DE10165115B3 - Method and device for producing a shaped body - Google Patents

Method and device for producing a shaped body

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Publication number
DE10165115B3
DE10165115B3 DE10165115.5A DE10165115A DE10165115B3 DE 10165115 B3 DE10165115 B3 DE 10165115B3 DE 10165115 A DE10165115 A DE 10165115A DE 10165115 B3 DE10165115 B3 DE 10165115B3
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Germany
Prior art keywords
layer
beam
respective
solidified
raw material
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Expired - Fee Related
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DE10165115.5A
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German (de)
Inventor
Dr. Fockele Matthias
Dr. Schwarze Dieter
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REALIZER GmbH
SLM Solutions Group AG
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REALIZER GmbH
SLM Solutions Group AG
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Priority to DE10012535.2 priority Critical
Priority to DE10012535 priority
Application filed by REALIZER GmbH, SLM Solutions Group AG filed Critical REALIZER GmbH
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE10165115B3 publication Critical patent/DE10165115B3/en
Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/10Processes of additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/106Processes of additive manufacturing using only liquids or viscous materials, e.g. depositing a continuous bead of viscous material
    • B29C64/124Processes of additive manufacturing using only liquids or viscous materials, e.g. depositing a continuous bead of viscous material using layers of liquid which are selectively solidified
    • B29C64/129Processes of additive manufacturing using only liquids or viscous materials, e.g. depositing a continuous bead of viscous material using layers of liquid which are selectively solidified characterised by the energy source therefor, e.g. by global irradiation combined with a mask
    • B29C64/135Processes of additive manufacturing using only liquids or viscous materials, e.g. depositing a continuous bead of viscous material using layers of liquid which are selectively solidified characterised by the energy source therefor, e.g. by global irradiation combined with a mask the energy source being concentrated, e.g. scanning lasers or focused light sources
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/10Processes of additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/141Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials
    • B29C64/153Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials using layers of powder being selectively joined, e.g. by selective laser sintering or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y10/00Processes of additive manufacturing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y30/00Apparatus for additive manufacturing; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C37/00Component parts, details, accessories or auxiliary operations, not covered by group B29C33/00 or B29C35/00
    • B29C37/0078Measures or configurations for obtaining anchoring effects in the contact areas between layers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/20Exposure; Apparatus therefor
    • G03F7/2002Exposure; Apparatus therefor with visible light or UV light, through an original having an opaque pattern on a transparent support, e.g. film printing, projection printing; by reflection of visible or UV light from an original such as a printed image
    • G03F7/2012Exposure; Apparatus therefor with visible light or UV light, through an original having an opaque pattern on a transparent support, e.g. film printing, projection printing; by reflection of visible or UV light from an original such as a printed image using liquid photohardening compositions, e.g. for the production of reliefs such as flexographic plates or stamps

Abstract

A process for producing a shaped article by the method of stereolithography or another rapid prototyping method, comprising the step of obtaining a liquid or powdery raw material (4) in successively prepared layers by irradiating at least one controllably deflectable jet (16) corresponding to one of the respective layers associated striated areas solidified or fused, wherein for stripe coherent solidified regions of the shaped body cross-sectional pattern in a respective layer in the relevant layer moves the beam (16) in such a way relative to the layer that the point of impingement of the beam (16 ) has on the layer relative thereto a first component of motion in the respective strip longitudinal direction, characterized in that the beam (16) is further moved in relation to the layer such that the point of impact of the beam (16) on the layer relative to d it has one of the first component of motion superimposed, oscillating motion component transverse to the strip longitudinal direction.

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for the production of a molded article or article by the method of stereolithography, selective powder melting or other prototyping method, in which a liquid or powdery raw material in successively prepared layers by irradiation with at least one, in particular controlled deflectable beam , Preferably laser beam, solidified or merged according to one of the respective layer associated cross-sectional pattern of the molding to coherent areas.
  • Under the terms stereolithography, selective powder melting, selective laser melting, selective laser sintering, and the like. Like., More recently, powerful methods for the production of moldings, including complicated geometries have become known, these methods are often based on the following principle summarized under the term "rapid prototyping" or "rapid tooling" or "rapid manufacturing": The molding , that is, any object to be manufactured, is built up layer by layer from a first liquid raw material or fine powdery raw material according to CAD data or geometric description data derived therefrom by solidifying the raw material by selective irradiation according to a cross sectional pattern of the molded article associated with the respective layer or merged. Usually, the irradiation takes place by means of at least one controlled deflectable laser beam. The control of a beam deflecting the beam deflection device by means of a control device based on geometric description data of the molded body to be produced, which are usually derived from a microcomputer in accordance with a corresponding program from CAD data and provided. The laser beam records on the last prepared raw material layer the cross-sectional pattern of the shaped body assigned to this layer in order to selectively solidify or fuse the raw material according to the cross-sectional pattern. After such an irradiation step, the preparation of the next raw material layer then takes place on the layer which has been finally or selectively solidified or blended by irradiation. After the formation of a raw material layer which is sufficiently smooth on its surface, an exposure step is then carried out again in the manner explained above. The shaped body thus arises layer by layer, wherein the successively produced cross-sectional layers of the shaped body adhere to one another.
  • In the case of the usual stereolithographic methods, such as in DE 41 34 265 A1 or DE 44 08 754 A1 are described, it is in the raw material to a liquid resin or a liquid plastic (photopolymer), which is solidifiable by irradiation with electromagnetic radiation, such as UV light. Optionally, fluids curable by particle irradiation may also be used as raw materials in stereolithographic processes. According to a popular stereolithography variant, the desired molded article is made from a bath of the raw material, on a platform that can be further submerged layer by layer in the raw material bath to bring a respective final solidified layer under the liquid surface so that a new raw material layer can form on it, which is then exposed in the manner mentioned above. The liquid surface remains substantially at a constant level, so that the distance between the liquid surface and the radiation source or a corresponding beam deflection device remains substantially constant.
  • In the selective fusion of metal powders, as for example in the WO 98/24574 A1 The preparation of the layers is normally done by adding powder material on the last solidified layer after each irradiation step. After smoothing the powder layer and adjusting the layer level relative to the radiation source or to the beam deflecting device, the next irradiation step then takes place in the manner described above. The respective adjustment of the layer level is normally carried out by appropriately lowering a platform on which the shaped body is built up in layers.
  • In a corresponding manner, the structure of a shaped body is carried out in methods according to the principle of selective laser sintering (selective laser sintering), in particular metal powder are used with low melting point binders.
  • Out US 5,496,683 A . US 5 500 069 A and US 4 987 044 A For example, methods and apparatus for stereolithographic three-dimensional object fabrication are known in which liquid raw material is solidified in successively prepared layers by controlled irradiation with a laser beam to predetermined cross-sectional patterns in contiguous regions, contiguous regions being formed by appropriate control of the laser beam by the laser beam and the layer to be irradiated are moved relative to each other, so that, starting with a start contour line, a plurality of adjacent contours are written.
  • In US Pat. No. 5,929,892 is a device for sampling a drum-type photoconductor discloses a laser printer in which a scanning laser beam, which samples the photoconductor drum, is superimposed on an oscillatory movement transversely to the main writing direction of the laser beam.
  • In the hitherto known rapid prototyping production methods, the production of-in the plan view of the layer-contiguous surface areas of the respective layer associated cross-sectional pattern generally by the fact that a laser beam scans the edge contour of the surface area or describes and then within this edge contour after Type of closely spaced straight-line hatching lines performs a line-by-line scanning of the surface area to fill the area or harden the corresponding area of the layer. The control of the beam deflector is normally done on the basis of hatch data generated with a CAD program. The calculation of the hatching line data is a complex process, which requires a relatively large amount of computing time and storage capacity of the control computer or possibly a data preparation computer, in particular if it should also be ensured that the exposure beam should carry out as continuous a scanning as possible, ie jumps of the beam from one exposure location to next exposure to be avoided over unexposed routes as possible.
  • It has also been observed that layers solidified by "hatch line exposure" do not have good mechanical properties. So z. B. material stresses and in particular crack lines parallel to the "hatching lines" found in the cured surface areas, such cracks, especially in more complicated moldings geometries, can lead to brittleness of the molding.
  • The object of the present invention is to propose an improved procedure for the irradiation of respective raw material layers for a method of the type mentioned in the introduction.
  • This object is achieved according to the invention in a process for producing a shaped article by the method of stereolithography or another prototype production method (rapid-prototyping, rapid tooling, rapid manufacturing), in which a liquid or powdery raw material in successively prepared layers by irradiation with at least one controllably deflectable beam according to a respective cross-sectional pattern of the shaped body solidified or merged into contiguous areas, wherein for streakwise formation of contiguous solidified areas of the shaped body cross-sectional pattern in a respective layer, the beam is moved relative to the layer in such a way that Impact point of the beam on the layer relative to this has a first movement component in the respective strip longitudinal direction. The method is inventively characterized in that the beam is further moved in the manner relative to the layer that the point of impact of the beam on the layer relative to this one of the first component of motion superimposed, oscillating motion component has transversely to the strip longitudinal direction.
  • The oscillating motion component can be generated by modulating or superposing a vibration signal on a deflection control signal for deflecting the point of impact in the strip longitudinal direction. This oscillation signal can be optionally varied in terms of its amplitude in order to be able to set the strip width in the strip-wise formation of contiguous solidified regions of the shaped body cross-sectional pattern. The term "strip longitudinal direction" generally refers to the longitudinal dimension of the particular stratum strip to be consolidated. The strip longitudinal direction may thus optionally include curvatures if the strip is curved.
  • If the irradiation takes place, for example, by means of a laser beam which is deflected by a deflection system controlled by two scanner mirrors, then it can be provided that at least one of the scanner mirrors is driven to execute an oscillating movement which corresponds to the oscillating component of movement of the point of impingement of the beam on the layer , Such a procedure is particularly recommended in cases where a line-wise or column-wise shaping of the strips takes place in the X or Y direction.
  • Alternatively, it can be provided within the scope of the invention that, for example, the layer to be exposed or its carrier is moved in a controlled manner, so that the relative movement between the layer and the beam corresponding to the first movement component in the strip longitudinal direction occurs, and that the beam deflection device is controlled such that it only generates the oscillating motion component of the beam impact point by movement of the beam.
  • It has been found that this type of exposure in the case of powder fusion or powder sintering by means of laser radiation also entails thermal advantages, since the laser beam applying the heat energy has to overcome relatively small distances per unit of time with efficient surface scanning, and thus the momentarily detected by the laser beam Range still from the heat generated immediately before in the solidification of Benefits neighboring areas and thus a better energy yield of the laser light in the material consolidation or material fusion is given.
  • Conversely, by oscillating horizontally the layer relative to the beam, the oscillating motion component of the beam impingement point could be generated while the beam deflector moves the beam impingement point in the longitudinal direction of the strip to be formed.
  • According to an advantageous variant of the method, the strips are contour-line-shaped, wherein - starting with a start contour line - several, preferably each other with a slight overlap adjacent, in particular onion-like nested contours stripes on the layer describes.
  • Preferably, the start contour line corresponds to a surface edge contour of the contiguous region to be formed. Alternatively, the start contour line can also be within the range to be exposed.
  • The invention also relates to a device for carrying out the method according to one of claims 1 to 4. The device comprises a carrier device for the shaped article to be produced, means for preparing a respective, next at least partially solidified raw material layer on the carrier device or on a previously prepared and an irradiated layer, a radiation source for providing a collimated beam for solidifying the raw material in a respective layer, a beam deflector for controlled deflection of the beam, and a programmable controller for controlling the beam deflector, the control device being adapted to operate the beam deflector in the Irradiation of a respective layer in the manner according to CAD data or geometric description data derived therefrom, that it zusammenschä for streaking formation At least one of the solidified regions of the shaped body cross-sectional pattern in a respective layer moves the beam relative to the layer such that the point of impact of the beam on the layer relative thereto has a component of motion in the respective strip longitudinal direction and the point of impact of the beam is further superposed on one of the first component of motion , Oscillatory motion component has transversely to the strip longitudinal direction.
  • The invention will be explained in more detail below with reference to the figures.
  • 1 shows in a highly schematic view of an apparatus for producing a shaped body according to the method of stereolithography, wherein a raw material container is shown in a sectional view.
  • 2 shows a not to scale top view of an already largely completed layer of the molding.
  • 3 - 6 show various already solidified shaped body layers in a plan view.
  • 7 shows a further molded body layer in a plan view, which is a representation for explaining a particular process variant in particular for the laser melting.
  • 8th shows in one of the 1 Similarly, a device for laser melting of powdery raw material, such as steel powder.
  • 1 shows in a highly simplified schematic representation of an example of a device for carrying out the method according to the invention. When setting up 1 it is a stereolithography apparatus with a container 2 for receiving the raw material 4 namely, a radiation curable, liquid plastic. In the container is a carrier platform 6 on which the molded body to be produced 8th is built up in layers. The carrier platform 6 is in the plastic bath 4 vertically movable, under the control of a control computer 10 taking the vertical displacement drive 12 the platform 6 according to a program controls.
  • At the beginning of the manufacturing process is the top of the platform 6 just below the liquid level 14 in the container 2 , where the distance is the top of the carrier platform 6 to the liquid level 14 essentially corresponds to the layer thickness of a first layer to be consolidated of the molding or possibly a support structure for the molding. In accordance with the control by the control computer 10 then takes place the exposure of the raw material 4 corresponding to one of the first layer associated cross-sectional pattern of the molding or possibly its support structure for the molding. The exposure takes place in the example with a focused laser beam 16 of the UV laser 18 , The focus can be controlled varied, so that the spot diameter at the point of impact of the beam on the layer z. B. between 20 microns and 300 microns can be adjusted. For targeted deflection of the laser beam 16 serves an XY scanner device 20 with two relatively movable deflecting mirrors. The scanner device is the control computer 10 controlled in accordance with data based on CAD description data of the molded article to be created 8th to go back, however, from the computer 10 have been edited to generate the contour description data after a contour description data calculation program.
  • After the exposure process with respect to the first layer has been completed, the control computer controls 10 the vertical displacement drive 12 on to the carrier platform 6 continue in the bathroom 4 immerse so that finally the last solidified layer covering and wetting raw material layer S7 is formed. It may be a smoothing mechanism with a known smoothing slide 22 be provided to perform the preparation of the respective subsequently to be solidified raw material layer S7 faster. After preparation of the relevant raw material layer, the next exposure process takes place to the next layer of the shaped body 8th to produce by appropriate curing of the raw material. Then another lowering of the carrier platform follows 6 for preparing the next layer to be consolidated on the bath surface 14 ,
  • Said steps of preparing a raw material layer S7 on the bath surface and irradiating this raw material layer are alternately repeated until the molded article 8th on the carrier platform 6 has been completed. In 1 are successively produced and adhered layers of the molding 8th marked with S1 ... S6 according to their order of manufacture. The layers are schematic and not shown to scale with respect to their layer thicknesses. Optionally, with the molding 8th together a support framework are prepared by stereolithographic means to any overhanging areas of the molding 8th during the manufacturing process and in the desired geometric position relative to other areas of the molding 8th to keep up.
  • Furthermore, it can be provided that the molded body produced in the manner described 8th still a reexposure, z. B. by means of a UV lamp, is subjected to increase the degree of curing of the molding.
  • It is assumed that the molded body layer S7 currently to be produced is a layer with a rectangular edge contour, wherein the layer S7 is to be cured over its entire surface within its rectangular edge contour, so that a coherent, rectangular region is formed (cf. 2 ). This is done according to an embodiment of the method according to the invention, characterized in that the laser beam 16 under control of the control computer 10 on the basis of contour description data in such a way that - starting with a start contour line describing the rectangular edge - it describes a plurality of contiguous contours on the finally prepared raw material layer S7, which are adjacent to each other on an onion-like ring.
  • In particular, but not exclusively, in powder fusion or powder sintering processes by laser irradiation, the present invention finds advantageous application, namely exposure of a respective strip in a raw material layer by moving the laser beam in the strip longitudinal direction with simultaneous superimposition of this movement with an oscillating reciprocation of the laser beam transverse to the travel direction. In this case, a strip is solidified or fused, whose strip width is determined essentially by the amplitude of the oscillatory movement. It has been found that this type of exposure in the case of powder fusion or powder sintering also brings about thermal advantages, since the laser beam introducing the thermal energy has to overcome relatively small distances per unit of time with efficient surface scanning, and thus the range currently covered by the laser beam Benefits from the heat generated immediately before in the solidification of neighboring areas and thus there is a better energy yield of the laser light in the material consolidation or material fusion.
  • 7 shows in a non-scale representation of a plan view of a partially already solidified layer. In the in 7 As shown, the irradiation of the area to be solidified takes place 40 stripwise and line by line, the point of impact of the laser beam 16 is moved in the strip longitudinal direction L according to a first movement component, wherein this movement in the strip longitudinal direction L is an oscillating movement of the impact point 16 is superimposed. The point of impact of the laser beam 16 follows in the example according to 7 thus a serpentine or wavy line W. The amplitude A of this wavy line determines the respective stripe width and can be varied if necessary.
  • The oscillating motion of the point of impact of the laser beam 16 For example, by means of an excited to vibrate beam deflecting a deflection system 20 (see. 1 ) be generated.
  • In the 2 to 6 Examples are shown, which form the strip longitudinal direction L may have, with the still taking place according to the invention taking place oscillating movement of the impact point 16 not shown.
  • In 2 are in a plan view of the relevant area S7 corresponding to that of the laser beam 16 drawn Contour lines generated contiguous contour strips K1 ... K7 shown in a non-scale representation. The numbering K1 ... K7 indicates the order of production of the contour strips. The at 16 in 2 shown in cross-section laser beam generates the contour strip K7, wherein the laser beam 16 In the example with a slight overlap, the already solidified contour strip K6 is also detected.
  • Of course, the exposure method according to the invention is not limited to rectangular structures in 2 shown limited, but can basically be applied to any cross-sectional surface geometries. In the "contour line exposure method", the beam can be guided in such a way that it has no or only a few "jumps" over unexposed lines in the formation of a coherently solidified region of the layer, ie over lines that have already been exposed.
  • 3 shows in a likewise not to scale representation of the generated in a circular geometry of the last solidified layer of a respective shaped body according to the inventive method contour strips K1 ... K6 in plan view. The numbering of the contour strips K1 ... K6 should be in 3 also indicate the order of production of the solidified contour strips. In the example, it is assumed that the first contour strip K1 forms the edge contour which defines the inner circumference of the ring. In the example, the radially inner contour strips have been generated in front of the outermost contour strips.
  • Of course, a different sequence of generating the contour strips could have been chosen. It can also be provided in the context of the invention that spatially immediately adjacent contour strips are not generated in time directly consecutive. For example, after generating a contour strip, the next adjacent contour contour strip could be generated before the gap between the two contour strips is then drawn with a respective contour line track of the laser beam.
  • In 4 a further plan view of a respective shaped body layer is shown. The molding has a U-shaped cross-section at the relevant point. The contour strip K1 fastened with the laser beam when the raw material is scanned forms the outer edge contour of the cross section. Towards the inside, the contour strip K2 adapts to the contour strip K1, after which the contour strip K3 follows. A special feature is that at 25 in 4 the longitudinal edges of the contour strip K3 touch each other, so that the connecting web at 25 has been completed with the contour strip K3, while in the two legs of the U-section at 27 and 29 two mutually isolated areas of unconsolidated raw material have remained in the relevant layer. Preferably, these remaining areas are included 27 respectively. 29 solidified according to the numbering of the contour strips separately and successively according to the contour method according to the invention.
  • However, it should not be excluded within the scope of the invention that approximately such inner residual regions on the basis of hatching data line by line with, for example, parallel solidification lines by appropriate deflection of the laser beam 16 be finished.
  • 5 shows a plan view of an exposed in the above sense layer, wherein a contiguous outer region 30 with a plurality of contour lines K was first generated, whereas a central inner region 32 was solidified on the basis of hatching lines SI.
  • However, the exposure of a cross-section or a relevant layer of the shaped article to be produced is preferably carried out exclusively according to the contour line method, as described with reference to FIGS 2 - 4 was explained and how they are in 6 is set forth by way of example, in which the cross-section of the shaped body in question a plurality of contiguous areas 34 . 36 having.
  • With reference to the 1 - 6 the method according to the invention was based on the stereolithography method. The statements relating to the exposure and contour solidification steps can be readily transferred within the scope of the invention to other methods of rapid prototyping, such as the laser sintering of powders or the laser fusion of metal particles, as for example in the WO 98/24574 is described. The reference to prototype production should not imply that molded articles can not also be mass-produced by the processes according to the invention. These procedures can be used with apparatuses similar to those in 1 carry out. Instead of immersing the last solidified layer in a liquid bath 4 For preparing the next succeeding layer, in the powder blending method (laser melting method) or powder sintering method (laser sintering method), the application of new powder raw material and the lowering of the entire container assembly would normally be performed 2 be performed by the amount of layer thickness to the distance between the scanner assembly 20 and irradiation surface 14 again set to a constant value.
  • 8th shows in one of the 1 Similarly, a device for selective laser melting or for selective laser sintering of powdery raw material 4 , For example, steel powder or ceramic powder, etc. The control computer 10 controls the vertical displacement drive 12 of the carrier container 2 , the laser 18 , the beam deflection system 20 , the focusing optics 21 and the movable smoothing slider 22 to which a grinding shaft can be assigned. The grinding shaft serves to at least partially abrade any protruding and adhering unevenness which projects upwards and downwards on molten and solidified areas of the last layer irradiated. The control of the beam deflecting system 20 is preferably carried out in the manner described in claim 1 or claim 5 in accordance with geometric description data, for example, CAD design data of the molded article to be produced 8th have been derived.
  • The carrier container 2 is located in a process chamber (not shown) which can be flushed or purged with inert gas. Furthermore, a powder suction device (not shown) may be provided, by means of which the powder can be sucked out of the process chamber and fed to a storage container, if necessary, after cleaning or filtering the powder, for example before the process chamber is opened by an operator in order to extract a finished molded article , The operator is thus protected from powder dust.
  • In the example according to 8th controls the control computer 10 the laser 18 and / or the beam deflector system 20 and / or the focusing optics 21 Further, in such a way that the per unit time and area unit at the respective impact location of the beam 16 on the layer S incident radiation energy of the beam is varied depending on whether the currently irradiated area of the layer S on a coherently solidified area or on unconsolidated raw material 4 that of the previous layer. The control computer 10 has the geometric data of the layers and therefore can computationally or by comparison operations distinguish the above situations to control the radiation energy variations accordingly. In 8th is that of the laser beam 16 currently exposed area 50 the layer S not on a contiguous solidified area, but on unconsolidated raw material 4 the previous layer. The molded body to be produced 8th has an overhang or a step in this area. As the heat transfer in the powdery raw material 4 less efficient than in cohesively consolidated material, such as in the field 52 , is the temperature increase generated in each case by laser irradiation in such areas 50 and 52 usually different. Under the same irradiation conditions, this could mean that the currently irradiated layer S is in the range 50 at the point of impact of the beam 16 each far above the melting point of the raw material 4 whereas the irradiation of the layer S is in the range 52 to a desired temperature increase to just above the melting point of the material 4 has led. If the fusing of a coherent cross-sectional area in the layer S takes place zone by zone with distinctly different temperatures, there is a risk that material tensions are generated, distortion occurs in the solidified area and a relatively large contour roughness occurs. To prevent this, is at the points where the currently irradiated layer S on a coherently solidified area 52 lies, per unit time and area unit at the point of impact of the beam 16 selected on the layer S radiation energy greater than in layer areas 50 in which the layer S on unconsolidated raw material 4 the preceding layer lies. In this way it can be ensured that no significant temperature differences have occurred during fusing within an exposed cross-sectional layer S. The beam 16 Thus, at each point of the contiguous area to be consolidated, the material should melt at substantially the same temperature. The influencing of the radiation energy incident on the point of impact of the beam per unit of time and unit area can be achieved, for example, by adjusting the scanning speed of the laser beam by appropriate control of the beam deflection system 20 is varied and / or that the "light spot" by changing the focus and thus by controlling the focusing system 21 is varied or / and that the power of the laser 18 is varied immediately. Optionally, radiation apertures can also be used to influence the laser beam intensity.

Claims (5)

  1. Process for the production of a shaped article by the method of stereolithography or another rapid prototype production method, in which a liquid or powdery raw material ( 4 ) in successively prepared layers by irradiation with at least one controllably deflectable beam ( 16 ) in accordance with a cross-sectional pattern of the shaped body assigned to the respective layer ( 8th ) are solidified or fused into contiguous regions, wherein the beam (in order to form, in strips, contiguous solidified regions of the shaped body cross-sectional pattern in a respective layer 16 ) in the Moving relative to the layer that the point of impingement of the beam ( 16 ) has on the layer relative to this a first component of movement in the respective strip longitudinal direction, characterized in that the beam ( 16 ) is further moved relative to the layer in such a way that the point of impact of the beam ( 16 ) has on the layer relative to this one of the first component of motion superimposed, oscillating motion component transverse to the strip longitudinal direction.
  2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the strips to be solidified material forms a contour line, wherein - starting with a start contour line - several, preferably each other with a slight overlap adjacent, in particular onion-like nested contours strips on the layer describes.
  3. A method according to claim 2, characterized in that the start contour line corresponds to a surface edge contour of the contiguous area to be formed.
  4. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the irradiation is carried out with laser radiation.
  5. Device for carrying out the method according to one of claims 1-4, comprising a carrier device ( 2 . 6 ) for the shaped body to be produced ( 8th ), Means for preparing a respective, next at least partially to be solidified raw material layer on the support device ( 2 . 6 ) or on a previously prepared and irradiated layer, a radiation source ( 18 ) for providing a collimated beam ( 16 ) for solidification or fusion of the raw material in a respective layer, a beam deflector ( 20 ) for the controlled deflection of the jet ( 16 ), a programmable controller ( 10 ) for controlling the beam deflecting device ( 20 ), characterized in that the control device is adapted to control the beam deflecting device in the irradiation of a respective layer in the manner according to CAD data or geometric description data derived therefrom that they for stripwise formation of contiguous solidified areas of the shaped body cross-sectional pattern in a respective layer moves the beam relative to the layer so that the point of impact of the beam on the layer relative thereto has a component of motion in the respective strip longitudinal direction and the point of impact of the beam further comprises an oscillatory motion component superimposed on the first component of motion transverse to the strip longitudinal direction.
DE10165115.5A 2000-03-15 2001-03-15 Method and device for producing a shaped body Expired - Fee Related DE10165115B3 (en)

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DE10112591A Ceased DE10112591A1 (en) 2000-03-15 2001-03-15 Production of a molded body used for molding a metal powder or a liquid resin comprises solidifying and/or melting a liquid or powdered raw material by irradiating with a laser beam corresponding to the cross-section of the molded body

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