JP2007169096A - Plant-based compost and method for growing farm product and farm product - Google Patents

Plant-based compost and method for growing farm product and farm product Download PDF

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JP2007169096A
JP2007169096A JP2005366806A JP2005366806A JP2007169096A JP 2007169096 A JP2007169096 A JP 2007169096A JP 2005366806 A JP2005366806 A JP 2005366806A JP 2005366806 A JP2005366806 A JP 2005366806A JP 2007169096 A JP2007169096 A JP 2007169096A
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Kiyohiro Maeda
清浩 前田
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/20Fertilizers of biological origin, e.g. guano or fertilizers made from animal corpses

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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a plant-based compost for growing a farm product capable of processing it without damaging its proper taste and flavor and without using a sterilizing process, and a method for growing a farm product using the compost. <P>SOLUTION: The compost is mainly composed of a fermented product prepared by mixing at least corncob residue, rice bran, and a bean-curd refuse and fermenting, granular charcoal, and an effective microorganism group, and given to a field in a period at least after harvesting and before seeding or transplanting a seedling. The effective microorganism group contains a lactobacillus, Bacillus subtilis or bacillus natto, and a yeast fungus. A household dish producer receiving crops grown by this method, especially vegetables to be processed, can process them only by washing with water without sterilization and the vegetables thus processed keep taste and flavor. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2007,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、消毒工程を設けずに作物本来の味や風味を損なうことなく加工できる作物の栽培技術に関し、より詳しくは、施設圃場における加工用野菜の栽培技術に関する。   The present invention relates to a cultivation technique for a crop that can be processed without impairing the original taste and flavor of the crop without providing a disinfection process, and more particularly to a cultivation technique for a vegetable for processing in a facility field.

惣菜加工工場において、野菜は惣菜の主原料の一つとして使用されているが、野菜への腐敗菌等の付着量が多いと、短期間のうちに腐敗することが知られている。また、食中毒の原因となる病原菌による汚染対策も衛生管理上重要であり、病原菌としては、大腸菌群、黄色ブドウ球菌、サルモネラ菌等が知られている。野菜を原料として受け入れてカットした後にはこれらの腐敗菌や病原菌が蔓延しやすくなり、また、生産地においてすでにカット加工されて惣菜加工工場に入荷する場合には、入荷時点で腐敗菌や病原菌が蔓延している恐れもある。特に、野菜の用途としてサラダなどに使用する場合には、生の状態で製品中に入るため、その衛生管理は重要とされている。このような状況において、惣菜加工工場では、野菜を加工する前に消毒工程を設けて腐敗菌や病原菌の数を減少させている。   Vegetables are used as one of the main ingredients in sugar beet processing factories. However, it is known that when a large amount of spoilage bacteria or the like adheres to the vegetables, it will rot in a short period of time. In addition, measures against contamination by pathogenic bacteria that cause food poisoning are also important for hygiene management, and Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and the like are known as pathogenic bacteria. After receiving and cutting vegetables as a raw material, these spoilage bacteria and pathogenic bacteria are likely to spread, and when they are already cut in the production area and arrive at the sugar beet processing factory, the spoilage fungi and pathogenic bacteria are not available at the time of arrival. There is also the danger of spreading. In particular, when used as a vegetable for salads and the like, it enters the product in a raw state, and thus hygiene management is considered important. Under these circumstances, sugar beet processing factories provide a disinfection process before processing vegetables to reduce the number of spoilage and pathogens.

消毒する方法としては、次亜塩素酸溶液等による薬剤処理を行ったり、熱湯浸漬による処理を行ったりする方法が知られている。しかしながら、消毒することによって衛生管理上の問題は解決できても、野菜本来の味や風味が損なわれてしまい、品質低下が起こるという問題がある。また、惣菜加工工場においては、消毒工程が必須となり、加工工程が煩雑となる。また、もともと腐敗菌や病原菌が付着していない健全な野菜においても消毒を行うこととなり、消毒工程の無駄となっている場合もある。   As a method of disinfection, a method of performing chemical treatment with a hypochlorous acid solution or the like, or performing treatment with hot water immersion is known. However, even though sanitary management problems can be solved by disinfecting, there is a problem that the original taste and flavor of vegetables are impaired and quality is deteriorated. Moreover, in a vegetable processing factory, a disinfection process becomes essential and a processing process becomes complicated. In addition, healthy vegetables that are originally free of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria are also sterilized, which may be a waste of the sterilization process.

一方、病原菌等を抑制し作物の生育を良好に管理する栽培技術が知られている。例えば、特許文献1には、嫌気性菌である少なくとも乳酸菌群と酵母群と光合成細菌群とを含む有用微生物群と海洋表層水等を配合することによって得られた植物活性資材が記載されている。この植物活性資材は、土壌へ灌水したり葉面散布したりして、作物の生育を促進するのに加え、病原菌を抑制することができるとしている。   On the other hand, a cultivation technique for controlling pathogenic bacteria and the like and controlling the growth of crops well is known. For example, Patent Document 1 describes a plant active material obtained by blending a useful microorganism group including at least lactic acid bacteria group, yeast group, and photosynthetic bacteria group which are anaerobic bacteria, marine surface water, and the like. . This plant active material is said to be able to suppress pathogens in addition to promoting the growth of crops by irrigating the soil or spraying leaves.

また、特許文献2には、磁気処理水を散布するしいたけの栽培方法が記載されている。この栽培方法によれば、しいたけの原木として使用する鋸屑(人工榾木)への雑菌汚染が抑制されるとしている。   Patent Literature 2 describes a cultivation method for shiitake mushrooms in which magnetically treated water is sprayed. According to this cultivation method, it is said that contamination of sawdust (artificial wood) used as shiitake mushrooms is suppressed.

特開2005−60317号公報JP 2005-60317 A 特開平3−127911号公報Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 3-127911

しかしながら、特許文献1に記載の植物活性資材は、トマトの葉面散布を行った試験ではトマトに対するウドンコ病の抑制効果はあるが、同じ試験において微生物処理区では、このウドンコ病の抑制効果は小さい結果となっている。このことにより、有用微生物群の単独使用による病原菌の抑制効果は小さいものと考えられる。また、トマト(可食部)に対する病原菌等の抑制効果は不明である。   However, the plant active material described in Patent Document 1 has an inhibitory effect on powdery mildew on tomatoes in a test in which tomato leaves are sprayed, but in the same test, the inhibitory effect on powdery mildew is small in the microbial treatment section. It is the result. Thus, it is considered that the effect of suppressing pathogenic bacteria by using a useful microorganism group alone is small. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of pathogenic bacteria etc. with respect to a tomato (edible part) is unknown.

特許文献2に記載の人工榾木は、鋸屑:米糠が7:2であり、もともと生息している微生物数が少ない。このため、もともと土壌に生息する膨大な大腸菌群等の微生物に対しての効果は不明であり、さらに、しいたけ(可食部)に対する病原菌等の抑制効果も不明である。   In the artificial oak described in Patent Document 2, sawdust: rice koji is 7: 2, and the number of microorganisms originally inhabiting is small. For this reason, the effect with respect to microorganisms, such as enormous coliforms which originally inhabit soil, is unknown, and also the inhibitory effect of the pathogenic bacteria etc. with respect to shiitake (edible part) is unknown.

ところで、もともと圃場には大腸菌群や腐敗菌等の微生物が多く存在し、圃場に投入される動物糞由来の堆肥(家畜糞堆肥)にも多く含まれている。特に大腸菌群は衛生管理上の指標となるため、加工用野菜(可食部)においては大腸菌群の付着量が検査され、この付着量が多いと加工用野菜を消毒しなければならない。しかし特許文献1,2においては、生産される野菜(可食部)に対する大腸菌群や腐敗菌等を減少させることを想定していないため、このような技術をもってしても野菜(可食部)にこれらの微生物が付着する恐れがある。このように大腸菌群や腐敗菌等の微生物が付着した野菜を、消毒工程を設けないで加工すると不衛生であり食中毒となる恐れがある。また、消毒工程を設ければ、前述のように野菜本来の味や風味が損なわれてしまい、品質低下が起こるという問題がある。   By the way, a lot of microorganisms such as coliforms and spoilage bacteria originally exist in the field, and it is contained in a large amount in animal manure-derived compost (livestock manure compost) introduced into the field. In particular, coliforms are an indicator for hygiene management, so the amount of coliforms deposited on processed vegetables (edible part) is inspected, and if this amount is large, the processed vegetables must be disinfected. However, in Patent Documents 1 and 2, since it is not assumed to reduce coliform bacteria, spoilage bacteria, etc. with respect to the produced vegetable (edible part), even with such a technique, the vegetable (edible part) There is a risk that these microorganisms adhere to the surface. Thus, if vegetables with attached microorganisms such as coliform bacteria and spoilage bacteria are processed without providing a disinfection process, they are unsanitary and may cause food poisoning. Moreover, if a disinfection process is provided, there exists a problem that the original taste and flavor of vegetables will be impaired as mentioned above, and a quality fall will occur.

そこで本発明が解決しようとする課題は、消毒工程を設けずに野菜本来の味や風味を損なうことなく加工できる作物を栽培するための植物系堆肥と、これを使用する作物の栽培技術を提供することにある。   Therefore, the problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide a plant compost for cultivating a crop that can be processed without impairing the original taste and flavor of vegetables without providing a disinfection process, and a cultivation technology for a crop using the same. There is to do.

本発明の植物系堆肥は、少なくともトウモロコシ残幹と米糠とおからとを混合して発酵させた発酵物と、粉粒状の炭と、有用微生物群と、を主体とすることを特徴とする。
また、本発明の作物の栽培方法は、少なくとも収穫後から圃場に播種する前または苗を移植する前に、前記植物系堆肥を、圃場に施用することを特徴とする。
The plant compost of the present invention is characterized by comprising mainly a fermented material obtained by mixing and fermenting at least corn residue trunk, rice bran and okara, powdered charcoal, and useful microorganisms.
The crop cultivation method of the present invention is characterized in that the plant-based compost is applied to the field at least before sowing or before transplanting seedlings after harvesting.

本発明者は、前記発酵物と、炭と、有用微生物群とを組合せたものを主体とした、非動物糞由来である植物系堆肥を、少なくとも収穫後から播種前または苗移植前に圃場に施用することにより、作物、特に小ねぎのような生育量が小さい加工用野菜に腐敗菌や病原菌等の微生物(以下、悪玉菌と称すことがある)が付着しにくいことを発見し、本発明に至ったものである。すなわち、上記の構成とすることにより、生産者は、悪玉菌、特に、大腸菌群および黄色ブドウ球菌や腐敗菌が付着しにくい作物、特に加工用野菜を栽培、生産することができる。なお、本来、動物糞由来の堆肥(家畜糞堆肥)には大腸菌群が多く含まれるため、これを圃場に施用しないことが望ましいが、少量程度施用した場合であっても、悪玉菌等は作物に付着しにくいものと考えられる。従って、この加工用野菜を入荷した惣菜加工業者は、これを消毒することなく水洗いのみで加工することができ、消費者は、味や風味を保った本来の状態で加工用野菜を食することができる。   The inventor of the present invention is a plant compost derived from non-animal feces, mainly composed of a combination of the fermented material, charcoal, and useful microorganisms, at least before harvesting and before sowing or before transplanting seedlings. By applying it, it was discovered that microorganisms such as spoilage bacteria and pathogenic bacteria (hereinafter sometimes referred to as bad bacteria) are less likely to adhere to crops, especially processed vegetables such as small onions, which are small in growth amount. Has been reached. That is, with the above-described configuration, the producer can cultivate and produce bad bacteria, particularly crops that are difficult to adhere to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and spoilage bacteria, especially vegetables for processing. Originally, animal manure-derived compost (domestic manure compost) contains a large number of coliforms, so it is desirable not to apply it to the field. It is thought that it is hard to adhere to. Therefore, the side dish processor who received this processing vegetable can process it only by washing without disinfecting it, and consumers eat the processing vegetable in its original state while maintaining the taste and flavor. Can do.

ここで、加工用野菜に悪玉菌等が付着しにくい理由としては、以下が考えられる。発酵物の原料となるトウモロコシ残幹は、炭素率が30前後であり、繊維質が含まれながらも窒素が1.3%含まれるため、土壌の物理性の改善効果があるとともに、肥料効果をも有している。また、米糠やおからは、窒素、リン、カリウムがバランス良く含まれており、土壌微生物の栄養源として効果があるとともに、有機質肥料としての効果が期待できる。特に米糠はリン、おからは窒素の効果に優れている。   Here, the following may be considered as reasons why bad bacteria or the like hardly adhere to processing vegetables. The remaining corn trunk, which is the raw material for fermented products, has a carbon ratio of around 30 and contains 1.3% nitrogen while containing fiber, so it has the effect of improving the physical properties of the soil and has a fertilizer effect. Also have. In addition, rice bran and okara contain nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in a well-balanced manner, which is effective as a nutrient source for soil microorganisms and can be expected to be effective as an organic fertilizer. In particular, rice bran is excellent in the effects of phosphorus and okara from nitrogen.

さらに、トウモロコシ残幹と米糠とおからとを原料として発酵物とすれば、堆肥化することにより易分解性の有機物を分解して、多くの腐植を含むため、総合的な土壌改良材としての効果を発揮する。その効果として、この植物系堆肥は、肥料的効果、肥効増進効果、土壌の化学性改善、土壌の物理性の改善、土壌の微生物活性の改善、野菜の生理活性への効果、土壌緩衝能の改善等が期待できる。このような総合的な改善効果により、加工用野菜を栽培しているときに、土壌微生物の状態を良好に保つ地盤ができ、土壌病害を防止するとともに、加工用野菜の生育が良好になって、加工用野菜の対病害虫性も高まるものと考えられる。これにより、加工用野菜の表面には、悪玉菌等が付着しにくくなると考えられる。   Furthermore, if fermented products are made from corn residue, rice bran, and okara as raw materials, they are easily decomposed by composting and contain many humus. Demonstrate. As its effect, this plant compost has fertilizer effect, fertilizer enhancement effect, improvement of soil chemistry, improvement of soil physical property, improvement of soil microbial activity, effect on physiological activity of vegetables, soil buffering capacity Improvements can be expected. With such a comprehensive improvement effect, when cultivating vegetables for processing, the ground that keeps the state of soil microorganisms good can be created, soil diseases can be prevented, and the growth of vegetables for processing can be improved. It is considered that the vegetables for processing are also more resistant to diseases and pests. Thereby, it is thought that bad bacteria etc. become difficult to adhere to the surface of the vegetable for processing.

ここで、「付着しにくい」とは、水洗で洗浄すればそのまま生で食しても問題のない菌数であることを意味しており、必ずしも雑菌まで菌数をゼロにすることを意味するものではない。   Here, “hard to adhere” means that the number of bacteria that can be eaten raw as it is if washed with water, does not necessarily mean that the number of bacteria is zero. is not.

さらに、本発明においては、炭と、有用微生物群を施用している。炭は、多孔質かつ吸着性を有することから、土壌改良材として利用される他、微生物の住処として好適である。これにより、前述の発酵物との効果に加え、炭の効果により相乗効果が得られ、有用微生物群は良好な状態で生育することが可能となり、有用微生物群が悪玉菌に優性となって、悪玉菌が蔓延することを防止することができる。なお、「有用」とは、前記したように、土壌中の悪玉菌を抑制し、土壌中の微生物相を好適な状態とするために役に立つことを意味する。   Furthermore, in the present invention, charcoal and useful microorganism groups are applied. Since charcoal is porous and adsorbent, it is not only used as a soil conditioner, but also suitable as a place where microorganisms live. Thereby, in addition to the effect with the fermented product described above, a synergistic effect is obtained by the effect of charcoal, it becomes possible for the useful microorganism group to grow in a good state, the useful microorganism group becomes dominant to bad bacteria, It is possible to prevent the spread of bad bacteria. Note that “useful” means that, as described above, it is useful for suppressing bad bacteria in the soil and bringing the microflora in the soil into a suitable state.

また、発酵物の原料には、トウモロコシ残幹が35容量%以上45容量%以下、米糠が25容量%以上35容量%以下、おからが25容量%以上35容量%以下とすることが望ましい。このような原料の配合割合とすれば、前述の土壌改良材としての効果を充分発揮することができる。
ここで、トウモロコシ残幹が35容量%未満の場合、発酵物中の繊維分が少なくなり、土壌物理性の改善効果が小さくなるとともに、微生物の窒素飢餓を生じる恐れがある。また、トウモロコシ残幹が45容量%を越えると、他の原料割合が減少して、肥料的効果が小さくなる。
In addition, it is desirable that the raw material of the fermented product should be 35% to 45% by volume of corn residue, 25% to 35% by volume of rice bran, and 25% to 35% by volume of okara. With such a blending ratio of raw materials, the above-described effect as a soil improving material can be sufficiently exhibited.
Here, when the corn residual trunk is less than 35% by volume, the fiber content in the fermented product is reduced, and the effect of improving soil physical properties is reduced, and there is a risk of causing nitrogen starvation of microorganisms. If the corn trunk exceeds 45% by volume, the ratio of other raw materials decreases, and the fertilizer effect decreases.

米糠が25容量%未満の場合、肥料成分、特にリンが減少し、肥料的効果が小さくなる。また米糠が35容量%を越えると、他の原料割合が減少し、その効果が小さくなる。
おからが25容量%未満の場合、肥料成分、特に窒素が減少し、肥料的効果が小さくなるとともに、微生物の窒素飢餓を生じる恐れがある。おからが35容量%を越えると、他の原料割合が減少し、その効果が小さくなる。
When rice bran is less than 25% by volume, fertilizer components, particularly phosphorus, are reduced, and the fertilizer effect is reduced. On the other hand, when the rice bran exceeds 35% by volume, the ratio of other raw materials decreases, and the effect becomes small.
When okara is less than 25% by volume, fertilizer components, particularly nitrogen, are reduced, the fertilizer effect is reduced, and nitrogen starvation of microorganisms may occur. When okara exceeds 35% by volume, the ratio of other raw materials is reduced, and the effect is reduced.

また、有用微生物群は、乳酸菌と、枯草菌または納豆菌と、酵母菌と、を含むことが望ましい。ここで、乳酸菌は、堆肥等の有機物の分解を促進するのとともに、抗菌物質を出して悪玉菌の生育を防ぐことができる。枯草菌または納豆菌は、堆肥等の有機物の分解を促進し、酵母菌は、土壌中に有用な物質を合成して土壌中の状態を改良することができると考えられる。従って、これらの有用微生物を使用すれば、悪玉菌の蔓延を防止して、土壌環境を良好なものとし、土壌の微生物相を良好なものとすることができる。そして、発酵物が有用微生物の栄養源となったり土壌環境を改善したりし、さらに炭が上記の有用微生物の住処になったりさらに土壌環境を改善したりするため、有用微生物は、飛躍的にその生育環境が好適になって活性が高まることとなる。
以上のように、本発明においては、発酵物と、炭と、有用微生物を組み合わせれば、飛躍的に圃場を好適な状態にできる。また、作物の生育状況によっては、本発明の植物系堆肥を生育期間中にも使用することができる。
In addition, it is desirable that the useful microorganism group includes lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus subtilis or natto bacteria, and yeast. Here, lactic acid bacteria can promote the decomposition of organic matter such as compost, and can also prevent the growth of bad bacteria by producing antibacterial substances. Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus natto promotes the decomposition of organic matter such as compost, and yeast can synthesize useful substances in the soil to improve the condition in the soil. Therefore, if these useful microorganisms are used, the spread of bad bacteria can be prevented, the soil environment can be improved, and the soil microflora can be improved. And because fermented material becomes a nutrient source for useful microorganisms and improves the soil environment, and charcoal becomes a residence of the above-mentioned useful microorganisms and further improves the soil environment, The growth environment becomes suitable and the activity is increased.
As described above, in the present invention, if a fermented product, charcoal, and useful microorganisms are combined, the field can be dramatically improved in a suitable state. Moreover, the plant compost of this invention can be used also during a growth period depending on the growth condition of a crop.

ここで、発酵物の原料として他の原料を一部混合しても良いが、前述のように非動物糞由来とすることが望ましい。これにより、家畜などの動物の糞由来の大腸菌群が圃場に混入されることを防止することができるため、圃場中の大腸菌群などの悪玉菌の数は減少し、加工用野菜の表面に付着することを防止できる。   Here, a part of other raw materials may be mixed as the raw material of the fermented material, but it is desirable that it is derived from non-animal feces as described above. As a result, it is possible to prevent coliforms derived from feces of animals such as livestock from being mixed into the field, so that the number of bad bacteria such as coliforms in the field is reduced and adheres to the surface of processed vegetables. Can be prevented.

一方、動物糞由来の堆肥、特に牛糞堆肥や豚糞堆肥には、水分調整剤として炭素率の高いオガクズが多量に含まれている。オガクズは炭素率が200以上と高いため、土壌中での分解が遅く、肥料効果は小さく、使用次第では微生物の窒素飢餓を引き起こす。このため、オガクズが使用されている堆肥は、植物系を主体とした前記発酵物と比較して、総合的な土壌の改善効果は小さい。   On the other hand, animal manure-derived compost, particularly cow manure compost and pig manure compost, contain a large amount of sawdust with a high carbon content as a moisture regulator. Since sawdust has a high carbon ratio of 200 or more, degradation in the soil is slow, the fertilizer effect is small, and depending on use, it causes nitrogen starvation of microorganisms. For this reason, compost in which sawdust is used has a smaller overall soil improvement effect than the fermented product mainly composed of plant systems.

さらに、本発明の作物の栽培方法は、作物の栽培期間中に、磁気処理水を作物全体に噴霧して灌水すれば、悪玉菌の菌数が増加することを防止することができる。また、加工用野菜の生育が良好となって、耐病害虫性を持たせることができるため、これが相乗効果をなして、さらに悪玉菌が付着しにくくなる。また、灌水した磁気処理水は、土壌に落ちて土壌中に吸収されため、前述の有用微生物群の働きがさらに活発となり、圃場において、土壌の状態と加工用野菜の生育とを総合的に改良することができる。
従って、上記の栽培方法によって栽培される作物、特に加工用野菜は、悪玉菌が付着しにくいため、殺菌工程を設ける必要がなく、野菜本来の味や風味を損なうことなく加工することができる。
Furthermore, the cultivation method of the crop of the present invention can prevent the number of bad bacteria from increasing by spraying magnetically treated water on the entire crop during the cultivation period of the crop. Moreover, since the growth of the vegetables for processing becomes favorable and can give disease and pest resistance, this forms a synergistic effect and further makes it difficult for bad bacteria to adhere. In addition, since the irrigated magnetically treated water falls into the soil and is absorbed into the soil, the above-mentioned useful microorganisms become more active, improving the condition of the soil and the growth of processing vegetables in the field. can do.
Accordingly, crops cultivated by the above cultivation method, especially vegetables for processing, are difficult to adhere to bad bacteria, so that it is not necessary to provide a sterilization step and can be processed without impairing the original taste and flavor of vegetables.

本発明の植物系堆肥の特徴は、少なくともトウモロコシ残幹と米糠とおからとを混合して発酵させた発酵物と、粉粒状の炭と、有用微生物群と、を主体としたことにある。また、本発明の作物の栽培方法の特徴は、少なくとも収穫後から圃場に播種する前または苗を移植する前に、植物系堆肥を圃場に施用することにある。
以上のことにより、作物、特に加工用野菜の表面に悪玉菌が付着しにくくなり、この加工用野菜を入荷した惣菜加工業者は、これを消毒することなく水洗いのみで加工することができる。また消費者は、味や風味を保った本来の状態で加工用野菜を食することができる。
The feature of the plant compost of the present invention is that it mainly comprises at least a fermented material obtained by mixing and fermenting corn residue trunk, rice bran and okara, powdered charcoal, and useful microorganisms. The crop cultivation method of the present invention is characterized in that plant compost is applied to the field at least before sowing or after transplanting seedlings after harvesting.
As described above, bad bacteria are less likely to adhere to the surface of crops, in particular, vegetables for processing, and a sugar beet processor who has received this processing vegetable can process it only by washing without disinfecting it. The consumer can eat the processed vegetables in the original state while maintaining the taste and flavor.

以下、本発明の実施形態について説明する。
本実施形態に用いる作物としての加工野菜として、カットして食用に使用される小ねぎ(加工用ねぎ)を栽培した。以下、小ねぎの栽培工程について説明する。
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described.
As a processed vegetable as a crop used in the present embodiment, a small onion (green onion) to be cut and used for food was cultivated. Hereinafter, the cultivation process of small onion is demonstrated.

(1)施設圃場の準備
小ねぎを栽培する施設圃場において、小ねぎの収穫後、土壌中に堆肥を3〜10トン/10a/年となるように施用する。本発明の植物系堆肥は、トウモロコシ残幹と米糠とおからとを事前に混合して発酵させた発酵物を使用する。この発酵物の原料の配合割合は、トウモロコシ残幹が約40容量%、米糠が約30容量%、おからが約30容量%としている。なお、発酵物は、非動物糞由来であり、動物糞(家畜糞)が含まれる堆肥は施用しない。また、発酵物は、前記成分比となるようなえのき茸などの廃菌培地を使用することもでき、他の原料、例えば、コーヒー粕や麦糠等も一部使用しても良い。
(1) Preparation of facility field In a facility field where small onions are cultivated, compost is applied to the soil at 3 to 10 tons / 10a / year after harvesting the small onions. The plant-based compost of the present invention uses a fermented product obtained by previously mixing a corn trunk, rice bran, and okara and fermenting them. The blending ratio of the raw material of the fermented product is about 40% by volume for the remaining corn trunk, about 30% by volume for rice bran, and about 30% by volume for okara. Note that the fermented product is derived from non-animal feces, and no compost containing animal feces (livestock feces) is applied. In addition, the fermented product may use a waste bacteria culture medium such as enoki mushroom having the above component ratio, and other raw materials such as coffee lees and wheat straw may be partially used.

次に、前記発酵物に、土壌の状況を考慮しながら粉粒状の炭を数kg〜数十kg/10a/年となるよう投入して混合物を得る。なお、炭の施用量は、圃場の土壌の状態を考慮して決めることができる。
この混合物の成分値は、含水率19.1%、窒素全量2.11%、リン酸全量0.79%、加里全量1.34%であり、肥料成分がバランス良く含まれていた。また、炭素率が17であり、土壌微生物の窒素飢餓は起こさないものであった。
なお、微生物数を計測した結果、好気性細菌数(普通寒天培地)は8.7×107/gFW、好気性放線菌数(Waksmanのアルブミン寒天培地)は、1.5×105/gFW、糸状菌数(Martin&Johnsonのローズベンガル寒天培地)は、5.5×108/gFWであった。
Next, powdered charcoal is added to the fermented product in consideration of the state of the soil so as to be several kg to several tens kg / 10a / year to obtain a mixture. The amount of charcoal applied can be determined in consideration of the state of the soil in the field.
The component values of this mixture were a moisture content of 19.1%, a total amount of nitrogen of 2.11%, a total amount of phosphoric acid of 0.79%, and a total amount of potassium of 1.34%, and the fertilizer components were contained in a well-balanced manner. Moreover, the carbon rate was 17, and nitrogen starvation of soil microorganisms did not occur.
As a result of counting the number of microorganisms, the number of aerobic bacteria (ordinary agar medium) was 8.7 × 10 7 / g FW, and the number of aerobic actinomycetes (Waksman's albumin agar medium) was 1.5 × 10 5 / g FW. The number of filamentous fungi (Martin & Johnson Rose Bengal Agar) was 5.5 × 10 8 / g FW.

次に、前記混合物に土壌病害菌を減少させるための有用微生物群を混合し、本発明の植物系堆肥とする。有用微生物群としては、株式会社バイオエンジニアリング社製の商品名「エコサイン(商標)」を使用することができ、10kg/10a/年、または、10kg/10a/作、使用している。このエコサインには有用微生物群である乳酸菌と、枯草菌または納豆菌と、酵母菌とが含まれている。乳酸菌としては、Lactobacillus属、Enterococcus属、Lactococcus属、Pediococcus属、Streptococcus属が含まれている。また、枯草菌または納豆菌としてはBacillus属が含まれ、酵母菌としては、Kluyveromyces属、Saccharomyces属が含まれている。
なお、発酵物、炭、有用微生物の混合順序は、圃場に施用する前に一括で混合しておいても良く、或いは圃場で別個に混合しても良い。
Next, a useful microorganism group for reducing soil pests is mixed with the mixture to obtain the plant compost of the present invention. As the useful microorganism group, a trade name “EcoSign (trademark)” manufactured by Bioengineering Co., Ltd. can be used, and 10 kg / 10a / year or 10 kg / 10a / product is used. This ecosign includes lactic acid bacteria, which are useful microorganisms, Bacillus subtilis or natto, and yeast. Examples of lactic acid bacteria include Lactobacillus genus, Enterococcus genus, Lactococcus genus, Pediococcus genus and Streptococcus genus. Further, Bacillus genus is included as Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus natto, and Kluyveromyces genus and Saccharomyces genus are included as yeasts.
In addition, the mixing order of fermented material, charcoal, and useful microorganisms may be mixed all at once before being applied to the field, or may be mixed separately in the field.

(2)整地、播種
植物系堆肥を圃場に施用した後に、トラクターで耕起して、これらを土壌と混合し、その後、平らな状態となるように整地する。整地した圃場に、小ねぎの種子を播種する。小ねぎの品種は、必要に応じて選定する。
(2) Leveling and sowing After applying the plant compost to the field, plow it with a tractor, mix these with the soil, and then level it so that it is flat. Seeds of small onions are sown in a leveled field. Small onion varieties are selected as necessary.

(3)栽培管理
灌水時に磁気処理水を加工用野菜の上方から噴霧して小ねぎ全体に灌水する。磁気処理水の製造装置としては、株式会社パノックス社製の磁場波動活水処理装置を使用することができる。ここで、小ねぎの大きさは、最大でも数十cmであるが、灌水は地表から2〜2.5mの高さから行い、小ねぎに満遍なくかかるように行う。また、灌水は、ノズルから霧状に噴霧して行う。これにより、噴霧された磁気処理水は、ノズルの中心から水平方向に円を描くように散水され、ノズルの中心から半径約4mほどの位置にまで達することができる。これにより、小ねぎの葉面に直接噴霧されることとなり、磁気処理水の殺菌効果が期待できる。
(3) Cultivation management At the time of irrigation, magnetically treated water is sprayed from above the processing vegetables to irrigate the whole onion. As the apparatus for producing magnetically treated water, a magnetic field wave activated water treatment apparatus manufactured by Panox Co., Ltd. can be used. Here, the size of the small onion is several tens of centimeters at the maximum, but irrigation is performed from a height of 2 to 2.5 m from the ground surface so that the small onion is applied evenly. Irrigation is carried out by spraying in a mist form from the nozzle. As a result, the sprayed magnetically treated water is sprinkled in a horizontal circle from the center of the nozzle, and can reach a position with a radius of about 4 m from the center of the nozzle. Thereby, it will spray directly on the leaf surface of a small onion, and the bactericidal effect of magnetically treated water can be expected.

ここで、小ねぎの形状は上下方向に細長く、またワックスが形成されるため、小ねぎの葉面に当接した磁気処理水は重力の影響を受けて葉面を伝わり、小ねぎの株元へと移行することとなる。このとき、小ねぎに当接した大部分の磁気処理水が葉面を上から下へと流れて小ねぎ全体に行き渡ることとなる。このように野菜全体に磁気処理水が行き渡ると殺菌効果が高くなる。なお、葉が横に広がったり重なったりするような他の形状の野菜においては、葉の隙間や裏側に磁気処理水が行き渡りにくく、野菜全体に磁気処理水が行き渡らないので、その効果は小さくなると考えられる。
また、小ねぎの株元へと移行した磁気処理水は、そのまま土壌に移行して、小ねぎの株元に集中することとなる。これにより、小ねぎの株元付近の土壌中の有用微生物群の活動が良好となるので、悪玉菌等が殺菌されやすい状態となるうえに、小ねぎの根の生育が旺盛になる。また、農薬の使用量は従来の半量程度で済む。
Here, the shape of the small onion is elongated in the vertical direction and wax is formed, so that the magnetically treated water that contacts the leaf surface of the small onion is transmitted through the leaf surface under the influence of gravity, and Will be moved to. At this time, most of the magnetically treated water in contact with the small onion flows from the top to the bottom of the leaf surface and spreads over the entire small onion. In this way, when the magnetically treated water is distributed over the whole vegetable, the sterilizing effect is enhanced. In addition, in vegetables of other shapes where the leaves spread sideways or overlap, the magnetically treated water is difficult to spread across the gaps and the back side of the leaves, and the magnetically treated water does not spread throughout the vegetable, so the effect is reduced Conceivable.
In addition, the magnetically treated water that has been transferred to the onion stock will be transferred to the soil as it is and concentrated on the stock of the onion. As a result, the activity of the useful microorganism group in the soil near the roots of the onion is improved, so that the bad bacteria and the like are easily sterilized and the growth of the roots of the onion becomes vigorous. Moreover, the amount of agricultural chemicals used is about half of the conventional amount.

(4)収穫
収穫に適した大きさ(長さ50〜60cm程度)になったら、小ねぎの株元から手作業により切って収穫する。年間4作前後の栽培を行うことができ、収穫量は、約5トン/10a/年である。時期による生育期間の変動もあり、夏季は60〜80日程度で収穫を行い、冬季は90〜120日程度で収穫を行う。収穫後、適宜出荷用に皮をむき、規格を調整して結束、箱詰めを行い、予冷(1〜5℃)後、「カットねぎ」として惣菜加工工場に出荷する。
(4) Harvesting When the size is suitable for harvesting (about 50 to 60 cm in length), it is cut by hand from the stock of small onion and harvested. About 4 crops can be cultivated annually, and the yield is about 5 tons / 10a / year. There is also a change in the growing period depending on the season, harvesting is performed in about 60 to 80 days in summer, and harvesting is performed in about 90 to 120 days in winter. After harvesting, peel off for shipping, adjust the standard, bind and box, pre-cool (1-5 ° C), and ship as “cut green onion” to a vegetable processing factory.

(実施例1)
次に、小ねぎに付着している微生物数について検査を行った。検査は、一年間で最も付着数の少ない時期と思われる1月(冬期)において行い、水洗した小ねぎ(原菜)と、これをカットし出荷したカットねぎに付着している現物試料1g当たりの菌数を計測し、表1に示した。表1に示すように、病原菌である大腸菌群および黄色ブドウ球菌は確認されなかった。また、一般生菌数については、確認はされたが、菌数としては少なく問題ないレベルであった。

Figure 2007169096
注:BACcT(バクート(商標)、日本細菌検査株式会社製)にて検査を行った。 Example 1
Next, the number of microorganisms adhering to the small onion was examined. The inspection is conducted in January (winter), which seems to have the least number of deposits in a year, per small sample of green onions (raw vegetables) washed and attached to the cut green onions that were cut and shipped. The number of bacteria was measured and shown in Table 1. As shown in Table 1, the coliform group and Staphylococcus aureus which are pathogenic bacteria were not confirmed. Moreover, although the number of general viable bacteria was confirmed, the number of bacteria was at a level with no problem.
Figure 2007169096
Note: The test was performed with BACcT (Bakut (trademark), manufactured by Nippon Bacteria Test Co., Ltd.).

(実施例2)
次に、一年間で最も付着数の時期と思われる7月(夏期)において検査を行い、水洗した小ねぎ(原菜)と、これをカットしたカットねぎに付着している菌数を計測し、現物試料1g当たりの菌数を表2に示した。表2に示すように、病原菌である大腸菌群は陰性であり確認されなかった。また、一般生菌数については、実施例1(冬期)よりも10倍程度多かったが、加工用として問題ないレベルであった。

Figure 2007169096
(Example 2)
Next, in July (summer season), which is considered to be the time of most attachments in a year, we measured the number of bacteria attached to the washed green onions (raw vegetables) and the cut green onions that were cut. The number of bacteria per gram of the actual sample is shown in Table 2. As shown in Table 2, the coliform group which is a pathogenic bacterium was negative and was not confirmed. Moreover, about the number of general viable bacteria, about 10 times more than Example 1 (winter), it was a level which is satisfactory for processing.
Figure 2007169096

(実施例3)
また、実施例2のカットねぎを用いて、3日間に渡り10℃で培養試験を行い微生物の消長について調べた結果を、表3に示した。大腸菌群は、0〜3日後までは陰性であり確認されなかった。また、一般生菌数については、日数が経つに連れ増加したが、衛生上、問題とはならない菌数であることがわかった。
なお、一般性菌数には、善玉菌と悪玉菌が含まれるため、実際の悪玉菌はさらに表1〜3の数値よりも少ない。

Figure 2007169096
(Example 3)
In addition, Table 3 shows the results of examining the change of microorganisms by performing a culture test at 10 ° C. for 3 days using the cut leek of Example 2. The coliform group was negative and not confirmed until 0 to 3 days later. Moreover, although the number of general viable bacteria increased as the number of days passed, it was found that the number of bacteria was not a problem in terms of hygiene.
In addition, since the good bacteria and bad bacteria are included in the number of general bacteria, the actual bad bacteria are further less than the numerical values in Tables 1 to 3.
Figure 2007169096

以上により、本発明の加工野菜の栽培方法で栽培した小ねぎは、病原菌等(大腸菌、黄色ブドウ球菌)が付着しにくく、夏期においても少なくとも収穫後3日間くらいまでは10℃で保存すれば消毒する必要がなく、味や風味が良いままで食することができると思われる。なお、保存温度については、より好ましくは10℃以下が望ましい。   As described above, the small onions cultivated by the method for cultivating processed vegetables according to the present invention are less susceptible to pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus), and even in the summer, if stored at 10 ° C. for at least about 3 days after harvesting, disinfection There is no need to do so, and it seems that you can eat while maintaining the taste and flavor. In addition, about storage temperature, 10 degrees C or less is more preferable.

本発明は、作物、特に加工用野菜に悪玉菌が付着しにくい堆肥および作物の栽培技術として広く利用することができる。また、栽培された作物は、総菜加工工場において広く利用することができる。   INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY The present invention can be widely used as a cultivation technique for compost and crops in which bad bacteria are difficult to adhere to crops, particularly processing vegetables. Cultivated crops can be widely used in prepared food processing factories.

Claims (6)

少なくともトウモロコシ残幹と米糠とおからとを混合して発酵させた発酵物と、粉粒状の炭と、有用微生物群と、を主体とすることを特徴とする植物系堆肥。   A plant-based compost characterized by mainly comprising a fermented material obtained by mixing at least corn residue, rice bran and okara, fermented powder, charcoal and useful microorganisms. 前記発酵物の原料割合は、トウモロコシ残幹が35容量%以上45容量%以下、米糠が25容量%以上35容量%以下、おからが25容量%以上35容量%以下である請求項1記載の植物系堆肥。   The raw material ratio of the fermented product is 35% to 45% by volume of corn residue, 25% to 35% by volume of rice bran, and 25% to 35% by volume of okara. Plant compost. 前記有用微生物群には、乳酸菌と、枯草菌または納豆菌と、酵母菌と、が含まれている請求項1または2記載の植物系堆肥。   The plant-based compost according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the useful microorganism group includes lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus subtilis or natto bacteria, and yeast. 少なくとも収穫後から圃場に播種する前または苗を移植する前に、請求項1から3のいずれかの項に記載の植物系堆肥を、前記圃場に施用することを特徴とする作物の栽培方法。   A method for cultivating a crop, comprising applying the plant compost according to any one of claims 1 to 3 to the field at least before sowing and before transplanting seedlings after harvesting. 作物の栽培期間中に、磁気処理水を前記作物全体に噴霧して灌水することを特徴とする請求項4記載の作物の栽培方法。   5. The method for cultivating a crop according to claim 4, wherein during the cultivation period of the crop, magnetically treated water is sprayed on the entire crop for irrigation. 請求項5記載の栽培方法により栽培されたことを特徴とする作物。   A crop cultivated by the cultivation method according to claim 5.
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CN102040411A (en) * 2010-10-11 2011-05-04 山东郁茏生物科技有限公司 Method for processing composite microbial fertilizer
CN102040409A (en) * 2010-10-11 2011-05-04 山东郁茏生物科技有限公司 Processing method of organic liquid fertilizer
CN102417415A (en) * 2011-08-31 2012-04-18 韦文礼 Disease and insect pest resisting high-efficiency fertilizer produced from traditional Chinese medicine residues and production method
CN102417416A (en) * 2011-08-31 2012-04-18 韦文礼 High efficiency liquid fertilizer produced from traditional Chinese medicinal residues and production method thereof
CN102838417A (en) * 2012-09-20 2012-12-26 江西省科学院微生物研究所 Glyphosate microbiological degradation preparation and preparation method thereof
CN103274829A (en) * 2013-06-09 2013-09-04 苏州仁成生物科技有限公司 Special compound microbial fertilizer for tomatoes and preparation method thereof
CN103319249A (en) * 2013-06-27 2013-09-25 苏州仁成生物科技有限公司 Composite fertilizer for preventing and treating anthrax of delphinium grandiflorum
CN103333019A (en) * 2013-07-16 2013-10-02 龚涛 Practical collybia radicata culture medium and preparation method thereof
CN103570464A (en) * 2013-11-02 2014-02-12 大连创达技术交易市场有限公司 Biological organic chemical fertilizer
KR101469901B1 (en) * 2013-03-06 2014-12-08 경북대학교 산학협력단 Preparing methods of Saururus chinensis increased inhibitory compounds against gastritis using hydrolyzed yeast with enzyme
CN104817370A (en) * 2015-03-30 2015-08-05 苏州仁成生物科技有限公司 Output-increase special biological fertilizer for potato, and preparation method thereof
CN105248120A (en) * 2015-11-06 2016-01-20 北海市蔬菜研究所 Vegetable planting method
CN105585391A (en) * 2016-02-29 2016-05-18 洪寅 Biological organic fertilizer
CN105601359A (en) * 2015-12-18 2016-05-25 郎溪县新发镇华兵农作物种植家庭农场 Composting fertilizer for rice seedling growing and manufacturing method thereof
CN105766276A (en) * 2016-02-22 2016-07-20 耿马孟定得利绿色蔬菜有限公司 Ecological kidney bean plantation method
CN106883080A (en) * 2017-04-27 2017-06-23 济南时通生物技术有限公司 A kind of method that workshop industrial treatment poultry discarded object produces microbial manure
CN107056003A (en) * 2017-05-17 2017-08-18 巴马原种香猪农牧实业有限公司 A kind of sewage disposal system of plant
CN107162772A (en) * 2017-06-22 2017-09-15 合肥永泰新型建材有限公司 It is a kind of for fertilizer of vegetable cultivation and preparation method thereof
CN107312729A (en) * 2017-06-26 2017-11-03 沈阳师范大学 Lactic acid bacteria culturing medium, lactic acid bacteria microbe fertilizer and its application
CN114027112A (en) * 2021-10-19 2022-02-11 华南农业大学 Cultivation method of vegetable rich in SOD

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CN102040409A (en) * 2010-10-11 2011-05-04 山东郁茏生物科技有限公司 Processing method of organic liquid fertilizer
CN102040411A (en) * 2010-10-11 2011-05-04 山东郁茏生物科技有限公司 Method for processing composite microbial fertilizer
CN102417415A (en) * 2011-08-31 2012-04-18 韦文礼 Disease and insect pest resisting high-efficiency fertilizer produced from traditional Chinese medicine residues and production method
CN102417416A (en) * 2011-08-31 2012-04-18 韦文礼 High efficiency liquid fertilizer produced from traditional Chinese medicinal residues and production method thereof
CN102838417B (en) * 2012-09-20 2014-08-06 江西省科学院微生物研究所 Glyphosate microbiological degradation preparation and preparation method thereof
CN102838417A (en) * 2012-09-20 2012-12-26 江西省科学院微生物研究所 Glyphosate microbiological degradation preparation and preparation method thereof
KR101469901B1 (en) * 2013-03-06 2014-12-08 경북대학교 산학협력단 Preparing methods of Saururus chinensis increased inhibitory compounds against gastritis using hydrolyzed yeast with enzyme
CN103274829A (en) * 2013-06-09 2013-09-04 苏州仁成生物科技有限公司 Special compound microbial fertilizer for tomatoes and preparation method thereof
CN103319249A (en) * 2013-06-27 2013-09-25 苏州仁成生物科技有限公司 Composite fertilizer for preventing and treating anthrax of delphinium grandiflorum
CN103333019A (en) * 2013-07-16 2013-10-02 龚涛 Practical collybia radicata culture medium and preparation method thereof
CN103570464A (en) * 2013-11-02 2014-02-12 大连创达技术交易市场有限公司 Biological organic chemical fertilizer
CN104817370A (en) * 2015-03-30 2015-08-05 苏州仁成生物科技有限公司 Output-increase special biological fertilizer for potato, and preparation method thereof
CN105248120A (en) * 2015-11-06 2016-01-20 北海市蔬菜研究所 Vegetable planting method
CN105601359A (en) * 2015-12-18 2016-05-25 郎溪县新发镇华兵农作物种植家庭农场 Composting fertilizer for rice seedling growing and manufacturing method thereof
CN105766276A (en) * 2016-02-22 2016-07-20 耿马孟定得利绿色蔬菜有限公司 Ecological kidney bean plantation method
CN105585391A (en) * 2016-02-29 2016-05-18 洪寅 Biological organic fertilizer
CN106883080A (en) * 2017-04-27 2017-06-23 济南时通生物技术有限公司 A kind of method that workshop industrial treatment poultry discarded object produces microbial manure
CN107056003A (en) * 2017-05-17 2017-08-18 巴马原种香猪农牧实业有限公司 A kind of sewage disposal system of plant
CN107162772A (en) * 2017-06-22 2017-09-15 合肥永泰新型建材有限公司 It is a kind of for fertilizer of vegetable cultivation and preparation method thereof
CN107312729A (en) * 2017-06-26 2017-11-03 沈阳师范大学 Lactic acid bacteria culturing medium, lactic acid bacteria microbe fertilizer and its application
CN107312729B (en) * 2017-06-26 2020-09-25 沈阳师范大学 Lactobacillus culture medium, lactobacillus microbial fertilizer and application thereof
CN114027112A (en) * 2021-10-19 2022-02-11 华南农业大学 Cultivation method of vegetable rich in SOD

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