JP4922020B2 - Mushroom cultivation method and mushroom cultivation medium - Google Patents

Mushroom cultivation method and mushroom cultivation medium Download PDF

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JP4922020B2
JP4922020B2 JP2007056507A JP2007056507A JP4922020B2 JP 4922020 B2 JP4922020 B2 JP 4922020B2 JP 2007056507 A JP2007056507 A JP 2007056507A JP 2007056507 A JP2007056507 A JP 2007056507A JP 4922020 B2 JP4922020 B2 JP 4922020B2
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corn cob
mushroom
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JP2008212092A (en
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聡 三原
勝次 山中
晴夫 川口
秀治 竹内
清嗣 篠田
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中野市農業協同組合
勝次 山中
秀治 竹内
農事組合法人あさひ培養センター
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本発明は、代表的な食用きのこの1種であるマッシュルーム(学名:Agaricus bisporus)の効率的で省資源的な栽培方法およびマッシュルーム栽培用培地に関する。   The present invention relates to an efficient and resource-saving cultivation method for mushrooms (scientific name: Agaricus bisporus), which is one of typical edible mushrooms, and a mushroom cultivation medium.
欧米で発展を遂げたマッシュルームの人工栽培は明治の中ごろに日本に導入され、戦前は栽培用厩肥として軍馬等の馬厩肥の供給に依存した栽培であったが、戦後は馬厩肥に依存しない人工の堆肥(コンポスト)を用いた栽培が普及した。   Artificial cultivation of mushrooms, developed in Europe and the United States, was introduced to Japan in the middle of the Meiji era. Before the war, it was dependent on the supply of horse manure such as war horses as manure for cultivation. Cultivation using compost was popularized.
現在のマッシュルームの一般的な栽培法は、菌床作成工程と発生・生育工程に大別される。
菌床作成工程は、(1)堆肥(コンポスト)調製、(2)堆肥の堆積・一次発酵、(3)堆肥の床詰、(4)堆肥の殺菌・二次発酵、(5)種菌の接種、(6)培養(20℃、湿度60〜75%RHの条件)、の諸工程から構成される。
また、発生・生育工程は、(1)覆土、(2)原基形成(15℃、湿度90%RHの条件)、(3)生育、(4)収穫、の諸工程から成る。
Current cultivation methods for mushrooms are broadly divided into a fungus bed preparation process and a generation / growth process.
The fungus bed preparation process consists of (1) compost (compost) preparation, (2) compost deposition and primary fermentation, (3) compost flooring, (4) compost sterilization and secondary fermentation, (5) inoculation of seed bacteria (6) It consists of various steps of culture (conditions of 20 ° C. and humidity 60 to 75% RH).
The generation / growth process consists of (1) covering soil, (2) primordial formation (conditions of 15 ° C. and humidity 90% RH), (3) growth, and (4) harvesting.
上記の菌床作成工程においては、稲藁、麦藁などの植物資材に発酵促進剤となる各種厩肥、残渣物等の栄養分資材を混入してコンポスト化する必要があるが、これらの調製には多大な人力や時間を費やし、温度や湿度管理などの手間も多く生産者にとって大きな負担となっているのが現状である。
要するに、従来技術によればマッシュルームの人工栽培には多大な設備投資と栽培上の労力と期間がかかるため、栽培を企図する者にとって大きな障害となり新規参入を困難としている。
また、厩肥などのコンポストの原材料はいずれも不足しており、地域によっては入手困難な場合もあり、こうした問題点がマッシュルーム栽培の普及の大きな妨げとなっている。
In the above-mentioned fungal bed preparation process, it is necessary to mix various fertilizers and fertilizers that become fermentation promoters into plant materials such as rice straw and wheat straw, and composting them, but this is a great deal of preparation. The current situation is that it takes a lot of manpower and time, and it takes a lot of time and effort to manage temperature and humidity, which is a big burden for producers.
In short, according to the prior art, the artificial cultivation of mushrooms requires a large amount of capital investment and cultivation labor and time, which makes it a major obstacle for those who plan cultivation and makes it difficult to enter new markets.
In addition, compost raw materials such as manure are all lacking, and it may be difficult to obtain in some areas, and these problems greatly hinder the spread of mushroom cultivation.
以上の問題点に鑑み、麦藁や稲藁類の使用が省略可能な培地の提供を目的として、エノキダケ(エノキタケ)、ナメコ等のきのこを栽培した後の廃オガクズを主体として水、窒素源、炭素源を加えて醗酵槽で好気性醗酵を行わせることを特徴とするマッシュルーム栽培用培地の調整方法が提案されている(特許文献1参照)。
また、栽培期間の短縮、菌床作りにおける労力・コストの削減を目的として、厨芥類、野菜残渣、食品残渣等の食品廃棄物、刈草、剪定樹木等からリサイクルされたコンポスト製品を利用した茸(マッシュルーム等)の菌床栽培への利用が提案されている(特許文献2参照)。
In view of the above problems, water, nitrogen source, carbon, mainly waste sawdust after growing mushrooms such as enokitake mushrooms and sea cucumbers for the purpose of providing a medium that can omit the use of wheat straw and rice straw. A method for adjusting a medium for mushroom cultivation, characterized in that a source is added to cause aerobic fermentation in a fermenter (see Patent Document 1).
In addition, for the purpose of shortening the cultivation period and reducing labor and cost in making fungus beds, straw that uses compost products recycled from food waste such as potatoes, vegetable residues, food residues, cut grass, and pruned trees ( Use of mushrooms, etc.) for fungus bed cultivation has been proposed (see Patent Document 2).
しかしながら、特許文献1記載の方法は、醗酵槽での好気性醗酵が必須であり相当の設備や運転の継続が必要であるいう問題が残されている。
一方、特許文献2のコンポスト製品は、原材料が種々雑多の廃材から構成されるため、コンポスト成分の均質化が保証されず、製品によってはマッシュルームの栽培に必要な成分が欠けていたり、あるいは不必要な成分も含まれてしまう問題がある。
特公平1−58928号公報 特開2005−34117公報
However, the method described in Patent Document 1 has a problem that aerobic fermentation in a fermenter is essential and considerable equipment and continuation of operation are necessary.
On the other hand, since the compost product of Patent Document 2 is composed of various waste materials, homogenization of compost components is not guaranteed, and depending on the product, components necessary for cultivation of mushrooms are missing or unnecessary. There is a problem that some components are included.
Japanese Patent Publication No. 1-58928 JP-A-2005-34117
本発明は、発酵や堆積工程を必須とする従来のコンポスト培地を代替でき、効率的、かつ安価で省資源に優れるマッシュルームの栽培方法およびマッシュルーム栽培用培地を提供することを目的とする。   An object of the present invention is to provide a mushroom cultivation method and a mushroom cultivation medium that can replace a conventional compost medium that requires fermentation and deposition processes, is efficient, inexpensive, and saves resources.
本発明者らは、従来のマッシュルーム栽培方法において常識であったコンポスト培地に代わる新たな培地の探索に鋭意検討を重ねた結果、意外にもエノキタケやブナシメジ等のきのこ栽培後のコーンコブを培地基材として含む廃培地が、発酵を伴う堆肥化を行うことなく、殺菌と水分調整を行うだけでマッシュルームの栽培用培地として十分に使用可能であり、当該培地の使用によって、効率的、安価で省資源に優れるマッシュルームの栽培方法を提供できることを見出し、本発明の完成に至った。
きのこ栽培を終えた後の培地残渣すなわち廃培地は、きのこ栽培に必要な諸成分が十分な量で含まれているとは限らないため、特に成分を補充することなく、そのままマッシュルーム栽培に適用できたことは、全く予想外のことであった。
As a result of intensive investigations into searching for a new medium that replaces the compost medium that was common knowledge in the conventional mushroom cultivation method, the present inventors surprisingly used corn cob after mushroom cultivation such as enokitake mushrooms and beech shimeji as a medium base material. The waste medium contained as a medium can be used as a mushroom cultivation medium simply by sterilization and moisture adjustment without performing composting with fermentation. The present inventors have found that a method for cultivating mushrooms excellent in the quality can be provided, and have completed the present invention.
The medium residue after the mushroom cultivation, that is, the waste medium, does not necessarily contain sufficient amounts of various components necessary for mushroom cultivation, so it can be directly applied to mushroom cultivation without supplementing the ingredients. It was totally unexpected.
すなわち、本発明は、コーンコブを含む基材と栄養成分とを含む培地を使用してきのこを栽培した後の廃培地の水分量を調整し、それを殺菌した後、マッシュルームの種菌を当該培地に接種し、培養することを特徴とするマッシュルームの栽培方法である。
さらに、上記栽培方法において、培地の基材が乾燥重量比で5〜100質量%のコーンコブおよび0〜95質量%のおが屑を含む基材であること、コーンコブを乾燥重量比で5〜60質量%含む培地を使用することを特徴とする。
That is, the present invention adjusts the water content of the waste medium after cultivating mushrooms using a medium containing a base material containing corn cob and a nutrient component, sterilizes it, and then inoculates the mushroom inoculum into the medium. A mushroom cultivation method characterized by inoculating and culturing.
Furthermore, in the said cultivation method, the base material of a culture medium is a base material containing 5-100 mass% corn cob and 0-95 mass% sawdust by dry weight ratio, 5-60 mass% by dry weight ratio of corn cob It is characterized by using a medium containing.
また、本発明は、乾燥重量比で基材としてコーンコブ10〜50質量%を含み、栄養成分として米糠0〜40質量%、フスマ0〜20質量%、オカラ0〜10質量%、ビート(砂糖大根)0〜10質量%、ビールカス0〜10質量%および牡蠣殻0〜5質量%を含む培地を使用してきのこを栽培した後の廃培地の水分量を調整し、それを殺菌した後、マッシュルームの種菌を当該培地に接種し、培養することを特徴とするマッシュルームの栽培方法である。
さらに、上記栽培方法において、エノキタケ、ブナシメジ又はエリンギ栽培後の廃培地を使用することを特徴とする。
The present invention also includes 10-50% by mass of corn cob as a base material in a dry weight ratio, 0-40% by mass of rice bran, 0-20% by mass of bran, 0-10% by mass of okara, beet (sugar radish ) Adjusting the water content of the waste medium after cultivating mushrooms using a medium containing 0-10 mass%, beer cas 0-10 mass% and oyster shell 0-5 mass%, sterilizing it, mushroom A method for cultivating mushrooms, comprising inoculating the medium with the inoculum of the mushroom.
Furthermore, in the said cultivation method, the waste culture medium after enokitake, bunashimeji, or eringi cultivation is used, It is characterized by the above-mentioned.
また、本発明は、コーンコブを含む基材と栄養成分とを含む培地を使用してきのこを栽培した後の廃培地の水分量を調整し、それを殺菌して得られるマッシュルーム栽培用培地である。
さらに、本発明は、乾燥重量比で、基材としてコーンコブ10〜50質量%を含み、栄養成分として米糠0〜40質量%、フスマ0〜20質量%、オカラ0〜10質量%、ビート(砂糖大根)0〜10質量%、ビールカス0〜10質量%および牡蠣殻0〜5質量%を含む培地を使用してきのこを栽培した後の廃培地の水分量を調整し、それを殺菌して得られるマッシュルーム栽培用培地である。
Further, the present invention is a mushroom cultivation medium obtained by adjusting the water content of a waste medium after cultivating mushrooms using a medium containing a base material containing corn cob and a nutrient component, and sterilizing it. .
Further, the present invention comprises 10-50% by mass of corn cob as a base material in a dry weight ratio, 0-40% by mass of rice bran, 0-20% by mass of bran, 0-10% by mass of okara, beet (sugar Daikon (radish) obtained by adjusting the water content of the waste medium after cultivating mushrooms using a medium containing 0-10% by mass, 0-10% by mass of beer casks and 0-5% by mass of oyster shells, and sterilizing it Medium for growing mushrooms.
本発明は、以下の効果を奏する。
(1)特別な添加物や前処理を必要とせず、コーンコブを培地基材として含む培地を用いてきのこを栽培した後の培地残渣物である廃培地を水分調整および殺菌するだけでマッシュルーム栽培が可能となるので、手間のかかる菌床作成工程を大幅に簡略化でき、コンポスト培地を使用する従来の栽培法と比べて70%程度のコストで栽培することができるので効率的である。
(2)従来の栽培法によるマッシュルームと同等の味覚を有する。
(3)栽培日数は60日で収穫開始となり、従来の栽培法による栽培日数と同等である。
(4)本発明の栽培方法によればコンポストの使用が回避可能であり、従来のコンポスト栽培品に比較して、より生食用に適したマッシュルームを生産することができる。
The present invention has the following effects.
(1) No special additives or pre-treatment is required, and mushroom cultivation can be achieved simply by adjusting and sterilizing the waste medium, which is a medium residue after cultivating mushrooms using a medium containing corn cob as a medium substrate. This makes it possible to greatly simplify the time-consuming process for preparing the microbial bed, and it is efficient because it can be cultivated at a cost of about 70% compared to a conventional cultivation method using a compost medium.
(2) It has the same taste as a mushroom by a conventional cultivation method.
(3) The number of cultivation days starts at 60 days, and is equivalent to the number of cultivation days by the conventional cultivation method.
(4) According to the cultivation method of the present invention, it is possible to avoid the use of compost, and it is possible to produce a mushroom that is more suitable for raw consumption than conventional compost cultivation products.
(5)本発明に使用する、コーンコブを培地基材として含有する廃培地は、需要の多いエノキタケやブナシメジ、エリンギ等の生産を行った後に大量に排出されるため、極めて入手が容易であり、また、同一地域内で調達できるので輸送費用も極めて低廉に入手できる。
殺菌装置は、エノキタケなどのビン栽培に使用する常圧や高圧の殺菌釜をそのまま使用することが可能なので新たな設備は不要である。
(6)大量に存在し、入手が容易な廃培地を再利用してコンポストの代替とするため、マッシュルームの栽培サイクルに変動が生じないので、安定した生産・供給が可能である。
(7)きのこ栽培後のコーンコブを含む廃培地は、堆肥としての利用や、エタノールの抽出など再利用が図られてはいるが、いづれもコスト面などで処理量が少なく、その処分が問題となっていた。本発明の栽培方法が普及すれば、大量に安定した量のコーンコブ廃培地を有効利用できるので省資源的であり、環境保全、循環型農業の実現に大きく寄与することができる。
(5) The waste medium containing corn cob as a medium base material used in the present invention is very easily obtained because it is discharged in large quantities after production of enokitake mushrooms, beech shimeji mushrooms, eringi, etc. In addition, since it can be procured in the same area, transportation costs can be obtained at a very low price.
The sterilization apparatus can use a normal pressure or high pressure sterilization pot used for bottle cultivation such as enokitake mushroom as it is, so no new equipment is required.
(6) Since a waste medium that exists in large quantities and is easily available is reused to replace compost, there is no fluctuation in the cultivation cycle of mushrooms, so stable production and supply are possible.
(7) The waste medium containing corn cob after mushroom cultivation has been reused as compost and ethanol extraction, but in both cases, the amount of treatment is low and disposal is a problem. It was. If the cultivation method of the present invention becomes widespread, a large amount of a stable amount of corn cob waste medium can be used effectively, which is resource-saving and can greatly contribute to environmental conservation and the realization of recycling agriculture.
(A)マッシュルーム栽培用培地
エノキタケ(学名:Flammulina velutipes(Fr.)Sing.)、ブナシメジ(学名:Hypsizigus marmoreus)、ナメコ(学名:Pholiota nameko )、ヒラタケ(学名:Pleurotus ostreatus(Jacq.:Fr.)Kummer) エリンギ(学名:Pleurotus eryngii)など日本で栽培されている主要なきのこは木材腐朽菌である。
こうした木材腐朽菌きのこは栽培ビン内におが屑を培地基材として、米糠、豆皮、フスマ、オカラ、ビールカス、ビート(砂糖大根)などの栄養成分を適宜割合で混入し栽培しているが、最近では、おが屑に替えてコーンコブ(とうもろこしの穂軸いわゆる芯の粉砕物)を培地基材として使用し、上記栄養分を含んだ、いわゆるコーン100%培地が急速に普及しており、おが屑を少量若しくは全く含まない培地を使用するきのこの生産方法が一般化している。
(A) Culture medium for mushroom cultivation Enokitake (scientific name: Flammulina velutipes (Fr.) Sing.), Beech shimeji (scientific name: Hypsizigus marmoreus), nameko (scientific name: Pholiota nameko), hiratake (scientific name: Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq .: Fr.) Kummer) Eringi (scientific name: Pleurotus eryngii) and other major mushrooms grown in Japan are wood decay fungi.
These wood-rotting fungi mushrooms are cultivated in a cultivation bottle with sawdust as a medium base and containing nutrient components such as rice bran, bean hulls, bran, okara, beer casserole and beet (sugar radish) in appropriate proportions. Then, instead of sawdust, corn cob (corn cobs, so-called ground pulverized material) is used as a medium base material, so-called corn 100% medium containing the above nutrients is rapidly spreading, and sawdust is little or not at all. Mushroom production methods using a medium that does not contain are common.
そうした状況下で、エノキタケやブナシメジ、エリンギなどの木材腐朽菌きのこについては、特に生産量が多いため、栽培後はコーンコブを含む培地残渣、すなわちコーンコブ廃培地が大量に排出されている。
本発明の栽培方法では、木材腐朽菌きのこ、中でもエノキタケ、ブナシメジおよびエリンギを通常の方法で栽培した後のコーンコブ廃培地が好適である。本発明者らは、数種類のコーンコブ廃培地を試験したが、中でも三幸商事社製のコーン100%培地「マッシュ30」(商品名)を使用してきのこ栽培した後の廃培地が特に好適であることが判明した。
Under such circumstances, wood decay fungi mushrooms such as enokitake mushrooms, beech shimeji mushrooms, and eringi are particularly produced in large quantities, and thus a large amount of medium residue containing corn cob, that is, corn cob waste medium, is discharged after cultivation.
In the cultivation method of the present invention, a corn cob waste medium after cultivating wood-rotting fungi mushrooms, especially enokitake mushrooms, beech shimeji mushrooms, and eryngii by a usual method is suitable. The present inventors have tested several types of corn cob waste medium. Among them, the waste medium after mushroom cultivation using corn 100% medium “Mash 30” (trade name) manufactured by Sanko Shoji Co., Ltd. is particularly suitable. It has been found.
本発明においては、コーンコブを培地基材として含有し、その他、米糠、豆皮、フスマ、オカラ、ビールカス、ビート(砂糖大根)、牡蠣殻等、きのこ栽培の培地として通常用いられる栄養成分が適宜配合された培地をエノキタケ等の他のきのこ栽培で用いた後の廃培地を使用することができる。
培地基材としてコ-ンコブを使用し、おが屑等の代替割合として、基材全体の5〜100質量%(乾燥重量比)、さらに25〜100質量%をコーンコブで代替する培地、特におが屑等の他の培地基材を含まない培地基材の全量がコーンコブである培地(いわゆるコーン100%培地)が好適である。
In the present invention, containing corn cob as a medium base material, other nutritional ingredients usually used as a medium for mushroom cultivation, such as rice bran, bean hull, bran, okara, beer casserole, beet (sugar radish), oyster shell, etc. A waste medium after using the prepared medium in other mushroom cultivation such as enokitake mushroom can be used.
A medium that uses corn cob as a medium base material, and substitutes for sawdust etc. as a substitute for 5 to 100% by mass (dry weight ratio) of the whole base material, and further replaces 25 to 100% by mass with corn cob, especially sawdust etc. A medium (so-called corn 100% medium) in which the total amount of the medium base material not containing any other medium base material is corn cob is preferable.
また、培地の組成としては、基材であるコーンコブを5〜60質量%(乾燥重量比)含み、残余が上記の各種栄養成分およびおが屑等の他の培地基材からなる培地が好ましい。
コーンコブの構成比率が比較的高い方がマッシュルーム栽培に好適である。従って、培地中にコーンコブを10〜50質量%、特に30〜40質量%(いずれも乾燥重量比)を含み、残余が栄養諸成分およびおが屑等の他の培地基材からなる培地は、他のきのこを栽培した後であっても、マッシュルームの菌糸生長や子実体の生育に必要な養分を備えており、さらに、きのこ栽培の培地に要求される物理特性も優れており栽培には最適である。
Moreover, as a composition of a culture medium, the culture medium which contains 5-60 mass% (dry weight ratio) of corn cob which is a base material, and the remainder consists of other culture medium base materials, such as said various nutrient components and sawdust, is preferable.
A relatively high composition ratio of corn cob is suitable for mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, a medium containing 10-50% by mass, particularly 30-40% by mass (both dry weight ratios) of corn cob in the medium, and the remainder consisting of other medium base materials such as nutritional components and sawdust, Even after cultivating mushrooms, it has the nutrients necessary for mushroom mycelium growth and fruit body growth, and also has excellent physical properties required for mushroom cultivation media, making it ideal for cultivation .
好適な培地の処方(きのこ栽培前)としては、乾燥重量比で基材としてコーンコブ10〜50質量%を含み、栄養分として米糠0〜40質量%、フスマ0〜20質量%、オカラ0〜10質量%、ビート(砂糖大根)0〜10質量%、ビールカス0〜10質量%、牡蠣殻0〜5質量%を含む培地である。
さらに、最適な処方例(きのこ栽培前)として、乾燥重量比でコーンコブ約36質量%、米糠約31質量%、フスマ約9質量%、オカラ約5質量%、ビート約5質量%、ビールカス約5質量%、牡蠣殻約3質量%を含む培地を例示することができる。
As a suitable medium formulation (before mushroom cultivation), it contains 10-50% by mass of corn cob as a base material in a dry weight ratio, 0-40% by mass of rice bran, 0-20% by mass of bran, 0-10% of okara as nutrients %, Beet (sugar radish) 0 to 10% by mass, beer residue 0 to 10% by mass, oyster shell 0 to 5% by mass.
Furthermore, as an optimal formulation example (before mushroom cultivation), the dry weight ratio is about 36% by weight of corn cob, about 31% by weight of rice bran, about 9% by weight of bran, about 5% by weight of okara, about 5% by weight of beet, about 5% of beer casks A medium containing 5% by mass and about 3% by mass of oyster shells can be exemplified.
エノキタケ等のきのこ収穫後の状態での培地の水分率は、通常40〜55%前後であるが、マッシュルームの菌糸培養に好適な水分率としては低いので、きのこ栽培ビンから取出した廃培地に水を加えて廃培地中の水分率が60〜70%、好ましくは63〜68%、最も好ましくは65%となるように、水分量を調整する。
次いで、水分調整後の廃培地をコンテナポット等の容器に充填後、殺菌する。
殺菌方法は通常のエノキタケ等のきのこ培地に対して実施する殺菌方法と同様であり、高圧または常圧で蒸気殺菌を行う。高圧殺菌の場合は120℃で0.5〜1時間前後行い、常圧殺菌の場合は98〜100℃で5〜10時間行う。所定の温度や時間を超える殺菌は、培地中の養分の分解を促進するので好ましくない。
The water content of the medium after harvesting mushrooms such as enokitake is usually around 40-55%, but the water content suitable for culturing mushroom mycelium is low. Is added so that the water content in the waste medium is 60 to 70%, preferably 63 to 68%, and most preferably 65%.
Next, the waste medium after moisture adjustment is filled in a container such as a container pot and then sterilized.
The sterilization method is the same as the sterilization method performed on a normal mushroom medium such as enokitake, and steam sterilization is performed at high pressure or normal pressure. In the case of high-pressure sterilization, it is carried out at 120 ° C. for about 0.5 to 1 hour, and in the case of normal-pressure sterilization, it is carried out at 98 to 100 ° C. for 5 to 10 hours. Sterilization exceeding a predetermined temperature and time is not preferable because it promotes decomposition of nutrients in the medium.
(B)マッシュルームの栽培
殺菌後、培地を放冷し、マッシュルームの種菌を接種して培養するが、種菌接種から収穫に至るまでの栽培方法は、従来の方法と同様である。
本発明による栽培方法は、以下の諸工程からなる。
(1)廃培地に水を添加して水分量を調整しコンテナポット等の容器に充填する。
(2)培地の蒸気殺菌を行う。
(3)種菌を培地に接種する。
(4)約40日間、15〜25℃、湿度50〜80%RHで、菌を(一次)培養し菌糸体を蔓延させる。
(5)覆土を行う。
(6)約10日間、18〜25℃、湿度70〜95%RHで、菌を(二次)培養する。
(7)菌掻きを行う。
(8)約10日間、13℃〜17℃、湿度85%〜95%RHの条件で原基形成をさせて、生育し、収穫を開始する。
(B) Cultivation of mushrooms After sterilization, the medium is allowed to cool and inoculated with inoculum of mushrooms and cultured. The cultivation method from inoculation to inoculation is the same as the conventional method.
The cultivation method according to the present invention includes the following steps.
(1) Add water to the waste medium to adjust the amount of water, and fill a container such as a container pot.
(2) Steam sterilization of the medium is performed.
(3) Inoculate the medium with the inoculum.
(4) About 40 days, the fungus is (primary) cultured at 15 to 25 ° C. and a humidity of 50 to 80% RH to spread the mycelium.
(5) Cover the soil.
(6) The bacteria are (secondarily) cultured at 18 to 25 ° C. and a humidity of 70 to 95% RH for about 10 days.
(7) Bacteria scraping.
(8) Primordial formation is performed for about 10 days under conditions of 13 ° C. to 17 ° C. and humidity of 85% to 95% RH, grow and start harvesting.
〔実施例1〕
(1)培地の調製およびマッシュルームの試験栽培
農事組合法人あさひ培養センターにて、エノキタケの収穫を終えたコーンコブを基材とする培地(三幸商事社製「マッシュ30」(商品名)、乾燥重量比で培地中のコーンコブは約36質量%、培地基材はコーンコブ100質量%)の残渣物すなわち廃培地に水を加えて水分率を65%とし、コンテナポット(発生面積240.4cm2、培地重量2kg/ポット1個)に充填した。
次いで、高圧蒸気釜で98℃で1.5時間、120℃で0.5時間かけて再殺菌し、放冷してマッシュルーム栽培用培地を得た。
[Example 1]
(1) Preparation of culture medium and test cultivation of mushrooms Agricultural association Asahi Cultivation Center, a medium based on corn cob that has finished harvesting enokitake (“Mash 30” (trade name) manufactured by Sanko Shoji Co., Ltd., dry weight ratio) In the medium, the residue of corn cob in the medium is approximately 36% by mass and the medium substrate is 100% by mass of corn cob), ie, the waste medium is added with water to a moisture content of 65%, and the container pot (generation area 240.4cm 2 , medium weight 2kg) / 1 pot).
Subsequently, it was sterilized again at 98 ° C. for 1.5 hours and 120 ° C. for 0.5 hours in a high-pressure steam kettle, and allowed to cool to obtain a mushroom cultivation medium.
当該培地にマッシュルームの種菌(ホワイト種の「日農115号」、ブラウン種の「日農100号」を使用)を接種して次のように培養した。
20℃、湿度60〜75%RHの条件下で40日間培養後、2種類の土壌(鹿沼土、赤玉土)で覆土した後、再び10日間の二次培養を行い、菌掻き後、温度15℃、湿度90%RHの発芽室を使用して原基形成を誘導した。
子実体原基は菌掻き後10日で形成され、種菌の菌系及び覆土の種類による発生率および収量調査を実施した。
また、通常のコンポストの代わりに廃培地を使用して栽培したのでマッシュルームのアミノ酸分析を行った。
The culture medium was inoculated with mushroom inoculum (white type “Nichino 115” and brown type “Nichino 100”) and cultured as follows.
After culturing for 40 days under conditions of 20 ° C and humidity 60-75% RH, after covering with two types of soil (Kanuma soil and Akadama soil), secondary culture is performed again for 10 days, after the bacteria are scraped, the temperature is 15 A primordial formation was induced using a germination chamber at 0 ° C. and humidity 90% RH.
The fruiting body primordium was formed 10 days after the fungus was scraped, and the occurrence rate and yield survey were carried out according to the fungal system of the inoculum and the type of soil covering.
Moreover, since it grew using the waste culture medium instead of the usual compost, the amino acid analysis of the mushroom was performed.
(2)試験栽培の結果
通常の栽培工程では、コンポスト製造も含めて収穫まで55日(夏)から65日(冬)程度を要するが、今回の栽培方法では、約60日で収穫開始となった。廃培地の再利用でコンポストの代替とするため、栽培サイクルに変動がない。
従来の一般的な栽培法による収穫量は、50kg/3.3m2(坪)程度であるが、今回の試験では、ホワイト種で55〜58kg/3.3m2(坪)、ブラウン種で50〜70kg/3.3m2(坪)の収穫結果となり、ほぼ平均的な収量が得られる結果となった。
(2) Results of test cultivation In the normal cultivation process, it takes about 55 days (summer) to 65 days (winter) until harvesting, including compost production, but in this cultivation method, harvesting starts in about 60 days. It was. There is no change in the cultivation cycle because it replaces compost by reusing waste medium.
The yield according to conventional general cultivation, 50 kg / 3.3 m 2 (basis), but is approximately, 50~70Kg In this test, 55~58kg / 3.3m 2 (grammage) white species, Brown species /3.3m 2 (tsubo) harvesting result, almost average yield was obtained.
一個当りの平均収量では、ホワイト種の9.8g〜12.1g/l個に比べ、ブラウン種は26.5g〜26.9g/l個と重く、ブラウン種の方が大きな子実体を得ることができた。
味覚に関しては、パネル10人が試食を行って通常のコンポスト培地を用いた栽培品と比較を行ったが、大きな差はなかった。
The average yield per unit was 26.5 g to 26.9 g / l of the brown seed, which was heavier than that of the white seed of 9.8 g to 12.1 g / l.
Regarding taste, 10 panelists sampled and compared with cultivated products using normal compost medium, but there was no significant difference.
また、アミノ酸分析では、試験栽培したものと、通常のコンポスト培地を用いた栽培品では、全遊離アミノ酸含量に差が生じており、試験栽培品の方が少ない結果となった。
覆土の種類では、鹿沼土に比較し、赤玉土のほうが害菌発生が少なく安定した発生、収穫結果が得られた。
コスト面では通常栽培の約70%程度で優位性があることが判明した。
In addition, in the amino acid analysis, there was a difference in the total free amino acid content between the test cultivated product and the cultivated product using the normal compost medium, and the test cultivated product had fewer results.
In terms of the type of soil covering, compared to Kanuma soil, Akadama soil produced less harmful bacteria and was more stable and yielded.
In terms of cost, it was found that there was an advantage at about 70% of normal cultivation.
〔実施例2〕(コーンコブを10質量%含むエリンギ廃培地)
コーンコブおよびおが屑を基材とし、米糠、フスマ、豆皮、オカラ、コーンブラン含む培地(乾燥重量比で培地中のコーンコブは約10質量%、おが屑は約30質量%、なお培地基材はコーンコブ25質量%、おが屑75質量%)でエリンギを栽培した後の廃培地を使用し、実施例1と同様の容器を使用し、同様の水分調製65%と殺菌を施して試験を行った。
また、比較のため、実施例1で調製したマッシュルーム用培地と同様の培地(三幸商事社製「マッシュ30」(商品名))を使用してコントロールとした。
当該培地にマッシュルーム種菌(ブラウン種の「日農100号」を使用)を接種して次のように培養した。
[Example 2] (Eringi waste medium containing 10% by mass of corn cob)
A medium containing corn cob and sawdust, rice bran, bran, bean skin, okara, corn bran (concentration of dry corn cob in the medium is about 10% by mass, sawdust is about 30% by mass, and the medium substrate is corn cob 25 Using the waste medium after cultivating eringi with mass% and sawdust 75 mass%), using the same container as in Example 1 and sterilizing with the same moisture preparation 65%, the test was conducted.
For comparison, a medium similar to the mushroom medium prepared in Example 1 (“Mush 30” (trade name) manufactured by Sanko Shoji Co., Ltd.) was used as a control.
The medium was inoculated with mushroom inoculum (brown type “Nikko No. 100” was used) and cultured as follows.
20℃、湿度60〜75%RHの条件下で40日間培養後、1種類の土壌(赤玉土)で覆土した後、再び10日間の二次培養を行い、菌掻き後、温度15℃、湿度90%RHの発芽室を使用して原基形成を誘導した。
子実体原基は菌掻き後10日で形成され、発生率および収量調査を実施した。
従来の一般的な栽培法による収穫量は、50kg/3.3m2(坪)程度であるが、今回の実施例であるコーンコブ10質量%を含有するエリンギ廃培地では、ブラウン種で18.9kg/3.3m2(坪)の収穫結果となり、コントロールに比較し総収量および収穫期間、1個あたりの収量も低い結果となった。
After culturing for 40 days under conditions of 20 ° C and humidity 60-75% RH, after covering with one kind of soil (red sardine), secondary cultivation is performed again for 10 days, after the bacteria are scraped, temperature 15 ° C, humidity A 90% RH germination chamber was used to induce primordium formation.
The fruiting body primordium was formed 10 days after the fungus was scraped, and the incidence and yield were investigated.
Yield by conventional general cultivation method is about 50kg / 3.3m 2 (tsubo), but in the Eringi waste medium containing 10% by mass of corn cob which is this example, brown seeds are 18.9kg / 3.3 The result was a harvest of m 2 (tsubo), and the total yield and harvest period per crop were lower than the control.
〔比較例1〕(おが屑を培地基材とする廃培地)
エノキタケ及びブナシメジ栽培後、従来通りおが屑を基材とし、米糠を混合した廃培地(いずれも乾燥重量比で培地中のコーンコブは0質量%、おが屑は約30質量%、なお培地基材はおが屑100質量%)を使用し、実施例1と同様の容器を使用し、同様に水分率を65%に調整後、殺菌を施して試験を行った。
また比較のため、実施例1で調製した培地(三幸商事社製「マッシュ30」(商品名))を使用してコントロールとした。
当該培地にマッシュルーム種菌(ブラウン種「日農100号」を使用)を接種して次のように培養した。
[Comparative Example 1] (Waste medium using sawdust as a medium)
After cultivation of enokitake mushroom and beech shimeji mushroom, waste medium containing sawdust as a base material and rice bran mixed (contains 0% by weight of corn cob, about 30% by weight of sawdust in the dry weight ratio, and 100% of the medium base material is sawdust. The same container as in Example 1 was used, and the moisture content was similarly adjusted to 65%.
For comparison, the medium prepared in Example 1 (“Mash 30” (trade name) manufactured by Sanko Shoji) was used as a control.
The medium was inoculated with mushroom inoculum (Brown species “Nikko No. 100” was used) and cultured as follows.
20℃、湿度60〜75%RHの条件下で40日間培養後、1種類の土壌(赤玉土)で覆土した後、再び10日間の二次培養を行い、菌掻き後、温度15℃、湿度90%RHの発芽室を使用して原基形成を誘導した。
子実体原基は菌掻き後10日を経過しても形成されなかった。比較のコントロールにおいては3.3m2(坪)当たりの収量で63.4kgの発生が見られたが、おが屑と米糠からなる廃培地では、子実体が全く発生しなかった。
After culturing for 40 days under conditions of 20 ° C and humidity 60-75% RH, after covering with one kind of soil (red sardine), secondary cultivation is performed again for 10 days, after the bacteria are scraped, temperature 15 ° C, humidity A 90% RH germination chamber was used to induce primordium formation.
The fruiting body primordium was not formed even after 10 days from scratching. In the control of comparison, 63.4 kg was observed in a yield per 3.3 m 2 (tsubo), but no fruiting body was generated in the waste medium composed of sawdust and rice bran.

Claims (7)

  1. コーンコブを含む基材と栄養成分とを含む培地を使用してきのこを栽培した後の廃培地の水分量を調整し、それを殺菌した後、マッシュルームの種菌を当該培地に接種し、培養することを特徴とするマッシュルームの栽培方法。   Adjust the amount of water in the waste medium after cultivating mushrooms using a medium containing a base material containing corn cob and nutrients, sterilize it, inoculate the medium with mushroom inoculum, and culture A method for cultivating mushrooms.
  2. 培地の基材が乾燥重量比で5〜100質量%のコーンコブおよび0〜95質量%のおが屑を含む基材である請求項1記載の栽培方法。   The cultivation method according to claim 1, wherein the substrate of the culture medium is a substrate containing 5 to 100% by mass of corn cob and 0 to 95% by mass of sawdust in a dry weight ratio.
  3. コーンコブを乾燥重量比で5〜60質量%含む培地を使用することを特徴とする請求項1記載のマッシュルームの栽培方法。   The method for cultivating mushrooms according to claim 1, wherein a medium containing 5 to 60% by mass of corn cob is used in a dry weight ratio.
  4. 乾燥重量比で基材としてコーンコブ10〜50質量%を含み、栄養成分として米糠0〜40質量%、フスマ0〜20質量%、オカラ0〜10質量%、ビート(砂糖大根)0〜10質量%、ビールカス0〜10質量%および牡蠣殻0〜5質量%を含む培地を使用してきのこを栽培した後の廃培地の水分量を調整し、それを殺菌した後、マッシュルームの種菌を当該培地に接種し、培養することを特徴とするマッシュルームの栽培方法。   Containing 10-50% by weight of corn cob as a base material in a dry weight ratio, 0-40% by weight of rice bran, 0-20% by weight of bran, 0-10% by weight of okara, 0-10% by weight of beet (sugar radish) After adjusting the water content of the waste medium after cultivating mushrooms using a medium containing 0 to 10% by mass of beer casks and 0 to 5% by mass of oyster shells, sterilizing it, the mushroom inoculum was added to the medium A method for cultivating mushrooms, characterized by inoculating and culturing.
  5. エノキタケ、ブナシメジ又はエリンギ栽培後の廃培地を使用することを特徴とする請求項1〜4のいずれか1項に記載のマッシュルームの栽培方法。   The mushroom cultivation method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein a waste medium after cultivation of enokitake, beech shimeji or eringi is used.
  6. コーンコブを含む基材と栄養成分とを含む培地を使用してきのこを栽培した後の廃培地の水分量を調整し、それを殺菌して得られるマッシュルーム栽培用培地。   A medium for cultivating mushrooms obtained by adjusting the amount of water in a waste medium after cultivating mushrooms using a medium containing a base material containing corn cob and nutrients, and sterilizing it.
  7. 乾燥重量比で、基材としてコーンコブ10〜50質量%を含み、栄養成分として米糠0〜40質量%、フスマ0〜20質量%、オカラ0〜10質量%、ビート(砂糖大根)0〜10質量%、ビールカス0〜10質量%および牡蠣殻0〜5質量%を含む培地を使用してきのこを栽培した後の廃培地の水分量を調整し、それを殺菌して得られるマッシュルーム栽培用培地。   Containing 10-50% by weight of corn cob as a base material in a dry weight ratio, 0-40% by weight of rice bran, 0-20% by weight of bran, 0-10% by weight of okara, 0-10% of beet (sugar radish) by weight %, A mushroom cultivation medium obtained by adjusting the water content of a waste medium after cultivating mushrooms using a medium containing 0 to 10% by mass of beer casks and 0 to 5% by mass of oyster shells, and sterilizing it.
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