JP4513299B2 - Exposure apparatus, exposure method, and device manufacturing method - Google Patents

Exposure apparatus, exposure method, and device manufacturing method Download PDF

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JP4513299B2
JP4513299B2 JP2003344940A JP2003344940A JP4513299B2 JP 4513299 B2 JP4513299 B2 JP 4513299B2 JP 2003344940 A JP2003344940 A JP 2003344940A JP 2003344940 A JP2003344940 A JP 2003344940A JP 4513299 B2 JP4513299 B2 JP 4513299B2
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optical system
projection optical
liquid
light
substrate
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JP2005116571A (en
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正弘 中川
恒幸 萩原
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株式会社ニコン
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70216Systems for imaging mask onto workpiece
    • G03F7/70341Immersion

Description

  The present invention relates to an exposure apparatus that exposes a substrate through a projection optical system and a liquid, an exposure method, and a device manufacturing method using the exposure apparatus and the exposure method.

Semiconductor devices and liquid crystal display devices are manufactured by a so-called photolithography technique in which a pattern formed on a mask is transferred onto a photosensitive substrate. An exposure apparatus used in this photolithography process has a mask stage for supporting a mask and a substrate stage for supporting a substrate, and a mask pattern is transferred via a projection optical system while sequentially moving the mask stage and the substrate stage. It is transferred to the substrate. In recent years, in order to cope with higher integration of device patterns, higher resolution of the projection optical system is desired. The resolution of the projection optical system becomes higher as the exposure wavelength used is shorter and the numerical aperture of the projection optical system is larger. Therefore, the exposure wavelength used in the exposure apparatus is shortened year by year, and the numerical aperture of the projection optical system is also increasing. The mainstream exposure wavelength is 248 nm of the KrF excimer laser, but the 193 nm of the shorter wavelength ArF excimer laser is also being put into practical use. Also, when performing exposure, the depth of focus (DOF) is important as well as the resolution. The resolution R and the depth of focus δ are each expressed by the following equations.
R = k 1 · λ / NA (1)
δ = ± k 2 · λ / NA 2 (2)
Here, λ is the exposure wavelength, NA is the numerical aperture of the projection optical system, and k 1 and k 2 are process coefficients. From the equations (1) and (2), it can be seen that the depth of focus δ becomes narrower when the exposure wavelength λ is shortened and the numerical aperture NA is increased in order to increase the resolution R.

If the depth of focus δ becomes too narrow, it becomes difficult to match the substrate surface with the image plane of the projection optical system, and the focus margin during the exposure operation may be insufficient. Therefore, as a method for substantially shortening the exposure wavelength and increasing the depth of focus, for example, a liquid immersion method disclosed in Patent Document 1 below has been proposed. In this immersion method, a space between the lower surface of the projection optical system and the substrate surface is filled with a liquid such as water or an organic solvent to form an immersion region, and the wavelength of exposure light in the liquid is 1 / n of that in air. (Where n is the refractive index of the liquid, which is usually about 1.2 to 1.6), the resolution is improved, and the depth of focus is expanded about n times.
International Publication No. 99/49504 Pamphlet

  By the way, various light receivers (light sensors) for receiving light via the projection optical system are provided on the substrate stage. In the case of an immersion exposure apparatus, liquid liquid is provided on the image plane side of the projection optical system. It is conceivable to perform a light receiving operation by a light receiver in a state where an immersion region is formed. In this case, if bubbles are present in the liquid, light is scattered by the bubbles and the light receiver cannot receive light well.

  When exposure processing is performed by a liquid immersion method, if bubbles exist in the liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate, the pattern image formed on the substrate may be deteriorated by the bubbles.

  The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and is caused by bubbles in the liquid when a liquid immersion area is formed on the image plane side of the projection optical system and light is received by the light receiver. It is a first object of the present invention to provide an exposure apparatus, an exposure method, and a device manufacturing method that can suppress the deterioration of the light receiving state of the light receiver. Also provided are an exposure apparatus, an exposure method, and a device manufacturing method capable of suppressing deterioration of a pattern image caused by bubbles in the liquid when performing exposure processing by filling a liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate. Is the second purpose.

In order to solve the above-described problems, the present invention employs the following configuration corresponding to FIGS. 1 to 26 described in the embodiment.
The exposure apparatus (EX) according to the present invention exposes exposure light (EL) via a projection optical system (PL) and a liquid (LQ) to a substrate (P) disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system (PL). ) In the exposure apparatus that exposes the substrate (P) by irradiating the projection optical system (PL) and a space between the projection optical system (PL) and an object (75, P) disposed near the image plane of the projection optical system (PL). A bubble removing device (180, 190, 250) for removing bubbles in the liquid (LQ) is provided.

  According to the present invention, since the bubble removing device for removing bubbles in the liquid is provided, the light irradiation state is not affected by the bubbles when the object facing the projection optical system is irradiated with light through the liquid. Can be maintained well. Therefore, it is possible to prevent inconveniences such as deterioration of the light receiving state of the light receiver and deterioration of the pattern image formed on the substrate.

  The exposure apparatus (EX) according to the present invention exposes exposure light (EL) via a projection optical system (PL) and a liquid (LQ) to a substrate (P) disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system (PL). ) In the exposure apparatus that exposes the substrate (P) by irradiating the object (P), an object that is disposed near the image plane of the projection optical system (PL) and can hold the liquid (LQ) with the projection optical system (PL). (75), and the liquid contact surface (75A) of the object (75) is lyophilic.

  According to the present invention, by making the liquid contact surface of the object lyophilic, even if bubbles exist in the liquid, it is difficult for the bubbles to adhere to the liquid contact surface. For example, it is possible to prevent inconveniences such as deterioration of the light receiving state of the light receiver. In addition, since bubbles are difficult to adhere to the liquid contact surface of the object, even if bubbles are attached, the bubble removal process can be performed smoothly.

  The exposure apparatus (EX) according to the present invention exposes exposure light (EL) via a projection optical system (PL) and a liquid (LQ) to a substrate (P) disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system (PL). ) Is exposed to the substrate (P), the liquid contact surface (60a) of the projection optical system (PL) is lyophilic by the ultraviolet light irradiation treatment.

  According to the present invention, by making the liquid contact surface of the projection optical system lyophilic by ultraviolet light irradiation treatment, bubbles are less likely to adhere to the liquid contact surface of the projection optical system. Accordingly, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of inconveniences such as deterioration of the light receiving state of the light receiver and deterioration of the pattern image formed on the substrate due to the adhesion of bubbles. Further, since bubbles are unlikely to adhere to the liquid contact surface of the projection optical system, even if bubbles are attached, the bubble removal process can be performed smoothly.

  The exposure apparatus (EX) according to the present invention exposes exposure light (EL) via a projection optical system (PL) and a liquid (LQ) to a substrate (P) disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system (PL). ) In the exposure apparatus that exposes the substrate (P) by irradiating the projection optical system (PL) and a space between the projection optical system (PL) and the object (75, P) disposed in the vicinity of the image plane of the projection optical system (PL). And a bubble detection device (47) for detecting bubbles in the liquid (LQ) via a projection optical system (PL).

  According to the present invention, bubbles in the liquid between the projection optical system and the object can be detected via the projection optical system, and the occurrence of an error can be detected based on the detection result, or the bubble removal operation can be performed. Appropriate measures such as execution can be taken.

  The device manufacturing method of the present invention uses the above-described exposure apparatus (EX). According to the present invention, since the light receiving operation by the light receiver and the liquid immersion exposure process for the substrate can be satisfactorily performed without being affected by the bubbles in the liquid, a device having desired performance can be manufactured. .

  According to the present invention, various objects such as a light receiver and a substrate disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system are irradiated with light in a good irradiation state without being affected by bubbles in the liquid. It is possible to perform exposure processing with high accuracy.

The exposure apparatus of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram showing an embodiment of the exposure apparatus of the present invention.
In FIG. 1, an exposure apparatus EX includes a mask stage MST that supports a mask M, a substrate stage PST that supports a substrate P, and an illumination optical system IL that illuminates the mask M supported by the mask stage MST with exposure light EL. A projection optical system PL that projects and exposes the pattern image of the mask M illuminated with the exposure light EL onto the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST, and a control device CONT that controls the overall operation of the exposure apparatus EX. A storage device MRY that is connected to the control device CONT and stores various types of information related to exposure processing is provided. The exposure apparatus EX also includes an aerial image measurement device 70 that is used for measuring the imaging characteristics (optical characteristics) of the projection optical system PL. The aerial image measuring device 70 includes a light receiver 90 that receives light (exposure light EL) that has passed through the projection optical system PL via a slit plate 75 having a slit portion 71 disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system PL. I have.

  The exposure apparatus EX of the present embodiment is an immersion exposure apparatus to which an immersion method is applied in order to improve the resolution by substantially shortening the exposure wavelength and substantially increase the depth of focus. A liquid supply mechanism 10 for supplying the liquid LQ to the substrate P, and a liquid recovery mechanism 20 for recovering the liquid LQ on the substrate P. While transferring at least the pattern image of the mask M onto the substrate P, the exposure apparatus EX uses a liquid LQ supplied from the liquid supply mechanism 10 to a part on the substrate P including the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL ( Locally) the immersion area AR2 is formed. Specifically, the exposure apparatus EX fills the liquid LQ between the optical element 60 on the front end side (image plane side) of the projection optical system PL and the surface of the substrate P, and the projection optical system PL and the substrate P The substrate P is exposed by projecting the pattern image of the mask M onto the substrate P by irradiating the exposure light EL through the liquid LQ and the projection optical system PL.

  As will be described later, the liquid LQ is filled between the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75 during the measurement operation by the aerial image measurement device 70. In the vicinity of the slit plate 75, when the liquid LQ is filled between the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75, bubbles attached to the upper surface 75A serving as the liquid contact surface of the slit plate 75 are removed. A jet generating device 180 constituting the bubble removing device is provided.

  The exposure apparatus EX further includes an ultraviolet light irradiation apparatus 300 that can irradiate the slit plate 75 disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system PL with ultraviolet light. The ultraviolet light irradiation device 300 is provided so as to be aligned with the projection optical system PL.

  In the present embodiment, the exposure apparatus EX is a scanning exposure apparatus (so-called so-called exposure apparatus EX) that exposes the pattern formed on the mask M onto the substrate P while synchronously moving the mask M and the substrate P in different directions (reverse directions) in the scanning direction. A case where a scanning stepper) is used will be described as an example. In the following description, the direction that coincides with the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL is the Z-axis direction, the synchronous movement direction (scanning direction) between the mask M and the substrate P in the plane perpendicular to the Z-axis direction is the X-axis direction, A direction (non-scanning direction) perpendicular to the Z-axis direction and the X-axis direction is defined as a Y-axis direction. In addition, the rotation (inclination) directions around the X axis, the Y axis, and the Z axis are the θX, θY, and θZ directions, respectively. Here, the “substrate” includes a semiconductor wafer coated with a photoresist, which is a photosensitive material, and the “mask” includes a reticle on which a device pattern to be reduced and projected on the substrate is formed.

The illumination optical system IL converts the light beam (laser beam) LB emitted from the light source 1 into exposure light EL, and illuminates the mask M supported by the mask stage MST with the exposure light EL. As the exposure light EL emitted from the illumination optical system IL, for example, far ultraviolet light (g-line, h-line, i-line) and KrF excimer laser light (wavelength 248 nm) emitted from a mercury lamp, DUV light), vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV light) such as ArF excimer laser light (wavelength 193 nm) and F 2 laser light (wavelength 157 nm), or the like is used. In this embodiment, ArF excimer laser light is used.

  In the present embodiment, pure water is used as the liquid LQ. Pure water is not only ArF excimer laser light, but also far ultraviolet light (DUV light) such as ultraviolet emission lines (g-line, h-line, i-line) emitted from mercury lamps and KrF excimer laser light (wavelength 248 nm). Can also be transmitted.

  The light source 1 in the present embodiment is an excimer laser light source that emits ArF excimer laser light (wavelength 193 nm). The controller CONT turns on / off the laser emission, the center wavelength, the spectral half width, the repetition frequency, and the like. Controlled.

  The illumination optical system IL includes a beam shaping optical system 2, an optical integrator 3, an illumination system aperture stop plate 4, relay optical systems 6, 8, a fixed mask blind 7A, a movable mask blind 7B, a mirror 9, a condenser lens 30, and the like. ing. In this embodiment, a fly-eye lens is used as the optical integrator 3, but a rod-type (internal reflection type) integrator, a diffractive optical element, or the like may be used. In the beam shaping optical system 2, the cross-sectional shape of the laser beam LB pulsed by the light source 1 is shaped so as to be efficiently incident on the optical integrator 3 provided behind the optical path of the laser beam LB. For example, a cylindrical lens and a beam expander are included. The optical integrator (fly eye lens) 3 is disposed on the optical path of the laser beam LB emitted from the beam shaping optical system 2, and is used to illuminate the mask M with a uniform illuminance distribution from a number of point light sources (light source images). A surface light source, that is, a secondary light source is formed.

  An illumination system aperture stop plate 4 made of a disk-like member is disposed in the vicinity of the exit-side focal plane of the optical integrator 3. The illumination system aperture stop plate 4 has an aperture stop (small aperture) composed of a normal circular aperture, for example, an aperture stop (small aperture) for reducing the σ value, which is a small circular aperture and is a coherence factor, at substantially equal angular intervals. σ stop), an annular aperture stop for annular illumination (annular stop), and a modified aperture stop (quadrupole illumination stop called SHRINC) in which a plurality of openings are arranged eccentrically for the modified light source method, etc. Has been placed. The illumination system aperture stop plate 4 is rotated by a driving device 31 such as a motor controlled by a control device CONT, whereby any aperture stop is selectively placed on the optical path of the exposure light EL. Be placed.

  A beam splitter 5 having a low reflectance and a high transmittance is disposed on the optical path of the exposure light EL that has passed through the illumination system aperture stop plate 4, and further, relays are provided on the rear optical path with mask blinds 7A and 7B interposed therebetween. Optical systems (6, 8) are arranged. The fixed mask blind 7A is disposed on a surface slightly defocused from the conjugate plane with respect to the pattern surface of the mask M, and a rectangular opening that defines the illumination area IA on the mask M is formed. Further, a movable mask blind 7B having an opening having a variable position and width in the direction corresponding to the scanning direction (X-axis direction) and the non-scanning direction (Y-axis direction) orthogonal thereto in the vicinity of the fixed mask blind 7A. Is arranged, and the exposure area IA is further restricted via the movable mask blind 7B at the start and end of the scanning exposure, thereby preventing unnecessary exposure. Further, in the present embodiment, the movable mask blind 7B is also used for setting an illumination area in a later-described aerial image measurement. On the other hand, on the optical path of the exposure light EL reflected by the beam splitter 5 in the illumination optical system IL, the condenser lens 32 and the sensitivity are good in the far ultraviolet region, and are high in order to detect the pulse emission of the light source 1. An integrator sensor 33 including a light receiving element such as a PIN photodiode having a response frequency is disposed.

  The operation of the illumination optical system IL configured in this way will be briefly described. The laser beam LB pulsed from the light source 1 is incident on the beam shaping optical system 2 where it is efficiently applied to the optical integrator 3 at the rear. After the cross-sectional shape is shaped so as to be incident well, it enters the optical integrator 3. As a result, a secondary light source is formed on the exit-side focal plane of the optical integrator 3 (the pupil plane of the illumination optical system IL). The exposure light EL emitted from the secondary light source passes through one of the aperture stops on the illumination system aperture stop plate 4 and then enters the beam splitter 5 having high transmittance and low reflectivity. The exposure light EL transmitted through the beam splitter 5 passes through the first relay lens 6, passes through the rectangular opening of the fixed mask blind 7 </ b> A and the movable mask blind 7 </ b> B, passes through the second relay lens 8, and is reflected by the mirror 9. The optical path can be bent vertically downward. The exposure light EL whose optical path is bent by the mirror 9 passes through the condenser lens 30 and illuminates the illumination area IA on the mask M held by the mask stage MST with a uniform illuminance distribution.

  On the other hand, the exposure light EL reflected by the beam splitter 5 is received by the integrator sensor 33 via the condenser lens 32, and the photoelectric conversion signal of the integrator sensor 33 passes through a peak hold circuit and an A / D converter (not shown). The signal is supplied to the control device CONT through the signal processing device. In the present embodiment, the measurement value of the integrator sensor 33 is used for the exposure amount control and also for the calculation of the irradiation amount with respect to the projection optical system PL. This irradiation amount is the substrate reflectivity (this is the output of the integrator sensor). It can also be obtained based on the output of a reflectance monitor (not shown), and is used for calculating the amount of change in imaging characteristics due to illumination light absorption of the projection optical system PL. In the present embodiment, the dose is calculated based on the output of the integrator sensor 33 by the control device CONT at a predetermined interval, and the calculation result is stored in the storage device MRY as an irradiation history.

  The mask stage MST is movable while holding the mask M. For example, the mask M is fixed by vacuum suction (or electrostatic suction). The mask stage MST is supported in a non-contact manner on the mask base 55 via a gas bearing (air bearing) which is a non-contact bearing. The mask stage driving device MSTD including a linear motor or the like is used to drive the optical axis of the projection optical system PL. It can move two-dimensionally in a plane perpendicular to AX, that is, in the XY plane, and can be rotated slightly in the θZ direction. The mask stage MST can move on the mask base 55 at a scanning speed designated in the X-axis direction, and the X can only cross the entire surface of the mask M at least the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL. It has a moving stroke in the axial direction.

  A movable mirror 41 is provided on the mask stage MST. A laser interferometer 42 is provided at a position facing the movable mirror 41. The position of the mask M on the mask stage MST in the two-dimensional direction and the rotation angle in the θZ direction (including rotation angles in the θX and θY directions in some cases) are measured in real time by the laser interferometer 42, and the measurement result is a control device. Output to CONT. The control device CONT controls the position of the mask M supported by the mask stage MST by driving the mask stage drive device MSTD based on the measurement result of the laser interferometer 42.

  The projection optical system PL projects and exposes the pattern of the mask M onto the substrate P at a predetermined projection magnification β, and includes a plurality of optical elements (lenses) 60 provided on the image plane side (substrate P side). It is composed of optical elements. In the present embodiment, the projection optical system PL is a reduction system having a projection magnification β of, for example, 1/4 or 1/5. Note that the projection optical system PL may be either an equal magnification system or an enlargement system.

  The optical element 60 at the image surface side tip of the projection optical system PL of the present embodiment is held by a lens cell 62. A plurality of optical elements other than the optical element 60 are held by the lens barrel PK. In the following description, the plurality of optical elements held by the lens barrel PK are appropriately referred to as “projection optical system main body MPL”. Then, the tip of the lens barrel PK of the projection optical system main body MPL and the lens cell 62 holding the optical element 60 are connected by a connecting mechanism 61 so that the lens cell 62 holding the optical element 60 can be replaced. The optical element 60 is in contact with the liquid LQ in the liquid immersion area AR2. The optical element 60 is made of meteorite. Since meteorite has high affinity with water, the liquid LQ can be brought into close contact with almost the entire liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60. That is, in the present embodiment, the liquid (water) LQ having a high affinity with the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 is supplied, and therefore the adhesion between the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 and the liquid LQ. And the optical path between the optical element 60 and the substrate P can be reliably filled with the liquid LQ. The optical element 60 may be quartz having a high affinity for water. Further, the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 may be subjected to a hydrophilization (lyophilic treatment) to further increase the affinity with the liquid LQ.

  The substrate stage PST can move while holding the substrate P, and includes an XY stage 53 and a Z tilt stage 52 mounted on the XY stage 53. The XY stage 53 is supported in a non-contact manner above the upper surface of the stage base 54 via a gas bearing (air bearing) which is a non-contact bearing (not shown). The XY stage 53 (substrate stage PST) is supported in a non-contact manner with respect to the upper surface of the stage base 54, and is in a plane perpendicular to the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL by the substrate stage driving device PSTD including a linear motor and the like. That is, it can move two-dimensionally in the XY plane and can rotate in the θZ direction. A Z tilt stage 52 is mounted on the XY stage 53, and a substrate holder 51 is mounted on the Z tilt stage 52. The substrate P is held by the substrate holder 51 by vacuum suction or the like. The Z tilt stage 52 is provided so as to be movable in the Z-axis direction, the θX direction, and the θY direction by an actuator described later. The substrate stage driving device PSTD including the actuator is controlled by the control device CONT. The substrate stage PST cooperates with a focus detection system, which will be described later, to control the focus position (Z position) and the tilt angle of the substrate P to project the surface of the substrate P by an autofocus method and an auto leveling projection optical system PL. And positioning the substrate P in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction.

  An auxiliary plate 57 is provided on the substrate stage PST (substrate holder 51) so as to surround the substrate P. The auxiliary plate 57 has a flat surface substantially the same height as the surface of the substrate P held by the substrate holder 51. Even when the edge region of the substrate P is exposed, the liquid LQ can be held under the projection optical system PL by the auxiliary plate 57.

  A movable mirror 43 is provided on the substrate stage PST (Z tilt stage 52). A laser interferometer 44 is provided at a position facing the movable mirror 43. The position and rotation angle of the substrate P on the substrate stage PST in the two-dimensional direction are measured in real time by the laser interferometer 44, and the measurement result is output to the control device CONT. The controller CONT positions the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST by driving the substrate stage driving device PSTD including a linear motor or the like based on the measurement result of the laser interferometer 44.

  Further, the exposure apparatus EX includes a focus detection system 45 that detects the position of the surface of the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST (substrate holder 51). The focus detection system 45 includes a light projecting unit 45A that projects a detection light beam on the substrate P via the liquid LQ from an oblique direction, and a light receiving unit 45B that receives the reflected light of the detection light beam reflected by the substrate P. I have. The light reception result of the focus detection system 45 (light receiving unit 45B) is output to the control device CONT. The control device CONT can detect the position information in the Z-axis direction of the surface of the substrate P based on the detection result of the focus detection system 45. Further, by projecting a plurality of detection light beams from the light projecting unit 45A, it is possible to detect inclination information of the substrate P in the θX and θY directions. As the configuration of the focus detection system 45, for example, the one disclosed in JP-A-6-283403 can be used.

  The control device CONT uses Z position driving units 56A to 56C, which will be described later, so that the focus shift becomes zero based on a defocus signal (defocus signal) from the light receiving unit 45B, for example, an S curve signal, during scanning exposure or the like. The movement of the Z tilt stage 52 in the Z-axis direction and the two-dimensional tilt (rotation in the θX and θY directions) are controlled via the substrate stage driving device PSTD including That is, the control device CONT controls the movement of the Z tilt stage 52 using the multipoint focus detection system 45, so that the image focusing plane of the projection optical system PL substantially matches the surface of the substrate P. And auto leveling.

  Further, in the vicinity of the tip of the projection optical system PL, an off-axis type substrate alignment system 46 that detects an alignment mark on the substrate P or a reference mark formed on a reference member (not shown) provided on the substrate stage PST. Is provided. A mask alignment system 47 for detecting a reference mark provided on the reference member via the mask M and the projection optical system PL is provided in the vicinity of the mask stage MST. In this embodiment, an image processing type alignment sensor, a so-called FIA (Field Image Alignment) system is used as the alignment system. As the configuration of the substrate alignment system 46, for example, the one disclosed in JP-A-4-65603 can be used, and the configuration of the mask alignment system 47 is disclosed in JP-A-7-176468. Can be used.

  FIG. 2 is an enlarged view showing the liquid supply mechanism 10, the liquid recovery mechanism 20, and the projection optical system PL. The projection optical system PL includes a projection optical system main body MPL configured to include a plurality of (here, ten) optical elements 64a to 64j held by the lens barrel PK, and an image plane side (substrate) of the projection optical system PL. The optical element 60 is provided on the P side) separately from the projection optical system main body MPL and held by the lens cell 62. Among the optical elements 64a to 64j constituting the projection optical system PL, some of the optical elements 64a and 64b, for example, optical elements 64a and 64b are inclined with respect to the optical axis AX direction and the XY plane by a plurality of driving elements (for example, piezoelectric elements) 63, respectively. It is configured to be capable of minute driving. Further, sealed first and second sealed chambers 65A and 65B are formed between the optical elements 64d and 64e and between the optical elements 64f and 64g, respectively. A clean gas such as dry air is supplied to the first and second sealed chambers 65A and 65B from a gas supply mechanism (not shown) via a pressure adjustment mechanism 66.

  In the present embodiment, the pressure adjusting mechanism 66 that adjusts the driving voltage (driving amount of the driving element) applied to each driving element 63 and the gas pressure (internal pressure) inside the first and second sealed chambers 65A and 65B includes: Controlled by the imaging characteristic adjusting device 67 in accordance with a command from the control unit CONT, thereby correcting the imaging characteristics of the projection optical system PL, for example, the image plane position, field curvature, distortion, magnification, and the like. It has become. Note that the image formation characteristic adjusting mechanism for adjusting the image formation characteristic may be constituted by only a movable optical element such as the optical element 64a, and the number of the movable optical elements may be arbitrary. However, in this case, since the number of movable optical elements corresponds to the types that can correct the imaging characteristics of the projection optical system PL excluding the focus, the number of movable optical elements depends on the type of imaging characteristics that need to be corrected. You only need to set the number.

  The Z tilt stage 52 is supported at three points on the XY stage 53 by three Z position driving units 56A, 56B, and 56C (however, the Z position driving unit 56C on the back side of the drawing is not shown). These Z position driving units 56A to 56C have three actuators (for example, a voice coil motor) that independently drive the respective support points on the lower surface of the Z tilt stage 52 in the optical axis direction (Z direction) of the projection optical system PL. 59A, 59B, 59C (however, the actuator 59C on the back side of the drawing in FIG. 2 is not shown) and the Z-axis direction driving amount (displacement from the reference position) by the Z position driving units 56A, 56B, 56C of the Z tilt stage ) To detect the encoder 58 </ b> A, 58 </ b> B, 58 </ b> C (note that the encoder 58 </ b> C on the back side in FIG. 2 is not shown). Here, as the encoders 58A to 58C, linear encoders such as an optical type or a capacitance type are used, for example. In this embodiment, the actuators 56A, 56B, and 56C drive the Z tilt stage 52 in the optical axis AX direction (Z-axis direction) and the tilt direction with respect to the plane orthogonal to the optical axis (XY plane), that is, the θX and θY directions. A drive device is configured. Further, the driving amount (displacement amount from the reference point) of each supporting point by the Z position driving units 56A, 56B, and 56C of the Z tilt stage 52 measured by the encoders 58A to 58C is output to the control device CONT. The control device CONT obtains the position and leveling amount (θX rotation amount, θY rotation amount) of the Z tilt stage 52 based on the measurement results of the encoders 58A to 58C.

  The liquid supply mechanism 10 supplies the liquid LQ between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P in a predetermined period including the time of exposure processing, and includes a liquid supply unit 11 capable of delivering the liquid LQ, and a liquid supply A supply nozzle 13 connected to the part 11 via a supply pipe 12 and supplying the liquid LQ delivered from the liquid supply part 11 onto the substrate P is provided. The supply nozzle 13 is disposed close to the surface of the substrate P. The liquid supply unit 11 includes a tank that stores the liquid LQ, a pressure pump, and the like, and supplies the liquid LQ onto the substrate P via the supply pipe 12 and the supply nozzle 13. The liquid supply operation of the liquid supply unit 11 is controlled by the control device CONT, and the control device CONT can control the liquid supply amount per unit time on the substrate P by the liquid supply unit 11.

  The liquid recovery mechanism 20 recovers the liquid LQ between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P during a predetermined period including the time of the exposure process, and the recovery nozzle 23 is disposed close to the surface of the substrate P. And a liquid recovery unit 21 connected to the recovery nozzle 23 via a recovery pipe 22. The liquid recovery unit 21 includes a vacuum system (a suction device) including a vacuum pump, a tank for storing the recovered liquid LQ, and the like, and its operation is controlled by the control device CONT. When the vacuum system of the liquid recovery unit 21 is driven, the liquid LQ on the substrate P is recovered via the recovery nozzle 23. As a vacuum system, a vacuum system in a factory where the exposure apparatus EX is disposed may be used without providing a vacuum pump in the exposure apparatus.

  In addition, it is preferable to provide a gas-liquid separator that separates the liquid LQ sucked from the recovery nozzle 23 and the gas in the middle of the recovery pipe 22, specifically, between the recovery nozzle 23 and the vacuum system. When the liquid LQ on the substrate P is sucked and collected, the liquid recovery unit (vacuum system) 21 may recover the liquid LQ together with the surrounding gas (air). Therefore, the liquid LQ is recovered by the gas-liquid separator. By separating the liquid LQ recovered from the nozzle 23 from the gas, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of inconvenience such as the liquid LQ flowing into the vacuum system and the vacuum system failing. The liquid LQ recovered by the liquid recovery unit 21 is discarded or cleaned, for example, and returned to the liquid supply unit 11 or the like for reuse.

  The liquid supply mechanism 10 and the liquid recovery mechanism 20 are supported separately from the projection optical system PL. Thereby, the vibration generated in the liquid supply mechanism 10 and the liquid recovery mechanism 20 is not transmitted to the projection optical system PL.

  FIG. 3 is a plan view showing the positional relationship between the liquid supply mechanism 10 and the liquid recovery mechanism 20 and the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL. The projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL has a rectangular shape (slit shape) elongated in the Y-axis direction, and three supply nozzles 13A to 13C are arranged on the + X side so as to sandwich the projection area AR1 in the X-axis direction. The two collection nozzles 23A and 23B are arranged on the −X side. The supply nozzles 13 </ b> A to 13 </ b> C are connected to the liquid supply unit 11 via the supply pipe 12, and the recovery nozzles 23 </ b> A and 23 </ b> B are connected to the liquid recovery part 21 via the recovery pipe 22. In addition, the supply nozzles 16A to 16C and the recovery nozzles 26A and 26B are arranged in a positional relationship in which the supply nozzles 13A to 13C and the recovery nozzles 23A and 23B are rotated by approximately 180 °. The supply nozzles 13A to 13C and the recovery nozzles 26A and 26B are alternately arranged in the Y axis direction, the supply nozzles 16A to 16C and the recovery nozzles 23A and 23B are alternately arranged in the Y axis direction, and the supply nozzles 16A to 16C are The recovery nozzles 26 </ b> A and 26 </ b> B are connected to the liquid recovery part 21 via the recovery pipe 25.

  FIG. 4 is a schematic configuration diagram showing an aerial image measuring device 70 used for measuring the imaging characteristics (optical characteristics) of the projection optical system PL. The aerial image measuring device 70 includes a light receiver 90 that receives light that has passed through the projection optical system PL via a slit plate 75 having a slit portion 71 disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system PL. The slit plate 75 is provided on the Z tilt stage 52 on the image plane side of the projection optical system PL. The light receiver 90 receives an optical element 76 disposed near the slit plate 75 inside the Z tilt stage 52, a mirror 77 that bends an optical path of light that has passed through the optical element 76, and light that passes through the mirror 77. An optical element 78, a light transmission lens 79 that sends the light that has passed through the optical element 78 to the outside of the Z tilt stage 52, a mirror 80 that is provided outside the Z tilt stage 52 and bends the optical path of the light from the light transmission lens 79; A light receiving lens 81 that receives light that has passed through the mirror 80 and a light sensor (light receiving element) 82 that includes a photoelectric conversion element that receives light via the light receiving lens 81 are provided.

  The slit plate 75 includes a light shielding film 72 made of chromium or the like provided at the center of the upper surface of the glass plate member 74 having a rectangular shape in plan view, and the light shielding film 72 around the light shielding film 72, that is, the upper surface of the glass plate member 74. A reflective film 73 made of aluminum or the like provided in a portion other than the above and a slit portion 71 that is an opening pattern formed in a part of the light shielding film 72 are provided. In the slit portion 71, a glass plate member 74 that is a transparent member is exposed, and light can pass through the slit portion 71.

  A convex portion 83 is provided at a position adjacent to the substrate holder 51 on the upper surface of the Z tilt stage 52, and an opening 84 is provided above the convex portion 83. The slit plate 75 can be attached to and detached from the opening 84 of the convex portion 83, and is fitted from above in a state of closing the opening 84. Further, the upper surface of the slit plate 75 has a sufficient area so that the liquid LQ can be held between the slit plate 75 and the optical element 60.

  As a material for forming the glass plate member 74, synthetic quartz or meteorite having good transparency to ArF excimer laser light or KrF excimer laser light is used. The refractive index of synthetic quartz for ArF excimer laser light is about 1.56, and the refractive index for KrF excimer laser light is about 1.51.

  The optical element 76 is disposed below the slit portion 71 inside the Z tilt stage 52 and is held by a holding member 85. The holding member 85 holding the optical element 76 is attached to the inner wall surface 83 </ b> A of the convex portion 83. The light that has passed through the optical element 76 disposed inside the Z tilt stage 52 passes through the optical element 78 after its optical path is bent by the mirror 77. The light that has passed through the optical element 78 is sent out of the Z tilt stage 52 by a light transmission lens 79 that is fixed to the + X side wall of the Z tilt stage 52. The light transmitted to the outside of the Z tilt stage 52 by the light transmitting lens 79 is guided to the light receiving lens 81 by the mirror 80. The light receiving lens 81 and the optical sensor 82 disposed above the light receiving lens 81 are housed in a case 86 while maintaining a predetermined positional relationship. The case 86 is fixed in the vicinity of the upper end portion of the support column 88 provided on the upper surface of the stage base 54 via an attachment member 87.

  The mirror 77, the optical element 78, the light transmission lens 79, and the like are detachable from the Z tilt stage 52. A support column 88 that supports the case 86 that houses the light receiving lens 81 and the optical sensor 82 is detachable from the stage base 54.

  As the optical sensor 82, a photoelectric conversion element (light receiving element) capable of detecting weak light with high accuracy, for example, a photomultiplier tube (PMT, photomultiplier tube) or the like is used. The photoelectric conversion signal from the optical sensor 82 is sent to the control device CONT via the signal processing device.

  FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a state in which the imaging characteristics of the projection optical system PL are measured using the aerial image measurement device 70. As shown in FIG. 5, when measuring the imaging characteristics of the projection optical system PL, the liquid supply mechanism 10 and the liquid recovery mechanism 20 are used with the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75 facing each other. The liquid LQ is filled between the optical element 60 on the front end side (image plane side) of the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75. Then, in a state where the liquid LQ is filled between the optical element 60 of the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75, the light (exposure light EL) via the projection optical system PL and the liquid LQ constitutes the aerial image measurement device 70. The slit plate 75 is irradiated. The surface position information of the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 at this time can be detected using the focus detection system 45.

  6 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the main part showing the vicinity of the slit plate 75 and the optical element 76 disposed in the convex portion 83 of the aerial image measuring device 70, and FIG. 7 is a plan view of the slit plate 75 as viewed from above. It is. In FIG. 6, the light receiver 90 is illustrated in a simplified manner. Among the plurality of optical elements and members constituting the light receiver 90, the optical element disposed at the position closest to the slit plate 75 on the optical path of light. Only the element 76 and the optical sensor 82 that receives the light that has passed through the optical element 76 are shown. In the aerial image measurement device 70 shown in FIG. 6, the liquid LQ is filled between the slit plate 75 and the light receiver 90. In the present embodiment, the liquid LQ is the most on the slit plate 75 among the plurality of optical elements disposed on the lower surface of the slit plate 75 fitted in the opening 84 of the convex portion 83 and the optical path of the light receiver 90. It is filled with the optical element 76 disposed at a close position. The optical element 76 is held by a holding member 85 attached to the inner wall surface 83 </ b> A of the convex portion 83 at a position below the slit plate 75, and the liquid LQ is applied to the slit plate 75, the holding member 85, and the optical element 76. The enclosed space SP is filled. In the present embodiment, the optical element 76 is constituted by a plano-convex lens, and is disposed with its flat surface facing upward. The inner bottom surface 85A of the holding member 85 and the upper surface (flat surface) 76A of the optical element 76 are substantially flush with each other. In addition, the holding member 85 is formed in a substantially upward U shape in a sectional view, and the outer surface 85B of the holding member 85 and the inner wall surface 83A of the convex portion 83 are in close contact with each other, and the upper end surface (slit plate 75) of the holding member 85 is in contact. A sealing member 91 such as an O-ring is provided between 85C and the slit plate 75. Thereby, the inconvenience that the liquid LQ filled in the space SP leaks to the outside is prevented.

  The holding member 85 holding the slit plate 75 and the optical element 76 can be attached to and detached from the inner wall surface 83 </ b> A of the convex portion 83. When the holding member 85 is attached, the holding member 85 holding the optical element 76 is inserted into the convex portion 83 from the opening 84 of the convex portion 83 (at this time, the slit plate 75 is not attached). The holding member 85 and the inner wall surface 83A of the convex portion 83 are fixed by a fixing member. Next, the slit plate 75 is fitted into the opening 84. On the other hand, when removing the holding member 85, the slit plate 75 may be removed from the opening 84, and then the holding member 85 may be pulled out through the opening 84.

  The exposure apparatus EX includes a liquid supply apparatus 100 that supplies the liquid LQ to the space SP between the slit plate 75 and the optical element 76 of the light receiver 90, and a liquid recovery apparatus 104 that recovers the liquid LQ in the space SP. It has. A supply channel 102 connected to the space SP is formed on the + X side wall of the convex portion 83 and the holding member 85, and a recovery channel 106 connected to the space SP is formed on the −X side wall. . Further, one end of a supply pipe 101 is connected to the liquid supply apparatus 100, and the other end of the supply pipe 101 is connected to a supply flow path 102 via a joint 103. One end of a recovery pipe 105 is connected to the liquid recovery apparatus 104, and the other end of the recovery pipe 105 is connected to a recovery flow path 106 via a joint 107. Valves 101A and 105A for opening and closing the flow paths are provided in the middle of the supply pipe 101 and the collection pipe 105, respectively. The operations of the liquid supply device 100, the liquid recovery device 104, and the valves 101A and 105A are controlled by the control device CONT, and the control device CONT controls these to supply and recover the liquid LQ to and from the space SP. Fill SP with liquid LQ.

  Here, in the following description, the immersion area formed by the LQ filled between the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75 is referred to as “first immersion area LA1”, the slit plate 75 and the light receiver 90 ( The liquid immersion area formed by the liquid LQ filled with the optical element 76) is appropriately referred to as “second liquid immersion area LA2”.

  Here, the liquid LQ is supplied and recovered using the liquid supply device 100 and the liquid recovery device 104, so that the space SP between the slit plate 75 and the optical element 76 is filled with the liquid LQ. Instead of using the supply apparatus 100 and the liquid recovery apparatus 104, for example, a configuration in which the liquid LQ is filled in the space SP at the time of manufacturing the exposure apparatus EX is possible. In this case, for example, the slit plate 75 may be removed from the convex portion 83 (Z tilt stage 52), and the liquid LQ in the space SP may be periodically replaced. On the other hand, by supplying and recovering the liquid LQ using the liquid supply apparatus 100 and the liquid recovery apparatus 104, the space SP can be always filled with a fresh (clean) liquid LQ. Further, for example, when the holding member 85 holding the slit plate 75 and the optical element 76 is removed from the convex portion 83 (Z tilt stage 52), after the liquid LQ in the space SP is recovered by the liquid recovery device 104, the slit plate 75 or By removing the holding member 85 holding the optical element 76, the attaching / detaching operation can be performed without leaking or scattering the liquid LQ.

  As shown in FIG. 7, the slit plate 75 includes a light shielding film 72 made of chromium or the like provided in the center of the upper surface of a rectangular glass plate member 74 in plan view, and the periphery of the light shielding film 72, that is, the glass plate member 74. A reflective film 73 made of aluminum or the like provided on a portion other than the light shielding film 72 and a slit portion 71 which is an opening pattern formed in a part of the light shielding film 72. In the slit portion 71, a glass plate member 74 that is a transparent member is exposed, and light can pass through the slit portion 71. The slit portion 71 is a rectangular (rectangular) slit whose longitudinal direction is the Y-axis direction, and has a predetermined width 2D.

  As shown in FIG. 6, in the vicinity of the slit plate 75, a jet flow generating device 180 for removing bubbles attached to the upper surface 75 </ b> A serving as a liquid contact surface of the slit plate 75 is provided. The jet generating device 180 generates a jet in the liquid LQ in the first immersion area LA1 filled between the optical element 60 at the tip of the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75, and the generated jet is used as the slit plate. The air bubbles adhering to the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 are removed by contacting the upper surface 75A of the 75. The jet generating device 180 includes a pipe part 182 having one end (base end part) connected to the liquid supply part 181 and a nozzle part 183 connected to the other end part (tip end part) of the pipe part 182. . The nozzle portion 183 is disposed in the vicinity of the slit plate 75. Further, the piping part 182 is attached on the Z tilt stage 52. Therefore, when the substrate stage PST moves, the piping part 182 and the nozzle part 183 attached to the tip part thereof move together with the slit plate 75. That is, even if the substrate stage PST moves, the relative positional relationship between the nozzle portion 183 and the slit plate 75 does not change. In the present embodiment, the piping part 182 is separated from the convex part 83 and the slit plate 75, and the nozzle part 183 is also separated from the slit plate 75. Further, the air outlet 183A of the nozzle portion 183 is provided inside the first immersion area LA1 formed by the liquid LQ when the liquid LQ is filled between the optical element 60 of the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75. It is arranged.

  When measuring the imaging characteristics (aerial image, projection image) of the projection optical system PL using the aerial image measurement device 70, the control device CONT moves the substrate stage PST to project the projection optical system PL and the slit plate. 75 is opposed to each other (that is, in the state shown in FIG. 5). Then, the liquid supply mechanism 10 and the liquid recovery mechanism 20 are used to fill the liquid LQ between the optical element 60 at the tip of the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75. In parallel (or before or after), the control device CONT fills the liquid LQ between the optical element 76 of the light receiver 90 and the slit plate 75 using the liquid supply device 100 and the liquid recovery device 104. .

  After the first immersion area LA1 is formed and before the aerial image measurement operation is performed, the control device CONT uses the jet flow generation device 180 to perform a bubble removal operation for removing bubbles attached to the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75. Do. The control device CONT drives the liquid supply unit 181 of the jet flow generation device 180. From the liquid supply unit 181, the liquid LQ having an increased flow rate is sent out. The liquid LQ delivered from the liquid supply unit 181 is ejected from the outlet 183A of the nozzle unit 183 through the piping unit 182. Since the air outlet 183A of the nozzle portion 183 is disposed inside the first liquid immersion area LA1, the liquid LQ is ejected from the air outlet 183A to the first liquid immersion area LA1, thereby causing the first liquid immersion area LA1. A jet is generated in the liquid LQ. The liquid LQ in the first immersion area LA1 is vibrated by the jet flow. The generated jet of the liquid LQ hits the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75, so that it adheres to the region corresponding to the first liquid immersion region LA1 (that is, the liquid contact surface) in the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75. Bubbles are removed. The bubbles removed from the upper surface 75A are recovered from the recovery nozzle 23 of the liquid recovery mechanism 20 together with the liquid LQ. In this way, the bubbles adhering to the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 and the bubbles in the liquid in the first immersion area LA1 (including bubbles floating in the liquid in the first immersion area LA1) are recovered. More recovered and removed.

  Here, it is preferable to deaerate the liquid LQ ejected from the nozzle portion 183 in advance. In addition, it is preferable that the liquid LQ supplied from the supply nozzle 13 of the liquid supply mechanism 10 is also degassed in advance. The deaeration process includes a heating process and a decompression process of the liquid LQ.

  In the present embodiment, the nozzle part 183 of the jet flow generating device 180 is provided so as to impinge the jet toward the slit part 71 in the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75. The jet flow generation device 180 can reliably remove the bubbles attached to the slit portion 71 by applying the jet flow to the slit portion 71. Therefore, the light passing through the slit portion 71 is favorably received by the light receiver 90 without being scattered. A light shielding film 72 is provided around the slit portion 71, and a step is formed between the slit portion 71 and the light shielding film 72. Bubbles are likely to adhere to the stepped portion, but the jet generating device 180 can reliably remove the bubbles attached to the stepped portion by applying a jet to the stepped portion.

  After performing the operation of removing bubbles adhering to the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75, the control device CONT performs an aerial image measurement operation. At the time of measuring the aerial image, a mask M provided with a measurement mark to be described later is supported on the mask stage MST. The control device CONT illuminates the mask M with the exposure light EL by the illumination optical system IL. Light (exposure light EL) that passes through the measurement mark, the projection optical system PL, and the liquid LQ in the first immersion area LA1 is applied to the slit plate 75. The light that has passed through the slit portion 71 of the slit plate 75 enters the optical element 76 via the liquid LQ in the second immersion area LA2.

  Since the numerical aperture NA of the projection optical system is improved by the liquid LQ in the first immersion area LA1 between the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75, the light receiving device 90 has a numerical aperture NA corresponding to the numerical aperture NA of the projection optical system PL. Unless the numerical aperture NA of the optical element 76 is also improved, the optical element 76 may not be able to capture (all) the light that has passed through the projection optical system PL, and will not be able to receive light well. Therefore, when the numerical aperture NA of the projection optical system PL is improved by filling the liquid LQ between the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75 as in the present embodiment, the slit plate 75 and the light receiver 90 are used. By filling the liquid LQ between the optical element 76 and the optical element 76 of the optical receiver 76 to improve the numerical aperture NA of the optical element 76, the optical element 76 of the optical receiver 90 improves the light through the projection optical system PL. Can be captured.

  The optical element 76 condenses the light that has passed through the second immersion area LA2. The light condensed by the optical element 76 is guided to the outside of the substrate stage PST through the mirror 77, the optical element 78, and the light transmission lens 79. The light guided to the outside of the substrate stage PST is bent in the optical path by the mirror 80, received by the optical sensor 82 through the light receiving lens 81, and a photoelectric conversion signal corresponding to the amount of light received from the optical sensor 82. (Light quantity signal) is output to the control device CONT via the signal processing device.

  As will be described later, in the present embodiment, measurement of the projected image (aerial image) of the measurement mark is performed by the slit scan method, and in this case, the light transmitting lens 79 is connected to the light receiving lens 81 and the optical sensor 82. Will move. Therefore, in the aerial image measuring device 70, the size of each lens and the mirror 80 is set so that all the light passing through the light transmitting lens 79 moving within a predetermined range is incident on the light receiving lens 81.

  In the aerial image measurement device 70, since the optical sensor 82 is provided at a predetermined position outside the substrate stage PST, the measurement accuracy of the laser interferometer 44 due to the heat generated by the optical sensor 82 can be affected. It is suppressed. Further, since the outside and the inside of the substrate stage PST are not connected by a light guide or the like, the driving accuracy of the substrate stage PST is affected as in the case where the outside and the inside of the substrate stage PST are connected by a light guide. There is nothing. Of course, when the influence of heat or the like can be ignored or eliminated, the optical sensor 82 may be provided inside the substrate stage PST. That is, some of the plurality of optical elements and light receiving elements constituting the light receiver 90 may be provided on the substrate stage PST, or all may be provided on the substrate stage PST.

  The control device CONT is based on the imaging characteristic information of the projection optical system PL measured by using the aerial image measuring device 70, and the correction amount for obtaining a desired imaging characteristic, specifically, the optics of the projection optical system PL. The driving amounts of the elements 64a and 64b and the adjustment amounts of the internal pressures of the first and second sealed chambers 65A and 65B are obtained. Here, in the storage device MRY, for example, adjustment of the driving amounts of the optical elements 64a and 64b of the projection optical system PL and the internal pressures of the first and second sealed chambers 65A and 65B, which are obtained in advance by experiments or simulations, for example. The relationship between the amount and the change amount (variation amount) of various image formation characteristics of the projection optical system PL (that is, image formation characteristic adjustment information) is stored. The control device CONT refers to the relationship stored in the storage device MRY and drives the optical elements 64a and 64b of the projection optical system PL to correct the imaging characteristics of the projection optical system PL to a desired state. A correction amount including an adjustment amount of the internal pressure of the first and second sealed chambers 65A and 65B is obtained.

The procedure for exposing the device manufacturing pattern onto the substrate P using the exposure apparatus EX will be described below.
After measuring the imaging characteristics via the projection optical system PL and the liquid LQ by the aerial image measuring device 70 and deriving a correction amount for correcting the imaging characteristics, the control device CONT includes the projection optical system PL. The substrate stage PST is driven via the substrate stage driving device PSTD so that the substrate P loaded on the substrate stage PST faces the substrate P. At this time, a mask M on which a device manufacturing pattern is formed is loaded on the mask stage MST. Then, the control device CONT drives the liquid supply unit 11 of the liquid supply mechanism 10 and supplies a predetermined amount of liquid LQ per unit time onto the substrate P via the supply pipe 12 and the supply nozzle 13. In addition, the control device CONT drives the liquid recovery unit (vacuum system) 21 of the liquid recovery mechanism 20 in accordance with the supply of the liquid LQ by the liquid supply mechanism 10. A fixed amount of liquid LQ is recovered. Thereby, an immersion area AR2 of the liquid LQ is formed between the optical element 60 at the tip of the projection optical system PL and the substrate P.

  Then, the control device CONT illuminates the mask M with the exposure light EL by the illumination optical system IL, and projects an image of the pattern of the mask M onto the substrate P through the projection optical system PL and the liquid LQ. Here, when performing the exposure process on the substrate P, the control unit CONT drives the optical elements 64a and 64b of the projection optical system PL based on the obtained correction amount, and the first and second sealed chambers. The exposure processing is performed while adjusting the internal pressures of 65A and 65B and adjusting the imaging characteristics via the projection optical system PL and the liquid LQ.

  At the time of scanning exposure, a part of the pattern image of the mask M is projected onto the projection area AR1, and the mask M moves in the −X direction (or + X direction) at the velocity V with respect to the projection optical system PL. Then, the substrate P moves in the + X direction (or -X direction) at a speed β · V (β is the projection magnification) via the substrate stage PST. Then, after the exposure of one shot area is completed, the next shot area is moved to the scanning start position by stepping the substrate P, and thereafter, the exposure process for each shot area is sequentially performed by the step-and-scan method. In the present embodiment, the liquid LQ is set to flow in the same direction as the movement direction of the substrate P in parallel with the movement direction of the substrate P. That is, when scanning exposure is performed by moving the substrate P in the scanning direction (−X direction) indicated by the arrow Xa (see FIG. 3), the supply pipe 12, the supply nozzles 13A to 13C, the recovery pipe 22, and the recovery nozzle The liquid LQ is supplied and recovered by the liquid supply mechanism 10 and the liquid recovery mechanism 20 using 23A and 23B. That is, when the substrate P moves in the −X direction, the liquid LQ is supplied from the supply nozzle 13 (13A to 13C) between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P, and the recovery nozzle 23 (23A, 23B). ), The liquid LQ on the substrate P is collected, and the liquid LQ flows in the −X direction so as to satisfy the space between the optical element 60 at the tip of the projection optical system PL and the substrate P. On the other hand, when scanning exposure is performed by moving the substrate P in the scanning direction (+ X direction) indicated by the arrow Xb (see FIG. 3), the supply pipe 15, the supply nozzles 16A to 16C, the recovery pipe 25, and the recovery nozzle 26A. , 26B, the liquid LQ is supplied and recovered by the liquid supply mechanism 10 and the liquid recovery mechanism 20. That is, when the substrate P moves in the + X direction, the liquid LQ is supplied between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P from the supply nozzle 16 (16A to 16C), and the recovery nozzle 26 (26A, 26B). As a result, the liquid LQ on the substrate P is recovered, and the liquid LQ flows in the + X direction so as to satisfy the space between the optical element 60 at the tip of the projection optical system PL and the substrate P. In this case, for example, the liquid LQ supplied through the supply nozzle 13 flows so as to be drawn between the optical element 60 and the substrate P as the substrate P moves in the −X direction. Even if the supply energy of the (liquid supply unit 11) is small, the liquid LQ can be easily supplied between the optical element 60 and the substrate P. Then, by switching the direction in which the liquid LQ flows in accordance with the scanning direction, the liquid LQ is moved between the optical element 60 and the substrate P when the substrate P is scanned in either the + X direction or the −X direction. And a high resolution and a wide depth of focus can be obtained.

  As described above, since the jet flow generation device 180 for removing bubbles attached to the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 is provided, when the slit plate 75 is irradiated with light via the projection optical system PL and the liquid LQ, The light irradiation state can be maintained well without being affected by bubbles. Therefore, inconveniences such as deterioration of the light receiving state of the light receiver 90 can be prevented. Then, the liquid recovery mechanism 20 recovers the air bubbles removed from the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 and the air bubbles floating in the liquid LQ in the first liquid immersion area LA1, so that the air bubbles in the first liquid immersion area LA1. It is possible to prevent the occurrence of inconvenience.

  In this embodiment, the piping part 182 including the nozzle part 183 is provided on the Z tilt stage 52 together with the convex part 83 that holds the slit plate 75, and even if the substrate stage PST moves, In this configuration, the relative positional relationship with the nozzle portion 183 does not change. By doing so, the jet generated by the liquid ejected from the outlet 183 </ b> A of the nozzle part 183 can always be applied to the slit part 71. On the other hand, the nozzle part 183 may be supported by a drive mechanism (not shown), and the air outlet 183A of the nozzle part 183 may be movable at least in the XY plane direction with respect to the slit plate 75. By carrying out like this, a jet can be uniformly applied with respect to the substantially whole area of the upper surface 75A of the slit board 75 containing the slit part 71. FIG. Of course, the nozzle portion 183 may be provided so as to be movable in the Z-axis direction. Further, the nozzle portion 183 is provided so as to be able to advance and retreat with respect to the space between the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75, and after the bubble removing operation is completed, the nozzle portion 183 is retracted from the first liquid immersion area LA1. You may do it.

  As shown in FIG. 8, the jet generating device 180 may apply a jet to the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 at the tip of the projection optical system PL. By doing so, bubbles attached to the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 can be removed. In this case, the air outlet 183A of the nozzle portion 183 is disposed inside the first liquid immersion area LA1 and is directed toward the optical element 60. Further, the jet applied to the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 is reflected by the liquid contact surface 60a, and generates a downward flow (jet) inside the first liquid immersion area LA1. Since the downward flow of the liquid LQ hits the upper surface 75A (slit portion 71) of the slit plate 75, bubbles attached to the slit plate 75 (slit portion 71) can be removed at the same time.

  An upward flow (jet flow) is generated by the jet applied to the slit plate 75, and the upward flow is applied to the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 of the projection optical system PL and attached to the liquid contact surface 60a. You may set so that the bubble which exists may be removed.

  Further, a drive mechanism (not shown) that drives the nozzle portion 183 in the θY direction may be provided, and the nozzle portion 183 may be rotated as indicated by an arrow ry in FIG. 8 during the bubble removal operation. By doing so, the jet generated by the liquid ejected from the outlet 183A of the nozzle portion 183 can be directly applied to both the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 and the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75, and the liquid contact Air bubbles adhering to each of the surface 60a and the upper surface 75A can be reliably removed.

  As shown in FIG. 9, the nozzle part 183 of the jet flow generating device 180 may be provided at the image plane side end of the projection optical system PL. In the present embodiment, the nozzle portion 183 is attached to the lens cell 62 that holds the optical element 60 on the image plane side of the projection optical system PL, and applies a jet to the slit portion 71 of the slit plate 75. Further, during the bubble removal operation, the nozzle stage 183 may apply a jet to the slit plate 75 while moving the substrate stage PST (XY stage 53) in the XY plane direction.

  Further, since the nozzle portion 183 of the jet flow generation device 180 is provided at the image plane side end of the projection optical system PL, when the substrate P is subjected to immersion exposure, the projection optical system PL and the substrate P are made to face each other to form a liquid. After the immersion area AR2 is formed, a jet can be applied to the substrate P from the nozzle portion 183 before the exposure operation is started. Thereby, the bubbles adhering to the surface of the substrate P can be removed. Then, after removing bubbles adhering to the surface of the substrate P, the immersion exposure operation is started, thereby preventing the occurrence of inconvenience such as deterioration of the pattern image formed on the substrate P due to the bubbles. be able to. As described above, the nozzle portion 183 can remove the bubbles adhering to the slit plate 75 and can also remove the bubbles adhering to the substrate P.

  FIG. 10 is a diagram showing another embodiment of the bubble removing device. In FIG. 10, an ultrasonic generator 190 that applies ultrasonic waves to the liquid LQ in the first immersion area LA1 is provided in the vicinity of the slit plate 75. The ultrasonic generator 190 includes an ultrasonic generator 192 that is disposed inside the first immersion area LA1 and generates ultrasonic waves, and a support unit 191 that supports the ultrasonic generator 192. The support portion 191 is supported on the Z tilt stage 52. The ultrasonic wave generated by the ultrasonic wave generator 192 strikes the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 through the liquid LQ in the first liquid immersion area LA1. At this time, the liquid LQ in the first immersion area LA1 is vibrated by ultrasonic waves. In the present embodiment, the ultrasonic wave generated by the ultrasonic wave generation unit 192 hits an area including the slit part 71 in the upper surface 75 </ b> A of the slit plate 75. The ultrasonic wave generated by the ultrasonic wave generator 192 vibrates the slit plate 75 by vibrating the liquid LQ in the first liquid immersion area LA1, and removes bubbles adhering to the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75. To do.

  As shown in FIG. 11, the ultrasonic generator 190 may apply the generated ultrasonic wave to the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 at the tip of the projection optical system PL via the liquid LQ. By doing so, bubbles attached to the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 can be removed. Even in this case, the ultrasonic wave generator 192 is disposed inside the first liquid immersion area LA1. The ultrasonic wave applied to the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 is reflected by the liquid contact surface 60a, and the reflected wave hits the upper surface 75A (slit portion 71) of the slit plate 75. Therefore, the bubbles adhering to each of the optical element 60 and the slit plate 75 (slit portion 71) can be removed simultaneously.

  The ultrasonic wave reflected on the slit plate 75 may be set so as to strike the liquid contact surface 60 a of the optical element 60.

  In addition, a drive mechanism that can move the ultrasonic generator 192 may be provided so that ultrasonic waves may be applied while moving relative to the slit plate 75 and the optical element 60, or the ultrasonic generator 192 may be moved in the θY direction. It is also possible to provide a drive mechanism for driving and apply ultrasonic waves to each of the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 and the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 (for example, alternately).

  As shown in FIG. 12, an ultrasonic generator 192 that generates ultrasonic waves may be attached on the slit plate 75. In this case, the ultrasonic wave generator 192 is provided in a region other than the slit portion 71 on the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 and in an inner region of the first liquid immersion region LA1. Then, the ultrasonic wave generator 192 provided on the slit plate 75 applies ultrasonic waves to the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 at the tip of the projection optical system PL via the liquid LQ. The reflected wave of the ultrasonic wave applied to the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 strikes the slit plate 75 (slit portion 71), and bubbles adhering to the optical element 60 and the slit plate 75 are removed. It is supposed to be removed.

  Note that the ultrasonic generator 192 of the ultrasonic generator 190 can be attached to, for example, the lens cell 62 at the image plane side end of the projection optical system PL. Further, the ultrasonic wave generation unit 192 attached to the image plane side end of the projection optical system PL can remove bubbles adhering to the substrate P when the substrate P is subjected to immersion exposure. That is, as described above, the projection optical system PL and the substrate P are made to face each other for immersion exposure of the substrate P, and then the liquid LQ is filled between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P to form an immersion area AR2. Then, before the immersion exposure operation, the ultrasonic wave is applied to the substrate P from the ultrasonic generator 192 via the liquid LQ in the immersion area AR2, so that bubbles attached to the substrate P can be removed. Then, after removing bubbles adhering to the substrate P, an immersion exposure operation is performed to prevent the occurrence of inconvenience such as deterioration of the pattern image formed on the substrate P due to the presence of bubbles. be able to.

  Moreover, it is also possible to attach the nozzle part 183 which comprises the jet flow production | generation apparatus demonstrated with reference to FIG. Furthermore, it is of course possible to perform the bubble removal operation by appropriately combining the jet flow generation device 180 and the ultrasonic wave generation device 190 described above.

  It is also possible to remove bubbles adhering to the slit plate 75 by vibrating the slit plate 75. For example, as shown in FIG. 13, a vibration device 250 capable of vibrating the slit plate 75 is provided on the back surface (lower surface) of the slit plate 75, and the slit plate 75 is added by the vibration device 250 during the bubble removing operation. You may make it shake. As the vibration device 250, a piezoelectric element (piezo element) can be used. One excitation device 250 may be provided on the slit plate 75, or may be provided at each of a plurality of predetermined positions on the back surface of the slit plate 75 other than the slit portion 71. By vibrating the slit plate 75, removal of the attached bubbles is promoted. The bubbles removed from the slit plate 75 float in the liquid LQ in the first immersion area LA1 and are recovered by the liquid recovery mechanism 20.

  The coupling mechanism 61 that couples the lens barrel PK and the lens cell 62 incorporates an actuator such as a piezo element and a voice coil motor, and the actuator is driven to hold the lens cell 62 and the optical element held by the lens cell 62. The element 60 may be vibrated. By doing so, bubbles attached to the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 can be removed. In addition, by providing an actuator in the coupling mechanism 61, during the immersion exposure of the substrate P, for example, vibration generated with the movement of the substrate stage PST is caused by the optical of the projection optical system PL via the liquid LQ in the immersion area AR2. Even if the vibration is transmitted to the element 60, the vibration can be actively isolated by the actuator. Therefore, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of inconvenience that the pattern image formed on the substrate P deteriorates due to the vibration of the projection optical system PL.

  Further, after the vibration device is provided in the substrate holder 51 and the like, the liquid immersion region AR2 of the liquid LQ is formed between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P, the vibration device before the liquid immersion exposure operation is started. Then, the substrate P may be vibrated by vibrating the substrate holder 51 to remove bubbles adhering to the surface of the substrate P.

  It is of course possible to perform bubble removal by appropriately combining the vibration operation by the vibration device described above, the ultrasonic wave application operation, and the jet flow generation operation.

  By the way, the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 may be made lyophilic so that bubbles do not easily adhere to the upper surface 75A. By doing this, even if bubbles are present in the liquid LQ, it is difficult for the bubbles to adhere to the upper surface 75A, so that it is possible to prevent inconvenience such as deterioration of the light receiving state of the light receiver 90 due to the attachment of bubbles. can do. In addition, since it is difficult for air bubbles to adhere to the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75, even if air bubbles adhere, the air bubble removal process can be performed smoothly.

  An example of the lyophilic process for making the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 lyophilic is an ultraviolet light irradiation process. As shown in FIG. 14, the lyophilic treatment can be performed by an ultraviolet light irradiation apparatus 300. The ultraviolet light irradiation device 300 irradiates the slit plate 75 with ultraviolet light before forming the first immersion area LA1 on the slit plate 75 (before the aerial image measurement operation by the aerial image measurement device 70). The upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 is made lyophilic. When performing the ultraviolet light irradiation process, the control device CONT drives the substrate stage PST so that the ultraviolet light irradiation device 300 and the slit plate 75 face each other, and then emits ultraviolet light from the ultraviolet light irradiation device 300. .

  In addition, when the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 is made lyophilic by ultraviolet light irradiation treatment, the lyophilicity may deteriorate over time. Therefore, the control device CONT may perform the ultraviolet light irradiation process on the slit plate 75 periodically using the ultraviolet light irradiation device 300. The timing of performing the ultraviolet light irradiation process can be performed, for example, every time before the aerial image measurement operation, every predetermined time interval, and every predetermined number of substrate processes.

In the present embodiment, the ultraviolet light irradiation device 300 is disposed at a position aligned with the projection optical system PL, and is configured to be able to periodically perform ultraviolet light irradiation processing on the slit plate 75. It is also possible to attach the slit plate 75 to the exposure apparatus EX (the convex portion 83 on the substrate stage PST) after the lyophilic treatment of the slit plate 75 during manufacture of the exposure apparatus EX. Further, depending on the material for forming the upper surface of the slit plate 75, the lyophilicity can be imparted to the slit plate 75 by, for example, an O 2 plasma process using a predetermined gas containing oxygen as a process gas. On the other hand, for example, organic contaminants may adhere to the slit plate 75 over time. Therefore, by periodically performing ultraviolet light irradiation treatment on the slit plate 75, such contaminants are removed. (Light cleaning).

  When the exposure light source 1 is a light source that emits ultraviolet light, instead of using the dedicated ultraviolet light irradiation device 300 as an ultraviolet light irradiation process for the slit plate 75, the exposure light source 1 is used to slit the slit plate. 75 may be irradiated with ultraviolet light. When the exposure light source 1 is used to irradiate the slit plate 75 with ultraviolet light, the control device CONT drives the substrate stage PST and exposes the exposure light source with the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75 facing each other. 1 is driven. At this time, the liquid LQ is not filled between the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75. The ultraviolet light emitted from the exposure light source 1 is applied to the slit plate 75 via the illumination optical system IL and the projection optical system PL.

  Although the example in which the slit plate 75 is irradiated with ultraviolet light has been described here, of course, the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 at the tip of the projection optical system PL is irradiated with ultraviolet light. Also good. By doing so, the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 can be made lyophilic, and the inconvenience of bubbles adhering to the liquid contact surface 60a can be avoided. When irradiating the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 with ultraviolet light, for example, an emission part that emits ultraviolet light is provided at a predetermined position on the upper surface of the substrate stage PST (Z tilt stage 52), and emitted from the emission part. The irradiated ultraviolet light may be irradiated from below the optical element 60. Further, the installation position of the ultraviolet light emitting unit for irradiating the optical element 60 with ultraviolet light is not limited to the upper surface of the substrate stage PST (Z tilt stage 52). For example, the ultraviolet light emitting unit is arranged on the optical element 60 by a driving mechanism (not shown). The ultraviolet light emitting part may access the lower part of the optical element 60 at a predetermined timing and irradiate the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 with ultraviolet light. Alternatively, the optical element 60 may be attached after the lyophilic process is performed on the optical element 60 when the exposure apparatus EX is manufactured.

  In addition, as a method for lyophilic treatment of the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75, a coating treatment for coating a lyophilic material having lyophilicity can be cited in addition to the ultraviolet light irradiation treatment. Alternatively, the slit plate 75 itself may be formed of a lyophilic material. Examples of the lyophilic material having lyophilicity (hydrophilicity) include substances having a high molecular structure such as alcohol. Here, as the lyophilic material for the lyophilic treatment, a material that is insoluble in the liquid LQ is used. In the lyophilic process, the process conditions are appropriately changed according to the material characteristics of the liquid L to be used.

  When the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 is subjected to lyophilic treatment by ultraviolet light irradiation treatment or lyophilic material coating treatment, the entire upper surface 75A is not subjected to lyophilic treatment and is patterned in the lyophilic region and the lyophobic region. Also good. In the case of patterning, as shown in the schematic diagram of FIG. 15, in the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75, the region including the slit portion 71 is defined as the lyophilic region AS, and the region surrounding the periphery is defined as the lyophobic region AH. desirable. By doing so, since it is difficult for bubbles to adhere to the region AS including the slit portion 71, it is possible to avoid the inconvenience of bubbles adhering to the slit portion 71. Then, the lyophilic region AS is provided with substantially the same size as the first immersion region LA1 locally formed in a partial region of the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75, and the region AH surrounding the periphery is provided. By making the liquid repellency, the liquid LQ in the first immersion area LA1 is repelled by the liquid repellency area AH and hardly flows out to the outside of the slit plate 75. The influence of can be suppressed.

  By the way, the projection optical system PL and the slit plate 75 shown in FIG. 1 are used by using the mask alignment system 47 that is disposed on the object plane side of the projection optical system PL and determines the positional relationship between the mask M and the substrate P. Can be detected in the liquid LQ of the first immersion area LA1 filled between the two. The mask alignment system 47 detects bubbles attached to at least one of the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 and the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 of the projection optical system PL via the projection optical system PL.

  FIG. 16 is a schematic diagram showing a state in which the mask alignment system 47 detects air bubbles adhering to the upper surface 75 </ b> A of the slit plate 75. During the bubble detection operation, the liquid LQ is filled between the optical element 60 and the slit plate 75 at the tip of the projection optical system PL. When detecting air bubbles adhering to the slit plate 75, the control device CONT drives the substrate stage PST to set the image plane position through the liquid LQ of the projection optical system PL and the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75. The position (Z position) is substantially matched. At this time, the distance between the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 of the projection optical system PL and the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 is H. In this state, the mask alignment system 47 irradiates the slit plate 75 with detection light via the incident mirror 47A, the projection optical system PL, and the liquid LQ. The reflected light of the detection light applied to the slit plate 75 enters the mask alignment system 47 through the liquid LQ and the projection optical system PL. Since the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 is coincident with the image plane of the projection optical system PL, the mask alignment system 47 performs image processing on the reflected light from the slit plate 75, and bubbles are attached to the slit plate 75. Whether it can be detected.

  Further, the position information of the substrate stage PST (slit plate 75) is measured by the laser interferometer 44, and the bubbles are detected by moving the substrate stage PST (slit plate 75) in the XY directions, thereby adhering to the slit plate 75. It is possible to detect the position information of the bubble that is being used.

  FIG. 17 is a schematic diagram showing a state in which the mask alignment system 47 detects bubbles adhering to the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 of the projection optical system PL. During the bubble detection operation, the liquid LQ is filled between the optical element 60 and the slit plate 75 at the tip of the projection optical system PL. When detecting bubbles adhering to the optical element 60, the control device CONT drives the substrate stage PST so that the optical element 60 of the projection optical system PL and the reflective film 73 of the slit plate 75 face each other. The distance between the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 of the projection optical system PL and the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 is set to H / 2. By doing this, the detection light emitted from the mask alignment system 47 in FIG. 17 is reflected by the reflection film 73 through the projection optical system PL and reaches the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60. The optical path length of the detection light emitted from the mask alignment system 47 in the state shown in FIG. 16 until it reaches the upper surface 75A of the slit plate 75 through the projection optical system PL coincides. That is, in the state shown in FIG. 17, the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 is in a state that matches the image plane position formed through the projection optical system PL and the liquid LQ. In this state, the mask alignment system 47 irradiates the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 with the detection light through the reflecting mirror 47A, the projection optical system PL, the liquid LQ, and the reflective film 73 of the slit plate 75. The reflected light of the detection light applied to the liquid contact surface 60a enters the mask alignment system 47 via the liquid LQ, the reflective film 73, and the projection optical system PL. Since the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60 coincides with the image surface of the projection optical system PL, the mask alignment system 47 performs image processing on the reflected light from the liquid contact surface 60a of the optical element 60, and the optical element 60 It is possible to detect whether air bubbles are attached to the surface.

  The detection result of the mask alignment system 47 is output to the control device CONT. Based on the detection result of the mask alignment system 47, the control device CONT controls the bubble removing device such as the jet flow generating device 180, the ultrasonic wave generating device 190, or the vibration generating device 250. That is, when a bubble is detected by the mask alignment system 47, the bubble removing operation is performed using the bubble removing device. On the other hand, when the bubble is not detected, the bubble removing operation is not performed. By doing so, the bubble removing operation is not executed even though no bubbles are attached, and the useless processing can be omitted.

  In addition, according to the above-described bubble detection method, the position information where the bubbles are attached can also be detected, so it is possible to intensively apply a jet or ultrasonic wave to the position where the bubbles are attached. It is possible to remove bubbles efficiently.

  Furthermore, according to the above-described bubble detection method, it is possible to detect the amount (number) of attached bubbles. For example, when the amount of attached bubbles is large, the bubbles are relatively long in time. On the other hand, when the amount of attached bubbles is small, the bubble removal operation execution time is set based on the bubble detection result, such as executing the bubble removal operation for a relatively short time. You may do it.

  Of course, the bubble detection operation can be executed after the bubble removal operation. By performing the bubble detection operation after the bubble removal operation, it is possible to confirm whether or not the bubbles have been removed by the bubble removal operation. Then, if the bubbles are not completely removed and are attached, the bubble removing operation may be performed again.

  Hereinafter, an example of the aerial image measurement operation using the aerial image measurement device 70 will be described. As described above, FIG. 5 is a diagram showing a state where an aerial image is being measured. At the time of aerial image measurement, as the mask M, a dedicated one for aerial image measurement or a device in which a dedicated measurement mark is formed on a device manufacturing mask used for device manufacture is used. Instead of these masks, a mask stage MST may be provided with a fixed mark plate (fiducial mark plate) made of the same glass material as the mask, and a measurement mark formed on the mark plate. .

  The mask M includes a line-and-space (L / S) mark whose ratio (duty ratio) between the width of the line portion and the width of the space portion having a periodicity in the X-axis direction is 1: 1 at a predetermined position. The mark PMx and the measurement mark PMy made of an L / S mark having a periodicity ratio of 1: 1 in the Y-axis direction are formed close to each other. These measurement marks PMx and PMy are composed of line patterns having the same line width. Further, as shown in FIG. 18A, the slit plate 75 constituting the aerial image measuring device 70 includes a slit portion 71x having a predetermined width 2D extending in the Y-axis direction and a slit having a predetermined width 2D extending in the X-axis direction. The portion 71y is formed in a predetermined positional relationship as shown in FIG. As described above, the slit plate 75 is actually formed with a plurality of slit portions 71x, 71y, etc., but these slit portions are represented as the slit portions 71 in FIGS. Yes.

  For example, in the measurement of the aerial image of the measurement mark PMx, the control device CONT drives the movable mask blind 7B shown in FIG. Is limited to a predetermined area including In this state, light emission of the light source 1 is started by the control device CONT, and when the exposure light EL is irradiated onto the measurement mark PMx, the light (exposure light EL) diffracted and scattered by the measurement mark PMx is caused by the projection optical system PL. Refracted and a spatial image (projected image) of the measurement mark PMx is formed on the image plane of the projection optical system PL. At this time, as shown in FIG. 18A, the substrate stage PST is at a position where the spatial image PMx ′ of the measurement mark PMx is formed on the + X side (or −X side) of the slit portion 71x on the slit plate 75. It shall be provided.

  Under the instruction of the control device CONT, when the substrate stage PST is driven in the + X direction as indicated by the arrow Fx in FIG. 18A by the substrate stage driving device PSTD, the slit portion 71x is aerial image. Scanning is performed in the X-axis direction with respect to PMx ′. During this scanning, light (exposure light EL) that passes through the slit portion 71x passes through the light receiving optical system in the substrate stage PST (Z tilt stage 52), the mirror 80 outside the substrate stage PST, and the light receiving lens 81, and the optical sensor 82. And the photoelectric conversion signal is supplied to the signal processing device. The signal processing device performs predetermined processing on the photoelectric conversion signal and supplies a light intensity signal corresponding to the aerial image PMx ′ to the control device CONT. At this time, the signal processing apparatus is a signal obtained by standardizing the signal from the optical sensor 82 with the signal from the integrator sensor 33 shown in FIG. 1 in order to suppress the influence of the variation in the emission intensity of the exposure light EL from the light source 1. Is supplied to the control device CONT. FIG. 18B shows an example of a photoelectric conversion signal (light intensity signal) obtained at the time of the aerial image measurement.

  When measuring the aerial image of the measurement mark PMy, the substrate stage PST is provided at a position where the aerial image of the measurement mark PMy is formed on the + Y side (or -Y side) of the slit portion 71y on the slit plate 75. The photoelectric conversion signal (light intensity signal) corresponding to the aerial image of the measurement mark PMy can be obtained by performing measurement by the slit scanning method similar to the above.

  In the measurement for obtaining the imaging characteristic adjustment information and the like, first, in the initial adjustment, the optical elements 64a and 64b of the projection optical system PL are driven one by one, and the first and second sealed chambers 65A and 65B are also driven. The pressure of the projection optical system PL is changed one by one, and the focus of the projection optical system PL and other predetermined imaging characteristics (for example, any one of various aberrations such as field curvature, magnification, distortion, coma aberration, spherical aberration, etc.) Is measured using the aerial image measuring device 70 as will be described later, and the imaging characteristic change amount in the optical elements 64a and 64b and the first and second sealed chambers 65A and 65B is obtained.

  Hereinafter, a method for detecting the best focus position (image plane position) of the projection optical system PL will be described. In this case, it is assumed that the normal stop of the illumination system aperture stop plate 4 is selected as a precondition, and the normal illumination condition is set as the illumination condition. For detection of the best focus position, for example, a mask M on which a measurement mark PMx (or PMy) made of an L / S pattern having a line width of 1 μm and a duty ratio of 50% is used. First, the mask M is loaded onto the mask stage MST by a loader device (not shown). Next, the control device CONT moves the mask stage MST via the mask stage driving device MSTD so that the measurement mark PMx on the mask M substantially coincides with the optical axis of the projection optical system PL. Next, the control device CONT drives and controls the movable mask blind 7B so that the exposure light EL is irradiated only on the measurement mark PMx portion, thereby defining the illumination area. In this state, the control device CONT irradiates the mask M with the exposure light EL, scans the substrate stage PST in the X-axis direction, and uses the aerial image measurement device 70 to scan the measurement mark PMx. Aerial image measurement is performed by the slit scan method. At this time, the control device CONT changes the position of the slit plate 75 in the Z-axis direction (that is, the position of the Z tilt stage 52) at a predetermined step pitch via the substrate stage driving device PSTD, and the space of the measurement mark PMx. Image measurement is repeated a plurality of times, and the light intensity signal (photoelectric conversion signal) for each time is stored in the storage device MRY. Note that the change in the position of the slit plate 75 in the Z-axis direction is performed by controlling the actuators 59A, 59B, and 59C based on the measurement values of the encoders 58A, 58B, and 58C of the Z tilt stage 52. And the control apparatus CONT each carries out the Fourier transformation of the some light intensity signal (photoelectric conversion signal) obtained by the said repetition, and calculates | requires the contrast which is an amplitude ratio of each primary frequency component and zeroth-order frequency component. Then, the control device CONT detects the Z position of the Z tilt stage 52 (that is, the position of the slit plate 75 in the Z-axis direction) corresponding to the light intensity signal that maximizes the contrast, and this position is projected into the projection optical system PL. Is determined as the best focus position. Since the contrast changes sensitively according to the focus position (defocus amount), the best focus position of the projection optical system PL can be measured (determined) accurately and easily. The control device CONT performs focus calibration which is reset (calibration) of the detection origin (detection reference point) of the focus detection system 45 based on the obtained best focus position. Thereby, thereafter, the focus detection system 45 can position a predetermined surface (for example, the surface of the substrate P or the surface of the slit plate 75) on the substrate stage PST at a position optically conjugate with the reference surface of the mask M.

  It should be noted that the amplitude of the second and higher order real frequency components is generally small, and there are cases where the amplitude for electrical noise and optical noise may not be sufficient, but the S / N ratio (signal / noise ratio). If there is no problem in this point, the best focus position can be obtained even by observing the change in the amplitude ratio of the higher-order frequency components. The best focus position can be detected not only by the method using the contrast described above but also by a method of detecting the Z position (focus position) at which the differential value of the light intensity signal is maximum.

Further, here, a method (slit scanning method) in which the slit portion 71 (slit plate 75) is scanned in a predetermined direction in the XY plane when measuring the best focus position of the projection optical system PL has been described. A spatial image of a measurement mark such as a mark is formed on the image plane of the projection optical system PL, and the slit portion 71 (slit plate 75) is relatively scanned with respect to this spatial image in the optical axis AX direction (Z-axis direction). As described above, the slit plate 75 (Z tilt stage 52) may be scanned along the Z-axis direction within a predetermined stroke range centered on the best focus position. Then, the best focus position is obtained based on the light intensity signal (peak value) at that time. In this case, it is preferable to use a measurement mark having a size and shape such that the spatial image of the measurement mark substantially matches the shape of the slit portion 71 (71x or 71y) on the image plane. If such aerial image measurement is performed, a light intensity signal as shown in FIG. 19 can be obtained. In this case, by directly finding the position of the peak of the signal waveform of the light intensity signal, the Z position at that point may be set as the best focus position Z 0 , or the light intensity signal is sliced at a predetermined slice level line SL, the Z position of the two intersections of the midpoint between the light intensity signal and the slice level line SL may best focus position Z 0. In any case, this method can improve the throughput because the best focus position can be detected only by scanning the slit plate 75 once in the Z-axis direction.

Next, a method for detecting the image plane shape (field curvature) of the projection optical system PL will be described as an example of the imaging characteristic measurement operation. In detecting the curvature of field, a mask M1 in which measurement marks PM 1 to PM n having the same dimensions and the same period as the measurement marks PMx are formed in the pattern area PA as shown in FIG. 20 as an example. After the mask M1 is loaded on the mask stage MST, the controller CONT, as measurement marks PM k in the center of the mask M1 is substantially coincident on the optical axis of the projection optical system PL, via the mask stage driving unit MSTD To move the mask stage MST. That is, positioning of the mask M1 to the reference point is performed. When positioning to this reference point is performed, it is assumed that all of the measurement marks PM 1 to PM n are located in the field of view of the projection optical system PL. Next, the control device CONT drives and controls the movable mask blind 7B so that the exposure light EL is irradiated only on the measurement mark PM 1 portion, thereby defining the illumination area. In this state, the control unit CONT radiates the exposure light EL on the mask M1, aerial image measurement and the projection optical system PL of the measurement mark PM 1 by using the spatial image-measuring device 70 by the slit scan method in the same manner as described above The best focus position is detected, and the result is stored in the storage device MRY. Defining the detection of the best focus position with measurement marks PM 1 ends, the control unit CONT, the illumination area of the movable mask blind 7B controls and drives so that the exposure light EL is irradiated only to the mark PM 2 parts Measurement To do. In this state, detection is performed best focus position of the same spatial image measurement and the projection optical system of the measurement mark PM 2 slit scan method PL, and stores the result in the storage device MRY. Thereafter, similarly to the above, the control device CONT repeatedly performs aerial image measurement and detection of the best focus position of the projection optical system PL for the measurement marks PM 3 to PM n while changing the illumination area. Then, the control unit CONT, the best focus position obtained by these Z 1, Z 2, ..., by performing a predetermined statistical process based on Z n, to calculate the curvature of the projection optical system PL .

Further, when detecting the spherical aberration of the projection optical system PL, a mask M2 shown in FIG. 21 is used. Two measurement marks PM1 and PM2 are formed approximately at the center in the Y-axis direction in the pattern area PA of the mask M2 shown in FIG. The measurement mark PM1 is an L / S pattern having the same dimensions and the same period as the measurement mark PMx described above. In addition, the measurement mark PM2 is an L / S lined up in the X-axis direction at a period (for example, about 1.5 to 2 times the period (mark pitch) of the measurement mark PM1) of the line pattern having the same dimensions as the measurement mark PMx. It is a pattern. After loading the mask M2 onto the mask stage MST, the control device CONT uses the mask stage MST via the mask stage driving device MSTD so that the measurement mark PM1 on the mask M2 substantially coincides with the optical axis of the projection optical system PL. To move. Next, the control device CONT drives and controls the movable mask blind 7B so as to define the illumination area so that the exposure light EL is irradiated only on the measurement mark PM1 portion. In this state, the control device CONT irradiates the mask M2 with the exposure light EL, and performs the aerial image measurement and projection optical system PL of the measurement mark PM1 using the aerial image measurement device 70 by the slit scan method in the same manner as described above. The best focus position is detected, and the result is stored in the storage device MRY. When the detection of the best focus position using the measurement mark PM1 is completed, the control device CONT moves the mask stage MST in the −X direction via the mask stage driving device MSTD so that the exposure light EL is irradiated to the measurement mark PM2. Move a predetermined distance. In this state, similarly to the above, the aerial image measurement of the measurement mark PM2 and the best focus position of the projection optical system PL are detected by the slit scan method, and the result is stored in the storage device MRY. Based on the difference between the best focus positions Z 1 and Z 2 obtained from these, the control device CONT calculates the spherical aberration of the projection optical system PL by calculation.

Further, when detecting the magnification and distortion of the projection optical system PL, a mask M3 shown in FIG. 22 is used. A total of five measurement marks BM, for example, 120 μm square (30 μm square on the slit plate 75 at a projection magnification of ¼) at the center and four corners of the pattern area PA of the mask M3 shown in FIG. 1 to BM 5 are formed. After loading the mask M3 on the mask stage MST, the controller CONT, so that the center of the measurement mark BM 1 existing in the center of the mask M3 is, substantially it coincides with the optical axis of the projection optical system PL, the mask stage drive The mask stage MST is moved via the apparatus MSTD. That is, the mask M3 is positioned to the reference point. It is assumed that all the measurement marks BM 1 to BM 5 are located in the field of view of the projection optical system PL in the state where the positioning to the reference point has been performed. Next, the control unit CONT, the exposure light EL to define an illumination region of the movable mask blind 7B controls and drives so as to irradiate only a large rectangular area portion slightly from the measurement mark BM 1 comprising measuring marks BM 1 . In this state, the control device CONT irradiates the mask M3 with the exposure light EL. As a result, a spatial image of the measurement mark BM 1 , that is, a square mark image of approximately 30 μm square is formed. In this state, the control device CONT performs the aerial image measurement of the measurement mark BM 1 using the aerial image measurement device 70 while scanning the substrate stage PST in the X-axis direction via the substrate stage driving device PSTD, and by the measurement The obtained light intensity signal is stored in the storage device MRY. Next, based on the obtained light intensity signal, the control device CONT obtains the imaging position of the measurement mark BM 1 by, for example, a known phase detection method or edge detection method. Here, as a method of phase detection, for example, the product of a primary frequency component (which can be regarded as a sine wave) obtained by Fourier transforming a light intensity signal and a sine wave serving as a reference of the same frequency. For example, the sum of one period is obtained, and the sum of, for example, one period of the product of the primary frequency component and the cosine wave serving as the reference of the same period is obtained. Then, the phase difference of the primary frequency component with respect to the reference signal is obtained by obtaining the arc sine of the quotient obtained by dividing the obtained sum, and the measurement mark BM 1 is obtained based on this phase difference. A general method of obtaining the X position x 1 of the first can be used. In addition, as an edge detection method, an edge detection method using a slice method that calculates the position of each aerial image edge corresponding to each photoelectric conversion signal based on the intersection of the light intensity signal and a predetermined slice level. Can be used. Next, the control device CONT measures the aerial image of the measurement mark BM 1 using the aerial image measurement device 70 while scanning the substrate stage PST in the Y-axis direction, and stores the light intensity signal obtained by the measurement in the storage device. Store in MRY. Then, the Y position y 1 of the measurement mark BM 1 is obtained by a method such as phase detection similar to the above. Then, the control unit CONT based on the coordinate position of the obtained measurement mark BM 1 (x 1, y 1 ), to correct the positional deviation of the optical axis center of the mask M3. When the correction of the positional deviation of the mask M3 is completed, the control unit CONT, the movable mask blind 7B so that the exposure light EL is irradiated only to the larger rectangular area portion slightly from the measurement mark BM 2 comprising measuring marks BM 2 Is controlled to define the illumination area. In this state, as described above, the aerial image measurement and XY position measurement of the measurement mark BM 2 are performed by the slit scanning method, and the result is stored in the storage device MRY. Thereafter, the control device CONT repeatedly performs the measurement of the aerial image and the measurement of the XY position for the measurement marks BM 3 to BM 5 while changing the illumination area. Based on the coordinate values (x 2 , y 2 ), (x 3 , y 3 ), (x 4 , y 4 ), (x 5 , y 5 ) of the measurement marks BM 2 to BM 5 obtained thereby. By performing a predetermined calculation, the control device CONT calculates at least one of the magnification and distortion of the projection optical system PL.

  The procedure for measuring the best focus position, curvature of field, spherical aberration, magnification, and distortion of the projection optical system PL using the aerial image measurement device 70 has been described above as an example. It should be noted that the aerial image measuring device 70 can also measure other imaging characteristics such as coma aberration using predetermined measurement marks. Details of aerial image measurement are disclosed in, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2002-14005. And before performing the aerial image measurement operation | movement using these aerial image measurement apparatuses 70, the bubble removal operation | movement which concerns on this invention is performed. Further, before or after the bubble removing operation by the bubble removing device is performed, whether or not bubbles are attached to the slit plate 75 or the optical element 60 of the projection optical system PL using the mask alignment system 47 which is a bubble detecting device. Can be detected.

  In each of the above embodiments, an example in which the optical member (slit plate) 75 and the light receiver 90 are applied to the aerial image measurement device 70 that measures the imaging characteristics of the projection optical system PL has been described. As illustrated in FIG. On the substrate stage PST, in addition to the aerial image measuring device 70, a light dose sensor (for example, disclosed in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 11-16816, which measures light dose information via the projection optical system PL). (Illuminance sensor) 160, an illuminance unevenness sensor 170 as disclosed in, for example, JP-A-57-117238, and the like are also provided. The present invention can also be applied to the irradiation amount sensor 160 and the illuminance unevenness sensor 170.

  FIG. 24 is a schematic diagram of the dose sensor 160. The irradiation amount sensor 160 measures the irradiation amount (illuminance) of exposure light irradiated on the image plane side of the projection optical system PL, and includes an upper plate 163 provided on the Z tilt stage 52, and an upper plate 163 thereon. And an optical sensor 164 that receives light that has passed through the plate 163. The upper plate 163 includes a glass plate member 162 and a light transmission amount adjustment film 161 provided on the upper surface of the glass plate member 162. The light transmission amount adjusting film 161 is made of, for example, a chromium film, has a predetermined light transmittance, and is provided over the entire upper surface of the glass plate member 162. By providing the light transmission amount adjusting film 161 to reduce the amount of light incident on the optical sensor 164, inconveniences such as damage and saturation to the optical sensor 164 caused by irradiation with an excessive amount of light are prevented. . The dose sensor 160 performs a measurement operation at a predetermined timing, for example, when the mask M is replaced.

  Then, when measuring the irradiation amount of the exposure light EL that has passed through the projection optical system PL by the irradiation amount sensor 160, the projection optical system with the projection optical system PL and the upper plate 163 facing each other as in the above-described embodiment. The liquid LQ is supplied between the PL and the upper plate 163 to form the first liquid immersion area LA1, and the liquid LQ is supplied between the upper plate 163 and the optical sensor 164 to set the second liquid immersion area LA2. Form. Then, a bubble removing device performs an operation for removing bubbles adhering to the upper plate 163, and after the bubble removing operation, the upper plate 163 is passed through the projection optical system PL and the liquid LQ in the first immersion area LA1. Then, the exposure light EL is irradiated to the irradiation amount measurement operation.

  FIG. 25 is a schematic diagram of the illuminance unevenness sensor 170. The illuminance unevenness sensor 170 measures the illuminance (intensity) of the exposure light irradiated to the image plane side through the projection optical system PL at a plurality of positions, and the exposure light irradiated to the image plane side of the projection optical system PL. An illuminance unevenness (illuminance distribution) is measured, and includes an upper plate 174 provided on the Z tilt stage 52, and an optical sensor 175 that receives light that has passed through a bin hole portion 171 provided on the upper plate 174. It has. The upper plate 174 is obtained by providing a thin film 172 containing a light-shielding material such as chromium on the surface of a glass plate member 173, patterning the thin film 172, and providing a pinhole portion 171 at the center thereof.

  When the illuminance unevenness sensor 170 measures the illuminance distribution, the projection optical system PL and the upper plate 174 of the illuminance unevenness sensor 170 face each other and the space between the projection optical system PL and the upper plate 174 is filled with the liquid LQ. The space between the upper plate 174 and the optical sensor 175 is also filled with the liquid LQ. And the bubble removal apparatus performs the removal operation | movement of the bubble adhering on the upper board 174. FIG. Thereafter, the exposure light EL is irradiated onto the upper plate 174 through the projection optical system PL and the liquid LQ in the first liquid immersion area LA1, and the illuminance unevenness measurement operation is executed. In the illuminance unevenness measuring operation, the pinhole portion 171 is sequentially moved at a plurality of positions in the irradiation region (projection region) irradiated with the exposure light EL.

  The optical member is not limited to the slit plate or the upper plate, but includes any member that has a light transmission part through which light passes and can hold the liquid LQ with the projection optical system PL. Furthermore, the present invention can also be applied to a sensor that can be attached to and detached from the substrate stage PST (Z stage 51) as disclosed in JP-A-11-238680 and JP-A-2000-97616.

  As described above, the liquid LQ in the present embodiment is composed of pure water. Pure water has an advantage that it can be easily obtained in large quantities at a semiconductor manufacturing factory or the like, and has no adverse effect on the photoresist, optical element (lens), etc. on the substrate P. In addition, pure water has no adverse effects on the environment, and since the impurity content is extremely low, it can be expected to clean the surface of the substrate P and the surface of the optical element provided on the front end surface of the projection optical system PL. .

  The refractive index n of pure water (water) with respect to the exposure light EL having a wavelength of about 193 nm is said to be approximately 1.44. When ArF excimer laser light (wavelength 193 nm) is used as the light source of the exposure light EL, On the substrate P, the wavelength is shortened to 1 / n, that is, about 134 nm, and a high resolution can be obtained. Furthermore, since the depth of focus is enlarged by about n times, that is, about 1.44 times compared with that in the air, the projection optical system PL can be used when it is sufficient to ensure the same depth of focus as that in the air. The numerical aperture can be further increased, and the resolution is improved in this respect as well.

  In the present embodiment, the optical element 60 is attached to the tip of the projection optical system PL. However, as an optical element attached to the tip of the projection optical system PL, optical characteristics of the projection optical system PL, such as aberration (spherical aberration, coma) It may be an optical plate used for adjustment of aberration and the like. Alternatively, it may be a plane parallel plate that can transmit the exposure light EL.

The liquid LQ of the present embodiment is water, but may be a liquid other than water. For example, when the light source of the exposure light EL is an F 2 laser, the F 2 laser light does not pass through water. In this case, as the liquid LQ, a fluorine-based liquid such as fluorine-based oil or perfluorinated polyether (PFPE) that can transmit the F 2 laser light may be used. In addition, as the liquid LQ, the liquid LQ is transmissive to the exposure light EL, has a refractive index as high as possible, and is stable with respect to the photoresist applied to the projection optical system PL and the surface of the substrate P (for example, Cedar). Oil) can also be used.

  In the above embodiments, the shape of the nozzle described above is not particularly limited. For example, the liquid LQ may be supplied or recovered with two pairs of nozzles on the long side of the projection area AR1. In this case, the supply nozzle and the recovery nozzle may be arranged side by side so that the liquid LQ can be supplied and recovered from either the + X direction or the −X direction. .

  The substrate P in each of the above embodiments is not only a semiconductor wafer for manufacturing a semiconductor device, but also a glass substrate for a display device, a ceramic wafer for a thin film magnetic head, or an original mask or reticle used in an exposure apparatus. (Synthetic quartz, silicon wafer) or the like is applied.

  In the above-described embodiment, an exposure apparatus that locally fills the space between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P with a liquid is used. However, the exposure as disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 6-124873. A liquid tank having a predetermined depth is formed on an immersion exposure apparatus for moving a stage holding a target substrate in a liquid tank, or a stage as disclosed in JP-A-10-303114, The present invention can also be applied to an immersion exposure apparatus that holds a substrate.

  As the exposure apparatus EX, in addition to the step-and-scan type scanning exposure apparatus (scanning stepper) that scans and exposes the pattern of the mask M by moving the mask M and the substrate P synchronously, the mask M and the substrate P Can be applied to a step-and-repeat type projection exposure apparatus (stepper) in which the pattern of the mask M is collectively exposed while the substrate P is stationary and the substrate P is sequentially moved stepwise. The present invention can also be applied to a step-and-stitch type exposure apparatus that partially transfers at least two patterns on the substrate P.

  Further, according to the present invention, as disclosed in JP-A-10-163099, JP-A-10-214783, JP-T 2000-505958, etc., substrates to be processed such as wafers are separately placed. The present invention can also be applied to a twin stage type exposure apparatus having two stages that can move independently in the XY directions.

  The type of the exposure apparatus EX is not limited to an exposure apparatus for manufacturing a semiconductor element that exposes a semiconductor element pattern on the substrate P, but an exposure apparatus for manufacturing a liquid crystal display element or a display, a thin film magnetic head, an image sensor (CCD). ) Or an exposure apparatus for manufacturing a reticle, a mask or the like.

  When linear motors (see USP5,623,853 or USP5,528,118) are used for the substrate stage PST and the mask stage MST, air levitation type using an air bearing and Lorentz force or It is preferable to use either a magnetic levitation type using a reactance force. Each stage PST, MST may be a type that moves along a guide, or may be a guideless type that does not have a guide.

  As a driving mechanism for each stage PST, MST, a planar motor that drives each stage PST, MST by electromagnetic force with a magnet unit having a two-dimensionally arranged magnet and an armature unit having a two-dimensionally arranged coil facing each other is provided. It may be used. In this case, either one of the magnet unit and the armature unit may be connected to the stages PST and MST, and the other of the magnet unit and the armature unit may be provided on the moving surface side of the stages PST and MST.

  As described in JP-A-8-166475 (USP 5,528,118), the reaction force generated by the movement of the substrate stage PST is not transmitted to the projection optical system PL, but mechanically using a frame member. You may escape to the floor (ground). As described in JP-A-8-330224 (US S / N 08 / 416,558), a frame member is used so that the reaction force generated by the movement of the mask stage MST is not transmitted to the projection optical system PL. May be mechanically released to the floor (ground).

  The exposure apparatus EX of the present embodiment is manufactured by assembling various subsystems including the constituent elements recited in the claims of the present application so as to maintain predetermined mechanical accuracy, electrical accuracy, and optical accuracy. Is done. In order to ensure these various accuracies, before and after assembly, various optical systems are adjusted to achieve optical accuracy, various mechanical systems are adjusted to achieve mechanical accuracy, and various electrical systems are Adjustments are made to achieve electrical accuracy. The assembly process from the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus includes mechanical connection, electrical circuit wiring connection, pneumatic circuit piping connection and the like between the various subsystems. Needless to say, there is an assembly process for each subsystem before the assembly process from the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus. When the assembly process of the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus is completed, comprehensive adjustment is performed to ensure various accuracies as the entire exposure apparatus. The exposure apparatus is preferably manufactured in a clean room where the temperature, cleanliness, etc. are controlled.

  As shown in FIG. 26, a microdevice such as a semiconductor device includes a step 201 for performing a function / performance design of the microdevice, a step 202 for manufacturing a mask (reticle) based on the design step, and a substrate as a base material of the device. Manufacturing step 203, substrate processing step 204 for exposing the mask pattern onto the substrate by the exposure apparatus EX of the above-described embodiment, device assembly step (including dicing process, bonding process, packaging process) 205, inspection step 206, etc. It is manufactured after.

It is a schematic block diagram which shows one Embodiment of the exposure apparatus of this invention. It is a schematic block diagram which shows the vicinity of the front-end | tip part of a projection optical system, a liquid supply mechanism, and a liquid collection | recovery mechanism. It is a top view which shows the positional relationship of the projection area | region of a projection optical system, a liquid supply mechanism, and a liquid collection | recovery mechanism. It is a schematic block diagram which shows one Embodiment of a light receiver. It is a schematic diagram which shows the state which the light receiver is performing measurement operation. It is a figure which shows one Embodiment of the bubble removal apparatus which concerns on this invention. It is a top view of the optical member of FIG. It is a figure which shows another embodiment of the bubble removal apparatus which concerns on this invention. It is a figure which shows another embodiment of the bubble removal apparatus which concerns on this invention. It is a figure which shows another embodiment of the bubble removal apparatus which concerns on this invention. It is a figure which shows another embodiment of the bubble removal apparatus which concerns on this invention. It is a figure which shows another embodiment of the bubble removal apparatus which concerns on this invention. It is a figure which shows another embodiment of the bubble removal apparatus which concerns on this invention. It is a figure for demonstrating the ultraviolet irradiation process which concerns on this invention. It is a figure for demonstrating the state in which the slit board is patterned by the lyophilic area | region and the lyophobic area | region. It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating the bubble detection operation | movement by a bubble detection apparatus. It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating the bubble detection operation | movement by a bubble detection apparatus. It is a figure which shows an example of the light transmissive part of an optical member. It is a figure which shows an example of the light reception signal light-received with the light receiver. It is a figure which shows an example of the mask used when measuring the image formation characteristic of a projection optical system. It is a figure which shows an example of the mask used when measuring the image formation characteristic of a projection optical system. It is a figure which shows an example of the mask used when measuring the image formation characteristic of a projection optical system. It is a top view which shows the state by which the several light receiver is arrange | positioned on the substrate stage. It is a principal part enlarged view which shows another embodiment of the optical member and light receiver which concern on this invention. It is a principal part enlarged view which shows another embodiment of the optical member and light receiver which concern on this invention. It is a flowchart figure which shows an example of the manufacturing process of a semiconductor device.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 ... Liquid supply mechanism, 13 ... Supply nozzle, 20 ... Liquid recovery mechanism, 23 ... Recovery nozzle,
47 ... Mask alignment system (bubble detection device), 60 ... Optical element, 60a ... Liquid contact surface, 61 ... Connection mechanism (vibration device), 71 ... Slit part (light transmission part),
75 ... Slit plate (optical member), 75A ... Upper surface (liquid contact surface), 90 ... Light receiver,
163 ... Upper plate (object), 174 ... Upper plate (object),
180 ... Jet generating device (bubble removing device), 183 ... Nozzle part,
190 ... Ultrasonic generator (bubble removing device), 250 ... Exciting device (bubble removing device),
300 ... UV light irradiation device, AR1 ... projection area, AR2 ... liquid immersion area, AH ... liquid repellency area,
AS ... lyophilic region, CONT ... control device, EL ... exposure light, EX ... exposure device,
LA1 ... first immersion area, LA2 ... second immersion area, LQ ... liquid, MPL ... projection optical system body,
P: Substrate (object), PL: Projection optical system, PST: Substrate stage (substrate holding member)

Claims (33)

  1. In an exposure apparatus that exposes the substrate by irradiating exposure light to the substrate disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system via the projection optical system and the liquid,
    A liquid contact surface of an object disposed in the vicinity of an image plane of the projection optical system via the liquid, and the projection optics, including an ultrasonic wave generation device that applies ultrasonic waves to the liquid An exposure apparatus comprising: a bubble removing device that applies to at least one of the liquid contact surfaces of the system to remove bubbles in the liquid filled between the projection optical system and the object.
  2.     2. The exposure according to claim 1, wherein the ultrasonic generator applies the reflected wave of the ultrasonic wave applied to one of the liquid contact surface of the object and the liquid contact surface of the projection optical system to the other. apparatus.
  3. In an exposure apparatus that exposes the substrate by irradiating exposure light to the substrate disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system via the projection optical system and the liquid,
    A jet generating device that generates a jet in the liquid, and the jet generated by the jet generating device is a liquid contact surface of an object disposed near an image plane of the projection optical system and a liquid contact surface of the projection optical system An exposure apparatus comprising: a bubble removing device that removes bubbles in the liquid filled between the projection optical system and the object by being applied to at least one of the above.
  4.       The said bubble removal apparatus removes the bubble adhering to at least any one of the liquid contact surface of the said object, and the liquid contact surface of the said projection optical system. The exposure apparatus described.
  5.     5. The exposure apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the bubble removing device is provided on at least one of the object and an image plane side end portion of the projection optical system. .
  6.     The exposure apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the bubble removing device includes a vibration device.
  7.     The exposure apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the vibration device vibrates the liquid.
  8.     The exposure apparatus according to claim 6 or 7, wherein the vibration apparatus vibrates the object.
  9.     The projection optical system includes a projection optical system main body and an optical element provided on the image plane side separately from the projection optical system main body, and the vibration exciter vibrates the optical element. An exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 6 to 8.
  10. A light receiver that is disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system and receives light that has passed through the projection optical system via an optical member having a light transmission section;
    The exposure apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the object includes the optical member.
  11.     The exposure apparatus according to claim 10, wherein the bubble removing device removes bubbles attached to the light transmission part.
  12.     The exposure apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the object includes the substrate.
  13.     The exposure apparatus according to claim 1, wherein at least one of the liquid contact surface of the object and the liquid contact surface of the projection optical system is lyophilic.
  14.     14. A bubble detection device that detects bubbles in a liquid filled between the projection optical system and the object via the projection optical system is provided. Exposure equipment.
  15.   A substrate holding member that is movable while holding the substrate;
      The exposure apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the object is provided on the substrate holding member.
  16. In an exposure apparatus that exposes the substrate by irradiating exposure light to the substrate disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system via the projection optical system and the liquid,
    An optical member disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system, capable of holding a liquid with the projection optical system, and having a light transmission part;
    A receiver that receives the light that has passed through the projection optical system via a liquid filled between the optical member and the projection optical system; and
    An exposure apparatus, wherein a liquid contact surface of the optical member is lyophilic.
  17. The exposure apparatus according to claim 16, wherein a lyophilic process is performed to make the liquid contact surface lyophilic.
  18. 18. The exposure apparatus according to claim 17, wherein an ultraviolet light irradiation process is performed as the lyophilic process.
  19. 19. The exposure apparatus according to claim 18 , further comprising an ultraviolet light irradiation apparatus that irradiates ultraviolet light, wherein the ultraviolet light irradiation apparatus periodically performs ultraviolet light irradiation processing.
  20. The exposure apparatus according to claim 19 , further comprising an exposure light source that emits the exposure light, wherein the ultraviolet light irradiation device is also used as the exposure light source.
  21. 18. The exposure apparatus according to claim 17 , wherein a coating process of a lyophilic material is performed as the lyophilic process.
  22. The exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 16 to 21 , wherein a lyophilic region and a lyophobic region are patterned on the surface of the optical member.
  23. 23. The exposure apparatus according to claim 22, wherein an area including the light transmission portion is made lyophilic and an area surrounding the area is made lyophobic.
  24. Any one of claims 16 to 23 comprising the bubble detector for detecting bubbles filled liquid between the optical member and the projection optical system through the projection optical system The exposure apparatus described.
  25. In an exposure apparatus that exposes the substrate by irradiating exposure light to the substrate disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system via the projection optical system and the liquid,
    A light receiver that is disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system and receives light that has passed through the projection optical system via an optical member having a light transmission portion;
    An exposure apparatus comprising: a bubble detection device that detects bubbles in a liquid filled between the projection optical system and the optical member via the projection optical system.
  26. 26. The exposure apparatus according to claim 25 , wherein the bubble detection device detects bubbles attached to at least one of the liquid contact surface of the optical member and the liquid contact surface of the projection optical system.
  27. The bubble detecting device, according to claim 25 or 26 further characterized in that is shared with the alignment system for determining the positional relationship between the mask and the substrate to be arranged on the object plane side of the projection optical system Exposure device.
  28. A device manufacturing method, wherein a device is manufactured using the exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 27 .
  29. An exposure method for exposing the substrate by irradiating exposure light to the substrate disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system via the projection optical system and the liquid,
    At least one of the liquid contact surface of the optical member disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system and the liquid contact surface of the projection optical system is irradiated with ultrasonic waves via the liquid, and the projection optical system and the Removing bubbles in the liquid filled with the optical member;
    Irradiating the optical member with the exposure light from the projection optical system and measuring with a light receiver through a light transmission portion of the optical member;
    Exposing the substrate based on a result of the measurement.
  30. An exposure method for exposing the substrate by irradiating exposure light to the substrate disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system via the projection optical system and the liquid,
    The projection optical system and the optical member by applying a jet of liquid to at least one of the liquid contact surface of the optical member disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system and the liquid contact surface of the projection optical system; Removing bubbles in the liquid filled during
    Irradiating the optical member with the exposure light from the projection optical system and measuring with a light receiver through a light transmission portion of the optical member;
    Exposing the substrate based on a result of the measurement.
  31. An exposure method for exposing the substrate by irradiating exposure light to the substrate disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system via the projection optical system and the liquid,
    Exposure light from the projection optical system is passed through the liquid filled between the lyophilic liquid contact surface of the optical member disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system and the projection optical system. Irradiating
    Measuring the exposure light from the projection optical system with a light receiver through a light transmission part of the optical member;
    Exposing the substrate based on a result of the measurement.
  32. An exposure method for exposing the substrate by irradiating the substrate disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system with exposure light via the projection optical system and a liquid,
    Irradiating the optical member with exposure light from the projection optical system via a liquid filled between the optical member disposed on the image plane side of the projection optical system and the projection optical system;
    Measuring the exposure light from the projection optical system with a light receiver through a light transmission part of the optical member;
    Detecting bubbles in the liquid filled between the projection optical system and the optical member via the projection optical system;
    Exposing the substrate based on a result of the measurement.
  33. A device manufacturing method, wherein a device is manufactured using the exposure method according to any one of claims 29 to 32 .
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