EP0153935B1 - Circular heading machine - Google Patents

Circular heading machine Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0153935B1
EP0153935B1 EP84903078A EP84903078A EP0153935B1 EP 0153935 B1 EP0153935 B1 EP 0153935B1 EP 84903078 A EP84903078 A EP 84903078A EP 84903078 A EP84903078 A EP 84903078A EP 0153935 B1 EP0153935 B1 EP 0153935B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
machine body
machine
hood
cutter
tunnel
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
EP84903078A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0153935A1 (en
Inventor
Arthur Gill
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Anderson Group PLC
Original Assignee
Anderson Strathclyde PLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB08322467A priority Critical patent/GB2145134B/en
Priority to GB8322467 priority
Application filed by Anderson Strathclyde PLC filed Critical Anderson Strathclyde PLC
Publication of EP0153935A1 publication Critical patent/EP0153935A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0153935B1 publication Critical patent/EP0153935B1/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/40Devices or apparatus specially adapted for handling or placing units of linings or supporting units for tunnels or galleries
    • E21D11/403Devices or apparatus specially adapted for handling or placing units of linings or supporting units for tunnels or galleries combined with the head machine
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/06Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining
    • E21D9/08Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining with additional boring or cutting means other than the conventional cutting edge of the shield
    • E21D9/0875Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining with additional boring or cutting means other than the conventional cutting edge of the shield with a movable support arm carrying cutting tools for attacking the front face, e.g. a bucket
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/10Making by using boring or cutting machines
    • E21D9/1006Making by using boring or cutting machines with rotary cutting tools
    • E21D9/1013Making by using boring or cutting machines with rotary cutting tools on a tool-carrier supported by a movable boom
    • E21D9/102Making by using boring or cutting machines with rotary cutting tools on a tool-carrier supported by a movable boom by a longitudinally extending boom being pivotable about a vertical and a transverse axis

Abstract

Circular heading machines for excavating tunnels by advancing a machine in step-wise fashion and erecting tunnel supports. The circular heading machine has an elongate machine body (10) at the forward end of which a forwardly directed cutter boom (11) is mounted, rams advance the machine body in step-wise fashion acting against grippers (23) and a profile ring (18, 18') limits peripheral movement of the cutter boom to form an accurate profile. A gathering apron (16) is provided at the forward extremity of the machine body. The cutter boom (10) is mounted on a sliding carriage (12) longitudinally movable on and independently of the machine body and a hood (17) overlies the apron. A cage structure (21) extends rearwardly from the hood structure and surrounds the boom cutter (11) and sliding carriage (12) and tunnel support erecting means (20) are provided externally of the cage structure, directly behind the hood structure. Thus the tunnel support structures are erected over the machine body rather than behind the machine, and also erection of the tunnel support structures takes place simultaneously with operation of the cutter. The hood (17) is a semi-circular member supported by hydraulic rams (17A) for height adjustment.

Description

  • This invention relates to circular heading machines for excavating tunnels.
  • It is well known to cut tunnels by advancing a machine in step-wise fashion and to erect tunnel supports behind the machine. However, as these supports are behind the machine, the machine itself is protected by some other means such as shields, but shields can become trapped by convergence, especially in deep mining and consequently tunnelling can be delayed while the shield is freed.
  • An object of this invention is to obviate or mitigate the aforementioned disadvantage.
  • GB-A-1 593 569 discloses a heading machine which includes a self advancing base and a boom mounted on the base and carrying a cutter head. Means is provided for assembling a roof support arch at the rear of the machine while the cutter head is extending the roadway. The roof support is erected only after the cutter has extended the roadway.
  • GB-A-894 206 discloses means to advance a machine body using radial grippers and thrusters connected between the gripper means and the machine body.
  • US-A-3 061 287 discloses a centering structure mounted on the rear end of a mining machine body.
  • According to the present invention there is provided a circular heading machine comprising an elongate machine body having at its forward end a forwardly directed cutter boom mounted thereon, means to advance the machine body in step-wise fashion, meansto limit peripheral movement of the cutter boom to form an accurate profile and a gathering apron at the forward extremity of the machine body, characterised in that the cutter boom is mounted on a sliding carriage longitudinally movable on and independently of the machine body, a hood overlies the apron, a cage structure extends rearwardly from the hood structure and surrounds the boom cutter and sliding carriage and means are provided externally of the cage structure, directly behind the hood structure for erecting circulartunnel support structures over the machine body, erection of the tunnel support structures taking place simultaneously with operation of the cutter.
  • Preferably, the hood is a semi-circular member supported by hydraulic rams for height adjustment.
  • An embodiment of the present invention will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
    • Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a circular heading machine according to the invention;
    • Fig. 2 is a plan view of Fig. 1;
    • Figs. 3 to 5 are side elevations of the machine illustrating, with Fig. 1, the cycle of operation;
    • Fig. 6 is a rear elevation of the lines VI-VI of Fig. 1 showing tunnel support erection apparatus.
    • Fig. 6A is a rear elevation of the lines VIA-VIA of Fig. 1 showing the rear support leg;
    • Fig. 7 is a detail illustrating lagging between the tunnel supports; and
    • Fig. 8 is a detail illustrating a trailing arm.
  • The circular heading machine has an elongate body 10 which mounts a cutter boom 11 at its forward end, the boom 11 being carried on a sliding carriage 12 which is slidably moveable on the machine body 10 by thrust jacks 13. The cutter boom 11 carries a conical cutter head 14, by which a tunnel 15 can be excavated; movement of the boom is manually controlled via tilting jacks 11A and slewing jacks 11 B, by an operator seated in the sliding carriage.
  • At the forward extremity of the machine body there is a gathering apron 16 of semi-circular form which carries windmill or gathering arms 16A and above the apron there is a semi-circular hood 17; this hood forms a stone/dust guard as illustrated in Fig. 1 for use as a temporary roof support if required and it may be provided with trailing fingers (Fig. 8) as hereinafter described.
  • The hood is supported by hydraulic rams 17A which serve to lower the hood if necessary for the insertion of lagging strips 48 (Fig. 6) hereinafter described and to permit controlled lowering of the hood in the event of severe convergence or collapse of the roof.
  • The apron and hood converge rearwards and terminate in a profile guidance ring 18 and on the cutter boom there is a profile collar 18' which can run round the innerface ofthe ring 18thus limiting the movement of the boom.
  • Immediately behind the apron/hood structure is a tunnel-support mechanical erection apparatus 20 by which ring girders can be erected over the machine body as hereinafter described with reference to Fig. 6.
  • A cage-structure 21 is provided on the machine body below the level of the top of the hood 17 to enclose the boom 11 and carriage 12 and the support erection apparatus 20 is external of the cage 21. Tunnel support erectors can therefore work in safety on a platform 22 on the machine body even while the cutter 14 is in operation.
  • Towards the rear of the machine body 10, a radial gripper mechanism 23 is provided having three segmental grippers 24 which are radially extendible to engage the sides and floor of the excavated tunnel. Thrust jacks 25 and 25A are connected between the lowermost gripper 24 and an underframe 26 on the machine body 10 and between side grippers 24 and longitudinal beams 26A also on the machine body. When the grippers 24 are firm against the tunnel, the jacks 25 and 25A can extend to push the machine body forward; when the grippers are retracted the jacks 25 and 25A can be retracted to draw the gripper mechanism 23 forward.
  • Rearward of the gripper mechanism a segmental support leg 27 is mounted on the machine body 10 and is extended downwards to engage the tunnel floor when the gripper mechanism is to be retracted and when the side grippers are being adjusted to align the machine transversely, thus to hold the machine in its existing vertical alignment. The support leg 27 is part of a centering structure 27A which is transversely slidably mounted in the machine body 10 and includes side jacks 27B. The jacks 27B operate sequentially with support leg 27 to ensure that the latter is automatically centralised in the tunnel before engaging the tunnel floor.
  • To achieve this the side jacks 27B which are hydraulic jacks are connected through an equal split flow divider so that their flows are equal; thus if one jack engages the tunnel wall first, it will push the entire jack structure transversely relative to the machine body away from that side until the other side jack engages its side of the tunnel, after which the support leg 27 will be in a centered position relative to the tunnel. Once the support leg has been lowered, the rear end of the machine body can be transversely adjusted via the side grippers 24 to give accurate directional positioning of the machine required, as hereinafter explained.
  • The machine body carries an integral scraper chain conveyor section 30 which runs from the gathering apron, under the machine body then upwardly towards the rear end, exiting in a rearward extension 31 beyond the machine body for transfer of excavated minerals to a bridge conveyor 32 trailed by the machine. The bridge conveyor is aligned below conveyor extension 31 and on the former is slidably mounted a deflector structure 32A which when in one position is clear of material dropping on to the bridge conveyor 32 and when in the other position deflects the material on to the floor at the side of the bridge conveyor to create an infill 33 when required. The machine operates in cycles as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 3 to 5, and described hereinafter.
  • Tunnel support efection is carried out by erectors working on the platform 22 situated immediately behind the apron/hood structure so that the supports are erected over the machine body and in advance of the boom operator. A secondary platform 22A is provided on each side for erectors to fit tie rods 52 hereinafter described.
  • Segments of ring girders 40 (Figs. 1 and 6) are delivered, e.g. by monorail (not shown) to the rear of the machine and delivered therefrom via a hydraulically driven chain hauled carrier 41 (Fig. 6) running via wheel 42 on a longitudinal structure 43 overlying the machine body to the erection area behind the hood 17. Structure 43 is bodily adjustable longitudinally and vertically relative to the machine body 10 by hydraulic rams 44 and 45 (Fig. 1) to manipulate the ring supports into position. At the erection area directly behind the apron/hood all but one of the segments 40 are mounted in turn on the mechanical erector 20 which is a framework carrying a circular chain 46 (Fig. 6) driven by sprockets 47 then jointed and hauled round the tunnel perimeter until an almost complete but collapsed ring has been built. Over the top half section lagging in the form of wire mesh panels or corrugated sheets 48 is introduced between the last panel of lagging and the new collapsed ring girder by inserting them alternatively into arcuate slot 49 and space 50 and raising them to overlap the previous set.
  • Those sections of the ring girder now in position are expanded by the manoeuvring adjustment of structure 43 to trap the lagging 48 and to meet the perimeter of the lower part of the tunnel; thus the final section of the ring girder is placed in position on carrier 41 and by advancing the carrier is presented against the as yet unexpanded ring portions already in position. At this stage adjustable legs 51 of the carrier 41 are manually brought out and locked against the ends of the positioned sections 40 and the entire structure 43 is lifted by hydraulic rams 45 to expand the positioned sections radially to provide room for the final section which is advanced into position either by moving structure 43 bodily forward using hydraulic rams 44 or by advancing carrier 41 or both.
  • A ring expansion joint (not shown) is then fitted and to give extra tunnel support the machine is designed to allow this expansion joint to be located in different positions on adjacent ring girders so that the weakest point in the girder is not always in the same relative position.
  • The tie rods 52 (Fig. 6A) are loosely bolted to the previous ring and the entire new ring is drawn back on carrier 41 by the hydraulic rams 44 to abut against the tie rods.
  • The new ring is then loosely bolted to the tie rods after which a final expansion of the new ring is carried out using known methods, e.g. mechanical screw jacks and final tightening of the bolts is made.
  • Cycle.
  • The machine operates in cycles as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 3 to 5 (in the latter Figs. the jacks 25A are omitted for reasons of clarity).
  • Before beginning the cycle and with the entire machine advanced to the face:
    • 1. The boom sliding carriage 12 is in its retracted position so that the cutter 14 is just clear of the mineral face.
    • 2. The side jacks 27A are extended to automatically centre the lower support leg 27 in the tunnel and then lower it to the floor.
    • 3. The gripper mechanism 23 is retracted (chain lines) and drawn forward by retraction of the thrust jacks 25 and 25A.
    • 4. The transverse alignment of the machine 10 is checked by known methods of alignment, e.g. laser beams 53 and target 54 on the machine and if necessary set to its correct position by pushing with the left hand or right hand wall gripper 24A against the tunnel wall thus sliding the machine across the centering structure 27A which is firmly located against the tunnel wall.
    • 5. The wall grippers 24A are then retracted and the floor gripper 24 is lowered followed by retraction of the lower support leg 27 and side jacks 27A and the vertical alignment is checked by the same means as (4) above using the floor gripper.
    • 6. With the floor gripper 24 still in position both side grippers 24A are then set hard against the tunnel walls.
    • 7. Lagging 48 (Fig. 6) is introduced into arcuate slot 49 and into the space 50 between the hood 17 and the roof and a ring girder 40 is assembled and expanded finally thus trapping this lagging between girder and tunnel. The machine is now ready to cut into face 35.
    • 8. The cutter boom carriage is advanced to sump-in the cutter head and excavate to a depth of 0.5 metre (Fig. 1). The head can move universally within the limits set by the profile ring 18 and forms a circular hole slightly in excess of the required tunnel diameter with a new mineral face 35A.
    • 9. Whilst this operation is in progress a set of ring segments are brought forward from the rear, loaded into the erector 20 and carried round into position.
    • 10. After that excavation, the cutter boom carriage is retracted and the machine advanced 0.5 metre carrying the partially assembled ring in the erector with it to once again present the cutter head to the mineral face now 35A. During this time the lagging 48 covers the 'exposed' ground by bridging between the initial set ring and the hood.
    • 11. The carriage is then advanced again (Fig. 4) to sump in and excavate another 0.5 metre to form a new mineral face 35B.
    • 12. After that excavation the carriage is retracted and the machine advanced a further 0.5 metre (Fig. 5) thus having achieved the first 1.0 metre advance of the machine.
    • 13. The cycle for 1.0 metre advance is now completed with the cutter 14 just clear of the mineral face 35B. The gripper mechanism 23 is released, drawn forward and repositioned
    • 14. The cycle can now be repeated but steps 7 and 8 are combined so that in the process of excavating the next 0.5 metre, lagging is positioned around the hood again to overlap the existing lagging, the last ring segment is loosely fitted, and the tie rods 52 are secured between the first and second rings as previously described. The entire ring is positioned by manoeuvring structure 43 then expanded finally into position.
  • In an altenative hood construction, Fig. 8 rearwardly extending fingers 55 are resiliently connected to the front edge of each hood plate 17 and extend back by such a length that they overlie not only the ring girder being erected but also the last fully erected ring girder. When the machine reaches the end of its cycle, the structure 43 is manoeuvred to position the ring girder being erected and during the new cycle when the machine is pushed forward the trailing fingers 47 are drawn clear of the previously last erected ring girder to overlie the new last erected ring girder.
  • Dust extraction ducts 56 are fastened to the machine body whereby when air is blown into the tunnel and over the machine, dust from the excavation will be drawn into the top of hood 17 and through the ventilation ducts 56 to exit from the rear into a dust collection unit (not shown) thus enabling the erectors to operate in a relatively dust free atmosphere.
  • A hydraulic power pack 57 can be trailed behind the machine or, as illustrated in Fig. 1 located on the machine body and is used to power all the machine's functions.
  • In the preferred embodiment three radial grippers 24 are provided, i.e. the two side grippers plus the floor gripper. However, should conditions require it, a fourth gripper may be added to engage the roof in conjunction with the side and floor units. There are removable parts in the gripper shoes 24 which allow the grippers to 'straddle' the ring girders if any increase or decrease in ring density is required.
  • In addition the apron 16 and hood 17 have alternative bolting positions so that tunnels of varying diameters within the limits of plus or minus 0.25 metres from the norm may be worked.
  • An advantage of the circular mining machine as hereinbefore described is that it allows erection of the tunnel support structure over the machine rather than behind it, thus reducing the'prop-free front distance', i.e. the distance between the cut face and the last permanent tunnel support. Further in the event of convergence, the only part of the machine that can become trapped is the hood 17, and another advantage, due to the feature of the boom carriage being moveable independently of the machine, is that in the event of sudden convergence trapping the machine against further forward movement, the cutter can be advanced to cut a chamber and the mineral cut thereby can then be removed by hand by personnel gaining access to the mineral through the cage and apron/hood.
  • A further advantage of the circular heading machine as hereinbefore described is its economic rate of advance, cutting 1 metre in each cycle in two cuts of 0.5 metre, while simultaneously allowing support erection operations to be carried out in safety.

Claims (8)

1. A circular heading machine comprising an elongate machine body (10) having at its forward end a forwardly directed cutter boom (11) mounted thereon, means (23/25) to advance the machine body, means (18, 18') to limit peripheral movement of the cutter boom to form an accurate profile, and a gathering apron (16) at the forward extremity of the machine body, a hood structure (17) overlying the apron (16) and means (20) directly behind the hood structure for erecting tunnel support structures over the machine body, characterised in that the cutter boom (11) is mounted on a sliding carriage (12) longitudinally moveable on and independently of the machine body, a cage structure (21) extends rearwardly from the hood structure (17) surrounding the boom cutter and sliding carriage and erecting means (20) is provided externally of the cage structure, whereby erection of the tunnel support structures takes place simultaneously with operation of the cutter, as the machine body advances in step-wise fashion.
2. A machine according to claim 1, characterised in that the hood structure (17) comprises a semi-circular hood (17) supported by hydraulic jacks (17A) for height adjustment of the hood.
3. A machine according to claim 1 or 2 characterised in that the means to advance the machine body comprises in combination a radial gripper means (23) longitudinally moveable relative to the machine body and thust means (25, 25A) connected between the gripper means and the machine body whereby when the radial gripper means is extended to engage a tunnel wall, the thrust means can move the machine body relative thereto, said gripper means when retracted being moveable longitudinally of the machine body.
4. A machine according to claim 1, 2 or 3 characterised in that a centering structure is mounted on the rear end of the machine body transverse moveable relative thereto and comprises a pair of laterally extendible members for engagement with the tunnel wall and a depending member to engage the tunnel floor, said lateral members having an equalizing displacement so that the depending member is positioned centrally relatively to the tunnel before it is lowered to engage the floor and in which position it provides a datum point for accurately directional-positioning of the machine.
5. A machine according to any one of claims 1 to 4 characterised in that the means (20) for erecting circular tunnel support structures comprises a circular framework mounting a chain
(46) which is driven round the framework and on which segments (40) of a ring girder are mounted and attached to each other in succession, and means for expanding the circular chain to enable location of the final segment.
6. A machine according to claim 4, characterised in that a carrier (41) mounted on a longitudinal structure (43) which overlies the machine body (10) delivers segments of ring girders (40) to the erection means (20).
7. A machine according to claim 5, characterised in that the longitudinal structure (43) is adjustable longitudinally and vertically relative to the machine body (10).
EP84903078A 1983-08-20 1984-08-17 Circular heading machine Expired EP0153935B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB08322467A GB2145134B (en) 1983-08-20 1983-08-20 Circular heading machine
GB8322467 1983-08-20

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0153935A1 EP0153935A1 (en) 1985-09-11
EP0153935B1 true EP0153935B1 (en) 1988-01-07

Family

ID=10547630

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP84903078A Expired EP0153935B1 (en) 1983-08-20 1984-08-17 Circular heading machine

Country Status (13)

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EP (1) EP0153935B1 (en)
JP (1) JPS61500673A (en)
AU (1) AU570725B2 (en)
BR (1) BR8407052A (en)
CA (1) CA1235150A (en)
DE (1) DE3468480D1 (en)
ES (1) ES8505761A1 (en)
GB (1) GB2145134B (en)
IN (1) IN161662B (en)
IT (1) IT1179051B (en)
MX (1) MX160500A (en)
WO (1) WO1985001081A1 (en)
ZA (1) ZA846294B (en)

Cited By (1)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
AT405080B (en) * 1994-06-28 1999-05-25 Voest Alpine Bergtechnik TUNNEL DRIVING MACHINE

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ATA202692A (en) * 1992-10-14 1997-07-15 Voest Alpine Bergtechnik METHOD FOR PROCESSING AND REMOVING AN UNDERGROUND LINE, AND LINE DRIVING MACHINE FOR CARRYING OUT THIS METHOD
AT407423B (en) * 1994-06-09 2001-03-26 Voest Alpine Bergtechnik SHIELD DRIVING MACHINE
CA2336200A1 (en) * 1998-06-19 1999-12-29 Mine Site Technologies Pty. Ltd. Tunnel boring machinery
CN103742176B (en) * 2014-01-21 2015-10-28 蒲长晏 A kind of pick anchor one unit
JP6751988B2 (en) * 2017-03-23 2020-09-09 株式会社奥村組 Fixed structure of sleepers in the shield mine

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
IT1179051B (en) 1987-09-16
AU3310684A (en) 1985-03-29
IT8467821D0 (en) 1984-08-17
GB2145134A (en) 1985-03-20
ES535264A0 (en) 1985-06-01
CA1235150A (en) 1988-04-12
ZA846294B (en) 1985-04-24
EP0153935A1 (en) 1985-09-11
ES8505761A1 (en) 1985-06-01
WO1985001081A1 (en) 1985-03-14
AU570725B2 (en) 1988-03-24
GB8322467D0 (en) 1983-09-21
MX160500A (en) 1990-03-12
BR8407052A (en) 1985-08-13
GB2145134B (en) 1987-02-04
DE3468480D1 (en) 1988-02-11
IT8467821A1 (en) 1986-02-17
IN161662B (en) 1988-01-09
JPS61500673A (en) 1986-04-10

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