CN201819853U - Novel osmotic suction controlled comprehensive tester for unsaturated soil - Google Patents

Novel osmotic suction controlled comprehensive tester for unsaturated soil Download PDF

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Publication number
CN201819853U
CN201819853U CN2010205264287U CN201020526428U CN201819853U CN 201819853 U CN201819853 U CN 201819853U CN 2010205264287 U CN2010205264287 U CN 2010205264287U CN 201020526428 U CN201020526428 U CN 201020526428U CN 201819853 U CN201819853 U CN 201819853U
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China
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soil
soil sample
shear box
semi
water
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CN2010205264287U
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
吴宏伟
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香港科技大学
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Abstract

The utility model discloses a novel osmotic suction controlled comprehensive tester for unsaturated soil. The tester comprises a pressure cavity provided with an air passage valve; a suction controlling part comprises a shear box provided with a soil sample cavity, and a solution tank, wherein the shear box provided with the soil sample cavity is arranged in the pressure cavity, the solution tank is arranged outside the pressure cavity, a first semi-permeable membrane and a second semi-permeable membrane obdurate the upper part and the lower part of the soil sample cavity respectively, and the water inlet and the water outlet of the solution tank are respectively communicated with the upper part and the lower part of the soil sample cavity through pipelines; a mechanical loading unit part comprises a horizontal load bar, a reaction bar, a horizontal displacement measuring sensor and a horizontal load sensor which are arranged on the side surface of the shear box, as well as a vertical load bar and a vertical displacement measuring sensor which are arranged above the shear box; and the solution tank is provided with a detection device used for detecting water amount variation. The novel osmotic suction controlled comprehensive tester has the advantages that shear strength, stress related soil and water characteristic curves and consolidation characteristics of the unsaturated soil under a suction range reaching 10 MPa can be tested only by using one soil sample.

Description

The novel unsaturated soil comprehensive test apparatus of osmotic suction control
Technical field
The utility model relates to a kind of unsaturated soil experimental apparatus.
Background technology
Unsaturated soil is a kind of soil body of special nature, has gas and liquid in the soil body simultaneously, and just the volumetric(al) moisture content of the soil body is less than maximum water holding capacity.At the scene under the environment in the typical unsaturated soil, hole air pressure in the soil body can be greater than pore water pressure, and hole air pressure and atmospheric pressure are communicated with, be close to null value, just hydraulic pressure is generally negative numerical value, rather than the common soil body can embody positive seepage pressure like that, and the soil body can embody very strong water absorbing properties rather than infiltration feature.The difference of hole air pressure and space hydraulic pressure is called as matric suction, and the size of matric suction is relevant with soil specimen moisture content, and both relation curves are called native water characteristic curve.We need control the water cut of unsaturated soil sample in process of the test, to measure the mechanical property feature of soil sample under the situation of different moisture content, but be not easy directly to control the water cut of the soil body in the conventional unsaturated soil method of testing, so be mostly matric suction (difference of hole air pressure and space hydraulic pressure just) by the control inside soil body, concern the soil body water cut of determining under this matric suction situation by native water characteristic curve then, thereby carry out various mechanical tests again.
Direct shear apparatus is a common instrument of measuring the unsaturated soil shear resistance.Native water characteristic curve and the consolidation characteristics of measuring unsaturated soil adopt pressure plare instrument and consolidometer usually respectively.Independently test need at least three different soil samples to finish these three kinds.And the natural variability issues that exists between different soil samples is difficult to solve.So far, can record the shear resistance of unsaturated soil, native water characteristic curve (stress-dependent soil-water characteristic curve or SDSWCC) and the consolidation characteristics that stress is relevant simultaneously by single soil sample without any comprehensive instrument.The matric suction of axle translation technology control soil sample is adopted in traditional unsaturated soil test.Axle translation technology by promote pore air pressure make pore water pressure reach on the occasion of, to avoid the unwatering system generating gasification, the key of its realization is to use high air-entry value ceramic wafer in the soil sample bottom.The air-entry value of the ceramic wafer that the unsaturated soil test is adopted generally is no more than 500kPa, and therefore the matric suction scope of axle translation technology control is usually in 500kPa.Yet engineering reality and scientific research often need to measure shear resistance, native water characteristic curve and the consolidation characteristics of soil sample under high suction (greater than 500kPa).
The relevant native water characteristic curve test with stress of direct shear test is one of common test of unsaturated soil, and difficult realization inside soil body pore water pressure is a negative value in test condition, because the boiling point of water can descend under negative pressure condition, water body is easy to gasification and becomes gas form and no longer exist with liquid state.The matric suction of axle translation technology control soil sample is adopted in traditional unsaturated soil test, just wait amplitude to improve the force value of hole air pressure and space hydraulic pressure simultaneously, make pore water pressure reach on the occasion of, avoiding the unwatering system generating gasification, the key of its realization is to use high air-entry value ceramic wafer to isolate gas phase in the soil.Keeping hole air pressure and space hydraulic pressure difference between the two in the use, promptly is the matric suction value of the control soil body, in fact just controls the water cut of the soil body.The air-entry value of the ceramic wafer that the unsaturated soil test is adopted generally is no more than 500kPa, and therefore in 500kPa, existing maximal condition is 1500kPa (1.5MPa) to the matric suction of axle translation technology control, but is difficult for accomplishing usually.Yet engineering reality and scientific research often need to measure shearing strength and other the mechanical property characteristic parameter of soil sample under high suction (greater than 1500kPa).
There is following problem in typical axle translation technology in the unsaturated soil test:
1, add macropore air pressure and must adopt high pressure compressed gas, pressure gas has certain potential danger in actual use, want to apply the force value that bigger matric suction need add atmospheric, and the big more danger of compression pressure is big more;
2, improve synchronously that soil body actual forced status (very high hole air pressure and positive space hydraulic pressure value) and the on-the-spot prototype soil body itself (actual in approaching zero hole air pressure and being the space hydraulic pressure of negative value) have very big-difference behind hole air pressure and the space hydraulic pressure;
Even 3 have used axle translation technology also can't record the unsaturated soil mechanical performance index of under higher suction situation (prior art can only be accomplished maximum 1500kPa);
4, can only determine the soil sample water cut under a certain matric suction situation by native water characteristic curve and can't directly measure the true water cut of sample.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this utility model provides a kind ofly can measure unsaturated soil at the novel unsaturated soil comprehensive test apparatus up to the osmotic suction control of relevant native water characteristic curve of the shear resistance in the 10MPa suction scope, stress and consolidation characteristics by single soil sample.
Technical solution of the present utility model is: a kind of novel unsaturated soil comprehensive test apparatus of osmotic suction control, comprise pressure chamber with gas circuit valve, it also comprises suction control section and mechanics loading section, wherein the suction control section comprises and is arranged on the shear box with soil sample cavity in the described pressure chamber and is arranged on the outer solution water tank of described pressure chamber, the top of soil sample cavity is sealed by first semi-permeable diaphragm, the below is sealed by second semi-permeable diaphragm, the solution inlet of solution water tank and taphole pass through the upper and lower of pipeline connection soil sample cavity respectively, the mechanics loading section comprises that the level that is arranged on the shear box side is to load bar, reaction bar, level is to displacement measurement sensor and horizontal loading sensor, and be arranged on shear box top vertically to load bar with vertically to displacement measurement sensor, the solution water tank is provided with the pick-up unit of measuring water yield variation.
Soil sample can be placed in the soil sample cavity, its upper and lower is respectively equipped with semi-permeable diaphragm, have the advantages that selectivity is passed through, for common ion in the water and soil earth water is permeable, but for big molecule solute and the soil particle in the solution is impermeable, therefore the concentration difference that has solute in the both sides of semi-permeable diaphragm, thereby cause existing between soil sample and the solution osmotic pressure difference, under the effect of osmotic pressure, the holard enters in the solution, soil sample is moisture to change, and equals osmotic pressure up to the negative pore water pressure of soil sample, when the exchange of moisture on semi-permeable diaphragm both sides reaches balance, the suction of soil sample equals the osmotic pressure of solution, therefore by adjusting the solute concentration of solution, just can adjust the osmotic suction size, maximal value can reach 10MPa; When solution osmotic pressure during greater than the suction of soil sample, the holard can enter in the solution, and the water discharge of soil sample can be measured by the pick-up unit that is provided with on the solution water tank like this, can obtain the native water characteristic curve of soil sample; Owing to kept that space air pressure is atmospheric pressure in the soil sample, space hydraulic pressure is negative pressure, can better simulated field soil sample situation; Can carry out shearing force testing to the on-the-spot soil sample of simulation by the shearing box,, can carry out the affixed test of unsaturated soil owing to be equipped with displacement transducer in the horizontal direction with on the vertical direction; Soil sample is arranged in the pressure chamber, can keeps a closed environment.
Described shear box is loaded cap, is gone up shear box, middle shear box and down cut box and forms by sample in turn, and wherein said level connects the down cut box to load bar, and described reaction bar connects and goes up shear box, and described vertical loading bar connects sample loading cap.Shear box is arranged to a plurality of parts, semi-permeable diaphragm and soil sample conveniently are set.
Above described first semi-permeable diaphragm, be provided with first filter screen and the first water lattice, below described second semi-permeable diaphragm, be provided with second filter screen and the second water lattice.Can provide structural support to first semi-permeable diaphragm and second semi-permeable diaphragm.
The described first water lattice and the second water lattice can effectively be removed the diffusion bubble that gathers at the semi-permeable diaphragm place respectively twist.
Described pick-up unit is the buret of high-precision electronic balance or band scale.It is accurately convenient to measure, directly perceived.
The utility model has the advantages that: based on infiltration technology control matrix pressure, range of control is wide, use a soil sample just can measure unsaturated soil, overcome the relevant problem of natural otherness between different soil samples in the native water characteristic curve and the consolidation characteristics of being correlated with up to the shear resistance in the 10MPa suction scope, stress.
Description of drawings
Accompanying drawing 1 is the structural representation of the utility model embodiment;
Accompanying drawing 2 is a pressure chamber bottom plan view among the utility model embodiment;
1, buret, 2, pressure chamber, 3, level is to displacement transducer, 4, sample loads cap, 5, last shear box, 6, level is to load bar, 7, middle shear box, 8, the down cut box, 9, vertically to displacement transducer, 10, vertically to load bar, 11, the gas circuit valve, 12, the first water lattice, 13, first screen cloth, 14, first semi-permeable diaphragm, 15, the horizontal loading sensor, 16, stationary installation, 17, soil sample, 18, second semi-permeable diaphragm, 19, second screen cloth, 20, the second water lattice, 21, the solution inlet, 22, peristaltic pump, 23, taphole, 24, solution, 25, the solution water tank, 26, electronic balance, 27, the pressure chamber base, 28, reaction bar, 29, the soil sample cavity.
Embodiment
Embodiment:
Consult Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, the novel unsaturated soil comprehensive test apparatus of a kind of osmotic suction control comprises a stainless steel pressure chamber 2 and is used for keeping the air pressure that applied, and Pneumatic pipe cleaner is crossed gas circuit valve 11 and put in the chamber.This test instrument comprises two parts, be suction control section and mechanics loading section, wherein the suction control section comprises and is arranged on the shear box with soil sample cavity 29 in the pressure chamber 2 and is arranged on the outer solution water tank 25 of pressure chamber 2, the top of soil sample cavity 29 is by first semi-permeable diaphragm 14, first filter screen 13 and 12 sealings of the first water lattice, the below is by second semi-permeable diaphragm 18 and second filter screen 19,20 sealings of the second water lattice, the inlet 21 of solution water tank 25 and taphole 23 pass through the above and below of pipeline connection soil sample cavity 29 respectively, the mechanics loading section comprises that the level that is arranged on the shear box side is to load bar 6, reaction bar 28, level is to displacement measurement sensor 3 and horizontal loading sensor 15, and be arranged on shear box top vertically to load bar 10 with vertically to displacement measurement sensor 9, solution water tank 25 is provided with the pick-up unit of measuring water yield variation.
Shear box is loaded cap 4, is gone up shear box 5, middle shear box 7 and down cut box 8 and forms by sample in turn, and wherein level connects down cut boxes 8 to load bar 6, and reaction bar 28 connects and goes up shear box 5, and vertical loading bar 10 connects samples loading caps 4.
As shown in Figure 1, soil sample 17 is placed between shear box 5 and the middle shear box 7.Be close to and place first semi-permeable diaphragm 14, first screen cloth 13 and the first water lattice 12 above the soil sample 17.Similarly, second semi-permeable diaphragm 18, second screen cloth 19 and the second water lattice 20 are then placed in soil sample 17 bottoms.Consult shown in Fig. 2, in order effectively to remove the diffusion bubble that assemble second semi-permeable diaphragm bottom, the second water lattice 20 are spiral fashion, and same, the first water lattice 12 also can be spiral fashion.
Infiltration technology proposes (Ng ﹠amp by biologist Lagerwerff etc. 1961 the earliest; Menzies, 2007), adopted by pedologist and geotechnological scholar afterwards.Infiltration technology utilizes Polymer Solution and semi-permeable diaphragm to produce and control suction, the suction size that the solution concentration decision systems provides.In the unsaturated soil test, adopt polyoxyethylene (PEG) as Polymer Solution, because of it uses simple and safety usually.The solution that is provided with in the solution water tank 25 in the present embodiment is PEG solution.
The generation of phenomenon of osmosis must possess two conditions: the one, and the existence of semi-permeable diaphragm, semi-permeable diaphragm has the characteristics of selective permeation.The 2nd, the semi-permeable diaphragm both sides must be the solution of two kinds of variable concentrations, and solvent molecule (for example, hydrone) trends towards flowing to the high place of concentration from the low place of concentration.Based on phenomenon of osmosis, this test instrument adopts the osmotic suction control technology.First semi-permeable diaphragm 14, second semi-permeable diaphragm 18 are placed on the upper and lower surface of soil sample 17, and keep contacting preferably with soil sample.PEG solution 24 is stored in the solution water tank 25, circulate in closed circuit through PEG taphole 3 and by peristaltic pump 22, carry out moisture content exchange by semi-permeable diaphragm and soil sample then, PEG solution and hydrone are through the PEG solution 21 rework solution water tanks 25 that enter the mouth, up to equilibrium state.
Common ion in first semi-permeable diaphragm 14,18 pairs of water and soil earth of second semi-permeable diaphragm water can be saturating, but can not be saturating for big molecule solute and soil particle in the solution.Therefore, there is the PEG concentration difference in the semi-permeable diaphragm both sides, thereby cause having the osmotic pressure difference between soil sample and the PEG solution.Under the effect of osmotic pressure, the holard enters solution, and soil sample is moisture to change, and equals osmotic pressure up to the negative pore water pressure of soil sample.Prove by the water energy of analyzing the semi-permeable diaphragm both sides: when the exchange of moisture on semi-permeable diaphragm both sides reached balance, the suction of soil sample equaled the osmotic pressure of solution.When the osmotic pressure of solution during greater than the suction of soil sample, the holard sees through semi-permeable diaphragm and enters solution.The water discharge of soil sample is measured by the buret 1 of high-precision electronic balance 26 or band scale.
The osmotic suction size that PEG solution applies soil sample depends on the concentration of PEG: concentration is big more, and osmotic suction is big more.The osmotic suction maximal value that PEG solution can produce can be higher than 10MPa.Because it is that atmospheric pressure, pore water pressure are for negative, so simulated field stress path better that infiltration technology keeps native mesoporosity atmospheric pressure.
In order effectively to remove the diffusion bubble that assemble second semi-permeable diaphragm bottom, the second water lattice 20 in this test instrument are arranged on the pressure chamber base 27.
The mechanics loading section vertically can be by vertically putting on the soil sample 17 to load bar 10 and sample loading cap 4 to load.Apply shearing force as need, level can apply to load bar 6 by level to load, is used to shear soil sample, and antistress is to be provided by reaction bar 28.The level that is applied is measured by the load transducer 15 that is fixed on the stationary installation 16 to load.The vertical level to displacement and down cut box 8 of soil sample is then passed through respectively vertically to measure to displacement transducer 3 to displacement transducer 9 and level to displacement.
For the moisture content volatilization that prevents soil sample 17 in the process of the test causes test error, shear box to be placed in the test pressure chamber 2 of a sealing, avoided air exchange to cause moisture loss like this.In addition on the one hand, the pressure chamber 2 of this sealing can bear certain air pressure, this means that also this instrument can keep traditional unsaturated soil test apparatus and use axle translation technology to improve the function that hole air pressure carries out the unsaturated soil performance test, under smaller matric suction situation, this instrument also can use equally with traditional instrument.Only need be replaced with traditional high air-entry value potter's clay plate to second semi-permeable diaphragm of soil sample 17 belows, at this time just can realize the isolation of soil sample gas phase and liquid phase, at this time just can apply air pressure, carry out the unsaturated soil dependence test according to traditional axle translation technology to test chamber.
Because the matric suction of soil sample 17 can be controlled by the concentration of PEG solution, and we can measure the weight change calculating water cut of soil sample 17 by electronic balance 26 in test process, and this means that also we can also record the native water characteristic curve of unsaturated soil by this TV station instrument.Because instrument can apply the earthing condition of normal direction load simulated field condition, so the result who records is the relevant native water characteristic curve of stress of approaching more actual engineering situation.
Instrument also can be measured axial deformation by high accuracy displacement sensor when applying xial feed, so this instrument can also be used to carry out the fixed test of unsaturated soil of high suction (reaching as high as 10MPa).
Based on explaining and illustrative purposes, more than made specific embodiments of the present invention be described.Although above the present invention has been made explanation, should not be construed as the present invention and be confined to this by some embodiment.These embodiment neither plan the present invention is limited to disclosed exact form, and according to above-mentioned instruction, multiple conspicuous modification, embodiment and change all are feasible neither plan to carry out exhaustively for the present invention.The modification of carrying out multiple mode or change that the present invention may be obvious that should not annotate the spirit and scope that broken away from theme of the present invention for this modification or change, but all such modifications and change all should comprise within the scope of the appended claims.
Used infiltration technology polyglycol (PEG) As penetrating fluid in the test of native suction in for example described solution, polyglycol is the most frequently used, complete security and simplicity solute because of it, but ought to be interpreted as also that the utility model can rationally extend to the solute that other have identical function.
In addition, the description in all relevant stainless steel pressure chambeies 2 is interpreted as those skilled in the art with conventional means, a soil or any sample can be placed the description of making any scheme of test under the sealed environment, and not only limit to the above-mentioned description of what.

Claims (5)

1. the novel unsaturated soil comprehensive test apparatus of osmotic suction control, comprise pressure chamber with gas circuit valve, it is characterized in that: it also comprises suction control section and mechanics loading section, wherein the suction control section comprises and is arranged on the shear box with soil sample cavity in the described pressure chamber and is arranged on the outer solution water tank of described pressure chamber, the top of soil sample cavity is sealed by first semi-permeable diaphragm, the below is sealed by second semi-permeable diaphragm, the solution inlet of solution water tank and taphole pass through the upper and lower of pipeline connection soil sample cavity respectively, the mechanics loading section comprises that the level that is arranged on the shear box side is to load bar, reaction bar, level is to displacement measurement sensor and horizontal loading sensor, and be arranged on shear box top vertically to load bar with vertically to displacement measurement sensor, the solution water tank is provided with the pick-up unit of measuring water yield variation.
2. the novel unsaturated soil comprehensive test apparatus of osmotic suction control according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described shear box loads cap, last shear box, middle shear box and down cut box by sample in turn and forms, wherein said level connects the down cut box to load bar, described reaction bar connects upward shear box, and described vertical loading bar connects sample and loads cap.
3. the novel unsaturated soil comprehensive test apparatus of osmotic suction control according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that: above described first semi-permeable diaphragm, be provided with first filter screen and the first water lattice, below described second semi-permeable diaphragm, be provided with second filter screen and the second water lattice.
4. the novel unsaturated soil comprehensive test apparatus of osmotic suction control according to claim 3 is characterized in that: the described first water lattice and the second water lattice are respectively twist.
5. the novel unsaturated soil comprehensive test apparatus of osmotic suction control according to claim 3 is characterized in that: described pick-up unit is the buret of high-precision electronic balance or band scale.
CN2010205264287U 2010-09-13 2010-09-13 Novel osmotic suction controlled comprehensive tester for unsaturated soil CN201819853U (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102305845A (en) * 2011-07-28 2012-01-04 河北建设勘察研究院有限公司 Method for rapidly detecting area unsaturated soil shearing strength
CN102426151A (en) * 2011-09-06 2012-04-25 三峡大学 Multifunctional soil-water characteristic curve tester
CN103234840A (en) * 2013-04-26 2013-08-07 上海大学 Unsaturated soil direct-shear test device with function of controlling suction by negative pore water pressure
CN103743629A (en) * 2013-12-25 2014-04-23 广西科技大学 Geogrid shearing test device
CN103837662A (en) * 2014-01-17 2014-06-04 哈尔滨工业大学深圳研究生院 Measuring device and method of hydraulic characteristic parameters of unsaturated soil in moisture absorption/desorption path
CN109440836A (en) * 2018-12-07 2019-03-08 湖南大学 A kind of the retaining wall model test apparatus and method of controllable matric suction
CN109799140A (en) * 2019-03-12 2019-05-24 海南大学 The field test measuring method of unsaturated soil strength characteristics
CN111504793A (en) * 2020-04-23 2020-08-07 中南大学 Device and method for measuring saturated and unsaturated strength of polluted soil body

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102305845B (en) * 2011-07-28 2014-09-24 河北建设勘察研究院有限公司 Method for rapidly detecting area unsaturated soil shearing strength
CN102305845A (en) * 2011-07-28 2012-01-04 河北建设勘察研究院有限公司 Method for rapidly detecting area unsaturated soil shearing strength
CN102426151A (en) * 2011-09-06 2012-04-25 三峡大学 Multifunctional soil-water characteristic curve tester
CN103234840A (en) * 2013-04-26 2013-08-07 上海大学 Unsaturated soil direct-shear test device with function of controlling suction by negative pore water pressure
CN103234840B (en) * 2013-04-26 2015-01-07 上海大学 Unsaturated soil direct-shear test device with function of controlling suction by negative pore water pressure
CN103743629A (en) * 2013-12-25 2014-04-23 广西科技大学 Geogrid shearing test device
CN103837662A (en) * 2014-01-17 2014-06-04 哈尔滨工业大学深圳研究生院 Measuring device and method of hydraulic characteristic parameters of unsaturated soil in moisture absorption/desorption path
CN103837662B (en) * 2014-01-17 2016-05-11 哈尔滨工业大学深圳研究生院 Unsaturation soil body hydraulic characteristic parameter measurement mechanism and method under increasing/dehumidification path
CN109440836A (en) * 2018-12-07 2019-03-08 湖南大学 A kind of the retaining wall model test apparatus and method of controllable matric suction
CN109440836B (en) * 2018-12-07 2020-04-03 湖南大学 Retaining wall model test device and method capable of regulating and controlling substrate suction
CN109799140A (en) * 2019-03-12 2019-05-24 海南大学 The field test measuring method of unsaturated soil strength characteristics
CN109799140B (en) * 2019-03-12 2020-11-10 海南大学 On-site test determination method for strength characteristic of unsaturated soil
CN111504793A (en) * 2020-04-23 2020-08-07 中南大学 Device and method for measuring saturated and unsaturated strength of polluted soil body

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