q4 formed after the second period are turned on. The period during which the switch elements Q2 and Q3 are both off is the third period, and the period when both of the switch elements Q2 and Q4 formed after the third period are on (at this time, the switch elements Q1 and Q3 are Both are off) as the fourth period.

  Table 1 shows the correspondence between the drive control signals Sc1 to Sc4 output from the control circuit 145 during the first period to the fourth period and the charging voltage of the piezoelectric element 26. Here, “H” indicates a high signal and “L” indicates a low signal.

  In this first period, the piezoelectric element 26 is charged with −q charge (at this time, Vs = −Vp), and in the second period, the −q charge charged in the piezoelectric element 26 in the first period is discharged. The Further, in the third period, + q charge is charged in the piezoelectric element 26 (at this time, Vs = + Vp), and in the fourth period, + q charge charged in the piezoelectric element 26 in the third period is discharged. A drive voltage Vp is applied to the piezoelectric element 26 in the polarization direction.

  The circle indicated by the symbol C1 shows an enlarged waveform of the voltage applied to the piezoelectric element 26 in the second period. In the period a, the high signal is applied to the switch element Q4 until the switch is actually switched. The switching time, period b, indicates the discharge time from when the switch element Q4 is switched to when the electric charge charged in the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged. Therefore, the second period is set to a value obtained by adding these periods a and b or a value approximate thereto.

  Further, the circle indicated by the symbol C2 shows an enlarged waveform of the voltage applied to the piezoelectric element 26 in the fourth period. In the period c, the switch is actually turned on after the low signal is applied to the switch element Q4. The switching time until switching and the period d indicate the discharging time from when the switch element Q2 is switched to when the electric charge charged in the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged. Therefore, the fourth period is set to a value obtained by adding these periods c and d or a value approximate thereto.

  According to the experimental results, as shown in FIG. 10A, as described above, the first period that is the driving period (charging period) of the switching elements Q2 and Q3 and the driving period (charging period) of the switching elements Q1 and Q4. And a third period that is a driving period (charging period) of the switch elements Q1 and Q4 and a first period that is a driving period (charging period) of the switch elements Q2 and Q3. The power consumption in the case where the second period and the fourth period, which are drive periods (discharge periods) of the switch elements Q2 and Q4, are respectively provided was 77 mW, whereas the second period and the fourth period are provided. The power consumption when the configuration was not present was 143 mW (improvement of 46%). In addition, there is a concern that the moving speed of the engaging member 30 is slightly reduced due to a step in the driving voltage applied to the piezoelectric element 26. However, as shown in FIG. The moving speed of the engaging member 30 was 9.3 mm / sec, whereas that of the conventional example was 9.9 mm / sec, which was only about 6% lower and did not change significantly.

  FIG. 11 is a diagram illustrating another configuration example of the drive circuit 14. In this figure, the drive circuit 14 'has a switch element Q1 made of a MOS type FET between a connection point a to which a drive voltage + Vp is supplied from a drive power supply (not shown) and a connection point b to be grounded. A series circuit of a first switch circuit 151 and a second switch circuit 152 composed of a switch element Q2 that is a MOS type FET is connected, and a third switch circuit 153 composed of a switch element Q3 that is a MOS type FET and a MOS type FET. A series circuit of a fourth switch circuit 154 composed of the switch element Q4 is connected.

  A fifth switch circuit 155 comprising a series circuit of a resistor element R1 and a switch element Q5 that is a MOS FET is connected in parallel to the second switch circuit 152, and the resistor element R2 and the MOS FET are connected to the fourth switch circuit 154. As a control signal supply means for supplying a drive control signal Sc1, Sc2, Sc3, Sc4, Sc5, Sc6 to each switch circuit 151 to 156, a sixth switch circuit 156 comprising a series circuit of switch elements Q6 is connected in parallel. A control circuit 157 is connected. The control circuit 157 controls each switch circuit under the control of the control unit 22 as in the case of the drive circuit 14.

  The switch element Q1 constituting the first switch circuit 151 and the switch element Q3 constituting the third switch circuit 153 are P-channel FETs, and constitute the switch element Q2 constituting the second switch circuit 152 and the fourth switch circuit 154. The switch element Q4, the switch element Q5 constituting the fifth switch circuit 155, and the switch element Q6 constituting the sixth switch circuit 156 are N-channel FETs. The bridge circuit 158 is configured by connecting the piezoelectric element 26 between the connection point c of the first switch circuit 151 and the second switch circuit 152 and the connection point d of the third switch circuit 153 and the fourth switch circuit 154. Has been.

  In the drive circuit 14 ′ configured as described above, when the engaging member 30 is moved in the feeding direction, the first switch circuit 151 and the sixth switch circuit 156 are driven with respect to the piezoelectric element 26 from one side. A first drive circuit (first drive means) that charges by applying + Vp until the inter-terminal voltage Vs becomes + Vp is configured, and the second switch circuit 152 and the third switch circuit 153 are connected to the piezoelectric element 26. A second drive circuit (second drive means) is configured to apply the drive voltage + Vp from the other side (that is, from the reverse direction) and charge until the inter-terminal voltage Vs becomes −Vp.

  Further, when the engagement member 30 is moved in the return direction, the first switch circuit 151 and the fourth switch circuit 154 apply the drive voltage + Vp to the piezoelectric element 26 from one side so that the inter-terminal voltage Vs is A first drive circuit (first drive means) that charges until + Vp is formed, and the third switch circuit 153 and the fifth switch circuit 155 are from the other side (that is, from the opposite direction) with respect to the piezoelectric element 26. ) A second drive circuit (second drive means) is configured to be charged until the drive voltage + Vp is applied and the inter-terminal voltage Vs becomes −Vp.

  When the bridge circuit 158 is configured by the drive circuit 14 ′ and the piezoelectric element 26 as described above, the voltage of −Vp to + Vp is applied to the piezoelectric element 26 as in the case of the drive circuit 14. As a result of the drive voltage being equivalently 2 Vp, there is an advantage that the drive device 10 having a large displacement can be obtained even if the drive power supply is a low voltage.

  FIG. 12 is a diagram for explaining the operation of the drive circuit 14 ′. The drive pulses output from the control circuit 157 for controlling the drive circuit 14 ′ shown in FIG. 11 and applied to the switch elements Q1 to Q6; FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a waveform of a drive voltage applied to a piezoelectric element 26. In the previous drive circuit 14, the engagement member 30 is moved by applying a drive voltage composed of a rectangular wave to the piezoelectric element 26. In this drive circuit 14 ′, the piezoelectric element 26 is applied to the piezoelectric element 26. The engagement member 30 is moved by applying a sawtooth drive voltage. That is, by applying a sawtooth drive voltage having a slow rising portion and a steep falling portion, the engagement member 30 is moved in the feeding direction, and a steep rising portion and a slow falling portion are provided. The engagement member 30 is moved in the return direction by applying a sawtooth drive voltage.

  As shown in FIG. 12, when the driving device 10 is driven and the engaging member 30 is moved in the feeding direction, high level drive control signals Sc1 and Sc2 are sent from the control circuit 157 to the switch elements Q1 and Q2. When input, low level drive control signals Sc3, Sc4, Sc5, Sc6 are input to the switch elements Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, and low level drive control signals Sc1, Sc2, Sc4, Sc5 are input to the switch elements Q1, When input to Q2, Q4 and Q5, high-level drive control signals Sc3 and Sc6 are input to switch elements Q3 and Q6.

  Of these drive control signals, the drive control signal Sc6 switches from low to high at the same timing when the drive control signal Sc3 switches from low to high, and the drive control signal Sc2 switches from low to high. When switching, it is set to switch from high to low at a slightly later timing. The drive control signal Sc6 is switched from high to low at the same timing when the drive control signal Sc3 is switched from high to low, and the drive control signal Sc2 is more than that when the drive control signal Sc3 is switched from high to low. It is set to switch from low to high at slightly faster timing.

  By repeatedly outputting the drive control signal as described above from the control circuit 157, the switch elements Q1 and Q6 and the switch elements Q2 and Q3 are alternately turned on and off in a predetermined cycle. That is, when the switch elements Q1 and Q6 are on, the piezoelectric element 26 is charged to + Vp. When the switch elements Q2 and Q3 are on, the piezoelectric element 26 is charged to -Vp. A voltage twice as high as the upper power supply voltage Vp (2 Vp) is applied, so that the moving speed of the engaging member 30 can be increased and the driving device 10 can be operated effectively. The piezoelectric element 26 is slowly charged when the switch elements Q1 and Q6 are on, and the piezoelectric element 26 is rapidly charged when the switch elements Q2 and Q3 are on. Move to.

  In addition, as described above, the drive control signal Sc6 switches from low to high at the same timing when the drive control signal Sc3 switches from low to high, and the drive control signal Sc2 changes when the drive control signal Sc3 switches from low to high. The drive control signal Sc6 is set to switch from high to low at the same timing when the drive control signal Sc3 switches from high to low, while the drive control signal Sc2 is set to switch from high to low at a slightly later timing. Since the drive control signal Sc3 is set to switch from low to high at a slightly faster timing when switching from high to low, the charging period for the piezoelectric element 26, which is the drive period of the switch elements Q1 and Q6, In the piezoelectric element 26 which is the drive period of the switch elements Q2 and Q3, Between the charging periods are formed discharge period for discharging the charges accumulated in the piezoelectric element 26 by the driving of the switching element Q2, Q6 is power consumption will be significantly reduced thereby. Accordingly, the switch elements Q2 and Q6 (that is, the second switch circuit 152 and the sixth switch circuit 156) constitute a discharge circuit that discharges the charge charged in the piezoelectric element 26 when they are driven simultaneously. Become.

  That is, after both the switch elements Q2 and Q3 are turned on and the piezoelectric element 26 is charged by applying the drive voltage Vp from the opposite direction (Vs = −VP), both the switch elements Q1 and Q6 are turned on. A period in which both switch elements Q2 and Q6 are turned on is formed before. At this time, the charge of −VP charged in the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged through the switch elements Q2 and Q6. Then, after both the switch elements Q1 and Q6 are turned on and the piezoelectric element 26 is charged by applying the drive voltage Vp (Vs = + VP), the switch elements Q2 and Q3 are turned on before both the switch elements Q2 and Q3 are turned on. A period in which both Q2 and Q6 are turned on is formed. At this time, the charge of + VP charged in the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged through the switch elements Q2 and Q6.

  As described above, since the discharge period is generated by driving the switch elements Q2 and Q6 between the drive period of the switch elements Q1 and Q6 and the drive period of the switch elements Q2 and Q3, the piezoelectric element 26 is charged to + Vp. Since it is only necessary to supply the charge necessary for charging both when charging and when charging to -Vp, unnecessary power consumption can be reduced. On the other hand, when the discharge period is not formed by driving the switch elements Q2 and Q6, unnecessary power is consumed because the drive voltage Vp is applied to the piezoelectric element 26 even when the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged. Become.

  As shown in FIG. 12, when the driving device 10 is driven and the engagement member 30 is moved in the return direction, the low-level drive control signals Sc1, Sc2, Sc5, and Sc6 are switched from the control circuit 157. When input to the elements Q1, Q2, Q5, Q6, the high level drive control signals Sc3, Sc4 are input to the switch elements Q3, Q4, and the high level drive control signals Sc1, Sc5 are input to the switch elements Q1, Q5. When this is done, low level drive control signals Sc2, Sc3, Sc4, Sc6 are input to the switch elements Q2, Q3, Q4, Q6.

  Of these drive control signals, the drive control signal Sc1 is switched from low to high at the same timing when the drive control signal Sc5 is switched from low to high, and the drive control signal Sc3 is switched from low to high. It is set to switch from high to low at a slightly faster timing when switching. The drive control signal Sc1 is switched from high to low at a slightly faster timing when the drive control signal Sc4 is switched from low to high, and the drive control signal Sc3 is switched from low to high. Sometimes it is set to switch from low to high at the same time.

  By repeatedly outputting the drive control signal as described above from the control circuit 157, the switch elements Q1 and Q4 and the switch elements Q3 and Q5 are alternately turned on and off in a predetermined cycle. That is, when the switch elements Q1 and Q4 are on, the piezoelectric element 26 is charged to + Vp. When the switch elements Q3 and Q5 are on, the piezoelectric element 26 is charged to -Vp. A voltage twice as high as the upper power supply voltage Vp (2 Vp) is applied, and the moving speed of the engaging member 30 can be increased, so that the driving device can be operated effectively. Note that when the switch elements Q1 and Q4 are on, the piezoelectric element 26 is rapidly charged, and when the switch elements Q3 and Q5 are on, the piezoelectric element 26 is slowly charged. Move to.

  Moreover, as described above, the drive control signal Sc1 switches from low to high at the same timing when the drive control signal Sc5 switches from low to high, and the drive control signal Sc3 corresponds to when the drive control signal Sc5 switches from low to high. While the drive control signal Sc1 is set to switch from high to low at slightly faster timing, the drive control signal Sc1 switches from high to low at a slightly faster timing when the drive control signal Sc4 switches from low to high. The drive control signal Sc3 is set to switch from low to high at the same timing when the drive control signal Sc4 switches from low to high, so that the piezoelectric element 26 that is the drive period of the switch elements Q1 and Q4 is charged. Period and the piezoelectric element 2 which is the driving period of the switch elements Q3 and Q5 Between the charging period for formed discharge period for discharging the charges accumulated in the piezoelectric element 26 by the driving of the switching elements Q1, Q3 is, power consumption will be significantly reduced thereby. Accordingly, the switch elements Q1 and Q3 (that is, the first switch circuit 152 and the third switch circuit 153) constitute a discharge circuit that discharges the charge charged in the piezoelectric element 26 when they are driven simultaneously. Become.

  That is, after both the switch elements Q1 and Q4 are turned on and the piezoelectric element 26 is charged by applying the drive voltage Vp (Vs = + VP), before the switch elements Q3 and Q5 are both turned on, the switch elements Q3 and Q4 are turned on. A period in which both Q1 and Q3 are turned on is formed. At this time, the charge of + VP charged in the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged through the switch elements Q1 and Q3. Then, after both the switch elements Q3 and Q5 are turned on and the drive voltage Vp is applied to the piezoelectric element 26 and charging is performed (Vs = −VP), the switch elements Q1 and Q4 are switched on before both are turned on. A period in which the elements Q1 and Q3 are both turned on is formed. At this time, the charge of −VP charged in the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged through the switch elements Q1 and Q3.

  As described above, since the discharge period is generated by driving the switch elements Q1 and Q3 between the drive period of the switch elements Q1 and Q4 and the drive period of the switch elements Q3 and Q5, the piezoelectric element 26 is charged to + Vp. Since it is only necessary to supply the charge necessary for charging both when charging and when charging to -Vp, unnecessary power consumption can be reduced. On the other hand, when the discharge period is not formed by driving the switch elements Q1 and Q3, unnecessary power is consumed because the drive voltage Vp is applied to the piezoelectric element 26 even when the piezoelectric element 26 is discharged. Become.

  Note that the drive unit 12 is not of the element fixed structure as shown in FIG. 2, but is driven by the drive circuits 14 and 14 ′, for example, of a self-running structure as shown in FIG. can do. FIG. 13A is an exploded perspective view of the drive unit 12 having a self-propelled structure, and FIG. 13B is a front view of the drive unit 12.

  That is, the drive unit 12 ′ shown in FIG. 13 includes an engaging member (base member) 40 and a moving member 42 that are fixed in position. The engaging member 40 is disposed to face the substrate 44 at a substantially central position with a predetermined interval, and a pair of holding members 50 and 52 attached by elastic members 46 and 48 such as leaf springs, A pair of guide members 54 and 56 attached to both left and right ends of the substrate 44 are provided. A plurality of freely rotatable ball members 58 and 60 are attached to the outer surfaces of the guide members 54 and 56.

  The moving member 42 includes a driving body 63 and a moving body 65 attached to the driving body 63 integrally. The drive body 63 includes a support member 67, a piezoelectric element 69, and a drive member 71. The support member 67 holds the piezoelectric element 69 and the drive member 71, and is a first accommodation space formed by scoring the rectangular parallelepiped axial ends 671, 672 and a substantially central partition wall 673. 674 and a second accommodation space 675. In the first accommodation space 674, the piezoelectric element 69 is accommodated such that the expansion / contraction direction thereof coincides with the axial direction of the support member 67. Further, the drive member 71 is accommodated in the second accommodation space 675 so as to be movable in the axial direction.

  The piezoelectric element 69 is configured in the same manner as the piezoelectric element 26 shown in FIG. 2, and one end face in the longitudinal direction that is the expansion / contraction direction (stacking direction) is the end face on the one end portion 671 side of the first accommodation space 674. It is fixed to. In the drive member 71, a bulging portion 711 that bulges on both the left and right sides of the support member 67 is integrally formed at the center, and this bulging portion 711 is located in the second accommodation space 675 and is formed in the partition wall 673. The end projecting into the first accommodation space 674 through the through hole is fixed to the other end surface of the piezoelectric element 69, and the second accommodation through the through hole formed in the other end 672 of the support member 67. An end protruding outside the space 675 is a free end.

  The moving body 65 has a flat plate portion 651 and side wall portions 652 and 653 extending downward on the left and right sides of the flat plate portion 651 and sliding members 654 and 655 formed inside the side wall portions 652 and 653. Therefore, the moving member 42 is fixed to the upper surface of the support member 67 by a screw member 656.

  The moving member 42 configured in this manner is assembled to the engaging member 40 by the bulging portion 711 of the driving member 71 being movably held between the pair of holding members 50 and 52 of the engaging member 40. become. That is, the engagement member 40 corresponds to the engagement member 30 of FIG. 2, and this engagement member 40 is coupled to the drive member 71 with a predetermined frictional force, so that the drive unit 12 ′ is configured. become.

  In the drive unit 12 ′, when a drive voltage having a waveform shown in FIG. 4A, for example, is applied from the drive circuits 14 and 14 ′ and the piezoelectric element 69 is gently expanded, the support member 71 is in a state where the drive member 71 is stationary. When 67 moves to one side of the engagement member 40 and then the piezoelectric element 69 rapidly shrinks, the drive member 71 overcomes the frictional force generated by the holding members 50 and 52 while the support member 67 is stationary. Move to one side of member 40. By this repetitive operation, the support member 67 moves intermittently to one side of the engagement member 40 together with the moving body 65.

  Further, when a driving voltage having a waveform shown in FIG. 4B, for example, is applied from the driving circuits 14 and 14 ′ and the piezoelectric element 69 is rapidly expanded, the driving member 71 is held in a state where the supporting member 67 is stationary. When the piezoelectric element 69 is gradually reduced after overcoming the frictional force of 50 and 52 and moved to the other side of the engaging member 40, the support member 67 is moved to the other side of the engaging member 40 with the drive member 71 stationary. Moving. The support member 67 moves intermittently to the other side of the engaging member 40 together with the moving body 65 by this repeated operation.

  As described above, in the driving apparatus 10 according to the embodiment of the present invention, the driving circuits 14 and 14 ′ apply the driving voltage to the piezoelectric element 26 from one side and charge the piezoelectric element 26, and the piezoelectric element. 26, a second driving circuit for charging by applying a driving voltage from the other side, and a discharging circuit for discharging the electric charge charged to the piezoelectric element 26 by each driving circuit, and the driving control means includes a first driving circuit. Since the circuit and the second drive circuit are driven alternately, and the discharge circuit is driven between the drive period of the first drive circuit and the drive period of the second drive circuit, the piezoelectric element 26 Since it is only necessary to supply the charge required for charging both when charging the battery to + Vp and without charging the battery, the power consumption is suppressed as much as possible without complicating the drive circuit. To be able to drive effectively with power supply That.

  In addition, this invention is not limited to the thing of the said embodiment, A various deformation | transformation aspect is employable. For example, in the case of the drive circuit 14 shown in FIG. 3, a resistance element having a predetermined resistance value is connected between the switch elements Q2 and Q4 and the ground, or in the case of the drive circuit 14 ′ shown in FIG. The fifth switch circuit 155 and the sixth switch circuit 156 can be removed, and a resistance element having a predetermined resistance value can be connected between the switch elements Q2 and Q4 and the ground.

10 Piezoelectric actuator (drive device)
12, 12 'drive unit 14, 14' drive circuit 22 control unit (drive control means)
24, 67 Support member 26, 69 Piezoelectric element (electromechanical transducer)
28, 71 Driving member 30, 40 Engaging member 141, 151 First switch circuit 142, 152 Second switch circuit 143, 153 Third switch circuit 144, 154 Fourth switch circuit 155 Fifth switch circuit 156 Sixth switch circuit Q1 Switch element Q2 Switch element Q3 Switch element Q4 Switch element Q5 Switch element Q6 Switch element R1, R2 Resistance element

Claims (2)

  1. An electromechanical transducer that expands and contracts when a drive voltage is applied; a drive member that is driven by the expansion and contraction of the electromechanical transducer; an engagement member that is engaged with the drive member with a predetermined frictional force; a drive circuit for driving the driving voltage comprising an electromechanical transducer element from the rectangular wave, and a drive control means for controlling the operation of the drive circuit to perform a stretched and reduced and the different speeds of the electromechanical transducer and said engagement member and the driven member by a driving system for relatively moving,
    When the drive circuit moves the engagement member in the first direction, the drive circuit is a drive voltage composed of a rectangular wave having a duty ratio that is greater than 0.05 and less than 0.45. A drive device characterized by applying a drive voltage comprising a rectangular wave having a duty ratio larger than 0.55 and smaller than 0.95 to the electromechanical conversion element when moving in the reverse second direction .
  2. The drive circuit applies a drive voltage from one side to the electromechanical conversion element to charge the first polarity charge, and applies a drive voltage from the other side to the electromechanical conversion element. And a second drive circuit that charges and charges the second polarity opposite to the first polarity, and the drive control means includes the first drive circuit and the second drive circuit. drive apparatus according to claim 1, wherein Rukoto is driven alternately.
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EP2737600B1 (en) 2011-07-26 2018-10-03 Gogoro Inc. Apparatus, method and article for redistributing power storage devices, such as batteries, between collection, charging and distribution machines
US9830753B2 (en) 2011-07-26 2017-11-28 Gogoro Inc. Apparatus, method and article for reserving power storage devices at reserving power storage device collection, charging and distribution machines
TWI560637B (en) * 2011-07-26 2016-12-01 Gogoro Inc Apparatus, method and article for providing information regarding availability of power storage devices at a power storage device collection, charging and distribution machine
US10186094B2 (en) 2011-07-26 2019-01-22 Gogoro Inc. Apparatus, method and article for providing locations of power storage device collection, charging and distribution machines
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JP2940016B2 (en) * 1989-10-03 1999-08-25 トヨタ自動車株式会社 The piezoelectric actuator drive device
JP2782306B2 (en) * 1992-12-10 1998-07-30 株式会社田村電機製作所 Ultrasonic motor drive method
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JP3689783B2 (en) * 1997-11-21 2005-08-31 コニカミノルタフォトイメージング株式会社 How to keep the feedback period constant, and the drive control device and the optical device is so controlled
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JPH11356070A (en) * 1998-06-08 1999-12-24 Minolta Co Ltd Drive unit using electromechanical transducing element and driving circuit therefor
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