JP2010057433A - Artificial fish bank - Google Patents

Artificial fish bank Download PDF

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JP2010057433A
JP2010057433A JP2008227392A JP2008227392A JP2010057433A JP 2010057433 A JP2010057433 A JP 2010057433A JP 2008227392 A JP2008227392 A JP 2008227392A JP 2008227392 A JP2008227392 A JP 2008227392A JP 2010057433 A JP2010057433 A JP 2010057433A
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artificial
reef
shell
sea
artificial fish
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JP4981002B2 (en
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Takashi Shida
崇 志田
Kenichi Osaka
憲一 大坂
Hidekuni Hosokawa
英邦 細川
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Shida Kensetsu Kk
志田建設株式会社
Osakagumi:Kk
株式会社大坂組
Hosokawa Sangyo:Kk
株式会社細川産業
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an artificial fish bank capable of preparing, protecting and growing a seaweed bed without restricting fishery operations. <P>SOLUTION: The artificial fish bank has a dome form having an opened bottom. The artificial fish bank has a shell wall having a projecting curved outer face, an inner space formed in the shell wall and growing and proliferating marine plants in a state submerged to a sea bottom, an opening formed on a ceiling of the shell wall to open the inner space, and a plurality of holes formed on a peripheral part of the shell wall and penetrated to the inner space. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2010,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、海底に沈設し藻場を造成し、保護、育成するための人工魚礁に関する。   The present invention relates to an artificial fish reef that is submerged on the seabed to create, protect, and grow a seaweed bed.
アマモ藻場は、多様な水産動物にとって稚魚の育成場、あるいは成魚の棲息場となるほか、魚類やイカ類の産卵場、ウニ類やナマコ類の餌場、貝類やナマコ類の浮遊幼生の着底場として、水産資源の育成、培養、涵養に重要な役割を果たしている。また、アマモ類は、葉や地下茎を通じて窒素やリンなどの栄養分を吸収するため、水底質の浄化機能を有し、地下茎と根の繁茂により底質を安定させるなど、海域環境の保全にも貢献している。さらに、アマモ類は、光合成によって水産動物や陸上動物に酸素を供給すると同時に二酸化炭素を吸収する。   The eelgrass ground serves as a breeding ground for young fish for various aquatic animals, or a habitat for adult fish, as well as a spawning ground for fish and squid, a feeding ground for sea urchins and sea cucumbers, and a floating larvae for shellfish and sea cucumbers. As a base, it plays an important role in the cultivation, cultivation and cultivation of marine resources. Sea turtles also absorb nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus through leaves and rhizomes, so they have a function of purifying the bottom of the water, and contribute to the preservation of the marine environment by stabilizing the bottom with the growth of the rhizomes and roots. is doing. In addition, sea cucumbers absorb carbon dioxide while supplying oxygen to marine and terrestrial animals by photosynthesis.
このように、アマモ藻場は、水圏に留まらず生態系に重要な役割を果たしているが、我が国沿岸のアマモ藻場は減少している。瀬戸内海では、藻場の減少とメバルの漁獲量との関係が認められており、陸奥湾沿岸では、マコガレイとマガレイ、アイナメの漁獲量とアマモ藻場の面積増減に有意な関係が認められている。   In this way, eelgrass beds play an important role not only in the hydrosphere but also in ecosystems. In the Seto Inland Sea, there is a relationship between the decrease in seaweed beds and the catch of rockfish, and on the coast of Mutsu Bay, there is a significant relationship between the catches of flounder and flounder, and Anameame, and the increase and decrease in the area of the sea bream. Yes.
したがって、漁業生産の回復のためにも、アマモ藻場の造成が望まれている。   Therefore, it is desired to create a eelgrass bed for recovery of fishery production.
アマモ藻場の減少は、海岸構造物の造成による藻場の直接の消滅のほか、海水流動の変化に伴う生育適地の減少に起因し、さらにナマコやホタテ貝を対象とする桁曳き操業が大きな影響を与えている。   The decrease in sea cucumber seaweed beds is due to the direct disappearance of seaweed beds due to the creation of coastal structures, as well as the decrease in suitable areas for growth due to changes in seawater flow, and there is a large number of girdling operations targeting sea cucumbers and scallops. It has an influence.
アマモ類は地下で栄養繁殖するが、桁曳き操業では、桁曳き漁具を曳航することによって、アマモの茎部分が損傷を受けたり、根から引き剥がされたりする。特に、アマモ藻場を棲息場および餌場とするナマコ類を対象とする桁曳き操業では、アマモ藻場中を操業することが多く、アマモ藻場消滅に大きな影響を及ぼしている。   Sea eels vegetatively propagate underground, but in girdling operations, the toes of girdling fishing gear damage the eel stems and tear them away from the roots. In particular, girdling operations targeting sea cucumbers that use the eelgrass beds as habitats and feeding grounds often operate in the eelgrass beds, which greatly affects the extinction of the eelgrass beds.
従来、アマモ藻場の造成には、種子繁殖を利用する方法と栄養繁殖を利用する方法がある。種子繁殖を利用する方法は、結実したアマモ類の枝(花枝)を海底に垂下させたり、アマモ類の種子を直接海底に藩種、またはマットやテープ等に埋め込み海底に沈設させる繁殖方法である。栄養繁殖を利用する方法は、アマモ類の栄養株を直接または基質に結着させて海底に移植させる繁殖方法である。アマモ類は種子の発芽率が低く、たとえ発芽体となっても2年目に生き残る個体の割合も低いため、一般には、種子繁殖よりも栄養繁殖を利用して藻場を造成する方が高い信頼性を期待することができる(例えば、特許文献1および2参照。)。
特開2008−61568号公報 特開2008−61509号公報
Conventionally, there is a method using seed breeding and a method using vegetative breeding for the establishment of the eelgrass bed. Seed breeding is a breeding method in which fruited linden branches (flower branches) are drooped on the seabed, or seeds of sea eels are cultivated directly on the seafloor or embedded in mats or tapes and submerged. . The method using vegetative propagation is a breeding method in which vegetative strains of sea cucumbers are directly or bound to a substrate and transplanted to the seabed. Sea turtles have low seed germination rates, and even if they become germinated seeds, the percentage of individuals that survive in the second year is low. Therefore, it is generally higher to create algae beds using vegetative propagation than seed propagation. Reliability can be expected (see, for example, Patent Documents 1 and 2).
JP 2008-61568 A JP 2008-61509 A
本発明は従来における課題に鑑みてなされたものであり、本発明の目的は、漁業操業に規制を加えることなく、藻場を造成し、保護、育成することができる人工魚礁を提供することにある。また、本発明の他の目的は、人工魚礁を海底に沈設して造成、または保護される藻場における底曳漁の操業方法を提供することにある。   The present invention has been made in view of conventional problems, and an object of the present invention is to provide an artificial reef that can create, protect, and grow seaweed beds without restricting fishery operations. is there. Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for operating bottom fishing in an algae basin that is constructed or protected by sinking an artificial reef on the seabed.
本発明の上記目的は、下記の手段によって達成される。   The above object of the present invention is achieved by the following means.
(1)底部が開放されるドーム型の人工魚礁であって、外面が凸状の曲面形状を呈する殻壁と、前記殻壁の内部に形成され、海底への沈設時に海中植物を育成し繁殖するための内部空間と、前記殻壁の天井部に形成され前記内部空間を開放するための開口と、前記殻壁の周縁部に形成され前記内部空間に貫通する複数の孔とを有することを特徴とする人工魚礁。   (1) A dome-shaped artificial reef with an open bottom, a shell wall with a convex curved outer surface, and a shell wall that is formed inside the shell wall. An internal space for opening, an opening formed in a ceiling portion of the shell wall for opening the internal space, and a plurality of holes formed in a peripheral portion of the shell wall and penetrating through the internal space. Characteristic artificial reef.
(2)前記内部空間には、前記開口から前記底部に架けて前記殻壁の内面に放射状に配置される複数の仕切り板をさらに有する上記(1)に記載の人工魚礁。   (2) The artificial fish reef according to (1), further including a plurality of partition plates arranged radially on the inner surface of the shell wall from the opening to the bottom portion in the internal space.
(3)前記人工魚礁はコンクリートで構成される上記(1)または(2)に記載の人工魚礁。   (3) The artificial fish reef according to (1) or (2), wherein the artificial fish reef is made of concrete.
(4)前記天井部に形成される前記開口から前記周縁部までの高さが20〜50cmであり、開口の内径が60〜100cmである上記(1)〜(3)のいずれか1つに記載の人工魚礁。   (4) In any one of the above (1) to (3), the height from the opening formed in the ceiling to the peripheral edge is 20 to 50 cm, and the inner diameter of the opening is 60 to 100 cm. The described artificial reef.
(5)前記海中植物はアマモ類である上記(1)〜(4)のいずれか1つに記載の人工魚礁。   (5) The artificial fish reef according to any one of the above (1) to (4), wherein the undersea plant is a sea lion.
(6)前記(1)〜(5)のいずれか1つに記載の人工魚礁を海底に複数沈設して造成される藻場において、船から底曳網を降ろすステップと、前記底曳網を前記船で牽引し、前記人工魚礁に付着する水産動物を捕集するステップと、前記底曳網を引き揚げ、前記底曳網に捕集された前記水産動物を収獲するステップと、を有することを特徴とする底曳漁の操業方法。   (6) In the algae basin constructed by laying a plurality of artificial fish reefs as set forth in any one of (1) to (5) on the seabed, the step of lowering the bottom fence from the ship, and pulling the bottom fence by the ship And collecting the marine animals adhering to the artificial fish reef; and lifting the bottom coral net and harvesting the marine animals collected in the bottom coral net. Method.
(7)前記水産動物はナマコであり、前記底曳網は桁曳網である上記(6)に記載の底曳漁の操業方法。   (7) The operation method of bottom rod fishing according to (6), wherein the marine animal is a sea cucumber and the bottom rod net is a girder net.
本発明では、漁業操業に規制を加えることなく、藻場を造成し、保護、育成することができることができる。   In the present invention, a seaweed basin can be created, protected and nurtured without adding restrictions to fishery operations.
以下、本発明の実施の形態を、図面を参照して詳細に説明する。   Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.
図1〜4を参照して本実施形態に係る人工魚礁の構成について説明する。図1は、本実施形態に係る人工魚礁の構成を示す斜視図である。図2は、図1に示す人工魚礁の構成を示す上面図であり、図3は、図1に示す人工魚礁の構成を示す底面図であり、図4は、図1に示す人工魚礁の構成を示すA−A断面図である。なお、図3では、説明を容易にするため底部となる面をドットで示す。   The configuration of the artificial fish reef according to the present embodiment will be described with reference to FIGS. FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing the configuration of the artificial fish reef according to the present embodiment. 2 is a top view showing the configuration of the artificial fish reef shown in FIG. 1, FIG. 3 is a bottom view showing the configuration of the artificial fish reef shown in FIG. 1, and FIG. 4 is the configuration of the artificial fish reef shown in FIG. It is AA sectional drawing which shows this. In FIG. 3, the bottom surface is indicated by dots for ease of explanation.
人工魚礁1は、その外観が緩やかな曲面を有するドーム型の構造体であり、一定の肉厚を有する殻壁により構成される。殻壁の外面10は、凸状の緩やかな曲面形状を有する。殻壁の内部15が凹状の緩やかな曲面形状を有し、人工魚礁1の内部空間を画定する。   The artificial fish reef 1 is a dome-shaped structure having a curved surface whose appearance is gentle, and is constituted by a shell wall having a certain thickness. The outer surface 10 of the shell wall has a convex and gently curved shape. The inside 15 of the shell wall has a concave, gently curved shape, and defines the internal space of the artificial reef 1.
人工魚礁1の底部は、円形で、その中央が開放されており、底部の円形に沿って殻壁が形成される。つまり、図3中にドットで示すように、人工魚礁1の底部は、殻壁の肉厚により環状に形成される。   The bottom of the artificial fish reef 1 is circular, the center thereof is open, and a shell wall is formed along the circular shape of the bottom. That is, as indicated by dots in FIG. 3, the bottom of the artificial fish reef 1 is formed in an annular shape due to the thickness of the shell wall.
したがって、人工魚礁1は、下方が開放される環状の底部を有し、その周縁部14から頂部に向かって緩やかな曲面形状の殻壁を設け、凸状に形成される。   Therefore, the artificial fish reef 1 has an annular bottom that opens downward, and has a gently curved shell wall from the peripheral edge 14 toward the top, and is formed in a convex shape.
人工魚礁1の頂部周辺である天井部には、内部空間を外部に開放するための開口11が貫設され、周縁部14には、半楕円状の複数の孔12が等間隔で貫設される。   An opening 11 for opening the internal space to the outside is penetrated in the ceiling portion around the top portion of the artificial fish reef 1, and a plurality of semi-elliptical holes 12 are penetrated in the peripheral portion 14 at equal intervals. The
内部空間は、凹状の殻壁内面15により画定され、内部空間には、内部空間を部分的に仕切る仕切り板13が、周縁部14に形成される複数の孔12を避けて放射状に複数配置される。仕切り板13は、開口11から下方に架けて殻壁内面15に沿って配置され、図3中にドットで示すように、人工魚礁1の底部の一部を構成する。   The internal space is defined by a concave shell wall inner surface 15, and a plurality of partition plates 13 that partially partition the internal space are arranged radially avoiding the plurality of holes 12 formed in the peripheral portion 14. The The partition plate 13 is disposed along the shell wall inner surface 15 so as to extend downward from the opening 11 and constitutes a part of the bottom of the artificial fish reef 1 as indicated by dots in FIG. 3.
図4は、図2に示す上面図のA−A断面を示す。図4に示す人工魚礁1内部では、開口11の中央および両端から下方に向かって仕切り板13が配置される状態が示される。   4 shows an AA cross section of the top view shown in FIG. In the artificial reef 1 shown in FIG. 4, a state is shown in which the partition plate 13 is disposed downward from the center and both ends of the opening 11.
人工魚礁1の殻壁外面10は、緩やかな曲面形状で形成されており、桁曳き操業において漁具を損傷させたり、根掛かりを防止することができる。   The shell wall outer surface 10 of the artificial fish reef 1 is formed in a gently curved surface shape, and can damage fishing gear or prevent rooting in the girdling operation.
人工魚礁1は全体をコンクリートで成型することが好ましい。この場合、殻壁の外面10がコンクリートで構成されるため、ナマコ類、ウニ類およびアワビ類にとって棲み場となり得る。また、人工魚礁1全体をコンクリートで成型する場合、木材、FRP(繊維強化樹脂)、鋼製枠、鉄等で型枠を形成し、そこにコンクリートを流し込むことで、簡単に人工魚礁1を製造することができる。   The artificial reef 1 is preferably molded entirely from concrete. In this case, since the outer surface 10 of the shell wall is made of concrete, it can be a place for sea cucumbers, sea urchins and abalone. In addition, when the whole artificial fish reef 1 is molded with concrete, the artificial fish reef 1 can be easily manufactured by forming a mold with wood, FRP (fiber reinforced resin), steel frame, iron, etc., and pouring the concrete there. can do.
人工魚礁1は、その内部空間でアマモ、コアマモ、スゲアマモ、タチアマモ、オオアマモ等(以下、アマモ類2という。)を繁殖させるとともに、桁曳き操業からアマモ類2の地下茎や根を保護することができるように構成されており、高さH(人工魚礁1の天井部に形成される開口11から底部である周縁部14までの高さ)が20〜50cmであり、開口11の内径D1は60〜100cmであることが好ましい。また、人工魚礁1の周縁部14は、内部空間を十分に確保するために、外径D2が150〜250cmであることが好ましい。   Artificial fish reef 1 is capable of breeding sea eels, coral ducks, squirrel ducks, white-tailed ducks, giant eel ducks, etc. (hereinafter referred to as eelgrass 2) in its interior space, and can protect the rhizomes and roots of eelgrass 2 from girdling operations. The height H (height from the opening 11 formed in the ceiling part of the artificial fish reef 1 to the peripheral edge part 14 which is the bottom part) is 20 to 50 cm, and the inner diameter D1 of the opening 11 is 60 to 60 cm. It is preferably 100 cm. Moreover, it is preferable that the outer peripheral diameter 14 of the peripheral part 14 of the artificial reef 1 is 150-250 cm in order to ensure sufficient internal space.
人工魚礁1の周縁部14に設けられる複数の孔12は、周辺に生息または回遊する多様な水産動物(例えば、魚類、ナマコ類、ウニ類、タコ類、イカ類、アワビ等で挙げられ、魚類としては、カレイ類、メバル類、タイ類、カジカ類、アイナメ等がある)が内部空間に出入し、アマモ類2に産卵したり、周辺の多様な水産動物の育成場ともなり得るように形成される。そのため、孔12は、周縁部14に沿って15〜30cmの周方向の幅wを有し、周方向に垂直な方向に対して殻壁の外面10に沿って周縁部14から15〜30cmの高さhを有する半円形状または半楕円形状であることが好ましい。しかし、孔12の数および形状は、本実施形態に記載されたものに限られず、水産動物が内部空間に出入することができれば、種々のものを適用することができる。   The plurality of holes 12 provided in the peripheral edge portion 14 of the artificial fish reef 1 are various aquatic animals (eg, fish, sea cucumber, sea urchin, octopus, squid, abalone, etc.) that inhabit or migrate around. Larvae, sea breams, Thais, stag beetles, sharks, etc.) enter and exit the interior space and lay eggs in the eelgrass 2 and form a breeding ground for various marine aquatic animals. Is done. Therefore, the hole 12 has a circumferential width w of 15 to 30 cm along the peripheral edge 14 and is 15 to 30 cm from the peripheral edge 14 along the outer surface 10 of the shell wall with respect to a direction perpendicular to the circumferential direction. A semicircular or semi-elliptical shape having a height h is preferred. However, the number and shape of the holes 12 are not limited to those described in the present embodiment, and various types can be applied as long as a marine animal can enter and exit the internal space.
人工魚礁1内部に設けられる仕切り板13は、人工魚礁1の構造強度を補強する。また、人工魚礁1を海底に沈設した際に、海底との接触面を拡大させることにより沈設時に姿勢の乱れをなくし安定性を高め、砂地への埋没を低減する。そのため、仕切り板13は、周縁部14に設けられる複数の孔12を避け、孔12と孔12の間に位置するように等間隔で配置されることが好ましい。   The partition plate 13 provided inside the artificial fish reef 1 reinforces the structural strength of the artificial fish reef 1. In addition, when the artificial fish reef 1 is submerged on the seabed, the contact surface with the seabed is enlarged, so that the posture is not disturbed at the time of subsidence, stability is improved, and burial in sand is reduced. Therefore, it is preferable that the partition plates 13 are arranged at equal intervals so as to be positioned between the holes 12 and avoid the plurality of holes 12 provided in the peripheral edge portion 14.
また、ナマコは、20度を上回る高水温期には運動量が著しく低下し、転石等に体を寄せる習性(夏眠)がある。そこで、人工魚礁1の内部空間において、ナマコが付着することができる壁面を増大するように、仕切り板13は複数形成される。人工魚礁1の内部空間を画定する殻壁内部15は、凹状の緩やか曲面であるため、ナマコやウニ類等が体を付着させやすく、それらの育成効果を高めることができる。   In addition, sea cucumber has a habit (summer sleep) in which the amount of exercise is remarkably reduced during a high water temperature period exceeding 20 ° C., and the body is brought to a stone. Therefore, a plurality of partition plates 13 are formed in the internal space of the artificial fish reef 1 so as to increase the wall surface to which the sea cucumber can adhere. Since the shell wall interior 15 that defines the internal space of the artificial fish reef 1 is a concave gentle curved surface, sea cucumbers, sea urchins and the like can easily adhere to the body, and the growth effect thereof can be enhanced.
図5は、人工魚礁の沈設時の状態を示す図である。   FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a state when the artificial reef is set.
人工魚礁1は、開口11を有するドームの天井部を上方にし、周縁部14を底部にして砂地に沈設される。   The artificial fish reef 1 is set in sand with the ceiling portion of the dome having the opening 11 facing upward and the peripheral edge portion 14 being the bottom portion.
人工魚礁1内の砂地には、粉末貝殻および礫(小石や砂利等)3が散布される。粉末貝殻および礫3は、人工魚礁1内に散布されるため、潮流による拡散を防ぎ、人工魚礁1内に滞留する。人工魚礁1内の砂地は、粉末貝殻および礫3により底質が改善され、アマモ類2にとって育成、繁殖しやすい環境となる。特に、スゲアマモは、粉砕貝殻を散布することで旺盛な栄養繁殖を示すことが知られている。   Powdered shells and gravel (pebbles, gravel, etc.) 3 are sprayed on the sand in the artificial fish reef 1. Since the powdered shells and gravel 3 are dispersed in the artificial fish reef 1, they are prevented from spreading due to tidal currents and stay in the artificial fish reef 1. The sand in the artificial fish reef 1 is improved in sediment by the powdered shells and gravel 3, which makes it easy for the eels 2 to grow and breed. In particular, it is known that Sugaamamo show vigorous vegetative reproduction by spraying ground shells.
このように、粉末貝殻および礫3が散布され底質が改善された人工魚礁1内の砂地に、人工魚礁1の開口11からアマモ類2の葉がでるように、アマモ類2が植付けられる。移植されたアマモ類2は、人工魚礁1によって周囲を囲まれているため、潮流による影響が少ない。   In this way, the eels 2 are planted on the sandy ground in the artificial fish reef 1 where the powder shells and gravel 3 have been dispersed and the bottom sediment has been improved so that the leaves of the eels 2 emerge from the openings 11 of the artificial fish reef 1. The transplanted eels 2 are surrounded by the artificial fish reef 1 so that they are less affected by tidal currents.
つまり、海底の砂地に移植されたアマモ類2は、根茎が砂地中を縦横に匍匐して強固に根付くまでは、潮流により洗掘され流出されやすい。しかし、人工魚礁1は、潮流により移動することなく、一ヶ所に滞留するため、アマモ類2の周囲の砂地が洗掘されることを防止する。そのため、人工魚礁1は、移植されたアマモ類2が根茎を砂地中に匍匐し生着することを容易にする。   In other words, sea cucumbers 2 transplanted to the sandy seabed are easily scoured and drained by the tidal current until the rhizomes are firmly rooted in the sandy land vertically and horizontally. However, since the artificial fish reef 1 stays in one place without moving due to the tidal current, it prevents the sandy ground around the eelgrass 2 from being scoured. Therefore, the artificial reef 1 makes it easy for the transplanted eelgrass 2 to plant the rhizomes in the sand and engraft them.
従来、アマモ類は、海水や底質の流動が大きい場所では生育することができないため、外海域や内湾であっても、波浪の影響を受けやすい地先では、アマモ類の藻場を造成することは困難であった。特に、アマモでは、底質の砂等を動かす掃流力(シールズ数)が0.08以下の藻場が適地とされている。人工魚礁1がアマモ類2周囲の海水や低質の流動を低減させるため、掃流力が大きな海域であっても、アマモ類2を育成、繁殖させ、アマモ藻場を造成することができる。   Traditionally, eelgrass cannot grow in places where the flow of seawater and sediments is large. Therefore, seaweed beds for eelgrasses are created in areas that are susceptible to waves, even in the outer seas and inner bays. It was difficult. In particular, sea turtles are suitable for seaweed beds with a scavenging force (Shields number) of 0.08 or less for moving sediment sand and the like. Since the artificial reef 1 reduces seawater around the sea lions 2 and low-quality flow, the sea eels 2 can be bred and bred to create an eelgrass algae even in a sea area with a large scavenging force.
このように、本実施形態に係る人工魚礁1内に、粉末貝殻および礫3を散布し底質を改善し、底質が改善された砂地にアマモ類2を移植することで、アマモ類2が育成し、繁殖することができる。   In this manner, the shellfish 2 and the gravel 3 are sprayed into the artificial fish reef 1 according to the present embodiment to improve the bottom sediment, and the sea turtles 2 are transplanted to the sandy ground where the bottom sediment is improved. Can grow and breed.
また、アマモ類2の落ち葉やそれに付着する珪藻は、潮流により拡散されることなく、人工魚礁1内に滞留する。そのため、落ち葉や珪藻がナマコやウニ類の餌料となり、ナマコやウニ類が効率的に摂餌することができるため、人工魚礁1は、ナマコやウニ類にとって棲み場となり得る。   Moreover, the fallen leaves of the sea lions 2 and the diatoms adhering to them stay in the artificial reef 1 without being diffused by the tidal current. Therefore, since the fallen leaves and diatoms serve as food for sea cucumbers and sea urchins, and the sea cucumbers and sea urchins can feed efficiently, the artificial reef 1 can be a habitat for sea cucumbers and sea urchins.
従来、ナマコの増殖場を造成する際には、ナマコの棲み場を確保するために、投石や構造物が設置され、これにより、アマモ類の藻場を消滅させる場合があった。しかし、人工魚礁1を使用すれば、アマモ類2の藻場を傷つけることなく、ナマコの増殖を行うことができる。   Conventionally, when creating a sea cucumber breeding ground, stones and structures have been installed in order to secure a sea bream habitat, which may cause the sea cucumber seaweed ground to disappear. However, if the artificial reef 1 is used, sea cucumbers can be propagated without damaging the seaweed beds of the sea lions 2.
図6は、桁曳き漁の操業時の人工魚礁を示す図である。なお、海底には藻場を造成するため複数の人工魚礁1が沈設されるが、本実施形態では、その説明の都合上、一つの人工魚礁1を示し、他の人工魚礁1については省略する。   FIG. 6 is a diagram showing an artificial fish reef at the time of girdling fishing operation. Although a plurality of artificial fish reefs 1 are set up on the seabed to create a seaweed bed, in the present embodiment, one artificial fish reef 1 is shown for convenience of explanation, and other artificial fish reefs 1 are omitted. .
桁曳き漁は、底曳漁の一種であり、桁曳網4を海底に据えながら船で曳く漁法である。   Girder fishing is a type of bottom fishing, and is a fishing method that uses a boat while the girder net 4 is placed on the seabed.
桁曳網4は、通常ビームを呼ばれる支持棒43に直交し等間隔で配置される複数の爪44を有する爪部40と、爪部44から網部42に掛け連なるチェーン41と、水産物を捕集するための袋状の網部42とを有する。   The girder net 4 collects marine products, a claw part 40 having a plurality of claws 44 arranged at equal intervals orthogonal to a support rod 43 called a normal beam, a chain 41 extending from the claw parts 44 to the net part 42, and a fishery product. And a bag-like net part 42 for carrying out the process.
爪部40では、支持棒43の両端が海上の船から降ろされるロープに連結される。爪44は、基端側で支持棒43と結合し支持棒43に固定され、先端側にヒンジを設け、先端部を屈曲可能に構成される。   In the claw portion 40, both ends of the support rod 43 are connected to a rope that is lowered from a ship at sea. The claw 44 is coupled to the support bar 43 on the base end side and is fixed to the support bar 43, is provided with a hinge on the front end side, and is configured to be able to bend the front end portion.
チェーン41は、爪部40と網部42を連結するものであり、爪部40の先端部から網部42の開口に向かって配列されるとともに、それらに直交する方向にも配列される。つまり、チェーン41は、爪部40の支持棒43に対して垂直方向に配列されるものと、平行に配列されるものから構成される。   The chain 41 connects the claw part 40 and the net part 42 and is arranged from the tip part of the claw part 40 toward the opening of the net part 42 and also in a direction orthogonal to them. That is, the chain 41 is composed of one arranged in a direction perpendicular to the support rod 43 of the claw portion 40 and one arranged in parallel.
網部42は、細長い袋状の複数の網からなり、各網は一方に開口を有し、開口を揃えて束ねられることにより網部42の開口を形成する。網部42の開口の一部分はチェーン41と連結され底部を形成し、対向部分はロープにより爪部40の支持棒43に繋がれ、船で牽引されることにより開口が広がる。   The net part 42 is composed of a plurality of elongated bag-like nets. Each net has an opening on one side, and the openings of the net part 42 are formed by bundling the openings together. A part of the opening of the net part 42 is connected to the chain 41 to form a bottom part, and the opposite part is connected to the support bar 43 of the claw part 40 by a rope, and the opening is widened by being pulled by a ship.
海底の砂地に沈設された人工魚礁1には、殻壁外面10にナマコが付着している。   Sea cucumbers are attached to the outer surface 10 of the shell wall in the artificial reef 1 set in the sandy seabed.
桁曳網4は、ロープによって海上の船と連結されて海中に沈められ、海底に載置される。船が前進することにより、ロープを介して桁曳網4が牽引される。   The girder net 4 is connected to a ship on the sea by a rope, is submerged in the sea, and is placed on the seabed. As the ship moves forward, the girder net 4 is pulled through the rope.
海底が砂地である場合には、全ての爪44は、海底に対して略垂直に立って、その一部は海底の砂に埋もれ移動する。   When the seabed is sandy, all the claws 44 stand substantially perpendicular to the seabed, and a part of them is buried in the seabed sand and moved.
桁曳網4が人工魚礁1を通過する際には、爪44の先端部が人工魚礁1の殻壁外面10によって後方に折れ曲がり、チェーン41を海底から浮かせ人工魚礁1の殻壁外面10に沿って移動させる。チェーン41は、人工魚礁1の殻壁外面10に沿って移動するとき、爪部40の支持棒43に対して平行に配列されるものが、人工魚礁1の殻壁外面10に付着しているナマコと接触し、人工魚礁1から引き剥がし、海中に浮遊させる。   When the girder net 4 passes through the artificial fish reef 1, the tip of the claw 44 is bent backward by the shell wall outer surface 10 of the artificial fish reef 1, and the chain 41 is lifted from the sea floor along the shell wall outer surface 10 of the artificial fish reef 1. Move. When the chain 41 moves along the shell wall outer surface 10 of the artificial reef 1, the chain 41 arranged parallel to the support rod 43 of the claw portion 40 is attached to the shell wall outer surface 10 of the artificial fish reef 1. Contact with sea cucumber, peel off from artificial reef 1 and float in the sea.
曳航されて網部42が人工魚礁1を通過する際に、浮遊したナマコが捕集される。   As the towed net 42 passes through the artificial reef 1, floating sea cucumbers are collected.
桁曳網4が船に引揚げられた後、網部42の中のナマコは雑多な収集物と選別され収獲される。   After the girder net 4 is withdrawn to the ship, the sea cucumber in the net part 42 is selected and collected as a miscellaneous collection.
このように、人工魚礁1の殻壁外面10が緩やかな曲面形状で形成されているため、桁曳網4がその表面を通過しても、従来のように、桁曳網4が人工魚礁に引っ掛かることはなく、漁具の損傷を抑制することができる。また、桁曳網4は人工魚礁1の殻壁外面10に沿って移動するため、人工魚礁1内部に生息するアマモ類2の茎が損傷を受けたり、根から曳き剥がされたりすることを防止することができる。   Thus, since the shell wall outer surface 10 of the artificial reef 1 is formed in a gently curved shape, even if the girder net 4 passes through the surface, the girder net 4 is caught on the artificial reef as before. No, damage to fishing gear can be suppressed. In addition, since the girder net 4 moves along the outer surface 10 of the shell wall of the artificial reef 1, the stems of the sea lions 2 that inhabit the artificial reef 1 are prevented from being damaged or peeled off from the roots. be able to.
本発明に係る人工魚礁を海底に複数沈設して藻場を造成すれば、生育し、繁殖したアマモ類を桁曳き操業から適切に保護することができ、藻場での桁曳き操業を禁止することなく、造成した藻場を維持することができる。そのため、桁曳き操業によって漁業生産を確保しながら、藻場を造成することができ、藻場の造成が漁業生産の向上に直接繋がることとなる。   If an artificial sea reef according to the present invention is submerged on the seabed to create a seaweed bed, it is possible to properly protect the grown and propagated eelgrasses from girdling operations, and prohibits gimmicking operations in the seaweed beds. It is possible to maintain the created seaweed bed without any problems. Therefore, it is possible to create a seaweed basin while securing fishery production through the operation of girders, and the creation of the seaweed basin directly leads to an improvement in fishery production.
本発明は、上記した実施の形態のみに限定されるものではなく、特許請求の範囲内において、種々改変することができる。   The present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments, and various modifications can be made within the scope of the claims.
上記実施形態では、人工魚礁内に、粉末貝殻および礫を散布し底質を改善し、底質が改善された砂地にアマモ類を移植することで、アマモ類の藻場を造成することができるが、本発明は既存のアマモ類の藻場にも適用することができる。すなわち、既存のアマモ類の藻場に人工魚礁を沈設し、上述したように、アマモ類の繁殖に適した環境を提供することで、既存のアマモ類の藻場が保護、改善され、周辺の多様な水産動物の育成場になるとともに、桁曳き操業が可能な藻場にすることができる。   In the above-mentioned embodiment, the sea turtle seaweed bed can be constructed by spraying powdered shells and gravel in the artificial fish reef to improve the bottom sediment, and transplanting the sea eels to the sandy ground where the bottom sediment is improved. However, the present invention can also be applied to existing seaweed beds. In other words, by constructing an artificial reef in an existing sea lion's algae field and providing an environment suitable for the breeding of sea eels, as described above, the existing sea turtle's sea field is protected and improved. It can be used as a breeding ground for various aquatic animals, and it can also be used as a seaweed place that can be operated with girders.
また、上記実施形態では、人工魚礁の周縁部は円形であるが、本発明はこれに限定されず、海底に安定して沈設することができ、桁曳網に引っ掛かることはなく、漁具を損傷しない形状であれば、楕円形状や多角形など他の形状を採用することができる。   Moreover, in the said embodiment, although the peripheral part of artificial fish reef is circular, this invention is not limited to this, It can be stably settled in the seabed, it does not get caught in a girder net, and does not damage fishing gear If it is a shape, other shapes such as an elliptical shape and a polygonal shape can be adopted.
また、上記実施形態では、人工魚礁全体をコンクリートで成型したが、ナマコ類、ウニ類およびアワビ類等にとって棲み場となり得るように、少なくとも人工魚礁の殻壁外面がコンクリートで覆われるように構成されていればよい。つまり、一定形状で骨組みを形成し、殻壁の外側をコンクリートで構成することもできる。   Further, in the above embodiment, the entire artificial reef is molded with concrete, but at least the outer surface of the shell wall of the artificial reef is configured to be covered with concrete so that it can be a stagnation place for sea cucumbers, sea urchins and abalone. It only has to be. That is, a framework can be formed in a fixed shape, and the outside of the shell wall can be made of concrete.
また、上記実施の形態では、アマモ類の藻場について説明したが、本発明はこれに限定されるものではない。本発明は、コンブ藻場やホンダワラ藻場等の他の藻場の造成にも適用することができる。   Moreover, in the said embodiment, although the seaweed bed of the eelgrass was demonstrated, this invention is not limited to this. The present invention can also be applied to the construction of other seaweed beds such as the kombu seaweed beds and the Honda walla seaweed beds.
本実施形態に係る人工魚礁の構成を示す斜視図である。It is a perspective view which shows the structure of the artificial fish reef which concerns on this embodiment. 図1に示す人工魚礁の構成を示す上面図である。It is a top view which shows the structure of the artificial fish reef shown in FIG. 図1に示す人工魚礁の構成を示す底面図である。It is a bottom view which shows the structure of the artificial reef shown in FIG. 図1に示す人工魚礁の構成を示すA−A断面図である。It is AA sectional drawing which shows the structure of the artificial fish reef shown in FIG. 人工魚礁の沈設時の状態を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the state at the time of sedimentation of an artificial fish reef. 桁曳き漁の操業時の人工魚礁を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the artificial fish reef at the time of the operation of girdling.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
1 人工魚礁、
2 アマモ類、
3 粉砕貝殻および礫、
4 桁曳網。
1 Artificial fish reef,
2 Mallards,
3 ground shells and gravel,
4-digit screen.

Claims (7)

  1. 底部が開放されるドーム型の人工魚礁であって、
    外面が凸状の曲面形状を呈する殻壁と、
    前記殻壁の内部に形成され、海底への沈設時に海中植物を育成し繁殖するための内部空間と、
    前記殻壁の天井部に形成され前記内部空間を開放するための開口と、
    前記殻壁の周縁部に形成され前記内部空間に貫通する複数の孔とを有することを特徴とする人工魚礁。
    A dome-shaped artificial reef with an open bottom,
    A shell wall having a curved surface with a convex outer surface;
    An internal space formed inside the shell wall for cultivating and breeding underwater plants when set to the sea floor;
    An opening formed on the ceiling of the shell wall to open the internal space;
    An artificial fish reef having a plurality of holes formed in a peripheral portion of the shell wall and penetrating into the internal space.
  2. 前記内部空間には、前記開口から前記底部に架けて前記殻壁の内面に放射状に配置される複数の仕切り板をさらに有する請求項1に記載の人工魚礁。   2. The artificial fish reef according to claim 1, further comprising a plurality of partition plates arranged radially on the inner surface of the shell wall from the opening to the bottom portion in the internal space.
  3. 前記人工魚礁はコンクリートで構成される請求項1または2に記載の人工魚礁。   The artificial reef according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the artificial reef is made of concrete.
  4. 前記天井部に形成される前記開口から前記周縁部までの高さが20〜50cmであり、前記開口の内径が60〜100cmである請求項1〜3のいずれか1項に記載の人工魚礁。   The artificial fish reef according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein a height from the opening formed in the ceiling to the peripheral edge is 20 to 50 cm, and an inner diameter of the opening is 60 to 100 cm.
  5. 前記海中植物はアマモ類である請求項1〜4のいずれか1項に記載の人工魚礁。   The artificial fish reef according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the undersea plants are sea lions.
  6. 請求項1〜5のいずれか1項に記載の人工魚礁を海底に複数沈設して造成される藻場において、
    船から底曳網を降ろすステップと、
    前記底曳網を前記船で牽引し、前記人工魚礁に付着する水産動物を捕集するステップと、
    前記底曳網を引き揚げ、前記底曳網に捕集された前記水産動物を収獲するステップと、を有することを特徴とする底曳漁の操業方法。
    In the seaweed basin constructed by submerging a plurality of artificial reefs according to any one of claims 1 to 5 on the seabed,
    A step of unloading the bottom net from the ship;
    Towing the bottom coral net with the ship and collecting marine animals adhering to the artificial reef;
    A method for operating bottom fishing, comprising the step of lifting the bottom cage net and harvesting the aquatic animals collected in the bottom cage net.
  7. 前記水産動物はナマコであり、前記底曳網は桁曳網である請求項6に記載の底曳漁の操業方法。   The operation method of bottom coral fishing according to claim 6, wherein the aquatic animal is a sea cucumber and the bottom coral net is a girder net.
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KR101183099B1 (en) * 2011-10-12 2012-09-27 대한민국 Sea cucumber house
KR101349057B1 (en) * 2012-04-09 2014-01-10 박송범 Aestivating apparatus for sea cucumber cultivation
KR101289093B1 (en) 2013-06-08 2013-07-23 부민종합건설 주식회사 Cucumber growth dome type artificial reef

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