DE102015213165A1 - Molded article manufacturing apparatus comprising a powder recovery device with a centrifugal separator - Google Patents

Molded article manufacturing apparatus comprising a powder recovery device with a centrifugal separator

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Publication number
DE102015213165A1
DE102015213165A1 DE102015213165.3A DE102015213165A DE102015213165A1 DE 102015213165 A1 DE102015213165 A1 DE 102015213165A1 DE 102015213165 A DE102015213165 A DE 102015213165A DE 102015213165 A1 DE102015213165 A1 DE 102015213165A1
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DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
powder
device
gas
section
process space
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102015213165.3A
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German (de)
Inventor
Anmelder Gleich
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REALIZER GMBH, DE
Original Assignee
Matthias Fockele
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Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Matthias Fockele filed Critical Matthias Fockele
Priority to DE102015213165.3A priority Critical patent/DE102015213165A1/en
Publication of DE102015213165A1 publication Critical patent/DE102015213165A1/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/34Laser welding for purposes other than joining
    • B23K26/342Build-up welding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/14Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring using a fluid stream, e.g. a jet of gas, in conjunction with the laser beam; Nozzles therefor
    • B23K26/1462Nozzles; Features related to nozzles
    • B23K26/1464Supply to, or discharge from, nozzles of media, e.g. gas, powder, wire
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • B22F2003/1056Apparatus components, details or accessories
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • B22F2003/1056Apparatus components, details or accessories
    • B22F2003/1059Apparatus components, details or accessories for cleaning or recycling
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2999/00Aspects linked to processes or compositions used in powder metallurgy
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/10Processes of additive manufacturing
    • B29C64/141Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials
    • B29C64/153Processes of additive manufacturing using only solid materials using layers of powder being selectively joined, e.g. by selective laser sintering or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C64/00Additive manufacturing, i.e. manufacturing of three-dimensional [3D] objects by additive deposition, additive agglomeration or additive layering, e.g. by 3D printing, stereolithography or selective laser sintering
    • B29C64/30Auxiliary operations or equipment
    • B29C64/35Cleaning
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y30/00Apparatus for additive manufacturing; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y40/00Auxiliary operations or equipment, e.g. for material handling
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/60Aspects relating to the preparation, properties or mechanical treatment of green bodies or pre-forms
    • C04B2235/602Making the green bodies or pre-forms by moulding
    • C04B2235/6026Computer aided shaping, e.g. rapid prototyping
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/65Aspects relating to heat treatments of ceramic bodies such as green ceramics or pre-sintered ceramics, e.g. burning, sintering or melting processes
    • C04B2235/66Specific sintering techniques, e.g. centrifugal sintering
    • C04B2235/665Local sintering, e.g. laser sintering
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/20Process efficiency
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency by increasing the energy efficiency of the process
    • Y02P10/29Additive manufacturing
    • Y02P10/295Additive manufacturing of metals

Abstract

The invention proposes a device for the production of moldings by layered build-up of powdery, in particular metallic or ceramic material, with a process space housing, a Gaszuleitungs- and -ableitungseinrichtung in the process space, a support for the layer structure, an irradiation device for irradiation of each prepared on the support Material powder layer in one of these layer associated cross-sectional area of the model of the shaped body with a radiation which brings the material powder in this cross-sectional area by heating for fusing or possibly for sintering, and a Pulverschichtpräparierungseinrichtung for preparing the respective subsequent powder layer on the last irradiated or applied layer, wherein a powder recovery device for recovering unused material powder from the process space (105), wherein the powder recovery a powder discharge device (10, 40) for discharging powder from the process space (105) and a powder collecting device (52, 50) for collecting the powder discharged from the process space (105), wherein the powder recovery device (1) comprises a centrifugal separator (10) 10). The invention also relates to a corresponding separate powder recovery device which can be connected to a corresponding device for powder recovery.

Description

  • The invention relates to a device according to the preamble of claim 1 and a separate powder recovery device for a shaped body device in the sense of the preamble of claim 18.
  • The invention relates in particular to the field of selective laser melting and is both procedurally and device-wise from a technology, as for example in the DE 199 05 067 A1 , in the DE 101 12 591 A1 , in the WO 98/24574 or in the corresponding one DE 196 49 865.1 although the invention is also applicable to the field of laser sintering.
  • A device for the production of moldings according to the preamble of claim 1 is in an embodiment with an outwardly closed powder recovery region of the EP 2 052 845 A2 known. The powder recovery is carried out by the use of multiple filters in which the powder is deposited from the gas stream down and then introduced over a range of sluice means in a container. Although this system permits recovery to some extent, the filterability of the filters may deteriorate over time, and maintenance may be cumbersome and expensive. Above all, however, a considerable part of the powder remains in the filters and can be removed only with difficulty or not at all from these and used for further use. This is a great disadvantage, especially with expensive powder materials.
  • The object of the invention is to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art and in particular to develop a device for the production of moldings so or supplement by separate system for a device for the production of moldings that the powder is recovered efficiently and only one low maintenance is required.
  • This object is achieved by a device for the production of moldings according to claim 1 and a powder recovery device according to claim 18. Advantageous embodiments are the subject of the dependent claims.
  • Since an embodiment of the present invention of the subject matter of EP 2 052 845 A2 Essentially differs by another mechanism of the separation of powder and gas stream, the present invention can be designed in particular with all the features that in the EP 2 052 845 A2 are disclosed and do not relate to the mechanism for separating powder and gas stream itself.
  • According to the invention, however, in addition to the centrifugal separator, as provided according to the claims, additionally in the flow direction before and / or behind the centrifugal separator filter devices according to the EP 2 052 845 A2 be provided. In particular, in the arrangement along the gas flow of first a centrifugal separator and then filters can be a very efficient filtering out of powder realize, at the same time the durability of the filter is improved, because a significant part of the deposition of the powder from the gas flow already takes place in the centrifugal separator , In this sense, the EP 2 052 845 A2 hereby incorporated by reference as part of the description of this invention. This solution with additional filters behind the centrifugal separator is preferred if the gas stream is not returned to the process room, but is discharged, for example, into the room air or a gas tank.
  • Preferably, however, no filter is to be used when recycling the gas into the process space, because then the expensive separation of the powder from the filters or the loss of the powder in the filters is avoided and, furthermore, the powder not recovered in a powder extraction process again enters the process chamber and then still be recovered at the next Pulverabsaugprozess.
  • The inventive device for the production of moldings uses the general principle of a centrifugal separator for the powder recovery device. Centrifugal separators are sometimes referred to as a cyclone, cyclone separator, cyclone filter or whirler.
  • In this case, the principle is exploited for the invention that when a gas solid mixture is guided on a circular path, denser particles experience a higher centrifugal force or centrifugal force to the outside, whereby they are separated from less dense gas particles. Alternatively, the process can also be described by the fact that the denser particles, in this case the powder to be recovered, has a greater mass inertia, which is why it can not follow the small radii of the circular motion of the gas particles.
  • Thus, as the powder is pushed further outward in this circular motion, it more strongly contacts with corresponding surfaces, such as a wall bounding the curve, and is braked by friction while the gas particles substantially maintain their velocity. This leads to the deposition and In particular, the powder can fall down while the gas flow can be led away laterally or upwards.
  • Which gas is used depends essentially on the type of powder, because the more responsive the powder material is, the less reactive the corresponding gas must be. For example, when using steel powder ordinary room air can be used, since the reactivity of the steel powder is sufficiently low. It is also possible to perform the fusing or sintering under vacuum and then to evacuate the powder residues with room air. Alternatively, in this case, the melting or sintering could also take place entirely under room air. When using other materials, however, the use of special shielding gases may be required. For example, in fine-grained titanium contact with ambient air leads to an immediate reaction and corresponding heat development. Accordingly, when using such materials, a protective gas, such as argon, to use, which is advantageous for cost reasons, to make the powder recovery device so that the powder recovery in an outwardly closed area and that is advantageously carried out completely in a protective gas atmosphere.
  • At this powder recovery device can then in the in the EP 2 052 845 A2 way shown connect a protective gas recovery device.
  • Furthermore, a separate gas cycle or separate gas line system may exist for the powder recovery, or the powder recovery may partially or completely utilize the gas venting system normally used in devices for the production of moldings, which effects the necessary gas exchange in the process chamber during a build-up process. This can be done, for example, in which there is only one pump, which is operated, for example, in different strengths or with different suction devices in the process chamber, and common line sections from which valve-controlled the gas is passed either through the usual gas exchange piping system or via the powder recovery system. The pump in the gas flow direction is preferably arranged behind the powder recovery system.
  • Accordingly, in a preferred embodiment of the invention, the gas supply and discharge means is a shield gas supply and discharge means and the powder recovery means is configured and connected to the process space such that the powder recovery can be performed in an outwardly sealed area.
  • Preferably, the centrifugal separator comprises a gas inlet, a gas outlet and a powder outlet. The gas inlet serves to introduce the gas powder mixture sucked out of the process chamber into the centrifugal separator, the powder removed in the centrifugal separator being led out through the powder outlet. The gas separated from the powder is led out of the centrifugal separator through the gas outlet.
  • Furthermore, the centrifugal separator preferably comprises an inlet section and a preferably cone-shaped separating section. Here, the term "cone-shaped" is understood to mean that a cross-section of the parting line section has an ellipsoidal and preferably a circular shape, along the parting line section the radii become smaller so that the parting line section is preferably formed overall in the shape of the shell of a cut-off cone. According to the function, the gas inlet is preferably connected to the inlet section and the separating section is in turn also connected to the inlet section. Thereby, the gas powder mixture can enter from the inlet portion into the separation section where the powder is separated from the gas. The conical shape is particularly favorable since it achieves a swirling or helical trajectory of the gas flow, the reduction in diameter in one direction causing the velocity of the gas to increase in this direction, thus improving the separation of the powder.
  • For discharging the gas cleaned of the powder, the centrifugal separator preferably also comprises an additional outlet section.
  • Preferably, the centrifugal separator comprises a dip tube which is arranged in the inlet portion and in particular may be supported by a connection with the inlet portion, wherein an opening of the dip tube is in communication with an interior of the separation distance portion. The dip tube is preferably designed in the usual form of a tube, ie as a hollow cylinder with openings at both ends. Due to the fact that the dip tube is arranged in the inlet section, on the one hand it fulfills the function of forcing the incoming gas powder mixture onto the circular path in the separation section and on the other hand gas purified from the powder can ascend centrally in the separation section and exit through the dip tube.
  • Accordingly, the centrifugal separator is preferably designed so that the Inlet portion is connected to the outlet portion, wherein a gas flow path, that is a connection along which a fluid or gas can flow, over the interior of the inlet portion, the interior of the separation section, the dip tube, the interior of the outlet and the gas outlet is formed. As a result, in particular by connecting the separation section, the inlet section and the outlet section from one another to the bottom and positioning the centrifugal separator in parallel to the direction of gravity, optimum operation of the centrifugal separator can be ensured. For the gas powder mixture entering through the gas inlet is deflected downwards into the separation section section by the dip tube and a connection holder of the dip tube with the inlet section or a partition wall between the interior of the inlet section and the outlet section into a spiral path or a spiral gas flow path. In this case, the separating section section preferably tapers downwards, whereupon the speed of the flow continues to increase downward, whereby the powder comes into contact with the wall of the interior of the separating section due to the greater centrifugal acceleration, is decelerated and slides downwards along the inner wall. By making the parting line or the components connected to it completely or substantially gas-tight, the gas can not escape downwards, but is reversed at the lower end of the parting line and take up a helical path in the middle of the parting line , Then the gas can enter through the dip tube into the outlet section and leave from there through the gas outlet the centrifugal separator.
  • Preferably, the centrifugal separator also comprises a gas guide rod which extends centrally in the outlet section, dip tube and separation section. This gas guide rod prevents unwanted vortex formations in the middle of the separator section, dip tube and outlet section, thereby moving the gas flow even more precisely down the desired outer helical path and upward in the inner helical path.
  • Preferably, the gas-directing rod is formed as a hollow tube, wherein one end is closed by a projection of the outlet and another end by a steering plug, which preferably has a thickening point for the gas control. As a result, on the one hand the gas guide rod is positioned precisely in the center and on the other hand the reversal of the direction of movement of the gas flow at the lower end of the separation section can be improved by means of the thickening point, in particular by a suitable shape.
  • Preferably, the powder outlet is connected to the separation section and communicates with the interior thereof, preferably being connected to the separation section at the lower end thereof. As a result, the powder which is braked on the walls of the separation section and slips down therefrom can be collected without losses.
  • In the embodiment with a gas-directing rod, one end of the gas-directing rod is particularly preferred near the connection point between the separation section and the powder outlet. Thus, the gas guide rod extends almost or completely over the entire length of the separation section, whereby a particularly good control of the gas flow can be achieved. In this case, a thickening point for gas guidance is preferably formed at this end of the gas-directing rod or on an element connected thereto, for example the steering plug. Since this is so close to the end of the separation section and the transition to the powder outlet, a particularly effective separation and reversal of the gas flow which additionally promotes the separation of powder and gas can be achieved.
  • Preferably, the powder recovery device further comprises a screen section connected to the centrifugal separator with a screen and an ultrasonic generator. This is advantageous since, during melting and sintering, larger conglomerates sometimes arise from a large number of powder particles. These are useless for a remelting or sintering process, which is why they are separated by the sieve and the ultrasonic generator in the sieve section, so that substantially only for a further production suitable powder is recovered. Furthermore, the powder recovery device preferably comprises a collecting container connected to the sieve section via at least one valve section or lock section. Thereby, the recovered powder can be collected and the collecting container can be separated at appropriate level by closing the valve section or loss without loss of gas from the rest of the powder recovery device and the powder are respectively filled again in the process space or in the Pulverzuführvorrichtung the device.
  • Preferably, the Pulverausbringeinrichtung the device for the production of moldings also comprises a Pulverabsaugeinrichtung. This is particularly preferred in the form of one in the Process room protruding into the sinkhole formed.
  • This is particularly preferably designed so that it can be guided to various locations within the process space.
  • The powder recovery device preferably comprises at least one filter device arranged upstream of the powder collecting device. This preferably comprises at least one powder sieve.
  • Preferably, the Gaszuleitungs- and -ableitungseinrichtung comprises a at a Gasabsauganschluss, preferably a Schutzgasabsauganschluss, a pump connected and projecting into the process space suction nozzle for sucking gas, in particular inert gas, from the process space, the suction pipe as needed as an element of powder application for sucking powder from the process room is usable.
  • In alternative embodiments, the powder recovery device comprises, instead of the collecting container, a preferably substantially gas-tight powder delivery system, which supplies the powder to the process chamber or the corresponding powder discharge device again.
  • The powder delivery system may in particular also be designed in the manner of a screw conveyor. In particular, a powder delivery system of the conventional powder supply device present in devices for the production of moldings may also be designed such that the powder recovery device is also coupled to the same powder delivery system. This can be done, for example, by a screw conveyor whose length is selected so that both the powder feeder arranged at her and their powder can supply as well as below the sieve section recaptured by the centrifugal powder directly and / or enter via lock / valve systems in the screw conveyor can.
  • The invention further relates to a powder recovery device for a molded article device for the production of moldings, which, however, is separate from the molded article device. This is similar in terms of the use of a centrifugal separator and preferably identical to the above-described integrated powder recovery device and can be designed in particular according to some and / or all mentioned features and / or feature combinations of the integrated powder recovery device.
  • The separate powder recovery device according to the invention differs from the powder recovery device integrated in the device in that corresponding lines and connection means are provided which allow a connection to a process chamber or a molded body device, so that via a pump of the separate powder recovery device and / or via a pump Formkörpervorrichtung entprechend powder can be sucked out of the process chamber.
  • Furthermore, the separate powder recovery device may be provided with either one or more filters connected downstream of the centrifugal force separator in the gas flow direction, whereby the gas largely freed of powder by the combination of centrifugal separator and filter can then be delivered to the ambient air or into a corresponding gas tank / container.
  • Or the separate powder recovery device can be provided with corresponding gas recirculation means, which can also be connected to the process chamber and / or the molding device in order to return the gas into the process chamber.
  • However, a powder recovery device according to the invention may also comprise both, it being possible to set whether the gas can be returned without filter into the process space or discharged through the filter.
  • Furthermore, a powder recovery device according to the invention may comprise a conveyor system instead of or in addition to a collecting container which can be connected to known conveying systems of molded body devices and / or which can be aligned / connected to a powder store of a shaped body device in order to supply the powder thereto.
  • The advantage of the separate powder recovery device is, in particular, that it can be used in conventional shaped body devices and realizes the advantages according to the invention of a low-maintenance and more efficient powder recovery without requiring replacement of the molded article device. For this purpose, only the connections of the separate powder recovery device according to the invention have to be matched to the corresponding shaped body device or its gas exchange line system or its process space.
  • An embodiment of the invention will be explained below with reference to the figures.
  • 1 shows a part of a device according to the invention for the production of moldings with a powder recovery device comprising a centrifugal separator.
  • 2 shows a side view of the centrifugal separator 1 , wherein the inner structures of the centrifugal separator are shown in dashed lines.
  • 3 shows a sectional view of 2 in a plane parallel to the image plane of 2 is.
  • 4 shows a sectional view of a strainer section and a collecting container, which are connected to the centrifugal separator.
  • As in 1 is shown, the inventive device for the production of moldings by layered build up of powdery material in a conventional manner with a process chamber housing and a process space 105 formed, wherein the powder recovery device 1 the device according to the invention a centrifugal separator 10 includes. As in the 2 and 3 shown in more detail, the centrifugal separator of the device according to the invention comprises a gas inlet 12 , a gas outlet 14 , a powder outlet 30 , an inlet section 20 , an outlet section 18 , a dip tube 22 , a separation section 16 and a gas steering rod 24 , The gas steering rod 24 is designed as a hollow tube and by attaching its upper end to a projection 28 the outlet section 18 fixed, with its other end by a steering plug 26 closed, which is a thickening point 26a for gas guidance.
  • There is a gas flow path from the gas inlet 12 over the inlet section 20 , the separation line 16 , the dip tube 22 , the outlet section 18 and the gas outlet 14 educated. Below the powder outlet 30 is the powder recovery device 1 designed so that little or no gas down through the powder outlet 30 can escape.
  • In operation, with the help of Pulverausbringeinrichtung powder from the process room 105 discharged or sucked off and with a gas flow to the gas inlet 12 of the centrifugal separator 10 transported. Through the gas inlet 12 the gas powder mixture enters the inlet section 20 and gets there through the dip tube 22 and the dip tube 22 at the inlet portion 20 holding the holder of the dip tube 22 deflected and a helical movement down along the separation section 16 forced.
  • Since this has a circular and downwardly decreasing diameter, the rotational speed is about that in the gas guide rod 24 lying geometric center line down faster and faster. Since the gas particles and the powder particles differ in their density, the latter experience a greater centrifugal force, bringing them to the inner wall of the separating section 16 be pressed there, lose their rotational speed and speed there by friction and thus slip down to the powder outlet. The gas flow, on the other hand, reverses due to the drastic narrowing of the cross-sectional area at the end of the separation section 16 passing through the thickening site 26a of the steering plug 26 is caused, its direction of movement is reflected, and continues to flow in an ascending screw movement, which is located in the interior of the outwardly extending screw movement. The gas guide rod leads 24 to stabilize this upward flow. Since this gas flow from the bottom right on the opening of the dip tube 22 The gas can enter the outlet section 18 enter and is there through its lateral and upper walls in the gas outlet 14 diverted.
  • Thus, an efficient separation of the gas, in particular an inert gas, and the powder can be achieved.
  • In order to completely reprocess the powder for a further production process of shaped bodies by building up layers of powdered material, the powder outlet can be used 30 a sieve section 40 and below this a valve section 52 and a container 50 be arranged as it is in 4 is shown.
  • In this case, the sieve section comprises 40 a sieve 42 and one on this sieve 42 aligned ultrasonic generator 44 , The mesh size of the sieve 42 is chosen so that only powder of the grain size required for the process can fall through. The screening process is performed by the ultrasonic generator 44 stimulated. This screening process ensures that larger conglomerates, which have been melted or sintered together when fused or sintered from a variety of powder particles, are not reintroduced into a manufacturing process because they are generally unsuitable for re-fusing.
  • Below the sieve section 40 follows the valve section 52 , which alternatively also as a lock section 52 can be designated. This includes a valve or lock system that can be opened to the bottom of the strainer section 40 accumulated powder in the collection container 50 to drop. Subsequently, the valve section 52 sealed again, bringing the container 50 can be removed, with the Device can continue working. The collection container 50 can be used to re-inject the recovered powder into the process.
  • Alternative to the collection container 50 It is also possible to provide a continuous powder transport device which, while maintaining sufficient gas tightness, continuously sweeps the recovered powder into the process space 104 supplies.
  • It should be emphasized that thus the powder recovery device 1 using a centrifugal separator 10 especially gas-tight design, which is necessary for the use of mandatory for certain materials, but very expensive protective gases, for economic reasons.
  • To the gas outlet 14 can also be a gas recovery system or a gas supply system to compensate for gas leaks, so that a closed inert gas system is formed, from which thanks to the present invention by means of the powder recovery device 1 the powder can be recovered while maintaining the tightness.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • DE 19905067 A1 [0002]
    • DE 10112591 A1 [0002]
    • WO 98/24574 [0002]
    • DE 19649865 [0002]
    • EP 2052845 A2 [0003, 0006, 0006, 0007, 0007, 0013]

Claims (19)

  1. Apparatus for the production of moldings by layering of powdered, in particular metallic or ceramic material, with a process space housing, a Gaszuleitungs- and -ableitungseinrichtung, in particular for inert gas for generating and maintaining a protective gas atmosphere, in particular argon atmosphere in the process space, a support for the layer structure, a Irradiation device for irradiating the respectively prepared on the support material powder layer in a layer associated with this cross-sectional area of the model of the shaped body with a radiation, in particular focused laser radiation, which brings the material powder in this cross-sectional area by heating for fusing or possibly for sintering, and a Pulverschichtpräparierungseinrichtung for preparation the respectively following material powder layer on the last irradiated or applied layer, wherein it is a powder recovery device for the recovery of unused material powder from the process space ( 105 ), wherein the powder recovery device comprises a powder discharge device ( 10 . 40 ) for discharging powder from the process space ( 105 ) and a powder collecting device ( 52 . 50 ) for collecting from the process space ( 105 ) powder, wherein preferably the powder recovery device designed and to the process space ( 105 ), that the powder recovery in an outwardly closed area, in particular completely in a protective gas atmosphere, feasible, characterized in that the powder recovery device ( 1 ) a centrifugal separator ( 10 ).
  2. Apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the centrifugal separator ( 10 ) a gas inlet ( 12 ), a gas outlet ( 14 ) and a powder outlet ( 30 ).
  3. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the centrifugal separator ( 10 ) an inlet section ( 20 ) and a preferably cone-shaped separation section ( 16 ), wherein the gas inlet ( 12 ) to the inlet section ( 20 ), the separating section ( 16 ) to the inlet section ( 20 ) connected.
  4. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the centrifugal separator ( 10 ) an outlet section ( 18 ).
  5. Apparatus according to claim 3 or 4, that the centrifugal separator ( 10 ) a dip tube ( 22 ), which is preferably located in the inlet section (FIG. 20 ) and in particular may be supported by a connection to the inlet portion, wherein an opening of the dip tube ( 22 ) with an interior of the separating section ( 16 ).
  6. Apparatus according to claim 5 in its back-reference to claim 4, that the part of the separation section ( 16 ) with the inlet section ( 20 ) and that the inlet section ( 20 ) with the outlet section ( 18 ), wherein a gas flow path from the gas inlet ( 12 ) over the interior of the inlet section ( 20 ), the interior of the separating section ( 16 ), the dip tube ( 22 ), the interior of the outlet section ( 18 ) and the gas outlet ( 14 ) is trained.
  7. Apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that the centrifugal separator ( 10 ) a gas steering rod ( 24 ) located centrally in the outlet section ( 18 ), Dip tube ( 22 ) and separating section ( 16 ), wherein preferably the gas guide rod ( 24 ) is formed as a hollow tube, wherein one end by a projection ( 28 ) of the outlet section ( 18 ) and one end through a steering plug ( 26 ), which preferably has a thickening point ( 26a ) for gas guidance.
  8. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the powder outlet ( 30 ) with the separating section ( 16 ) and is in communication with its interior.
  9. Apparatus according to claim 8 in its back reference to claim 7, characterized in that one end of the gas-guiding rod ( 24 ) near the junction between parting line section ( 16 ) and powder outlet ( 30 ), wherein preferably at the Gaslenkungsstange ( 24 ) or on an associated element ( 26 ) a thickening point ( 26a ) is designed for gas control.
  10. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the powder recovery device ( 1 ) further with the centrifugal separator ( 10 ) connected sieve section ( 40 ) with a sieve ( 42 ) and an ultrasonic generator ( 44 ).
  11. Apparatus according to claim 10, characterized in that the powder recovery device ( 1 ) further with the sieve section ( 40 ) via at least one valve section ( 52 ) associated collecting container ( 50 ).
  12. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the powder applicator comprises a powder suction device.
  13. Apparatus according to claim 12, characterized in that the powder extraction means projecting into the process space proboscis ( 94 ) having.
  14. Apparatus according to claim 13, characterized in that the suction opening of the suction pipe is feasible to various locations within the process space.
  15. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the powder recovery device comprises at least one of the powder collection device upstream filter device.
  16. Apparatus according to claim 15, characterized in that the filter device comprises at least one powder sieve.
  17. Device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the Schutzgaszuleitungs- and -ableitungseinrichtung connected to a Schutzgasabsauganschluss a pump and projecting into the process chamber proboscis for suction of inert gas from the process chamber ( 105 ), wherein the suction pipe as needed as an element of Pulverausbringeinrichtung for sucking powder from the process space ( 105 ) is usable.
  18. Separate powder recovery device for a shaped body device for the production of moldings by layering of powdered, in particular metallic or ceramic material, wherein the shaped body device a process chamber housing, a gas supply and -ableitungseinrichtung, in particular for inert gas for generating and maintaining a protective gas atmosphere, in particular argon atmosphere in the process chamber, a Carrier for the layer structure, an irradiation device for irradiating the respectively prepared on the support material powder layer in a layer associated with this cross-sectional area of the model of the molded body with a radiation, in particular focused laser radiation, which brings the material powder in this cross-sectional area by heating for fusing or possibly for sintering , and a powder layer preparation device for preparing the respectively following material powder layer on the last b irradiated or coated layer, characterized in that the powder recovery device comprises a powder application device ( 10 . 40 ) for discharging powder from the process space ( 105 ) or for connection to a device of the molding device for discharging powder from the process space ( 105 ) and a powder collecting device ( 52 . 50 ) for collecting from the process space ( 105 ) powder, wherein preferably the powder recovery device designed and to the process space ( 105 ) and / or the shaped body device can be connected in such a way that the powder recovery can be carried out in an area closed to the outside, in particular completely in a protective gas atmosphere, wherein the powder recovery device ( 1 ) a centrifugal separator ( 10 ), wherein the powder recovery device further comprises means connectable either to the process space and / or the mold body device for returning gas into the Preozessraum or instead or additionally comprises a filter, via which the gas can be guided into the room air or a gas bearing.
  19. Powder recovery device according to claim 18, further characterized by the features of one or more of claims 2 to 16.
DE102015213165.3A 2015-07-14 2015-07-14 Molded article manufacturing apparatus comprising a powder recovery device with a centrifugal separator Pending DE102015213165A1 (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102016222564A1 (en) * 2016-11-16 2018-05-17 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Process for additive production with selective removal of base material
WO2019081894A1 (en) 2017-10-23 2019-05-02 Renishaw Plc Powder bed fusion apparatus
DE102017125838A1 (en) * 2017-11-06 2019-05-09 Trumpf Laser- Und Systemtechnik Gmbh Extraction during generative production

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19649865C1 (en) 1996-12-02 1998-02-12 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Shaped body especially prototype or replacement part production
DE19905067A1 (en) 1999-02-08 2000-08-10 Matthias Fockele Layer-wise molding build-up apparatus, especially for laser prototyping of metallic articles, has a grinding tool for removing irregularities from a previously laser melted and solidified layer region
DE10112591A1 (en) 2000-03-15 2001-10-11 Matthias Fockele Production of a molded body used for molding a metal powder or a liquid resin comprises solidifying and/or melting a liquid or powdered raw material by irradiating with a laser beam corresponding to the cross-section of the molded body
EP2052845A2 (en) 2004-08-27 2009-04-29 Fockele, Matthias Device for manufacturing parts
DE102007018601B4 (en) * 2007-04-18 2013-05-23 Cl Schutzrechtsverwaltungs Gmbh Device for producing three-dimensional objects
DE102011088158A1 (en) * 2011-12-09 2013-06-13 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Secondary circuit for device for producing three-dimensional metal object used in beam fusion plant, has return line that is provided for recycling of powder from overflow container in main circuit of device
DE102013215748A1 (en) * 2013-08-09 2015-02-12 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Suction of powder and other material from a powder platform or from a powder bed on a powder platform

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19649865C1 (en) 1996-12-02 1998-02-12 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Shaped body especially prototype or replacement part production
WO1998024574A1 (en) 1996-12-02 1998-06-11 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Selective laser sintering at melting temperature
DE19905067A1 (en) 1999-02-08 2000-08-10 Matthias Fockele Layer-wise molding build-up apparatus, especially for laser prototyping of metallic articles, has a grinding tool for removing irregularities from a previously laser melted and solidified layer region
DE10112591A1 (en) 2000-03-15 2001-10-11 Matthias Fockele Production of a molded body used for molding a metal powder or a liquid resin comprises solidifying and/or melting a liquid or powdered raw material by irradiating with a laser beam corresponding to the cross-section of the molded body
EP2052845A2 (en) 2004-08-27 2009-04-29 Fockele, Matthias Device for manufacturing parts
DE102007018601B4 (en) * 2007-04-18 2013-05-23 Cl Schutzrechtsverwaltungs Gmbh Device for producing three-dimensional objects
DE102011088158A1 (en) * 2011-12-09 2013-06-13 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Secondary circuit for device for producing three-dimensional metal object used in beam fusion plant, has return line that is provided for recycling of powder from overflow container in main circuit of device
DE102013215748A1 (en) * 2013-08-09 2015-02-12 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft Suction of powder and other material from a powder platform or from a powder bed on a powder platform

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102016222564A1 (en) * 2016-11-16 2018-05-17 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Process for additive production with selective removal of base material
WO2019081894A1 (en) 2017-10-23 2019-05-02 Renishaw Plc Powder bed fusion apparatus
DE102017125838A1 (en) * 2017-11-06 2019-05-09 Trumpf Laser- Und Systemtechnik Gmbh Extraction during generative production

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