JP4005275B2 - Nitride semiconductor device - Google Patents

Nitride semiconductor device Download PDF

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JP4005275B2
JP4005275B2 JP23300199A JP23300199A JP4005275B2 JP 4005275 B2 JP4005275 B2 JP 4005275B2 JP 23300199 A JP23300199 A JP 23300199A JP 23300199 A JP23300199 A JP 23300199A JP 4005275 B2 JP4005275 B2 JP 4005275B2
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nitride semiconductor
layer
substrate
formed
grown
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JP2001060719A (en
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孝志 向井
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日亜化学工業株式会社
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Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a light emitting diode (LED), a laser diode (LD), a solar cell, a light emitting element such as an optical sensor, and a nitride semiconductor element (In X Al Y Ga 1-XY N, 0.ltoreq.X, 0.ltoreq.Y, X + Y.ltoreq.1), and in particular, relates to a nitride semiconductor device that emits light in the ultraviolet region having an emission peak wavelength of 380 nm or less.
[0002]
[Prior art]
In recent years, ultraviolet LEDs have become a practical level. For example, in Applied Physics, Vol. 68, No. 2 (1999), p152 to p155, a GaN buffer layer, an n-type GaN contact layer, an n-type AlGaN cladding layer, an undoped InGaN active layer (In A nitride semiconductor device is described in which a composition is almost zero), a p-type AlGaN cladding layer, and a p-type GaN contact layer are stacked.
This ultraviolet LED has a light emission output of 5 mW when the light emission peak wavelength is 371 nm.
[0003]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, in order to broaden the application range of the ultraviolet LED, it is desired to further shorten the wavelength. However, if the emission peak wavelength is shorter than 371 nm, the emission output is drastically lowered.
The reason for this is not clear, but it is considered that the light emission efficiency of the active layer is extremely lowered in a state where In is very little or In is absent.
If the luminous efficiency of an ultraviolet LED, particularly an LED having an emission peak wavelength shorter than 371 nm, can be improved, many applications including an excitation light source are possible.
[0004]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the present invention is to provide a nitride semiconductor device that emits light in the ultraviolet region having a light emission peak wavelength of 380 nm or less with high light emission efficiency and high light emission output.
[0005]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
The nitride semiconductor device of the present invention is partially on the surface. Striped Unevenness Parallel to the M-plane of the nitride semiconductor A first nitride semiconductor layer formed and formed on the first nitride semiconductor layer using lateral growth of a nitride semiconductor; Grown from the top of the convex and concave portions of the concave and convex portions A device structure including a second nitride semiconductor layer and an active layer in which a plurality of nitride semiconductor layers are stacked and grown on the second nitride semiconductor layer, and an emission peak wavelength is 380 nm or less; It is characterized by that.
[0006]
That is, the present invention has a dislocation density of 10 as a substrate. 6 / Cm 2 By forming an element structure on the following nitride semiconductor substrate, it is possible to provide a nitride semiconductor element having a light emission peak wavelength of 380 nm or less with good light emission efficiency.
[0007]
Conventionally known blue and green LEDs have high luminous efficiency and have already been commercialized. The blue and green LEDs are grown on sapphire substrates with different lattice constants and have good luminous efficiency despite the presence of many threading dislocations due to lattice constant mismatch.
On the other hand, the ultraviolet LED is grown on a sapphire substrate like the blue and green LEDs. However, as described above, the light emission output is low because of the low light emission efficiency, and the light output is extremely low especially at wavelengths shorter than 371 nm. descend.
[0008]
As a result of various studies, the present inventor considered that there is a large difference in the light emission mechanism depending on the In composition ratio of the active layer. The difference in the light emission mechanism is described in the above-mentioned Applied Physics, Vol. 68, No. 2. Blue LEDs shift blue as the forward current increases, but ultraviolet LEDs red shift as the forward current increases. It is guessed from doing. Further, in the part of threading dislocation due to the lattice constant mismatch with the sapphire substrate, the carriers injected into the active layer recombine without light emission and do not participate in light emission.
In the case of a blue or green LED, the In composition is likely to be non-uniform in the active layer, and the band gap energy of the portion containing a large amount of In is reduced to form a potential valley, which is injected into the active layer. The trapped carriers are well confined, and the carriers confined in the potential valley are considered to have high light emission efficiency in order to recombine well.
On the other hand, in the case of an ultraviolet LED, the In content of the active layer is so small that the potential valley generated due to the nonuniform In composition is shallow, and the density of the potential valley is small. The effect of confining the carriers injected into the layer is small, and as a result, a part of the carriers injected into the active layer reaches the non-radiative recombination center due to diffusion and non-radiative recombination, resulting in poor luminous efficiency. Conceivable.
[0009]
Therefore, the present inventor, as described above, based on the consideration that the cause of the decrease in the luminous efficiency in the active layer is due to the formation of non-radiative recombination centers by threading dislocations. By using a nitride semiconductor with few threading dislocations as a recombination center as a substrate, it is possible to achieve good emission recombination of carriers to improve luminous efficiency.
In the present invention, in the case of an LED having an emission peak wavelength of 380 nm or less, the problem that the emission efficiency is extremely reduced is obtained by using a nitride semiconductor having a very low dislocation density or almost no dislocation as a substrate. Efficiency can be improved.
In the present invention, the dislocation density is measured by observation with a transmission electron microscope (TEM method). By this TEM method, the dislocation density is 10 6 / Cm 2 Luminous efficiency can be improved satisfactorily by using the following nitride semiconductor substrate. Dislocation density is 10 6 / Cm 2 The following indicates a state where the dislocation density is almost zero or no dislocation exists.
[0010]
In the present invention, the dislocation density to be the substrate is 10 6 / Cm 2 The following nitride semiconductors were grown on a heterogeneous substrate or a nitride semiconductor substrate made of a material different from that of the nitride semiconductor using the lateral growth of the nitride semiconductor (ELOG growth: epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN growth). It is preferable in that the dislocation density can be reduced satisfactorily, non-radiative recombination at the threading dislocation portion is prevented, and the light emission efficiency is improved.
[0011]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The nitride semiconductor device of the present invention has at least an emission peak wavelength of 380 nm or less and a dislocation density of 10 6 / Cm 2 It is not particularly limited as long as it is grown on the following nitride semiconductor substrate. As a specific preferable element, for example, the element shown in FIG. 1 can be cited.
FIG. 1 shows a nitride semiconductor device according to an embodiment of the present invention. Indicate It is typical sectional drawing.
The nitride semiconductor device shown in FIG. Dislocation density is 10 6 / Cm 2 On the following GaN substrate 1, Buffer layer, Al a Ga 1-a N-type contact layer 3 containing N (0 ≦ a <0.1), Al e Ga 1-e N-type cladding layer 4 comprising N (0 <e <0.3), In f Ga 1-f N (0 ≦ f <0.1) active layer 5, Al d Ga 1-d P-type cladding layer 6 containing N (0 <d <0.4), Al b Ga 1-b A p-type contact layer 7 containing N (0 ≦ b <0.1) is stacked and grown; The emission peak wavelength is 380 nm or less. The n-type contact layer 3 is formed with an n-electrode, and the p-type contact layer 7 is formed with a p-electrode.
[0012]
Below, the dislocation density for forming the element structure is 10 6 / Cm 2 The following nitride semiconductor substrate will be described.
[Nitride semiconductor substrate 1]
In the present invention, the nitride semiconductor substrate 1 for forming an element structure has a dislocation density of 10 6 / Cm 2 Examples thereof include nitride semiconductors composed of GaN as follows.
Dislocation density is 10 6 / Cm 2 The growth method of GaN to be described below is not particularly limited as long as it is at least a growth method that reduces the dislocation density. For example, preferably, a growth method (ELOG growth) that can temporarily stop the growth in the vertical direction of the nitride semiconductor and suppress dislocations by using the growth in the horizontal direction can be given.
[0013]
For example, as a specific example of ELOG growth, a protective film made of a material in which a nitride semiconductor does not grow or is difficult to grow is partially formed on a heterogeneous substrate made of a material different from the nitride semiconductor, and the nitride is formed thereon. By growing the semiconductor, a nitride semiconductor grows from a portion where the protective film is not formed, and by continuing the growth, the nitride semiconductor grows laterally toward the protective film, thereby increasing the thickness of the nitride semiconductor (ELOG substrate). ) Is obtained. Examples of such a growth method include the methods described in Japanese Patent Application Nos. 10-275826, 10-119377, 10-146431, 11-37826, and each specification. It is done.
[0014]
Another specific example of ELOG growth is a method that does not use a protective film, in which irregularities are formed on a nitride semiconductor grown on a different substrate made of a material different from that of the nitride semiconductor, and from above Examples include a growth method in which a nitride semiconductor (ELOG substrate) obtained by growing a nitride semiconductor again can be obtained. Further, there is a method of intentionally performing lateral growth of the nitride semiconductor by partially modifying the surface of the nitride semiconductor without using a protective film. Examples of such a growth method include the methods described in Japanese Patent Application Nos. 11-378227, 11-168079, 11-142400, and each specification.
[0015]
Still further, the nitride semiconductor obtained by the above-described ELOG growth or the like is used as a substrate, and the protective film as described above is used on the nitride semiconductor, or ELOG growth such as formation of unevenness is performed. A growth method for obtaining a nitride semiconductor that can be favorably reduced in dislocations by repetition. An example of such a growth method is the method described in Japanese Patent Application No. 11-80288.
[0016]
The above-described ELOG growth is preferably a method of growing without using a protective film and a method of growing ELOG on a nitride semiconductor. This method is preferable from the viewpoint of reducing dislocations, and further, it is preferable to form an element structure on an ELOG substrate with reduced dislocations from the viewpoint of reducing threshold current density and improving life characteristics.
The details of the above-described ELOG growth method are as described in each of the above-mentioned specifications, but a preferred example is shown below. However, the present invention is not limited to this.
[0017]
A preferred embodiment of ELOG growth that can be used in the present invention will be described below with reference to FIG.
FIG. 2 (a-1 to a-4) is a schematic diagram showing stepwise one embodiment of a method for growing a nitride semiconductor.
First, in the first step of FIG. 2A-1, a first nitride semiconductor 42 is grown on the heterogeneous substrate 41, and in the second step of FIG. Concavities and convexities are formed in the physical semiconductor 42, and then in the third step of FIG. 2 (a-3), the first nitride semiconductor 42 having the concavities and convexities is formed on the first nitride semiconductor 42 under a pressure condition higher than normal pressure. Two nitride semiconductors 43 are grown.
[0018]
Hereinafter, each step will be described in detail with reference to FIG.
(First step)
FIG. 2A-1 is a schematic step view in which the first step of growing the first nitride semiconductor 42 on the heterogeneous substrate 41 is performed.
In the first step, as the heterogeneous substrate 41 that can be used, for example, sapphire or spinel (MgA1) whose main surface is any one of the C-plane, R-plane, and A-plane. 2 O Four ) Such as an insulating substrate, SiC (including 6H, 4H, 3C), ZnS, ZnO, GaAs, Si, and an oxide substrate lattice-matched with a nitride semiconductor, etc. Substrate material can be used. Preferable heterogeneous substrates include sapphire and spinel.
When sapphire is used as a heterogeneous substrate, the surface orientation of the nitride semiconductor on the top of the convex part and the side surface of the concave part tends to be specified depending on which surface the main surface of sapphire is made. Since the growth rate of the nitride semiconductor is slightly different, the main surface may be selected so that a plane orientation that is easy to grow on the side surface of the concave portion comes.
[0019]
In the first step, a buffer layer (not shown) may be formed on the heterogeneous substrate 41 before the first nitride semiconductor 42 is grown on the heterogeneous substrate 41. As the buffer layer, AlN, GaN, AlGaN, InGaN or the like is used. The buffer layer is grown at a temperature of 900 ° C. or lower and 300 ° C. or higher with a film thickness of 0.5 μm to 10 Å. When the buffer layer is thus formed on the heterogeneous substrate 1 at a temperature of 900 ° C. or less, the lattice constant irregularity between the heterogeneous substrate 41 and the first nitride semiconductor 42 is alleviated, and the crystal defects of the first nitride semiconductor 42 are reduced. Tend to decrease.
[0020]
In the first step, the first nitride semiconductor 42 formed on the heterogeneous substrate 41 is doped with n-type impurities such as GaN, Si, Ge, and S which are undoped (undoped state, undope). GaN can be used.
The first nitride semiconductor 42 is grown on the heterogeneous substrate 41 at a high temperature, specifically, higher than about 900 ° C. to 1100 ° C., preferably 1050 ° C. When grown at such a temperature, the first nitride semiconductor 42 becomes a single crystal. The film thickness of the first nitride semiconductor 42 is not particularly limited, but the film thickness can be adjusted so that the growth in the vertical direction inside the recess can be suppressed and the growth in the horizontal direction can be promoted. The film thickness is at least 500 angstroms or more, preferably 5 μm or more, more preferably 10 μm or more.
[0021]
(Second step)
Next, in FIG. 2A-2, after the first nitride semiconductor 42 is grown on the dissimilar substrate 41, the first nitride semiconductor 42 is partially uneven, and the first side of the recess is formed on the side surface of the recess. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view in which one nitride semiconductor 42 is exposed. FIG.
[0022]
In the second step, partially forming irregularities means that a depression is formed from the surface of the first nitride semiconductor 42 toward the heterogeneous substrate 41 so that the first nitride semiconductor 42 is exposed at least on the side surface of the recess. As long as it is formed, the first nitride semiconductor 42 may be provided with irregularities in any shape. For example, the first nitride semiconductor 42 can be formed in random depressions, stripes, grids, or dots. A preferred shape is a stripe shape, and this shape is preferable because it has less abnormal growth and is buried more flatly.
The unevenness partially provided in the first nitride semiconductor 42 is etched halfway through the first nitride semiconductor 42 to a depth reaching the dissimilar substrate, or to a depth reaching the dissimilar substrate, and an etching depth of 500 to It is formed in a shape up to a depth of 3000 angstroms (preferably 1000 to 2000 angstroms), preferably a depth that exposes the dissimilar substrate, or a shape obtained by scraping the dissimilar substrate at the above depth, more preferably A shape obtained by scraping a heterogeneous substrate to the above depth is preferable.
[0023]
The shape of the unevenness is not particularly limited in terms of the length of the side surface of the concave portion, the width of the upper portion of the convex portion and the width of the bottom portion of the concave portion. The second nitride semiconductor 43 is preferably adjusted so as to grow laterally from the side surface of the recess.
When the uneven shape is a stripe shape, the shape of the stripe is not particularly limited. For example, the stripe width (the width at the top of the convex portion) is 1 to 20 μm, preferably 1 to 10 μm, and the stripe interval (the width at the bottom of the concave portion). Can be formed with a thickness of 10 to 40 μm, preferably 15 to 35 μm. Having such a stripe shape is preferable in terms of reducing dislocations and improving the surface state.
In order to increase the portion of the second nitride semiconductor 43 grown from the recess opening, it is possible to increase the width of the bottom of the recess and reduce the width of the upper portion of the protrusion. In this way, dislocation is reduced. You can make more parts. When the width of the bottom of the recess is increased, it is preferable to increase the depth of the recess in order to prevent the growth in the vertical direction that may grow from the bottom of the recess.
[0024]
Any method may be used as the method for providing the unevenness in the second step as long as the first nitride semiconductor 42 can be partially removed, and examples thereof include etching and dicing.
When unevenness is formed partially (selectively) on the first nitride semiconductor 42 by etching, a photomask having a stripe shape, a grid shape, or the like is formed using mask patterns having various shapes in the photolithography technique. It can be formed by forming and etching a resist pattern on the first nitride semiconductor 2. The photomask is removed after etching to form irregularities.
Moreover, when performing by dicing, it can form in stripe shape or a grid shape, for example.
[0025]
As a method for etching the nitride semiconductor in the second step, there are methods such as wet etching and dry etching, and dry etching is preferably used to form a smooth surface. Dry etching includes, for example, reactive ion etching (RIE), reactive ion beam etching (RIBE), electron cyclotron etching (ECR), ion beam etching, and the like. This can be done by etching a nitride semiconductor. For example, a specific nitride semiconductor etching means described in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 8-17803 previously filed by the present applicant can be used.
Further, when forming irregularities by etching, the etching surface (concave side surface) has a shape in which the end surface is substantially perpendicular to the different substrate as shown in FIG. 2 (a-2), or a forward mesa shape or a reverse mesa shape. However, there may be a shape formed in a stepped shape. From the viewpoint of reduction of dislocation and good surface condition, vertical, reverse mesa, and forward mesa are preferable, and vertical is more preferable.
[0026]
Further, in the second step, when the uneven shape is a stripe shape, as shown in FIG. 5B, the orientation flat surface is a sapphire A surface, for example, with respect to the vertical axis of the orientation flat surface. It is preferable that the left and right sides are formed with a shift of θ = 0.1 ° to 1 °, preferably θ = 0.1 ° to 0.5 °, because a good crystal having a flatter growth surface can be obtained. Incidentally, when θ in FIG. 5B is 0 °, the surface may not be flat. If the element structure is formed on the growth surface in such a state, the element characteristics tend to be deteriorated. It is done. A flat surface is also preferable in terms of yield improvement.
[0027]
(Third step)
Next, FIG. 2A-3 shows a third example in which a second nitride semiconductor 43 is grown on the first nitride semiconductor 42 having irregularities by etching under a pressure condition equal to or higher than normal pressure. It is typical sectional drawing which performed the process.
As the second nitride semiconductor 43, the same one as the first nitride semiconductor 42 can be used. The growth temperature of the second nitride semiconductor 43 is the same as that when the first nitride semiconductor 42 is grown, and the second nitride semiconductor 43 grown at such a temperature becomes a single crystal.
Further, when the second nitride semiconductor 43 is grown, it is grown by doping impurities (for example, Si, Ge, Sn, Be, Zn, Mn, Cr, Mg, etc.), or It is preferable in terms of promoting lateral growth compared to vertical growth and reducing dislocations by adjusting the molar ratio of the group III and group V components (III / V molar ratio), etc. Furthermore, it is preferable in that the surface state of the surface of the second nitride semiconductor 43 is improved.
[0028]
The above-mentioned pressurization condition above the normal pressure means that the reaction is carried out under the pressurization condition by adjusting the apparatus etc. from the normal pressure (pressure in which the pressure is not intentionally applied) and adjusting the device etc. That is. The specific pressure is not particularly limited as long as it is a pressure equal to or higher than normal pressure, but is preferably normal pressure (approximately 1 atm) to 2.5 atm, and preferable pressure is normal pressure to 1.5 atm. is there. It is preferable to grow the second nitride semiconductor under such pressure conditions in order to improve the surface state of the surface of the second nitride semiconductor.
[0029]
Also, in the third step, it seems that there are some that grow laterally from the side surface of the concave portion inside the concave portion and those that grow from the bottom portion of the concave portion in the vertical direction. The second nitride semiconductors bonded together suppress growth from the bottom of the recess. As a result, almost no dislocation is observed in the second nitride semiconductor grown from the recess opening. It seems that the growth rate in the vertical direction from the bottom of the recess is slower than the growth in the lateral direction from the side surface of the recess. Further, when the surface of the bottom of the recess is a dissimilar substrate such as sapphire, the growth of the second nitride semiconductor from the bottom of the recess is suppressed, and the growth of the second nitride semiconductor from the side of the recess becomes good. It is preferable from the viewpoint of reduction.
[0030]
On the other hand, in the second nitride semiconductor portion grown from the upper portion of the convex portion, a somewhat larger amount of dislocation is observed than that grown from the concave portion opening, but the nitride semiconductor starts to grow in the vertical direction on the upper portion of the convex portion. However, there is a tendency to grow in the lateral direction toward the opening of the recess rather than the rate of growth in the longitudinal direction, and dislocations are reduced as compared with the case of growing in the longitudinal direction without forming irregularities. Further, by repeating the second and third steps of the present invention, the dislocation at the top of the convex portion can be eliminated. Further, the second nitride semiconductor grown from the upper part of the convex part and the inside of the concave part is joined in the process of growth, as shown in FIG.
[0031]
Further, in the third step, when the second nitride semiconductor is grown, the surface of the second nitride semiconductor is flat with little abnormal growth by adjusting the pressure to a pressure condition higher than the normal pressure. A good surface state is obtained.
[0032]
In the present invention, when the second and third steps are repeated, as shown in FIG. 2 (b-1), the convex portion is formed on the concave portion formed in the first nitride semiconductor, and the first nitride is formed. Concavities and convexities are partially formed in the second nitride semiconductor such that the concave portions are respectively located on the convex portions formed in the semiconductor. Then, the third nitride semiconductor 4 is grown on the second nitride semiconductor having the irregularities formed thereon. The third nitride semiconductor 4 is preferably a nitride semiconductor with few dislocations as a whole. As the third nitride semiconductor, the same one as the second nitride semiconductor is grown.
Also, when the second and third steps are repeated, the thickness of the second nitride semiconductor is made slightly thinner than when not repeated, and the bottom of the recess formed in the second nitride semiconductor is sapphire. Etching the second nitride semiconductor so as to have a different substrate surface, such as the above, is preferable because a third nitride semiconductor having a good surface state with fewer dislocations can be obtained.
[0033]
The second nitride semiconductor 43 serves as a substrate for growing a nitride semiconductor having an element structure thereon, and the element structure is formed after removing the dissimilar substrate in advance. There are cases in which a different substrate or the like is left behind. In some cases, the heterogeneous substrate is removed after the element structure is formed.
The thickness of the second nitride semiconductor 5 when removing the heterogeneous substrate or the like is 50 μm or more, preferably 100 μm or more, preferably 500 μm or less. Within this range, even if the dissimilar substrate and the protective film are polished and removed, the second nitride semiconductor 43 is hard to break and is easy to handle, which is preferable.
[0034]
In addition, the thickness of the second nitride semiconductor 43 in the case of leaving the heterogeneous substrate or the like is not particularly limited, but is 100 μm or less, preferably 50 μm or less, more preferably 20 μm or less. Within this range, it is possible to prevent the wafer from warping due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the dissimilar substrate and the nitride semiconductor, and further, the nitride semiconductor as the element structure is satisfactorily grown on the second nitride semiconductor 45 as the element substrate. Can be made.
[0035]
In the method for growing a nitride semiconductor according to the present invention, a method for growing the first nitride semiconductor 42 and the second nitride semiconductor 43 is not particularly limited, but MOVPE (metal organic chemical vapor deposition), HVPE. All methods known for growing nitride semiconductors such as (halide vapor phase epitaxy), MBE (molecular beam epitaxy), MOCVD (metal organic chemical vapor deposition) can be applied. As a preferable growth method, when the film thickness is 100 μm or less, the growth rate can be easily controlled by using the MOCVD method. When the film thickness is 100 μm or less, HVPE has a high growth rate and is difficult to control.
[0036]
In the present invention, since a nitride semiconductor having an element structure can be formed on the second nitride semiconductor 43, the second nitride semiconductor is referred to as an element substrate or a nitride semiconductor substrate in the specification. There is a case to say.
[0037]
Further, it is preferable to use a substrate in which the main surface of the material to be the heterogeneous substrate in the first step is off-angled, and further a substrate in which a step-off angle is formed. When an off-angle substrate is used, three-dimensional growth is not seen on the surface, step growth appears and the surface tends to be flat. Furthermore, when the direction along the step (step direction) of the sapphire substrate that is off-angled stepwise is formed perpendicular to the A-plane of sapphire, the step surface of the nitride semiconductor is aligned with the laser cavity direction. It is preferable that the laser light is less diffusely reflected by the surface roughness.
[0038]
As a more preferable heterogeneous substrate, sapphire whose main surface is the (0001) plane [C plane], sapphire whose main plane is the (112-0) plane [A plane], or spinel whose main plane is the (111) plane. It is. Here, when the heterogeneous substrate is sapphire whose principal surface is the (0001) plane [C plane], the uneven stripe shape formed in the first nitride semiconductor or the like is the (112-0) of the sapphire. It is preferable to have a stripe shape perpendicular to the plane [A plane] [to form a stripe in a direction parallel to the (101-0) [M plane] of the nitride semiconductor] The off-angle θ (θ shown in FIG. 7) is 0.1 ° to 0.5 °, preferably 0.1 ° to 0.2 °. Further, when the sapphire has the (112-0) plane [A plane] as a main surface, the uneven stripe shape has a stripe shape perpendicular to the (11-02) plane [R plane] of the sapphire. In addition, when the spinel has a (111) plane as a main surface, the uneven stripe shape preferably has a stripe shape perpendicular to the (110) plane of the spinel.
Here, the case where the unevenness is a stripe shape has been described, but in the present invention, since the nitride semiconductor easily grows in the lateral direction on the A-plane and R-plane of sapphire and the (110) plane of spinel, the first is formed on these planes. In order to form a step in the first nitride semiconductor 2 so that the end face of the nitride semiconductor is formed, it is preferable to consider the formation of a protective film.
[0039]
The different types of substrates used in the present invention will be described in more detail using the drawings. FIG. 3 is a unit cell diagram showing the crystal structure of sapphire.
First, in the method of the present invention, a case will be described in which sapphire having a C plane as a main surface is used and the unevenness is formed in a stripe shape perpendicular to the sapphire A plane. For example, FIG. 5A is a plan view of a sapphire substrate on the main surface side. In this figure, the sapphire C surface is the main surface, and the orientation flat (orientation flat) surface is the A surface.
As shown in this figure, uneven stripes are formed in a direction perpendicular to the A plane and parallel to each other. As shown in FIG. 5A, when a nitride semiconductor is selectively grown on the sapphire C plane, the nitride semiconductor easily grows in a direction parallel to the A plane in the plane and grows in a vertical direction. It tends to be difficult. Therefore, if stripes are provided in a direction perpendicular to the A plane, nitride semiconductors between the stripes are connected and easily grown, and crystal growth as shown in FIG. 2 can be easily performed. Details are not clear. Furthermore, as described above, as shown in FIG. 5B, it is preferable to slightly shift the surface because the surface state is good.
[0040]
Next, when a sapphire substrate having an A surface as a main surface is used, as in the case where the C surface is used as a main surface, for example, when an orientation flat surface is an R surface, they are parallel to each other in a direction perpendicular to the R surface. By forming a simple stripe, the nitride semiconductor tends to grow in the stripe width direction, so that a nitride semiconductor layer with few crystal defects can be grown.
[0041]
Next, spinel (MgAl 2 O Four ), The growth of the nitride semiconductor is anisotropic. When the growth surface of the nitride semiconductor is the (111) plane and the orientation flat surface is the (110) plane, the nitride semiconductor is the (110) plane. On the other hand, it tends to grow in a parallel direction. Therefore, when a stripe is formed in a direction perpendicular to the (110) plane, the nitride semiconductor layer and the adjacent nitride semiconductor are connected to each other at the upper portion of the protective film, so that a crystal with few crystal defects can be grown. The spinel is not particularly shown because it is a tetragonal crystal.
[0042]
In the following, the case where the direction along the step of the off-angled sapphire substrate is formed perpendicular to the A surface of the sapphire substrate will be described with reference to FIG.
A heterogeneous substrate such as sapphire, which is off-angled in a step shape, has a substantially horizontal terrace portion A and a stepped portion B as shown in FIG. The terrace portion A has few surface irregularities and is formed almost regularly. The stepped portion having such an off angle θ is desirably formed continuously over the entire substrate, but may be formed particularly partially. As shown in FIG. 4, the off angle θ represents an angle between a straight line connecting the bottoms of a plurality of steps and a horizontal plane of the uppermost step.
The different substrate has an off angle of 0.1 ° to 0.5 °, preferably 0.1 ° to 0.2 °. When the off-angle is in the above range, the surface of the first nitride semiconductor 42 has a fine streak morphology, and the epitaxial growth surface (the surface of the second nitride semiconductor 43) has a wavelike morphology, which can be obtained using this substrate. The nitride semiconductor device is smooth and has characteristics that have a long life, high efficiency, high output, and improved yield.
[0043]
Furthermore, when a nitride semiconductor obtained by further performing ELOG growth on the nitride semiconductor substrate obtained by the above-mentioned ELOG growth or the like is used as a substrate having an element structure, reduction of dislocations and reduction of warp are improved, and this It is preferable for obtaining the effects of the invention. As this preferable embodiment, the contents described in the specification of Japanese Patent Application No. 11-80288 can be cited.
For example, as a preferable example, a third nitride semiconductor having a thickness of, for example, 80 to 500 μm is grown on the second nitride semiconductor 43 obtained by the process shown in FIG. Thereafter, the heterogeneous substrate or the like is removed to make only the third nitride semiconductor, and a fourth nitride semiconductor is grown by HVPE or the like on the surface of the third nitride semiconductor opposite to the heterogeneous substrate removal surface. Let The film thickness of the fourth nitride semiconductor is adjusted so that the total of the film thickness of the third nitride semiconductor and the film thickness of the fourth nitride semiconductor is, for example, preferably about 400 to 80 μm. Is done.
When ELOG growth is repeated on such a nitride semiconductor composed of the third and fourth nitride semiconductors, a nitride semiconductor substrate with good reduction of dislocations can be obtained, which is preferable for obtaining the effects of the present invention. .
[0044]
If a nitride semiconductor with few dislocations as described above is used as a substrate and an element structure is formed on this substrate, an element with good crystallinity can be obtained, which is preferable in terms of improving luminous efficiency. Furthermore, it is also preferable from the viewpoint of reducing the threshold current density and improving the life characteristics.
[0045]
Hereinafter, the element structure shown in FIG. 1 will be described. However, the present invention is not particularly limited as long as it has an element structure having an active layer having an emission peak wavelength of 380 nm.
[0046]
[N-type contact layer 3]
In the present invention, the n-type contact layer 3 is at least Al. a Ga 1-a A nitride semiconductor layer containing N (0 ≦ a <0.5, preferably 0 <a <0.5, more preferably 0.01 <a <0.05). When the n-type contact layer contains Al and the Al composition ratio is in the above range, it is preferable in terms of crystallinity and ohmic contact as well as prevention of self-absorption.
Furthermore, the n-type contact layer 3 contains n-type impurities at 1 × 10. 17 ~ 1x10 19 / Cm Three , Preferably 1 × 10 18 ~ 1x10 19 / Cm Three When it contains in the density | concentration, it is preferable at the point of maintenance of ohmic contact, prevention of crack generation, and maintenance of crystallinity. Thus, combining the Al composition ratio constituting the n-type contact layer and the n-type impurity concentration is preferable in terms of preventing self-absorption and preventing ohmic contact and cracking.
Although it does not specifically limit as an n-type impurity, For example, Si, Ge etc. are mentioned, Preferably it is Si.
Although the film thickness of the n-type contact layer 3 is not specifically limited, 0.1-20 micrometers is preferable, More preferably, it is 1-10 micrometers. When the film thickness is within this range, it is preferable in terms of crystallinity (as a base) near the interface (for example, near the interface with the n-type cladding layer) and a decrease in resistivity.
[0047]
[N-type cladding layer 4]
In the present invention, the n-type cladding layer 4 has a composition that is larger than the band gap energy of the active layer 5 and is not particularly limited as long as carriers can be confined in the active layer 5. e Ga 1-e N (0 <e <0.3, preferably 0.1 <e <0.2). When the n-type cladding layer is made of such AlGaN, it is preferable in terms of confinement of carriers in the active layer.
The film thickness of the n-type cladding layer is not particularly limited, but is preferably 0.01 to 0.1 μm, more preferably 0.03 to 0.06 μm.
The n-type impurity concentration of the n-type cladding layer is not particularly limited, but is preferably 1 × 10. 17 ~ 1x10 20 / Cm Three And more preferably 1 × 10 18 ~ 1x10 19 / Cm Three It is. The impurity concentration within this range is preferable in terms of resistivity and crystallinity.
[0048]
The n-type cladding layer may be a multilayer film layer (including a superlattice structure) in addition to the single layer as described above. In the case of a multilayer film layer, the above Al e Ga 1-e A multilayer film layer composed of N and a nitride semiconductor layer having a smaller band gap energy may be used. h Ga 1-h N (0 ≦ h <1), Al j Ga 1-j N (0 ≦ j <1, e> j). The thickness of each layer forming the multilayer film layer is not particularly limited. In the case of a superlattice structure, the thickness of one layer is 100 angstroms or less, preferably 70 angstroms or less, more preferably 10 to 40 angstroms. In the case of a single layer that does not form a structure, it can be a layer having the above composition.
In addition, when the n-type cladding layer is a multilayer film composed of a layer having a large band gap energy and a layer having a low band gap energy, at least one of the layer having a large band gap energy and the layer having a small band gap energy is doped with an n type impurity. You may let them. In addition, when doping both the layer having a large band gap energy and the layer having a small band gap energy, the doping amount may be the same or different.
[0049]
[Active layer 5]
In the present invention, the active layer 5 includes a nitride semiconductor having a composition such that the emission peak wavelength is 380 nm or less, preferably the emission peak wavelength is 370 nm or less. Preferably In f Ga 1-f N (0 ≦ f <0.1) nitride semiconductors may be mentioned. The In composition ratio of the active layer is reduced as the emission peak wavelength becomes shorter, but the In composition ratio is almost zero and may be zero depending on the wavelength.
Although it does not specifically limit as a film thickness of an active layer, The film thickness of the grade by which a quantum effect is acquired is mentioned, for example, Preferably it is 0.001-0.01 micrometer, More preferably, it is 0.003-0.007 micrometer. is there. A film thickness in the above range is preferable in terms of light emission output.
In addition to the single quantum well structure as described above, the active layer includes the In layer. f Ga 1-f A multi-quantum well structure including N as a well layer and a barrier layer having a composition having a larger band gap energy than the well layer may be used.
The active layer may be doped with impurities.
[0050]
In addition, the adjustment of the In composition ratio of the active layer is not particularly limited as long as the emission peak wavelength is 380 nm or less, and the specific value can be obtained, for example, from the following theoretical value calculation formula. The value can be listed as an approximate value. However, since the wavelength obtained by actually emitting light forms a quantum level having a quantum well structure, the energy (Eλ) of the wavelength is larger than the band gap energy (Eg) of InGaN, and is shown in FIG. Thus, there is a tendency to shift to a shorter wavelength side than the emission wavelength obtained from a calculation formula or the like.
[0051]
[Calculation formula of theoretical value]
Eg = (1-χ) 3.40 + 1.95χ-Bχ (1-χ)
Wavelength (nm) = 1240 / Eg
Eg: Band gap energy of InGaN well layer
χ: In composition ratio
3.40 (eV): Band gap energy of GaN
1.95 (eV): InN band gap energy
B: Shows the bowing parameter, 1-6 eV. The Boeing parameter fluctuates in this way in recent studies, from SIMS analysis and the like, which was conventionally assumed to be 1 eV on the assumption that there is no distortion in the crystal. This is because it has become clear that the degree of distortion differs depending on the above and the like, and becomes 1 eV or more.
[0052]
Although there is a slight difference between the oscillation wavelength considered from the specific In composition ratio obtained from SIMS analysis of the well layer as described above and the oscillation wavelength when actually oscillated, the actual oscillation wavelength is The wavelength is adjusted to a desired wavelength.
[0053]
[P-type cladding layer 6]
In the present invention, the p-type cladding layer 6 is not particularly limited as long as it has a composition larger than the band gap energy of the active layer 5 and can confine carriers in the active layer 5. d Ga 1-d N (0 <d ≦ 0.4, preferably 0.15 ≦ d ≦ 0.3). When the p-type cladding layer is made of such AlGaN, it is preferable in terms of confinement of carriers in the active layer.
The thickness of the p-type cladding layer is not particularly limited, but is preferably 0.01 to 0.15 μm, more preferably 0.04 to 0.08 μm.
The p-type impurity concentration of the p-type cladding layer is not particularly limited, but preferably 1 × 10. 18 ~ 1x10 twenty one / Cm Three And more preferably 1 × 10 19 ~ 1x10 20 / Cm Three It is. A p-type impurity concentration in the above range is preferable in terms of reducing bulk resistance without reducing crystallinity.
[0054]
In addition to the single layer as described above, the p-type cladding layer may be a multilayer film layer (including a superlattice structure). In the case of a multilayer film layer, the above Al d Ga 1-d A multilayer film layer composed of N and a nitride semiconductor layer having a smaller bandgap energy may be used. For example, as a layer having a smaller bandgap energy, as in the case of the n-type cladding layer, In h Ga 1-h N (0 ≦ h <1), Al j Ga 1-j N (0 ≦ j <1, e> j). The thickness of each layer forming the multilayer film layer is not particularly limited. In the case of a superlattice structure, the thickness of one layer is 100 angstroms or less, preferably 70 angstroms or less, more preferably 10 to 40 angstroms. In the case of a single layer that does not form a structure, it can be a layer having the above composition.
In addition, when the p-type cladding layer is a multilayer film composed of a layer having a large band gap energy and a layer having a small band gap energy, at least one of the layer having a large band gap energy and the layer having a small band gap energy is doped with a p-type impurity. You may let them. In addition, when doping both the layer having a large band gap energy and the layer having a small band gap energy, the doping amount may be the same or different.
[0055]
[P-type contact layer 7]
In the present invention, the p-type contact layer 7 is at least Al. b Ga 1-b A nitride semiconductor layer containing N (0 ≦ b <0.5, preferably 0 <b <0.1, more preferably 0.01 ≦ b ≦ 0.05). When the p-type contact layer contains Al and the Al composition ratio is in the above range, it is preferable in terms of crystallinity and ohmic contact as well as prevention of self-absorption as in the case of the n-type contact layer.
Further, the p-type contact layer 7 contains 1 × 10 p-type impurities. 18 ~ 1x10 twenty one / Cm Three , Preferably 5 × 10 19 ~ 5x10 20 / Cm Three When it is contained at a concentration of 1, it is preferable in terms of ohmic contact, prevention of crack generation, crystallinity, and bulk resistance. Thus, combining the Al composition ratio and the n-type impurity concentration constituting the p-type contact layer is preferable in terms of preventing self-absorption and preventing ohmic contact and cracking.
Although it does not specifically limit as a p-type impurity, For example, Preferably Mg is mentioned.
The film thickness of the p-type contact layer 7 is not particularly limited, but is preferably 0.03 to 0.5 μm, more preferably 0.1 to 0.15 μm. If the film thickness is within this range, the reason is not clear, but it is preferable in terms of light extraction efficiency and light emission output.
[0056]
In the present invention, various electrodes can be used as the p electrode and the n electrode, which are appropriately selected from known electrode materials and the like. Specific examples of the electrode include those described in Examples described later.
[0057]
In addition, the element of the present invention is subjected to an annealing treatment in order to make the p-side layer p-type to have a low resistance. As an annealing treatment, as described in Japanese Patent No. 2540791, after a gallium nitride compound semiconductor doped with a p-type impurity is grown by a vapor phase growth method, the atmosphere is substantially free of hydrogen. There is a method in which a heat treatment is performed at a temperature of 400 ° C. or higher, and hydrogen is extracted from a gallium nitride compound semiconductor doped with a p-type impurity to obtain a p-type.
[0058]
【Example】
Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in more detail with reference to examples which are embodiments of the present invention. However, the present invention is not limited to this.
In addition, as described in the detailed description of the invention, the value of the calculation formula of the theoretical value of the In composition ratio is different from the actual oscillation wavelength due to a shift to a short wavelength due to the formation of a quantum level having a quantum well structure. Therefore, the In composition ratio of the active layer of the example is an approximate value.
[0059]
[Example 1]
As Example 1, a nitride semiconductor light emitting device according to an embodiment of the present invention shown in FIG. 1 is manufactured.
[0060]
As shown in FIG. 4, the dissimilar substrate 41 has a C-plane that is off-angled stepwise as a main surface, an off-angle angle θ = 0.15 °, a step difference of about 20 angstroms, and a terrace width W of about 800 angstroms. A sapphire substrate having an orientation flat surface as the A surface and a step perpendicular to the A surface is prepared.
This sapphire substrate is set in a reaction vessel, the temperature is set to 510 ° C., hydrogen is used as a carrier gas, ammonia and TMG (trimethyl gallium) are used as a source gas, and a low-temperature growth buffer layer made of GaN on the sapphire substrate ( (Not shown) with a film thickness of 200 Å.
After growing the buffer layer, only TMG is stopped, the temperature is increased to 1050 ° C., and when it reaches 1050 ° C., TMG and ammonia are used as the source gas, and the first nitride semiconductor layer 42 made of undoped GaN is formed into a 2 μm film. Grow with thickness.
Next, a stripe-shaped photomask is formed on the wafer on which the first nitride semiconductor layer 42 is stacked, and a stripe width (a portion that becomes the top of the convex portion) is 5 μm and a stripe interval (a portion that becomes the bottom portion of the concave portion) by a sputtering apparatus ) SiO patterned to 10μm 2 A film is formed, followed by SiO by RIE equipment. 2 The first nitride semiconductor layer 42 in the portion where no film is formed is etched, and sapphire is etched to a depth of 1200 angstroms to form irregularities, whereby the first nitride semiconductor layer 42 is formed on the side surface of the recess. Expose. After forming the irregularities, the SiO 2 Remove the membrane. As shown in FIG. 5B, the stripe direction is formed with a shift of 0.3 ° with respect to the orientation flat surface.
Next, the nitride semiconductor substrate 1 is grown by setting a second nitride semiconductor layer 43 made of undoped GaN to a thickness of 15 μm using TMG and ammonia as source gases at normal pressure under a normal pressure. .
The obtained nitride semiconductor is used as a nitride semiconductor substrate 1 to grow the following element structure (FIG. 2).
When dislocations on the surface of the obtained nitride semiconductor substrate 1 were observed by the TEM method, almost no dislocations were observed in the upper portions of the concave portions, and slightly more dislocations were observed in the upper portions of the convex portions. The following layers are grown on the nitride semiconductor substrate 1.
[0061]
(N-type contact layer 3)
Next, TMG, TMA (trimethylaluminum), ammonia, silane (SiH) is formed on the obtained nitride semiconductor substrate 1 at 1050 ° C. Four ) And Si is 5 × 10 18 / Cm Three Doped n-type Al 0.04 Ga 0.96 An n-type contact layer 3 made of N is grown to a thickness of 4 μm.
[0062]
(N-type cladding layer 4)
Next, using TMG, TMA, ammonia, and silane at 1050 ° C., Si was 5 × 10 17 / Cm Three Doped n-type Al 0.18 Ga 0.82 An n-type cladding layer 4 made of N is formed with a thickness of 400 angstroms.
[0063]
(Active layer 5)
Next, an active layer made of undoped InGaN is grown to a thickness of 55 Å using TMI, TMG, and ammonia at 700 ° C. in a nitrogen atmosphere. The In composition ratio is so small that it cannot be measured (almost zero or zero).
[0064]
(P-type cladding layer 6)
Next, in a hydrogen atmosphere at 1050 ° C., TMG, TMA, ammonia, Cp 2 Mg (cyclopentadienylmagnesium) is used and Mg is 1 × 10 20 / Cm Three Doped Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 A p-type cladding layer 6 made of N is grown to a thickness of 600 angstroms.
[0065]
(P-type contact layer 7)
Subsequently, TMG, TMA, ammonia, Cp 2 Mg with 1 × 10 Mg 20 / Cm Three Doped Al 0.04 Ga 0.96 A p-type contact layer 7 made of N is grown to a thickness of 0.12 μm.
[0066]
After completion of the growth, the wafer is annealed in a reaction vessel at 700 ° C. in a nitrogen atmosphere to further reduce the resistance of the p-type layer. Then, the wafer is taken out of the reaction vessel and the surface of the uppermost p-type contact layer 7 is removed. Then, a mask having a predetermined shape is formed, and etching is performed from the p-type contact layer side by an RIE (reactive ion etching) apparatus to expose the surface of the n-type contact layer 3 as shown in FIG.
[0067]
After the etching, a light-transmitting p-electrode 8 containing Ni and Au having a thickness of 200 angstroms is formed on almost the entire surface of the p-type contact layer 7 as the uppermost layer, and a p-pad made of Au for bonding on the p-electrode 8. The electrode 10 is formed with a film thickness of 0.2 μm. On the other hand, an n-electrode 9 containing W and Al is formed on the surface of the n-type contact layer 3 exposed by etching. Finally, in order to protect the surface of the p-electrode 8, SiO 2 After the insulating film is formed, the wafer is separated by scribing to form a 350 μm square LED element.
However, the LED is manufactured such that the active layer that emits light is located above the recess of the nitride semiconductor substrate 1 where there is almost no dislocation, and further avoids the central portion of the recess and is positioned, for example, as shown in FIG.
[0068]
This LED element has an emission peak wavelength of 371 nm at a forward voltage of 10 mA, Vf of 3.5 V, and an output of 2.0 mW. The luminous efficiency of the LED of Example 1 is 5.7%. This data is plotted as ● in FIG.
[0069]
[Example 2]
In Example 1, an LED is manufactured in the same manner except that the In composition ratio of the active layer is adjusted so that the emission peak wavelength is 360 nm and 377 nm.
The light emission efficiency of the obtained LED is 0.59% when the emission peak wavelength is 360 nm, and 5.85% when the emission peak wavelength is 377 nm. These data are plotted as ● in FIG.
[0070]
[Comparative Example 1]
In Example 1, an LED is manufactured in the same manner except that the In composition ratio of the active layer is adjusted so that the emission peak wavelength is 470 nm and 520 nm. The luminous efficiency of the obtained LED is 6.0% and 3.0%, respectively. These data are plotted as ● in FIG.
[0071]
[Comparative Example 2]
Furthermore, in Example 1, a sapphire substrate is used instead of the nitride semiconductor substrate 1, and a buffer layer made of GaN is grown on the sapphire substrate at 550 ° C. by 300 Å. An LED is manufactured in the same manner except that an element structure composed of a plurality of layers such as a similar contact layer is grown. However, a comparative LED having emission peak wavelengths of 360 nm, 371 nm, 377 nm, 470 nm, and 520 nm is prepared by adjusting the In composition ratio of the active layer. The luminous efficiencies of the obtained comparative LEDs are 0.25%, 4.8%, 5.1%, 6.0%, and 3.0%, respectively. These data are plotted as ■ in FIG.
[0072]
(Comparison of luminous efficiency of LED of Example and Comparative Example)
FIG. 6 shows the value [●] of the light emission efficiency due to the change in the light emission peak wavelength of the LED using the nitride semiconductor substrate and the value [■] of the light emission efficiency due to the change of the light emission peak wavelength of the LED using the sapphire substrate. It is the graph which plotted and.
Below, the values [wavelength and luminous efficiency data] obtained in the above examples and comparative examples shown in FIG. 6 are summarized in a list.
[0073]
[Table 1]
[0074]
A change in luminous efficiency due to a difference in substrate and a difference in emission peak wavelength will be considered below with reference to FIG.
First, when the emission peak wavelengths are 470 nm and 520 nm, the LED [●: Comparative Example 1] using a nitride semiconductor substrate and the LED [■: Comparative Example 2] using a sapphire substrate are the same. It has luminous efficiency. In these LEDs, when the emission peak wavelength changes from 470 nm to 380 nm, the light emission efficiency gradually decreases. Such a gradual decrease is smaller in the LED [●] using the nitride semiconductor substrate with few dislocations than in the LED [■] using the sapphire substrate. This indicates that the LED [●] using the nitride semiconductor substrate can easily maintain high luminous efficiency.
Furthermore, when the emission peak wavelength is 380 nm or less, both show a tendency that the light emission efficiency rapidly decreases.
[0075]
However, the LED [●: Example] using the nitride semiconductor substrate has higher luminous efficiency than the LED [■: comparative example] using the sapphire substrate. For example, when the emission peak wavelength is 360 nm, an LED using a nitride semiconductor substrate exhibits a luminous efficiency of 2.36 times that of an LED using a sapphire substrate.
[0076]
As described above, in the case of an ultraviolet LED that emits light in the ultraviolet region, when a nitride semiconductor substrate having a low dislocation density is used, the light emission efficiency is improved satisfactorily. And the luminous output can be improved by improving the luminous efficiency.
[0077]
【The invention's effect】
According to the present invention, the light emission efficiency can be improved satisfactorily by growing a nitride semiconductor element that emits light in the ultraviolet region having an emission peak wavelength of 380 nm or less on a nitride semiconductor substrate having a very low dislocation density.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an LED according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the structure of each step of one embodiment of ELOG growth that can be used in the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a unit cell diagram showing the plane orientation of sapphire.
FIG. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing a partial shape of an off-angled dissimilar substrate.
FIG. 5 is a plan view of the main surface side of the substrate for explaining the stripe direction of the unevenness.
FIG. 6 is a graph showing the relationship between the light emission efficiency and the wavelength of the LEDs of Examples and Comparative Examples.
FIG. 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing band gap energy (Eg) of a well layer of an active layer and oscillation wavelength energy (Eλ) due to formation of quantum levels.
[Explanation of symbols]
1 ... Board
2 ... Buffer layer
3 ... n-type contact layer
4 ... n-type cladding layer
5 ... Active layer
6 ... p-type cladding layer
7 ... p-type contact layer
8 ... p electrode
9 ... n electrode
10 ... Pad electrode

Claims (6)

  1. A first nitride semiconductor layer in which stripe-shaped irregularities are partially formed on the surface in a direction parallel to the M-plane of the nitride semiconductor;
    A second nitride semiconductor layer formed on the first nitride semiconductor layer by lateral growth of the nitride semiconductor and grown from above the concave and convex portions of the concave and convex portions ; and
    A nitride semiconductor device comprising: an element structure including an active layer in which a plurality of nitride semiconductor layers are stacked and grown on the second nitride semiconductor layer, and an emission peak wavelength is 380 nm or less. .
  2. 2. The nitride semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein the second nitride semiconductor layer has a dislocation density of 10 6 / cm 2 or less.
  3. The nitride semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein the active layer is made of In f Ga 1-f N (0 ≦ f <0.1).
  4.   2. The unevenness of the first nitride semiconductor layer is formed such that the side surface of the recess has a shape perpendicular to the bottom surface, an inverted mesa shape, or a forward mesa shape. Nitride semiconductor device.
  5.   The first nitride semiconductor layer is grown on a heterogeneous substrate made of a material different from that of the nitride semiconductor, or on a buffer layer formed on the heterogeneous substrate, and the first nitride semiconductor layer 2. The nitride semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein a side surface of the recess reaches the heterogeneous substrate.
  6.   2. The nitride semiconductor according to claim 1, wherein the active layer is positioned above a concave portion of the concave and convex portions of the first nitride semiconductor layer so as to correspond to a portion avoiding the central portion of the concave portion. element.
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