DE102005031180B4 - Structure analysis method for ordered structures and use of the method - Google Patents

Structure analysis method for ordered structures and use of the method

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Publication number
DE102005031180B4
DE102005031180B4 DE200510031180 DE102005031180A DE102005031180B4 DE 102005031180 B4 DE102005031180 B4 DE 102005031180B4 DE 200510031180 DE200510031180 DE 200510031180 DE 102005031180 A DE102005031180 A DE 102005031180A DE 102005031180 B4 DE102005031180 B4 DE 102005031180B4
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image
structure
analysis method
method according
structural analysis
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DE200510031180
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DE102005031180A1 (en
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Hans Koenig
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KöNIG, HANS, DR., 63589 LINSENGERICHT, DE
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König, Hans, Dr.
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/17Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated
    • G01N21/47Scattering, i.e. diffuse reflection
    • G01N21/4788Diffraction

Abstract

Structural analysis method for ordered structures (14) with the following method steps:
- generating a first structure image (24) with Bragg reflections (26) by suitably irradiating the structures (14);
- generating a second structure image (30) from the first structure image (24) with partial suppression of the Bragg reflections (26); and
Evaluation of skip-specific color and / or intensity gradients in the second structure image (30),
- in which
- Bragg reflections (26) by rotating the structures (14) with respect to a suitable selective iris device (20) and / or by turning the selective iris device (20) when imaging partially or completely hidden
- or where
- Bragg reflections (26) by appropriate choice of the diameter of the selective iris device (20) during the imaging frequency-selectively dimmed.

Description

  • The The present invention relates to an ordered structure analysis method Structures and an apparatus for carrying out this method. she also concerns a use of this quality control procedure the production of ordered structures, such as ordered mono- and multilayers of colloids.
  • Out The prior art is a whole series of methods for analysis ordered structures known. If you irradiate an ordered structure, how e.g. a crystal, more suitable with monochromatic radiation Wavelength, in particular X-ray, Electron or Neutron radiation, the crystal lattice acts as a spatial Diffraction grating for the incident radiation. Due to constructive interference arise limited to a narrow angle range interference maxima or Diffraction reflections, their position and intensity over the investigation period detect averaged structure of the diffractive crystal leaves.
  • If one interprets this diffraction phenomenon according to Bragg as a reflection of the incident radiation at parallel network planes of a periodic lattice arrangement with the lattice plane distance d, then the path difference of two beams reflected at adjacent lattice planes must be equal to an integer multiple of their wavelength λ for the occurrence of a constructive interference. Since the reflected rays have the same angle ⊝ as the incident rays with respect to the lattice planes, the angle dependence of the intensity maxima, which are usually also referred to simply as Bragg reflections, results in the simple relationship: 2 d sin ⊝ n = n λ, (1) where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... indicates the order of diffraction. The angular position of the Bragg reflections is thus dependent on the wavelength λ of the incident radiation, with long-wave radiation being correspondingly more diffracted than short-wave radiation. According to this so-called Bragg condition or Bragg equation, the lattice plane distance d can be determined from the angular dependence ⊝ n of the diffraction reflections of a specific diffraction order n at a known wavelength λ. On the other hand, however, if the interplanar spacing d is known, it can also be used to determine an unknown wavelength λ, which is used, for example, in crystal spectrometers for the wavelength analysis of X-ray and neutron radiation.
  • at irradiation of ordered mono- or thin multilayers, which consist of a few stacked individual layers, with a suitable, continuous radiation or wavelength spectrum becomes the condition for one positive interference of the entire system is not satisfied by only one wavelength. different Become wavelengths scattered differently at different angles, so that there is a corresponding spectral splitting of the Bragg reflections comes. The spectral (radial) intensity profile of the individual Bragg reflections, the additional from the direction of irradiation depends on the crystal axes, is characteristic of the irradiated layer structure and thus contains all essential structural information, such as. the number of layers and the stacking sequence. For a variety on stacked layers, this structural information can be however, no longer determine from the radial intensity profile.
  • Crystal structure investigations on the basis of Bragg reflections, scatter patterns are obtained via the entire observation area are averaged. For the observation area there it thus no spatial resolution. This can only by a reduction of the observation area be improved. When examining very small observation areas However, problems arise because of a strong loss of intensity and the possible overlay of scattering patterns of different crystals.
  • A however, the structure or sample to be examined may be, for example also by a magnifying optical or electron-optical imaging by means of a corresponding microscope be visualized and analyzed directly. Because the achievable Resolving power through the wavelength the radiation used is limited, this must be the Type of radiation, i. also the type of microscope used, in dependence on the size of the to be resolved or be selected to analyze each structure suitable. The possible uses Microscopes of any kind are accordingly achievable by the respective Resolving power accordingly limited.
  • microscopic Investigations form a section lying in an object plane a sample in an associated image plane enlarged and sharp. Other non-hidden layers of the sample will always be blurrier the farther away they are from the object plane. In order to can be arrangements of building blocks on the surface of a Sample or in a small surface layer within the limits of the resolution. However, structural information does not arise until the image information be evaluated according to certain criteria.
  • In light or electron microscopic investigations, deep-sensitive structural statements are only possible to a very limited extent. In addition, you get almost no structural information from the inside of a sample to be analyzed. In addition, no correlations with respect to the occurrence of identical crystal structures and their mutual orientation can be read directly for an observed range.
  • In the dissertation of Dr. med. Ralf Biehl ("Optical Microscopes on Colloidal Suspensions under non-equilibrium conditions ", Johannes Gutenberg university Mainz, October 2001) will include polycrystalline colloidal Single and multiple layers with parallel white light parallel to the layer normal of the colloid layers under a light microscope with an iris-shaped variable Aperture diaphragm examined.
  • The colloid layers are recorded on the one hand with the aperture aperture completely opened at maximum resolution of the microscope objective. The individual particles are clearly visible, but without a clear color impression. The colloid layers are arranged so that in the image-side focal plane of the microscope objective, ie in the Fourier plane of the sample or the object under investigation, rotationally symmetrically arranged spectrally resolved Bragg reflections 1 , Order to occur. The spectral resolution of these Bragg reflections depends on the respective crystal structure, the number of layers and the stacking sequence of the layers.
  • On the other hand, the colloid layers are also recorded at maximum closed aperture diaphragm, the Bragg reflections 1 , Okay just completely faded out. The resolution is so greatly reduced that the individual particles can no longer be observed separately from each other. Due to the strong suppression of radiation components, however, deep-sensitive color information for particle arrangement is obtained. Under the experimental conditions used, however, this gives no information about the orientation of the colloidal crystals or about their axis symmetry. In addition, the characteristic colors must first be assigned to the associated crystal structures with a specific number of layers and a specific sequence of the mutual layer arrangement by means of separate deep-sensitive structural investigations.
  • There are several patent documents [ DE 39 26 199 A1 . DE 26 16 716 A1 . DE 25 39 503 B2 . EP 0 028 774 A2 . US 5719405 A ], the errors in ordered structures differ in that Bragg reflections are hidden in light microscopes using suitable apertures and the non-hidden radiation parts are further investigated. Eg in DE 39 26 199 A1 It is exploited that, in general, the regular structures extend horizontally or vertically, for example on semiconductor systems, while interferences or defects have contours lying in irregular directions. If a strip-shaped aperture in the back focal plane lies in the preferred direction, the relatively regular structures can be masked out whereas the Fourier components of the defects can pass through the gaps, making defects easier to find. Also in DE 26 16 716 A1 For example, errors in the image pattern are detected by optical filtering by using the image pattern of a target pattern for filtering, and therefore, only the light resulting from the defects is substantially transmitted. In DE 25 39 503 B2 For example, voids of nonrectangular shape are found in a rectangular pattern photolithography template by additionally illuminating the sample with coherent and incoherent light of preferably different wavelengths, thereby also highlighting flaws in color. In EP 0 028 774 A2 In addition, defects in a periodic grating are additionally examined in such a way that it is also possible to distinguish between enlarged and reduced hole defects. In US 5719405 A In addition, the sample to be examined is scanned and intensity differences on a photodetector used to distinguish between ordered structures and dirt particles.
  • Opposite these On the other hand, it was found that further structural Information in particular in multilayers of colloids by a targeted hiding certain Bragg reflexes or by a targeted Partial fade of Bragg reflections can be achieved.
  • The Object of the present invention is therefore in the creation one possible simple, fast, reliable and flexible method with high spatial resolution for more detailed analysis ordered structures. The process sought should be used both for analysis of individual structures as well as for the investigation of several similar or different individual structures existing Structural arrangements or multiple structures may be suitable. It should in particular a determination of the nature and number of structures, the respective alignment correlations and axis symmetries enable.
  • The sought-after structural analysis method should also be able to be integrated, in particular, into (industrial) production processes for ordered structures, such as ordered monolayers and multilayers of colloids, in order, in particular, to ensure reliable quality control of the structures produced. Structures of the type mentioned can be used, for example, as two- or three-dimensional optical gratings. In combination with a suitable vapor-deposited magnetic material they are but especially as a future data storage in conversation. Since it is precisely in these fields of application that even the smallest structural defects significantly limit practical use or even make it impossible, the guarantee of consistently high structural quality by means of corresponding production methods with integrated, reliable quality control is particularly important. By targeted vapor deposition of any materials (such as suitable metals or semiconductors) to suitable colloid layers, however, a whole range of other periodically ordered structures with structural parameters can be selectively produced for other applications, which are of the order of the colloids.
  • The This object is achieved by a structural analysis method with the Characteristics of claim 1 solved. Preferred embodiments can be found in the dependent claims. A preferred Use of the method results from claim 22.
  • at the structure analysis method according to the invention At first, a sample or an ordered structure to be examined is placed on known manner by means of a suitable irradiation system so with suitable electromagnetic waves or with matter waves irradiated that these are bent or scattered on the structure and at certain diffraction angles with respect to the structure or with respect to the incoming primary or central ray forming interference maxima or Bragg reflections, which form a characteristic first image of the structure or represent.
  • This The first structure image or Fourier image can hereby be an or several Bragg reflexes a certain order of diffraction, in particular the first diffraction order, or Bragg reflections of several diffraction orders. Next the Bragg reflexes However, the first structure image may still image or radiation signals one (preferably enlarged) Include image of the structure itself, as for example by a (light) microscope objective is generated. It is however on it noted that the term "image" does not refer to this particular microscopic one Use case limited is, but in the broadest sense as a structural characteristic radiation intensity pattern or as a structure information radiation pattern to understand or to interpret.
  • ever according to the purpose and size of the analyzing or dissolving Structure can do this for example, a suitable electromagnetic radiation of a certain continuous frequency, wavelength or energy range or band, e.g. in particular visible light or a suitable one continuous X-ray spectrum, be used.
  • The However, structural characteristic Bragg reflections may be, for example also with a suitable monochromatic or quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, e.g. in particular laser radiation or characteristic X-rays a certain frequency, are generated.
  • at Need can however, for example, also monoenergetic or quasi-monoenergetic Electron, ion, proton or neutron beams (or in general Particle beams or matter waves) having a suitable de Broglie wavelength become.
  • at Use of a monoenergetic or quasi-monoenergetic Radiation is preferably with different radiation energies or wavelengths generates several first structure images, to which below described in detail inventive type and Manned, modified or further processed, i. under partial selective suppression of the Bragg reflections in a second structure image converted and then described in detail below Evaluation superimposed or combined with each other. The evaluation can be both one by overlay the individual, energy or wavelength specific, second structure images generated overall structure image as well as on the basis of the individual, energy or wavelength specific, second structure images and subsequent combination of these individual results obtained. The achievable local structural Resolving power increases this generally with the number of different used Radiation energies or wavelengths, i. with the number of generated and after suppression of the Bragg reflexes combined or superimposed together energy or wavelength specific second structure images.
  • Possibly can but also particle beams or de Broglie waves of a particular continuous or quasi-continuous wavelength or Energy range or energy band.
  • For generating the first structure image, a first imaging system can be used with a (preferably magnifying) first imaging device or imaging optical system, the term imaging device or imaging optical system being understood in the broadest sense in the context of the present invention and the entirety of the components that are effective in image formation , such as lenses, mirrors, concave mirrors, Pris men, Fresnel zone plates or zone constructions or the like, of an imaging system for the particular radiation used.
  • These Imaging device is used depending on the Radiation and the structure to be analyzed suitably chosen. ever according to application can therefore for imaging the structure (and / or the associated Bragg reflexes), for example, a suitable, first, especially magnifying, imaging, optical, x-ray, Electron-optical, interior-optical, neutron-optical or a other, suitable first, in particular magnifying, imaging lens system or a lens device may be used, e.g. the lens device or the objective of a suitable light, X-ray, electron or ion microscope (or generally a particle beam microscope).
  • The first structure image can hereby in a known per se and Both by a transmission method as well as by a Reflection process are generated. In a transmission process the samples or structures to be examined are irradiated, so they first correspondingly thin to prepare are. With a reflection process can also surface layers examine thicker samples that can no longer be irradiated. The Samples or structures can optionally also in reflection as well as in transmission be imaged or recorded and analyzed, be it in one single measurement with a suitably prepared sample or in successive Measuring operations this sample or samples of different thicknesses.
  • The sample or structure to be examined, which may also only be can consist of a part of the observed range, is at Preferably irradiate aligned so that an axisymmetric or rotationally symmetric Arrangement of Bragg reflections arises. This can be done, for example Reach a suitable symmetry axis of the structure in parallel to the direction of irradiation, or in other words, that the structure is irradiated parallel to one of its axes of symmetry.
  • The inventive method can be, however also under other irradiation conditions, i. under other irradiation angles or for not completely perform parallel incident radiation, provided the Bragg reflections in the first structure image for carrying out the subsequent method steps are still sufficiently clear or strong. This results However, a poorer resolution with respect to the orientation of the ordered Structures as well as the intensity and gradients.
  • at Use of a first magnifying imaging device or imaging optics - the Term "optics" in context is to be understood with the present invention in the broadest sense and according to the above, for example also the terms "X-ray optics", "electron optics", "ion optics", "neutron optics" or the like includes - will a suitable axis of symmetry of the sample or structure to be examined thus preferably parallel to the optical axis or imaging axis aligned with this imaging device or imaging optics and irradiated parallel to this axis, so that the Bragg reflections are axisymmetric occur and are rotationally symmetric to the center of the image.
  • Out the first structure image, Fourier image or structure intermediate image is now under the invention partial suppression of the Bragg reflections by means of a suitable Selective aperture device or a picture manipulation device a second structure image generated. This partial hiding may also be the complete hiding one or more Bragg reflections of a certain diffraction order, in particular the first order of diffraction. Higher diffraction orders can here possibly also completely be hidden.
  • The second structure image can in this case for example by means of the above be generated as said first imaging device, as according to the following still in detail described inventive embodiments using a suitable (light) microscope objective to magnify Imaging a sample to be examined when performing a structural analysis according to the invention automatically the case. The second structure image corresponds Here, the generated by the lens, inverted, enlarged microscope intermediate image.
  • to The second structure image can then be better readable in a known manner in a downstream second zoom level by means of a suitable magnifying glass, eyepiece or projection device once enlarged shown become. The eyepiece is hereby arranged so that the second structure image or microscope intermediate image in their object-side front focal plane is located.
  • The same applies even when using an X-ray, and an electron or ion microscope (or generally a Teilchenstrahlmikroskops).
  • To generate the second structure image However, if appropriate, a suitable second imaging system can also be used with a (in particular magnifying) second imaging device or imaging optics, which is suitably selected depending on the radiation used and the structure to be analyzed.
  • ever according to the purpose of use here, for example, in turn, a second Imaging or Projection device with a second, in particular magnifying, optical, X-ray optical, electron-optical, ion-optical or with another, suitable used imaging second lens system or a second lens device be (where - how already mentioned above - the name Lens system or lens device in the context of the present invention in the broadest sense is understood and the totality of one Imaging effective devices, such as Lenses, mirrors, concave mirrors, Prisms, Fresnel zone plates or zone constructions or the like, an imaging system).
  • The However, the first structural image with the Bragg reflections can be, for example also by means of a suitable firstly radiation-sensitive image capture, Detector or sensor device, e.g. by a suitable first CCD sensor or CCD imager (where CCD for Charge-coupled device or charge-coupled device or charge transfer element stands) and for further processing in an assigned Image or data processing device in a suitable manner be digitized. From these, representing the first structure image digital image data or image signals is then assigned in an Image or data processing device by means of a Fourier transform comprehensive, appropriate, mathematical numerical algorithm numerically calculates or generates the second structure map. This digital second structure image can then be appropriate if needed and manner, e.g. by means of a screen device or a printer device, be presented visually.
  • In Optionally, the image or data processing device can also be selective only certain local Regions of the first structure image or Fourier image digital processed, Fourier transformed or numerically determined, to achieve an orientation-sensitive analysis of ordered structures. The image capture and the data processing device are in the present case thus as a second imaging device or used as an imaging system in the sense of the above statements.
  • The desired Structure information receives one finally by evaluating hiding-specific color and / or intensity gradients in the second structure image, preferably in dependence on the positioning the selective aperture device. For better evaluation, the Color and / or intensity curves here again by means of a suitable second radiation-sensitive detection, Detector or sensor device, e.g. by a suitable second CCD sensor or CCD imager, detected and electronically by means of an associated suitable evaluation be evaluated. In the use or usage described above an image or data processing device as an imaging system or imaging device can this also directly for evaluation the resulting hiding-specific, structural characteristic digital color and / or Intensity curves used become.
  • The Color and / or intensity gradients in the second structure image can by using a suitable filter device during imaging be optimized. As a filter device in this case, for example a corresponding wavelength-selective or frequency-selective "optical" component (wherein the term "optical" according to the above versions again in the broadest sense) in an appropriate place inserted into the beam path become. When using a picture or data processing device can certain radiation components - in addition or alternatively - however For example, simply filtered out by digital means or be processed digitally in a suitable manner.
  • at A preferred variant of the method is to increase the contrast when imaging also the undeflected and unscattered radiation component, i.e. the primary or central beam, hidden.
  • at Another preferred variant of the method will be local or directionally generated multiple structure images of a sample and for evaluation combined together.
  • With the method according to the invention, individual structural images can therefore be generated and evaluated-in particular if an image or data processing device is used-and, if appropriate, a plurality of structural images, each having a different information content, can be combined or superimposed for evaluation and combined into a structure-characteristic combination structure. Image or structure overall image with a correspondingly higher information content, such as simply an image of a larger sample area of several individual images of smaller sample areas, zusammenge set or merged.
  • As already mentioned above In particular, this also applies to the combination or overlay several, individual, wavelength-specific structure images, those with a monoenergetic or quasi-monoenergetic radiation corresponding wavelength to a combination structure image or structure image.
  • Becomes an ordered thin Multilayer with a certain number of layers and layer sequence, for example with monoenergetic or quasi-monoenergetic electrically charged Particle beams irradiated with a suitable de Broglie wavelength and selectively suppresses the resulting Bragg reflections, is obtained as second structure image, a wavelength-specific characteristic (grayscale) intensity image of Sample with directional Structural information. The one with different particle energies recorded individual intensity images can now - for example by means of a suitable software - respectively be assigned a specific "color". The overlay the individual pictures with their assigned colors then performs to a colored structure overall picture, in the same colors same crystal structures with the same number of layers as well as the same sequence of layers, as well as in a a light micrograph would be the case. The superposition energy- or wavelength-specific intensity images Optionally also by a continuous or quasi-continuous Change one accelerating voltage used to generate the particle beams respectively.
  • Also according to the invention several individual wavelength-specific Structure images are combined or overlaid with each other, for example with laser radiation or characteristic X-radiation of a certain wavelength or frequency were recorded.
  • to Increase the picture quality can also several recorded with different types of radiation Structural images equivalent evaluated side by side and with each other combine.
  • The Bragg reflexes can for example, simply by rotating the sample to be examined or Structure re a suitable selective iris device are hidden. Alternative or supplementary However, this may be to hide the Bragg reflections, if necessary also the selective iris device with respect to the examined Sample or structure are rotated. Another equivalent possibility To hide the Bragg reflexes is the use of a suitable radiation-rotating third lens or mirror system when imaging, designed so that the Bragg reflections with respect to Selective aperture device are rotatable or rotated.
  • When Selective-diaphragm device is in this case in particular at least a hole, Ring, slot or pin diaphragm used, preferably to the optical axis or imaging axis of the first or second Imaging system is rotatably formed. The mentioned screens can optionally also in combination with a conventional one Iris diaphragm can be used. This process variant is special Cheap, if similar ordered structures or samples are known per se Structure parameters are always examined in the same way should. By rotating a pin-like selective diaphragm device, for example in a simple way radially symmetrical about the optical axis or imaging axis arranged Bragg reflections partially or completely hidden become. This allows areas of the same orientation as well determine the rotational symmetry of individual crystals.
  • The Selective aperture device is preferably in the plane of the first Structure image or Fourier image, i. for example, in the focal plane of a suitable Microscope lens arranged. By mapping or projecting, the level of the first structure image to a suitable location the first structure image by suitably enlarging or reducing ("zooming") optimally to the dimensions the selective aperture device be adjusted so that any otherwise required Changing the selective diaphragm device is eliminated.
  • at the use of an image or data processing device described above To generate the second structure image also fading out the Bragg reflexes easiest and fastest digitally. Anywhere of the digitized first structure image can in this case in a simple way and manner appropriate panels of any shape and size are inserted, by radiation intensities of selected image areas with Bragg reflections and optionally also from other image areas or the corresponding digital Values or image data are simply set to zero.
  • Possibly However, it is also possible, the Bragg reflexes through the twisting of the structure described above and / or hide the Selektivblendeneinrichtung and then only the capture and digitization of the so modified first Structure image as well as its digital processing.
  • to Evaluation may be made in accordance with the below still in detail described embodiments both a spatial and a Fourier space map or representation be used. If necessary, these two can be different Representation or presentation also parallel next to each other and evaluated.
  • With the described structure analysis method according to the invention can in a simple way even more complex structures of several similar or different substructures very simple, fast and reliable to be analyzed. Through this analysis, both the Art and the number of ordered structures as well as the respective ones Determine alignment or location correlations and axis symmetries.
  • The inventive method allows a contrast-optimized, spatially resolved, accurate representation and Analysis of ordered structures up to elementary cells and to atomic particle arrangements.
  • The described structure analysis method according to the invention is included, for example, for quality control of (industrial) production (long-range) orderly or periodic structures suitable. This is especially true for mono and thin Multilayers of colloids, e.g. two- or three-dimensional optical Grid and data storage, as it provides reliable information about the Sequence, the number and structure of the individual layers provides. When vapor deposition or application of such structures on a surface already lead smallest irregularities or faults the surface, such as. Bumps or dirt, too unwanted local disturbances the applied structure, by the structure analysis method according to the invention spatially resolved accurately represented and reliable can be recognized. disturbed Structures can then, for example, simply sorted out of the manufacturing process be so for the structures produced always a consistently high level of quality is guaranteed.
  • There the structure analysis method according to the invention relatively easy to automate, it is also easy in an industrial series production can be integrated.
  • A Structural analysis device for carrying out the described structural analysis method comprises a holding device for a sample or structure to be examined. The holding device is for precisely aligning a sample as needed spatial adjustable trained and respect an associated first imaging system needs to be adjusted as needed. In a preferred embodiment In addition, the holding device is an imaging or irradiation axis of this first imaging system rotatably formed.
  • The first imaging system comprises an irradiation system for the holding device, by activating a first structure image of a on the Holding device arranged sample is generated or generated is.
  • The Irradiation system may be a device for generating electromagnetic Radiation of a given continuous frequency, wavelength or Energy range or band, e.g. in particular visible light or a continuous X-ray spectrum include. However, it may also include means for generating monochromatic or quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, such as e.g. in particular laser radiation or characteristic X-radiation one or more specific frequencies. The radiation system In addition, a device for generating monoenergetic or quasi-monoenergetic electron, ion, proton or Neutron beams (or generally particle beams, matter waves or De Broglie waves). This matter-wave device or matter wave source Optionally, it may also be designed such that particle beams or De Broglie waves a particular continuous or quasi-continuous wavelength or energy range can be generated or generated.
  • In a preferred embodiment The first imaging system comprises a first imaging device or imaging optics, where - as already mentioned was the Designation Imaging device in the context of the present invention in the broadest sense is understood and the totality of one Image forming includes effective components of an imaging system, such as e.g. Lenses, mirrors, concave mirrors, prisms, Fresnel zone plates or zone constructions or the like.
  • These first imaging device can be a first, preferably magnifying, optical, X-ray optical, Electron-optical, interior-optical, neutron-optical or a other, suitable, first, preferably enlarging Lens system or a lens device, such. the lens device or the objective of a light, X-ray, electron or ion microscope (or generally a particle beam microscope).
  • The structure analysis device further comprises a second imaging or image manipulation system associated with the first imaging system, which is designed and arranged such that a second structure image can be generated or generated from the first structure image. In this case, the generation of the second structure image comprises at least one manipulation of the first structure image by selectively masking image areas by means of a suitable selective iris device of the type described below. The actual mapping of the correspondingly manipulated first structure image can optionally also be effected by the first image Imaging system, as for example in the microscope described below of the first embodiment according to the 1a and 1b the case is.
  • In a preferred embodiment The second imaging system comprises a second magnifying imaging device or imaging optics. This second imaging device can be a second, magnification, optical, electron-optical, interior-optical or X-ray optical imaging lens system or a lens device, wherein the term lens system or lens device - as above already mentioned - in the context the present invention is to be understood in the broadest sense and the entirety of the components effective in image formation, such as. Lenses, mirrors, concave mirrors, prisms, Fresnel zone plates or zone constructions or the like of an imaging system includes. The second imaging device can thus in particular also a magnifying device and the eyepiece or projection device of a light, electron, X-ray or ionic microscope (or in general a particle beam microscope) include.
  • In a preferred embodiment The second imaging system can also be a first radiation-sensitive Imaging, detecting or sensing device, such as e.g. a suitable first CCD sensor or CCD imager or the like include.
  • This Image capture or sensor device is an image or data processing device assigned, which is designed so that from adjacent image or Data signals of the image capture device a second structure image can be generated or generated. In a preferred embodiment the image or data processing device can also be a device to visually represent the second texture map, such as a suitable screen device or a printer device, include.
  • These Combination of image capture and image processing device corresponds in its function thus the above-described, second, magnifying Imaging device for generating a second structure image from a first structure image. The second magnifying imaging device can thus - with other words - in a preferred embodiment also as a digital imaging device with a digitizing Image capture and a digital image processing device be educated.
  • The second imaging system can also be one of the second magnifying Evaluation device associated evaluation device for evaluation of the second structure image. This evaluation device can also be a second radiation-sensitive image acquisition, or detector Sensor device for automatic detection and digitization of the second structural image, e.g. a suitable one second CCD sensor or CCD imager or the like. In addition, you can also have a suitable memory device for image signals or image data.
  • at a preferred embodiment the evaluation device is also designed as a digital evaluation device and in the above-mentioned image or data processing device be integrated.
  • The second imaging system also also includes a selective iris device or Image manipulator for selectively fading image areas with at least one hole, Ring, slot or pin aperture. This selective iris device In particular, it may also be variable, such as e.g. a Slit diaphragm with several superimposed moving pins, so that towards the center more and more rejuvenating covering Areas arise. It can also hide a central panel the undiffracted and unscattered radiation component, i. the primary beam, include. The selective iris device is preferably rotatable with respect to formed an axis of the imaging system. In a preferred embodiment it is in the image-side focal plane of the first lens device arranged. However, if necessary, it can also be used on another suitable one Position of the beam path to be arranged. It can thus in particular also be integrated into the second imaging device. In this Case, the second imaging device preferably also a Zoom device for accurately mapping the first structure image on the selective iris device. The second imaging device may also include a rotator for rotating the first pattern image. Optionally, the zoom device can also be used as a turning device at the same time be educated.
  • The selective iris device can in particular also as a digital aperture device out forms and integrated into the above-mentioned image or data processing device. By an appropriate software embodiment of the diaphragm device or the image or data processing device in this case any digitized image areas are selectively hidden or hidden, for example, the corresponding digital image data are simply set to zero.
  • In a preferred embodiment the second imaging device comprises both a spatial-space imaging device as well as a Fourier space mapping device.
  • The Structural analysis device preferably also comprises a frequency or wavelength-selective Filter device for optimizing the intensity and color gradients in the Imaging, which is arranged at a suitable location in the beam path or in this insertable is. The filter device can also be used as a digital filter device trained and in the above-mentioned image or data processing device be integrated.
  • In a preferred embodiment the structural analysis device also includes a control or control device for controlling said devices or systems in an analysis of a sample or structure to be examined.
  • Preferably is also an electric drive device for the holding device and / or the selective iris device and / or the rotary device intended.
  • With such a drive means can be e.g. especially the axis orientation of a structure or sample to be investigated easier to determine and adjust properly. To this end it is preferably designed so that on the one hand one or more Pin apertures of the selective aperture device with respect to the imaging or Irradiation axis of the imaging system or imaging device are rotatable or rotated and on the other hand, the holding device spatially with the sample is movable or moved so that the examined sample area always is located in a specific object plane in which a proper mapping the sample, i. the generation of a first structure image with Bragg reflections, guaranteed is.
  • In addition to this can the control or regulating device be designed in such a way that they are using proper software automatically the proper alignment the sample or the structure and checked by appropriate control of the drive device, if necessary corrected. The software is designed here so that they applied data signals of the above-mentioned, associated radiation-sensitive Image acquisition device evaluates which the determined color and / or intensity values represent specific image areas, and with the from the Data of the drive device determined current position of the Probe and the position of the pen aperture (s) correlated.
  • Further Features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent the following description of preferred embodiments in conjunction with the belonging ones Drawings. In the drawings, in which the same components with the same Reference numerals are given, show:
  • 1a and 1b 1 is a schematic representation of a first, exemplary light microscope with the object and the illumination beam path (FIG. 1a respectively. 1b );
  • 1c and 1d a schematic representation of a second exemplary light microscope with inserted Bertrand lens with parallel and oblique to the optical axis of incident radiation ( 1c respectively. 1d );
  • 2a an exemplary slit diaphragm for selectively masking Bragg reflections;
  • 2 B an exemplary pin aperture for selectively masking Bragg reflections;
  • 3a and 3b a first structure image with a symmetrical arrangement of Bragg reflections 1 , Order with fully opened aperture diaphragm ( 3a ) according to the prior art with the associated second structure image ( 3b );
  • 4a and 4b the two structure images according to 3 wherein the aperture stop is closed to the red edge of the Bragg reflections;
  • 5a and 5b the two structure images according to 3 wherein the aperture stop is closed to the green edge of the Bragg reflections;
  • 6a and 6b the two structure images according to 3 wherein the aperture stop is closed to the blue edge of the Bragg reflections;
  • 7a and 7b the two structure images according to 3 with complete suppression of the Bragg reflexes;
  • 8a a first structural image of a sample with a hexagonal first and a quadrati second crystal structure;
  • 8b the first structure image according to 8a with drawn ring aperture:
  • 9a and 9b the operation of an exemplary first pen aperture;
  • 10a and 10b the operation of an exemplary second pin aperture;
  • 11a and 11b the operation of an exemplary slit diaphragm;
  • 12a and 12b the operation of an exemplary pinhole;
  • 13a and 13b the second structural image of a monolayer and a double layer with fully opened and completely closed numerical aperture ( 13a respectively. 13b );
  • 14a - 14d belonging first structure images to those in the 13 correspondingly marked points;
  • 15a and 15b the second structural image of a triple layer and a quad layer with fully opened and completely closed numerical aperture ( 15a respectively. 15b );
  • 16a - 16f belonging first structure images to those in the 15 correspondingly marked points;
  • 17a - 17d Brightness differences when using a slit according to 2a using the example of a colloidal hexagonal ordered multilayer; and the
  • 18a and 18b the inventive selective hiding Bragg reflections in an asymmetric first structure image.
  • The 1a and 1b show an exemplary first microscope 10 , wherein for better illustration of the illumination beam path 11a ( 1b ) and the object beam path 11b ( 1a ) are shown separately. In 1a is for two different points of an object or sample to be examined 14 the respective associated object beam path 11b represented, wherein one of these beam paths 11b gray background for better distinction. The infinite microscopic image of the object 14 that in the eye 13 is perceived is indicated only by dashed lines.
  • The microscope 10 includes a Köhler lighting unit or a Köhler lighting system 12 to evenly illuminate the in an object or sample level 14a of the microscope 10 arranged to be examined sample 14 and a two-stage magnifying imaging device 16 . 18 for microscopic imaging of the sample 14 , This imaging device 16 . 18 includes an objective device or a lens 16 and a downstream eyepiece or eyepiece 18 , which in known manner as the first and second magnification in the microscopic imaging of the sample 14 Act.
  • The sample or structure 14 is arranged on a (not shown) holding device, the demand-oriented exact alignment of the sample 14 is designed spatially adjustable. It is also around the optical axis of the microscope 10 rotatable and adjustable as needed with respect to this axis depending on the particular structure.
  • The lighting system 12 is designed so that it emits light in the visible frequency range and the object or sample when activated 14 illuminates evenly with parallel high-luminance light ("Köhler illumination") 12a , a collector device or a collector 12b and a downstream associated condenser or a condenser 12c , The collector 12b and the condenser 12c are here designed and arranged so that the light source 12a through the collector 12b in the focal plane 12d of the condenser 12c is shown. This light source image is then transmitted through the condenser 12c into a bundle of parallel light rays for uniform illumination of the object or sample 14 transformed. In the focal plane 12d of the condenser 12c is a first iris diaphragm 12e arranged, which determines the opening angle of the illumination aperture and is referred to as aperture stop. In that by the condenser 12c formed lighting side image of the object plane 14a is a field stop 12f arranged by which the size of the illuminated area of the object plane 14a is determined.
  • The object level 14a Downstream is the above-mentioned lens 16 in its image-side focal plane 16a (ie in the Fourier plane of the sample 14 ) a (not shown) Fourier image of the sample 14 also referred to above as the first structure image or as a structure intermediate image.
  • In the image-side focal plane 16a of the lens 16 (ie in the Fourier plane of the sample 14 ) is a selective blend device 20 to selectively hide image areas of the lens 16 generated first structure image 24 arranged, which is rotatable with respect to the optical axis of the microscope 10 is trained. The selective blen deneinrichtug 20 is replaceable and can, depending on the application, depending on the sample to be examined 14 be selected with their characteristic structural properties suitable. The selective iris device 20 If appropriate, it can also be arranged at another point of the optical beam path, to which the first structure image 24 is imaged or projected by means of a suitable imaging or projection device.
  • The selective iris device 20 may include at least one hole, ring, slot or pin aperture. In particular, it may also have a variable design, such as, for example, a slit diaphragm with a plurality of pins traveling one above the other, so that more and more tapering covering areas are created towards the center. It can also include an iris diaphragm. It may also include a central shutter to hide the undiffracted and unscattered radiation component, ie the primary or central beam.
  • In 2a is an example of a slit 20 with six, extending from a central circular aperture 20a from radially outwardly extending slots 20b which is suitable in particular for the structural analysis of hexagonal ordered structures according to the invention which is described in detail below and is also used accordingly. The six slots 20b are each arranged at an angle of 60 ° to each other so that they form a rotationally symmetrical with respect to the diaphragm center pin arrangement.
  • The 2 B shows an exemplary pen aperture 20 with a central circular aperture 20a in which there are six pins 20c extend radially inwardly, which in turn are each arranged at an angle of 60 ° to each other. Also this pen panel 20 is thus designed especially for the structural analysis of hexagonal ordered structures according to the invention which is described in detail below.
  • That the lens 16 assigned, already mentioned above eyepiece 18 In a known manner, it serves to magnify imaging or viewing through the lens 16 generated inverted magnified microscope intermediate image 30 in a subsequent second magnification stage, which - according to the above - after need-based adjustment of the selective Blendeneinrichtug 20 from the first structure image 24 is generated or generated and is referred to above as a second structure image. The eyepiece 18 is designed so that emergent object beams are parallel. The eye lens 13 A viewer can thus design the second structure image in a relaxed state on the retina.
  • To the first structure image 24 or the Fourier image of the object or sample 14 to look at, in the beam path behind the lens 16 a so-called Bertrand lens 23 are arranged, which in a known per se, the image-side focal plane 16a or the exit pupil of the lens 16 in the object-side focal plane 25 of the eyepiece 18 maps. The image-side Fourier plane of the microscope objective 16 is here in the eye 13 displayed. With the Bertrand lens 23 becomes the tube length, ie the distance between the image-side focal plane 16a of the microscope objective 16 and the object-side focal plane 25 of the eyepiece 18 with a lens in an identity image (twice on both sides the focal length of the Bertrand lens 23 ) bridged.
  • A corresponding embodiment of the microscope 10 is in the 1c and 1d exemplified.
  • 1c shows a microscope assembly with Betrandlinse 23 with incident parallel to the optical axis radiation, referred to as unscattered light.
  • 1d shows a microscope assembly with Betrandlinse 23 with oblique incident to the optical axis radiation, referred to as scattered light.
  • The microscope 10 can be done by replacing or installing suitable lenses or lens systems behind the microscope objective 16 and the selective aperture diaphragm (s) 20 and / or by forming two different beam paths or light paths with certain adjustment devices, if necessary, also be redesigned so that both the microscopic image of the sample 14 as well as its Fourier image, ie both the second and the first structural image of the sample in the above usage 14 , alternately or simultaneously and can be analyzed. This allows the adjustment of the selective aperture device or selective aperture diaphragm 20 on specific Bragg reflections or the partial coverage of Bragg reflections according to the invention and their influence on the color and brightness effects in the microscopic second structural image of the sample 14 directly observe and analyze. For example, instead of the eyepiece 18 simply an attachment to be grown, with two lenses on the one hand, the enlarged Fourier space of the Bragg reflections (the first structure image) and on the other hand, an enlarged spatial view of the sample 14 (the second structure image).
  • The microscope 10 also includes one or more (not shown) frequency filter to optimize the intensity and color gradients during imaging, depending on the structural properties of the sample to be examined 14 at a suitable location in the beam path 22 are arranged or can be inserted in these as needed.
  • The microscope 10 In addition, it also includes an electric drive device (not shown) for the holding device and for the selective diaphragm device 20 , By means of this drive device can be, for example, in particular the axis alignment of a structure or sample to be examined 14 easier to determine and the sample 14 adjust and adjust properly. The holding device with the sample 14 is spatially so movable or is moved so that the examined sample area always in the object or sample plane 14a located in the a proper mapping of the sample 14 ie the generation of a sharp first structure image 24 with Bragg reflections, guaranteed.
  • The microscope 10 furthermore also includes a radiation-sensitive image capture device (not shown) for the first and second structural image as well as an associated electronic evaluation device.
  • The image capture device for the second structure image, if appropriate, can also be arranged such that it contains the inverted magnified microscope intermediate image 30 captured directly, allowing the second magnification level of the microscope 10 with the eyepiece 18 can be omitted.
  • The microscope 10 Finally, it also includes a control or regulating device (not shown) for controlling said devices or systems when carrying out a structural analysis according to the invention of the type described above. The control or regulating device is designed such that it automatically controls the proper alignment by means of suitable software the sample 14 checked and optionally corrected by appropriate control of the electric drive device for the sample holding device as needed. In this case, the software is designed such that it evaluates the applied data signals of the radiation-sensitive image capture device, which represent the determined color and / or intensity values of specific imaging regions, and with the current position of the sample determined from the data of the drive device 14 or the sample holding device and the position of the respective selective iris device 20 correlated.
  • It should be noted that the lens 16 generated sample image or the first structure image of the sample 14 either before or after the selective suppression of Bragg reflections can be imaged or projected by means of a suitable imaging or projection device to another location outside the described microscope structure and there in the manner described above in detail by means of the facilities and systems mentioned therein can be further processed and evaluated.
  • The difference between the microscope described above 10 and commercially available conventional microscopes consists in the needs-designed, in the imaging beam path 22a inserted or insertable selective iris device 20 , Conventional microscopes without such a selective iris device 20 , but can by appropriate conversions or supplemental devices or by using novel high quality microscope objectives with appropriate built-in or insertable selective iris devices 20 or by the construction of microscopes with specially constructed beam paths of the type described above are quite simple and inexpensive so converted or retrofitted that they can be used to perform inventive structural analysis. The appropriate choice of - preferably interchangeable trained - selective aperture devices 20 allows a very simple, quick and flexible adaptation to the respective experimental requirements and structural conditions, without having to fear any loss of quality during imaging in the case of optically balanced image defects.
  • In 3a is an exemplary first structure image 24 ordered structures of a multilayer 14 from about 590 nm large PS colloids (PS = polystyrene) shown on a coverslip. The structure image 24 was (according to the prior art) with the microscope described above 10 with Köhler's lighting with visible light and completely open iris aperture diaphragm 20 in the focal plane 16a of the microscope objective 16 (ie in the Fourier plane of the multilayer to be imaged 14 ). The aperture diaphragm or selective diaphragm 20 was chosen so that only Bragg reflexes 1 , order 26 are visible while the Bragg reflexes 26 Higher order are completely hidden. As a microscope objective 16 a Leica PL APO 100x / 1.40 - 0.7 Oil / 0.17 / D was used.
  • The illustrated colloidal multilayer 14 was prepared, as well as the multilayers shown below in the other embodiments of the invention, by allowing an aqueous colloidal suspension of polystyrene particles (PS particles) to dry on a flat glass surface. Due to the surface tension of the liquid, the colloids are more and more compressed in the evaporation process until finally after the complete evaporation of the Water densely packed, but usually consist of many small, differently oriented and constructed crystal structures existing colloidal layers. Since the bottom layer is always aligned along the glass surface and the other layers are oriented to the bottom layer, have the crystalline ordered structures 14 all one axis of symmetry perpendicular to the glass surface. Will the optical axis of the microscope 10 Therefore, as in the present case, brought parallel to the normal direction of the glass surface, as shown in 3a , Bragg reflexes 26 that are radially symmetric or rotationally symmetric about an unscattered primary or central beam 28 in the center of the structure image 24 are arranged.
  • If such a thin, ordered multilayer is irradiated in the direction of an axis of symmetry of the structure, uniform characteristic intensity profiles of the respective symmetrical Bragg reflections result with corresponding axis symmetry 26 same order. From this, specific additional applications for thin multilayers oriented in this manner can be derived, which are described in detail below.
  • Due to the parallel alignment of the optical microscope axis to an axis of symmetry of the multilayer to be examined 14 it is ensured that the same characteristic colors in the associated - and still discussed in detail - second structural image 30 also correspond to the same crystal structures with the same number of layers and the same layer or stacking sequence. However, in the case of small crystallites, it is also conceivable in the threedimensional that their axes of symmetry are each individually parallel to the optical axis of the microscope by suitable rotation 10 and then placed in the second structure image 30 resulting color and intensity curves are compared and analyzed.
  • Since it is the sample examined 14 is a thin multilayer, are the Bragg reflexes 26 in the first structure image 24 spectrally split. The short-wave radiation components in the blue radiation range are in each case at smaller diffraction angles on the central beam 28 facing inside of the Bragg reflexes 26 while the long-wave radiation components in the red radiation range at larger diffraction angles on the the central beam 28 facing away from the Bragg reflexes 26 lie.
  • The Bragg reflexes 26 in the first structure image 24 are annular, since they consist of a superimposition of numerous, individual, structural characteristic Bragg reflections, each one of the differently constructed and oriented ordered individual structures in the multilayer to be examined 14 assigned. These structural characteristic Bragg reflexes 26 lie side by side, the radiation intensities being weighted according to the proportion of the individual structures in the illuminated area or in the illumination field.
  • For illumination fields with sufficiently complex structures, which comprise a multiplicity of differently structured and oriented individual structures, the first structural image may be used 24 the sample 14 (ie in their Fourier image), optionally also to form a nearly closed ring of Bragg reflections 26 come, allowing an assignment of individual Bragg reflexes 26 for certain individual structures is not always readily possible. The spatial resolution in the first structure image 24 is therefore in the present case by the size of the illumination field and the number of contained therein, simultaneously illuminated or irradiated, differently ordered and oriented individual structures in the multilayer to be examined 14 certainly.
  • The Bragg reflexes 26 in the first structure image 24 contain several important structural information. Their number and orientation gives information about the present crystal structure and its orientation within the sample to be examined 14 , The radial, wavelength-dependent intensity distributions of the Bragg reflections 26 and intensity differences between the Bragg reflections 26 By contrast, an ordered thin multilayer depends on the interference conditions between different layers, ie they are characteristic of the number of layers and the stacking sequence, but also of the crystal structure itself. The structural characteristic radial intensity profile of the Bragg reflections changes for other experimental conditions, eg for colloids of another material (ie other scatterers for the incident radiation), colloids of other sizes (change of the periodic arrangement) and for colloids in another surrounding medium, eg no longer in air but in water (change of the dielectric constant of the surrounding medium).
  • The dependence of the spatial resolution on the selected illumination range, difficulties in assigning the Bragg reflections 26 for mixtures of crystal structures and the necessary analysis of the radial intensity distribution of the Bragg reflections 26 show that conventional structural analyzes of colloidal multilayers 14 , which are based only on the analysis of Bragg reflections, are associated with a very high technical effort, without requiring a good spatial resolution for the structures under investigation 14 results.
  • 3b shows the associated second structure image 30 after the second magnification stage of the microscope 10 ie the picture of the lens 16 generated enlarged microscope intermediate image taken with a CCD camera.
  • The Arrangement of colloids in the differently ordered as well as structurally disturbed Areas are for the topmost colloid layer of multilayers at fully opened numerical aperture clearly visible.
  • The illustrated microscopic second structure image 30 the sample 14 Although at maximum open numerical aperture according to the known prior art allows a spatially resolved representation of the uncovered colloids, but it shows only the surface layer and provides, in contrast to the Bragg reflections 26 , no deep-sensitive structure information. The individual crystal structures, the number of layers, the stacking sequence and the orientation of the crystalline areas in the multilayer 14 can not be determined so clearly. For digitally usable structural information of the surface, the particle positions must first be determined by complex data processing programs in order then to be able to calculate the particle correlations.
  • In the 4 - 7 is now the invention in 3 initially the maximum open numerical aperture diaphragm gradually closes more and more. In 4a is the aperture stop 20 first to the red edge of the Bragg reflexes 26 closed. Then only the red frequency range ( 5a ), then additionally the green frequency range ( 6a ) and finally also the blue frequency range ( 7a ) radially symmetric about the optical axis and the central beam 28 hidden. In 7a is the aperture stop 20 then closed so far that the Bragg reflexes 26 - in accordance with the above-mentioned dissertation by Dr. med. Ralf Biehl known prior art - are completely hidden and only the unscattered central beam 28 is visible.
  • The unscattered light of the central ray 28 , Diffuse scattered light and the non-hidden residual radiation fraction of Bragg reflections 26 of the first structure image 24 be through the microscope lens 16 to a second structure image 24 in the form of an enlarged microscope intermediate image 30 composed, which then, as already mentioned above, through the downstream eyepiece 18 is enlarged again.
  • Gradually fading out the Bragg reflexes 26 the microscopic resolution is increasingly reduced by the increasing reduction of the aperture until finally the individual particles can no longer be observed separately. This gradual deterioration of the microscopic resolution is in the 4a - 7a respectively associated second structure images 30 recognizable in the 4b - 7b are shown.
  • At the same time, however, are in the 4b - 7b with increasing dimming, ie stronger suppression of the Bragg reflections 26 , spatially resolved areas or regions with a very characteristic color and brightness value. This is due to the lack of hidden structural characteristic radiation components in the formation of the second structural image 30 attributed to its original color and brightness values depending on the respectively missing radiation components with increasing dimming are increasingly modified and thus obtained corresponding structural information in the form of structure-characteristic color and brightness codes. Areas or regions with the same color code therefore belong to the same crystal structure, ie, for example, to the same multiple layer with a specific number of layers and layer sequence. Defects and defects appear in the second structure image 30 typically as dark shadows.
  • Despite the increasingly poorer resolution of the microscope 10 As the numerical aperture decreases, the concurrent hiding of structure-characteristic colors results in Bragg reflections 26 , which carry deep-sensitive structural information, in the second structural image 30 to a locally assigned coloring of the different ordered structures, which allows a contrast-optimized spatially resolved representation of the structures and an evaluation of the structure-characteristic color information based thereon. However, initially there is no information on the locally present axis symmetry or the orientation of the crystal axes in the multilayer 14 , The color-specific crystal structures with certain number of layers and stacking order must be assigned by other measurements as well as by theoretical calculations.
  • For completeness, it should be noted that even when hiding Bragg reflections 26 higher order colorations of the second structure image 30 which, however, are somewhat paler than in the present case with Bragg reflections 26 first order.
  • If in a sample to be examined 14 by the selective hiding of Bragg reflections according to the invention 26 Locally interesting areas are found, then these areas can then by optimally adjusting the aperture 20 microscopically optimally resolved and analyzed in a conventional manner be siert. In this way, the advantages of conventional microscopy methods with their optimum resolution can be optimally combined with the advantages of the present microscopic structure analysis method with its contrast-optimized, spatially resolved, accurate representation and analysis of ordered structures.
  • The structural analyzes according to the invention can be carried out relatively easily and quickly because the entire structural information is contained in a color and / or brightness code and does not have to be determined from geometric subarrays, as otherwise usual. The method is universally applicable to differently constructed ordered structures, which in the case of the respectively used radiation, ie in the present case in the visible spectral range, Bragg reflections 26 produce.
  • As mentioned above, the location of the Bragg reflections 26 and their spectral intensity distribution quite characteristic of any ordered structure with a thin multilayer. If a sample to be examined 14 includes different ordered structures, the respective spectrally resolved Bragg reflections appear 26 because of the dependence of the diffraction angle on the wavelength and on the path difference of the pattern-characteristic beam paths at other angles with respect to the unscattered primary beam 28 , Same colors in the different structure-specific Bragg reflections 26 thus have a different structural characteristic distance to the center of the first structure image 24 ,
  • By means of suitable ring diaphragms 20 , which may be formed interrupted if necessary, can now according to the invention, for example, only the spectral components of the Bragg reflections 26 Hide thin multilayers, in which the structures present in each case differ greatly. When superimposing the not hidden remaining radiation components in the image plane of the second structure image 30 In turn, areas or regions with a structure-characteristic color code and brightness value that are recorded and evaluated are then spatially resolved. By appropriate selection of the hidden Bragg-Reflex-range, the color code and intensity difference between the different neighboring structures can be optimized. Optionally, in this case (for example, by ring diaphragms with different radii or interrupted formed annular diaphragms) only Bragg reflexes 26 a structure are wholly or partially covered, so that in the subsequent superimposition of the remaining radiation components, in particular these structural areas are color-coded and can be distinguished particularly well from the non-marked other structural areas.
  • This inventive approach will be described below with reference to 8th illustrated. 8a shows a first structure image or Fourier image 24 a sample 14 , which in addition to a hexagonal first crystal structure also includes a square second crystal structure. The 6-fold axis symmetry of the first crystal structure causes - as explained above - six first Bragg reflections 26a first order - the Bragg reflections of higher order are in turn completely blanked out by the numerical aperture of the optical beam path - which are rotationally symmetric with respect to the unscattered primary or central beam 28 in the center of the structure image 24 are arranged. They are each in turn annular widened and spectrally split. The 4-fold axis symmetry of the second crystal structure, however, causes four second Bragg reflections 26b first order, which is also rotationally symmetric with respect to the unscattered primary beam 28 arranged, ring-shaped and spectrally split. Because of the changed structure-characteristic interference conditions, the second Bragg reflections are present 26b but closer to the central ray 28 as the first Bragg reflexes 26a the hexagonal first structure.
  • The two different crystal structures connect with each other because of their Bragg reflections 26 are aligned in the 1 o'clock position and in the 7 o'clock position.
  • By means of a suitably dimensioned ring diaphragm 20 , such as a light-impermeable metal ring deposited on a glass plate, can now be used according to 8b For example, the blue Bragg reflex area 26a the hexagonal first structure and the green Bragg reflex area 26b simultaneously be selectively masked or blanked out of the square second structure so that the two structures in the (not shown) belonging to the second structural image of the sample 14 In turn, they experience different structural color and brightness changes that allow a simple and precise distinction between them.
  • On Reason of the different coloring at thin Multilayers can be used with different crystal structures just different from each other. Hexagonal structures with one different number of layers and / or stacking will be but also further by color or intensity deviations from each other differ. However, this effect can be quite small because only part of the color information used for differentiation becomes.
  • For the analysis according to the invention of ordered structures by selective suppression of Bragg reflections 26 can - depending on the application purpose - also differently designed Selective - shutters 20 are used in their geometric form to the respective structural characteristic Bragg reflexes 26 are adapted or, for example, by a variable embodiment, each optimally adaptable. Exemplary of the diverse design possibilities of such selective diaphragms 20 for selective masking of Bragg reflections according to the invention 26 Below is the operation of special slot, pin and pinhole 20 for determining the axis symmetry and the orientation or mutual relative orientation of the individual crystallites in an exemplary, thin multilayer to be investigated 14 based on 9 - 12 explained in more detail.
  • These figures each show a first structure image 24 a hexagonal ordered sample 14 with spectrally split Bragg reflections 26 , which is rotationally symmetric about the central ray 28 are arranged. Again, these are just Bragg reflexes 26 first order visible, as the Bragg reflexes 26 Higher order are hidden by the numerical aperture of the optical beam path.
  • The exemplary selective irises 20 are opposite the first structure image 24 with the Bragg reflexes 26 highlighted in gray.
  • 9a shows one around the central ray 28 rotatable pen bezel 20 with a single pin extending radially inwardly from an outer bezel ring (not visible) 20c that between two Bragg reflections 26a and 26b is arranged. The pencil 20c is such that one of the Bragg reflexes 26 completely coverable by him, as in 9b for the lower right Bragg reflex 26b is shown by way of example. The pencil 20c This is done by simply turning the pen bezel 20 in the corresponding angular position of this Bragg reflex 26b brought. Optionally, however, may also be another of the Bragg reflexes 26 by turning the pin accordingly 20c completely hidden.
  • Alternatively, however, the sample (not shown) may also be so far around the central jet by means of the above-mentioned rotatable holding device 28 or the optical axis of the microscope 10 be turned until the right lower Bragg reflex 26b (or possibly another Bragg reflex 26 completely (or partially) through the pen 22c is covered.
  • As for the dimming of a Bragg reflex 26 only one relative rotation between the pin 22c and the Bragg reflexes 26 is required, but may also be both the sample 14 as well as the pen bezel 20 or the pen 20c be rotated simultaneously until the desired Bragg reflex 26b completely through the pen 20c is covered.
  • In a microscope provided with a special optical rotator 10 may also be the first structure image 24 with the Bragg reflexes 26 visually as far as the pin is concerned 20c be turned until the right lower Bragg reflex 26b (or possibly another Bragg reflex 26 ) is completely covered. In this case, this optical rotation device can also be a zoom device for appropriately enlarging or reducing the first structure image 24 include, with the size of the Bragg reflexes 26 to the given dimensions of the pen 20c is customizable or customized. This eliminates a change of the pen panel 20 in a sample 14 with a different, structural characteristic, radial intensity distribution or angular extent of the Bragg reflections 26 so that the pen bezel 20 for the analysis of different structures 14 is usable.
  • The pencil 20c However, if necessary, it can also be designed to be variable, ie variable in its length and / or width, so that it is adapted to different structure-characteristic Bragg reflections 26 is customizable.
  • Cover the pen 20c the pen bezel 20 the Bragg reflex 26b (or another Bragg reflex 26 ) partially or completely, as in 9b shown, the structure-characteristic radiation component is hidden accordingly and thus no longer contributes to the second structure image 30 the sample 14 at. Turning the pen bezel 20 around the central ray 28 and the associated, gradual, selective fading out of the Bragg reflex 26b lead in the second structure image 30 the sample 14 therefore to characteristic color and intensity changes. For a second structure image 30 a multilayer with different crystalline structures, ie with a mix of many Bragg reflections 26 , so can the Bragg reflexes 26 the different crystal structures of each other in the first structure image 24 the sample 14 differentiate and assign spatially resolved.
  • When a pen iris matched to a particular axis symmetry 20 relative to the sample 14 rotated by 360 °, regions with this axis symmetry can be recognized by the fact that the uniform color and brightness changes occur at the same angle differences as are specified by the axis symmetry.
  • Will be a pen panel 20 with only one pen 20c relative to the sample 14 rotated by 360 °, can be at suitable geometrical dimensions of the pen 20 (ie the length and width of the pen 20 are in size of the respective Bragg reflexes 26 adjusted), the angular positions of the Bragg reflections 26 at read the color or brightness changes of the individual local ordered structures. These positions of the Bragg reflexes 26 also allow to determine the axis symmetry. This method is also successful when there are many small ordered structures with ring-shaped Bragg reflections 26 present, Bragg reflex positions in the focal plane lead to rings and can not be resolved individually.
  • The same applies to the use of the later described slot and pinhole 20 but also for any other selective suppression of Bragg reflections 26 in the first structure image 24 , ie in the Fourier space of a sample to be examined 14 ,
  • With two pen covers 20 , both independently of each other around the optical axis of the microscope 10 are rotatable, can be with a sample 14 with an axis of symmetry parallel to the optical axis, the angles between Bragg reflections 26 determine if the two pen apertures 20 each a Bragg reflex 26 Cover and cause the same structure-characteristic color and brightness changes in the second structure image. The same can be done with a single pen aperture 20 reach the two independently rotatable pins 20c includes.
  • 10 shows another exemplary pen aperture 20 with a 6-fold axis symmetry, at the 6 pins 20c of the 9 shown type are arranged at an angle of 60 ° to each other. In 10a is the pen bezel 20 turned so that the pins 20c each between two Bragg reflections 26 so that none of the Bragg reflexes 26 is hidden and all are visible. In the belonging 10b however, the Bragg reflexes are 26 by an associated pin 20c covered, which in turn by a simple relative rotation between the pin aperture 20 with the pins 20c and the first structure image 24 with the Bragg reflexes 26 can achieve.
  • If the symmetry axis of the observable Bragg reflections 26 not exactly parallel to the optical axis of the microscope 10 runs, can turn when turning a pen bezel 20 result in different color and brightness changes that no longer have to occur at the same differential angles. If necessary, Bragg reflexes 26 even fall away. These observations can be used to approximate the symmetry axis of the Bragg reflections 26 by suitable rotation of the sample 14 parallel to the optical axis of the microscope 10 align. In this case, again, the same color and intensity or brightness values result for the selectively covered Bragg reflections 26 at the same differential angles corresponding to those of the associated axis symmetry.
  • slotted apertures 20 that are designed so that the dark spaces between the Bragg reflections 26 of the first structure image 24 are completely coverable while the Bragg reflexes 26 remain free, also allow the alignment of an ordered structure 14 based on structure-specific color and intensity codes.
  • 11 shows an embodiment of a rotatable slit 20 with a 6-axis symmetry, extending from a central circular aperture 20a in which the unscreened primary or central steel 28 visible, six slots 20b extend radially outward. The slots 20b are arranged at an angle of 60 ° to each other and so dimensioned that between the Bragg reflections 26 located areas of the first structure image 24 with appropriate position of the slit 20 be completely covered or coverable while the Bragg reflexes 26 remain free. In 11a is the slit diaphragm 20 by way of example turned so that the six slots 20b each between two Bragg reflections 26 the hexagonal structure 14 are located. In the belonging 11b however, there are the slots 20b just on the Bragg reflexes 26 while the remaining image area is completely masked or hidden. This can in turn be achieved by a simple relative rotation between the slit diaphragm 20 with the slots 20b and the first structure image 24 with the Bragg reflexes 26 to reach.
  • The slots 20b If appropriate, they can also be made variable again, ie variable in their length and / or width, so that the slit diaphragm 20 to different structural characteristic Bragg reflexes 26 is optimally adaptable.
  • 12 finally shows an exemplary pinhole 20 with a 6-fold axis symmetry. The pinhole 20 includes a central circular aperture 20a in which the unscrewed primary or central steel 28 is visible, and six small openings 20d , which are arranged at an angle of 60 ° to each other. These openings 20d are so to the central aperture 20a and the central beam 28 spaced and dimensioned so that in the appropriate position of the pinhole 20 the blue spectral range of Bragg reflections 26 remains free while the remaining spectral range of the Bragg reflections 26 and those between the Bragg reflections 26 located areas of the first structure image 24 be completely covered or coverable. This is shown in 12b in which the six openings 20d just like that on the Bragg reflexes 26 lie that ever because only the blue spectral region remains free and participates in the generation of the second structure image, while the remaining spectral region of the Bragg reflections 26 and the image areas located between them are completely hidden. In the assigned 12a however, the pinhole is 20 turned so that the six openings 20d each between two Bragg reflections 26 the hexagonal structure are located so that the Bragg reflections 26 are completely hidden. This in turn can be achieved by a simple relative rotation between the pinhole 20 with the openings 20d and the first structure image 24 with the Bragg reflexes 26 to reach.
  • By suitable choice of the distance between the central aperture 20a with the unscattered central jet 28 and the openings 20d If necessary, all other spectral ranges of the Bragg reflections can also be determined 26 selectively hide.
  • Optionally, this can for a Bragg reflex 26 also several openings 20d be provided, which are so radially spaced from each other that several, especially structural characteristic spectral regions of the Bragg reflex 26 , eg the blue and the red radiation component, can be simultaneously faded out or faded out.
  • The openings 20d Optionally, they can also be designed to be variable, ie variable in their dimensions and in their position, so that the pinhole 20 to different structural characteristic Bragg reflexes 26 is customizable.
  • The shapes and dimensions of the pin, slot, hole or ring apertures 20 (or other suitable selective irises 20 ) can meet the respective requirements, such as the present axis symmetry and the size and design of the Bragg reflections 26 , be adapted almost arbitrarily, to a selective full or partial coverage of the Bragg reflexes 26 or the other areas of the first structure image 24 to reach. Any shaped panels 20 can be prepared for example by vapor deposition of metal layers on glass slides or other suitable transparent material.
  • Optionally, even more selective blends 20 of any kind combined to a more complex selective combination aperture and simultaneously to hide Bragg reflections 26 more complex structures 14 be used.
  • Will the setting of the used selective iris 20 leave, and the sample 14 Moved in one direction, alignment correlations can also be determined to more distant ordered structures.
  • The selective blends described 20 may also be combined with a (in 9 - 12 not shown) central field diaphragm for the suppression of the central beam 28 be combined. Since this is possibly much brighter than the Bragg reflexes 26 first order, performs a central field stop at the selective suppression of Bragg reflections 26 to much clearer color and intensity changes in the second structure image 30 (the spatial image), so that the contrast of the orientation correlation becomes remarkably better. In addition, the colors associated with the different ordered structures also change. The different orientations of the individual ordered areas in the sample 14 This can be achieved with selective coverage or suppression of individual Bragg reflections 26 in the second structure image 30 the sample 14 , ie in the spatial view, easier to distinguish from each other.
  • The structure analysis method according to the invention can thus also be used, in particular, for dark-field microscopy, in which the unscattered light is still present in front of the microscope objective on the object side through a central diaphragm 16 is hidden.
  • As already mentioned above, local crystal structures in colloidal multilayers can be resolved by their associated structural characteristic Bragg reflections 26 determine and by an inventive manipulation of these Bragg reflexes 26 , that is, by a structure-specific selective fade out, analyze exactly in the manner described above. The achievable spatial resolution is determined here by the size of the respectively illuminated or irradiated sample area or by the number of structures present therein. If two or more differently packed or ordered structures are illuminated at the same time, the Bragg reflections lie 26 the different structures - according to the above - in the first structure image or Fourier image 24 the sample 14 next to each other, the intensities being weighted according to the proportion of the individual structures in the illumination field. Will the whole sample 14 Illuminated at once, the Bragg reflections of the small, differently crystalline ordered structures with different number of layers and stacking sequence in the Fourier image 24 may therefore be superimposed on an almost closed ring, which makes it very difficult to analyze the existing individual structures. If, on the other hand, smaller sample areas are irradiated with only a few different structures, the associated structural characteristic Bragg reflections can be determined 26 individually resolve and the assigned structures exactly analyze. A corresponding selective examination of individual sample areas is exemplified in the following figures.
  • The 13a and 13b show the second structure image or Fourier image 30 a monolayer and a double and a triple layer with fully opened and fully closed numerical aperture ( 13a respectively. 13b ). There are clear color and intensity differences between the two second structure images 24 Recognizable by the complete suppression of Bragg reflexes 26 result.
  • The 14a - 14d show the locally recorded, belonging first structure images 24 with the structural characteristic Bragg reflexes 26 in different colored areas 14a - 14d in the 13 , The first structure images 24 were made using a Bertrand lens 23 (see the 1c and 1d ) recorded. The individual areas 14a - 14d that in the 13 are indicated by white circles, in each case using an illumination field or field diaphragm 12f selectively illuminated with a diameter of 15 μm.
  • 14a shows a typical hexagonal arrangement of Bragg reflections 26 passing through a hexagonally ordered monolayer in the sample area 14a is caused.
  • The first structure image 24 in 14b characterizes a quadratic ordered double layer in the sample area 14b (Overlay many differently oriented crystalline areas) with rotated by 45 ° Bragg reflections 26 second order.
  • 14c shows the typical Bragg reflexes 26 a hexagonal double layer in the sample area 14c (threefold symmetry due to AB stacking).
  • The first structure image 24 in 14d finally characterizes a quadratic ordered triple layer (superposition of differently oriented crystalline regions) in the sample area 14d with Bragg reflections rotated by 45 ° 26 second order.
  • The radial intensity profile the Bragg reflexes for the different wavelengths is characteristic of each the respective thin ones Multilage pronounced.
  • The relative mutual orientation of the Bragg reflexes 26 varies depending on the observatory. All Bragg reflexes 26 However, they are symmetrical to the very bright central ray 28 in the center of 24 because the axis of symmetry of the structures parallel to the optical axis of the microscope 10 is aligned.
  • The 15a and 15b show once more exemplarily the second structure-image 24 colloidal triplicate and quadruple plies with fully opened and fully closed numerical aperture ( 15a respectively. 15b ).
  • The 16a - 16f show those using a Bertrand lens 23 recorded belonging first structure images 24 at the marked by white circles, different colored areas 16a - 16f in the 15 with the respective structural characteristic Bragg reflections 26 , The individual areas 16a - 16f were also using a Beleuchtungsfeld- or field stop 12f selectively illuminated with a diameter of 15 μm.
  • The two areas 16a and 16b in 15 refer to hexagonal triple layers with different stacking sequence. The associated first structure images 24 in the 16a and 16b therefore show a hexagonal arrangement of Bragg reflections 26 , each enclosing an angle of 60 ° to each other.
  • The first structure image 24 in 16c characterizes a quadratic quadruple layer in the sample area 16c in the 15 with Bragg reflections rotated by 45 ° 26 second order.
  • The first structure images in the 16d - 16f represent hexagonal quads in the sample areas 16d - 16f with different stacking sequence.
  • The radial intensity profile of the Bragg reflections 26 for the different wavelengths is characterized in each case characteristic of the respective thin multilayer.
  • The 17a - 17d show the second structure image 30 a hexagonally ordered triple layer with light and dark regions or areas of the two different stacking sequences ABC and ABA. The reference numerals 30 and 32 refer to areas when using an iris whose diameter is the central circular opening 20a a slit diaphragm 20 according to 2a corresponds to the dark areas of the triple layer.
  • From the 0 ° position of the slit diaphragm 20 in 17a starting from the slit 20 in 17b initially rotated by 60 °. The second structure image 30 in the 17a and 17b are in both positions of the slit 20 nearly identically illuminated. The area 30 is lightened while the area 32 has a typical dark color.
  • At a 30 ° rotation of the slit diaphragm 20 , shown in 17c , are the two areas 30 and 32 dark, whereas the region 32 at a 90 ° rotation of the slit 20 according to 17d brighter than the region 30 appears. At the 90 ° turn only the Bragg reflexes 26 the lighter area 32 let through, but not the darker area 30 , Because of a setting accuracy of the slit 20 of about 1 ° show the deviations between the two 17c and 17d how sensitive with the present exemplary slit 20 Determine orientation correlations.
  • An inventive selective hiding the Bragg reflections 26 can also be achieved when the first structure image 24 not rotationally symmetric with respect to the unscattered central ray 28 is, as in 18a is shown by way of example. For example, the partial blanking can already be achieved by using a circular iris diaphragm according to FIGS 18a and 18b in the plane of the first structure image 24 be achieved. Optionally, at this point, however, a differently shaped aperture, such as an elliptical aperture, are used. By turning the asymmetric first structure image 24 around the central ray 28 according to 18b become the originally visible Bragg reflexes 26 partially hidden and previously invisible Bragg reflexes 26 can be added. This results in the second structure image 30 Directional color and / or brightness changes that are detected and evaluated. The turning around the central jet 28 or about the symmetry axis of the ordered structure to be examined, for example, by rotating the holding device for the sample 14 be achieved. Alternatively, however, if necessary, the entire imaging device 16 , 18 around the sample 14 to be turned around.
  • The beam path can also be deflected by means of a suitable optical device such that an asymmetrical first structure image 24 arises, which is then manipulated or changed directionally by rotating the optical device in the manner according to the invention. Suitable for this purpose are, for example, optical devices or systems comprising prism or mirror systems.
  • An asymmetric first structure image 24 can also be by oblique illumination or irradiation of the sample 14 by means of a suitably positioned illumination or irradiation device 12 be generated. For a direction-dependent change of the color and / or brightness values of the second structure image 30 must in this case the lighting device 12 around the sample 14 to be turned around. Alternatively, however, again the sample 14 be rotated about the symmetry axis of the ordered structure to be examined.
  • The different possibilities for generating and manipulating an asymmetric first structure image according to the invention 14 can also be combined with each other. It is also conceivable, for example, a combination of a parallel to the symmetry axis of the sample 14 sample illumination with one or more oblique illuminations. On the one hand, this enables good resolution of the surface structure and, on the other hand, simultaneous coloring of specially aligned areas.
  • to better determination of the directional correlation can z. B. in addition also still a pen panel of the type shown above are used.
  • The Inventive structural analysis method is in particular for fast and deep-sensitive structural analysis self-assembled ordered colloidal monolayers and multilayers suitable for the future Storage media or vapor masks play a significant role become.
  • In systems that self-organize as uniformly ordered structures on surfaces, the conservation of the orientation of distant individual unit cells can be checked against each other. This may be the sample 14 be moved freely in different directions, as long as no relative rotation of the sample 14 with regard to the direction-dependent selective iris 20 he follows.
  • As mentioned above, the position of the Bragg reflections depends 26 significantly dependent on the characteristic distances of the ordered structures. Therefore, even in such systems, the resulting ordered structures can be observed using characteristic color and intensity codes in the second structure image in which small colloidal particles per se are no longer resolvable in a microscope but are held at longer distances by repulsive forces.
  • Thus, with a simple and fast method, large areas of thin multilayers can be spatially resolved in the enlarged second structure image 30 or spatial image of the sample 14 based solely on locally resolved, orientation-sensitive, characteristic color and intensity codes according to the crystal structure, the number of layers and stacking order, the axis symmetries and the absolute and spatially resolved analyze the relative mutual orientations of the individual crystalline structures and relate each other beyond the respective image area or image detail.
  • With thick multilayers, no spectral splitting of the Bragg reflections 26 show more, the number of layers or the stacking sequence of the layers can no longer be determined. By selectively covering the Bragg reflections 26 However, it is still possible to analyze axial symmetry as well as the absolute and relative mutual orientations of the individual crystalline structures in a spatially resolved manner.
  • Color codes of differently ordered structures can be set so that these regions stand out optimally. In addition, locally resolved alignment correlations can also be observed within an ordered region. In addition, the positions of the Bragg reflections can also be determined 26 and determine the axis symmetries of the ordered structures spatially resolved.
  • The present invention has been exemplified above by light microscopic structural studies of colloidal multilayers. However, it should be pointed out once again that the structural analysis method described is also applicable to other ordered structures which, with suitable irradiation, Bragg reflections 26 demonstrate. Depending on the structures to be examined, it is also possible here to use electromagnetic radiation of another suitable frequency or wavelength range. In addition to electromagnetic radiation, it is also possible to use other types of radiation, such as particle beams or de Broglie waves with a de Broglie wavelength suitable for the resolution or representation of the respective structure. The imaging devices or imaging systems for generating the first and second structural images 24 respectively. 30 In this case, depending on the type of radiation and wavelength, suitable for the particular application.

Claims (22)

  1. Structural analysis procedure for ordered structures ( 14 ) with the following process steps: - Generation of a first structure image ( 24 ) with Bragg reflections ( 26 ) by suitably irradiating the structures ( 14 ); Generation of a second structure image ( 30 ) from the first structure image ( 24 ) with partial suppression of the Bragg reflexes ( 26 ); and evaluation of skip-specific color and / or intensity gradients in the second structure image ( 30 ), - where - Bragg reflexes ( 26 ) by rotating the structures ( 14 ) with regard to a suitable selective diaphragm device ( 20 ) and / or by turning the selective iris device ( 20 ) are partially or completely faded out during imaging - or where - Bragg reflexes ( 26 ) by suitable choice of the diameter of the selective iris device ( 20 ) are partially dimmed during imaging frequency selective.
  2. Structural analysis method according to claim 1, wherein the structures ( 14 ) are aligned so that a symmetrical arrangement of Bragg reflections ( 26 ) arises.
  3. Structural analysis method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein additionally the undiffracted and unscattered radiation component ( 28 ) disappears.
  4. A structural analysis method according to any one of claims 1-3, wherein used for irradiating electromagnetic radiation of a certain frequency range becomes.
  5. A structural analysis method according to claim 4, wherein Irradiate visible light or a continuous X-ray spectrum is used.
  6. A structural analysis method according to any one of claims 1-3, wherein for irradiation a monoenergetic or quasi-monoenergetic Radiation is used.
  7. A structural analysis method according to claim 6, wherein a plurality of second structural images generated with different radiant energies ( 30 ) are superimposed or combined with each other.
  8. Structural analysis method according to one of claims 1-7, wherein location-dependent or direction-dependent multiple second structure images ( 30 ) are generated and combined with each other.
  9. Structural analysis method according to claim 8, wherein with different types of radiation second structural images ( 30 ) are generated and combined with each other.
  10. Structural analysis method according to one of claims 1-9, wherein for generating the first structure image ( 24 ) an objective device ( 16 ) of a microscope ( 10 ) is used.
  11. Structural analysis method according to any one of claims 1-10, wherein for generating the second structural image ( 30 ) a projection device or an eyepiece ( 18 ) is used.
  12. Structural analysis method according to one of claims 1-11, wherein the color and / or intensity curves in the second structure image ( 30 ) are detected by means of a suitable second radiation-sensitive detector or sensor device and evaluated electronically.
  13. Structural analysis method according to any one of claims 1-10, wherein the first structural image ( 24 ) is detected and digitized by means of a suitable first radiation-sensitive detector or sensor device; and the second structure image ( 30 ) is generated and evaluated by means of a data processing device.
  14. The structural analysis method of claim 13, wherein said second structural image ( 30 ) is displayed visually.
  15. Structural analysis method according to one of claims 1-14, wherein the color and / or intensity curves in the second structure image ( 30 ) can be optimized by using a suitable filter device.
  16. Structural analysis method according to any one of claims 1-15, wherein as a selective iris device ( 20 ) at least one hole, ring, slot or pin aperture is used.
  17. Structural analysis method according to any one of claims 1-16, wherein the selective iris device ( 20 ) in the plane of the first structure image ( 24 ) is arranged.
  18. Structural analysis method according to any one of claims 1-17, wherein the first structural image ( 24 ) by suitably increasing or decreasing the dimensions of the selective iris device ( 20 ) is adjusted.
  19. A structural analysis method according to any one of claims 1-18, wherein for evaluation both a spatial and a Fourierraumabbildung is used.
  20. Structural analysis method according to any one of claims 1-19, wherein the structures to be analyzed ( 14 ) comprise different substructures.
  21. Structural analysis method according to any one of claims 1-20, wherein the axis symmetry of the structures ( 14 ), the orientation of individual unit cells and their location correlation as well as the type and number of structures ( 14 ).
  22. Use of a structural analysis method according to one of the claims 1-21 to Quality check at the preparation of ordered monolayers and multilayers of colloids, in particular two- or three-dimensional optical grids and data storage.
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