CN1835332A - Photovoltaic converter with functions of disconnecting net, connecting net, charging control and regulating power - Google Patents

Photovoltaic converter with functions of disconnecting net, connecting net, charging control and regulating power Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1835332A
CN1835332A CN 200610039109 CN200610039109A CN1835332A CN 1835332 A CN1835332 A CN 1835332A CN 200610039109 CN200610039109 CN 200610039109 CN 200610039109 A CN200610039109 A CN 200610039109A CN 1835332 A CN1835332 A CN 1835332A
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China
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power
grid
output
dsp
control unit
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CN 200610039109
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Chinese (zh)
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苏建徽
汪海宁
张国荣
茆美琴
张健
杜燕
杜雪芳
刘翔
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合肥工业大学
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/563Power conversion electric or electronic aspects for grid-connected applications
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/566Power conversion electric or electronic aspects concerning power management inside the plant, e.g. battery charging/discharging, economical operation, hybridisation with other energy sources

Abstract

Characters of light-volt converter assembly are that through switch circuit, outputs from array of solar cell and accumulator are connected to DC bus respectively or simultaneously; setting up electronic power switch of inverter circuit, control mode for the power switch by DSP being as SPWM; through reactance L, insulated transform by transformer and contactor, the output of inversion is merged into power network; soft starting power resistors are connected to two sides of contactor; based on wattless and harmonic components in load current, DSP control unit generates wattless component of current to be merged in order to compensate wattless and harmonic currents needed by load. Prolonging service life of accumulator and not adding additional equipment, the invention provides compensation of wattless, and active filtering function, is suitable node of merged network located at end of power network, and applicable to distributed type power generation system off/on-network.

Description

具备离网/并网、充电控制及功率调节功能的光伏变流装置 It includes off-grid / grid, charging control and power conditioning device photovoltaic converter functions

技术领域 FIELD

:本发明涉及一种应用在太阳能光伏并网发电中的控制装置。 : The present invention relates to a control device for use in a solar photovoltaic power generation in.

背景技术 Background technique

:随着经济发展,人口增加,能源消耗快速增长,带来能源短缺、环境污染、生态恶化等重大问题。 : With economic development, population growth, rapid growth in energy consumption, bringing major issues such as energy shortages, environmental pollution and ecological degradation. 太阳能光伏发电是各国竞相发展的重点。 Solar photovoltaic power generation is the focus of the development of competing countries. 光伏系统并网运行是太阳能光伏进入大规模应用的必由之路,而光伏并网逆变控制器是光伏并网系统的关键设备。 PV systems and solar photovoltaic network operation is the only way to enter large-scale applications, while photovoltaic inverter controller is the key equipment photovoltaic grid system. 从公开发表的文献以及专利来看,现有的光伏并网逆变控制器仅能够将光伏阵列的直流电逆变成交流电馈送至常规电网,但不能实现并网、蓄电池充放电和馈送电能的功率调节(包括有功和无功)和无功补偿一体化控制功能,因此不能用于可靠性要求较高的离网/并网型分布式发电系统。 From the patent literature and published view of the conventional photovoltaic inverter converts the DC controller capable of only a PV array into AC power is fed to a conventional, but the grid can not be achieved, and the battery charge and discharge electric power of power feeding modulating (including active and reactive) and reactive power compensation control integration, high reliability can not be used for off-grid / grid-distributed power generation system.

发明内容 SUMMARY

:本发明是为避免上述现有技术所存在的不足之处,提供一种可以离网/并网、充电控制及功率调节的具备离网/并网、充电控制及功率调节功能的光伏变流装置,针对常规光伏并网发电系统逆变主电路的结构特点,在电网故障时,可以离网运行,向区域负载供电;提出将无功功率补偿与光伏并网发电相结合,从而节省设备投资,同时改善电网的供电质量。 : The present invention is to avoid the shortcomings of the prior art described above is present, to provide an off-grid / grid, the charging control and the power conditioner includes off-grid / grid, charging control and power regulation functions photovoltaic converter means for a conventional photovoltaic power generation system and mesh structure characteristic of the inverter main circuit, when the grid fault can be run off-grid power to a load region; proposed reactive power compensation and the photovoltaic power generation and combined, thereby saving equipment investment while improving the quality of power supply.

本发明解决技术问题所采用的技术方案是:本发明的结构特点是:太阳电池阵列和蓄电池的输出经由切换电路接入直流母线,阵列输出端串接有防反二极管,蓄电池输出由二极管、功率电阻和接触器并联接入母线;采用DSP控制单元,设置由所述DSP控制单元控制的IGBT功率电子开关T1~T6,所述功率电子开关T1~T6联接成三相全桥逆变电路设置在阵列串接二极管后的输出回路中,所述DSP控制单元对于功率电子开关T1~T6的控制方式为正弦波脉宽调制SPWM;逆变输出侧经电抗L由变压器隔离变换,通过接触器KM2并入电网,KM2触点两侧并接有软启动功率电阻R2;在并网节点之后的电网负载侧采用霍尔电流互感器,检测负载电流中无功和谐波分量,由DSP控制单元根据此产生并网电流无功分量,以补偿负载所需的无功和谐波电流。 Solution to Problem The present invention adopts the following technical scheme: the structural characteristics of the present invention is: a solar cell array and the battery output DC bus access, the array output end in series blocking diode via the switching circuit, the battery output of a diode, the power resistance and the contact parallel access bus; using DSP control means, provided IGBT power switch controlled by the electronic control unit DSP T1 ~ T6, the power electronic switches T1 ~ T6 is coupled to three-phase full-bridge inverter circuit provided the output circuit series diode array, the DSP control unit for control of power electronic switches T1 ~ T6 is sinusoidal pulse width modulation of SPWM; inverter output side through a reactance L of the insulating converter transformer, and by the contactor KM2 the grid, and is connected with contacts on both sides KM2 soft start power resistor R2; the grid and the load side after the network node using a Hall current transformer, the load current detection reactive and harmonic components, the control unit by the DSP according to this and net current generates a reactive component, to compensate for the reactive power and harmonic load current required.

本发明的结构特点也在于:在所述逆变电路与电网之间设置接触器KM3;以所述太阳电池阵列的开路电压和输出功率作为判断白天和夜晚的探测信号。 The structural characteristics of the present invention is also: KM3 contactor provided between the inverter circuit and the power grid; open circuit voltage of said solar cell array and a power output detection signal is determined as the day and night.

与光伏并网逆变技术和有源电流滤波技术相比,本发明的有益效果体现在:1、本发明是在太阳电池阵列的输出回路中串联防反二极管,可防止夜晚太阳电池的电压为零时,市电网向太阳电池阵列反充电;2、本发明以具有开关损耗低、工作频率高、安全工作区宽等优良特性的绝缘栅极双极型晶体管IGBT作为功率电子开关,以所述功率电子开关T1~T6联接成三相全桥逆变电路可以实现直流←→交流能量的双向流动;3、本发明以所述三相全桥逆变电路的输出回路中设置工频变压器,可以实现交流电压匹配和太阳电池阵列与市电网的隔离;4、本发明以所述检测负载电流无功和谐波分量控制方式,是一个开环补偿方式,有利于系统控制的稳定性;5、本发明以太阳电池阵列的开路电压和输出功率作为判断白天和夜晚的探测信号,可以使系统准确判断是处于同时 Compared with photovoltaic inverter technology and active current filter technology, the beneficial effects of the present invention are embodied in: 1, the present invention is a blocking diode connected in series in the output circuit of the solar arrays, the solar cell is prevented from voltage night zero, reverse charging the utility grid solar cell array; 2, according to the present invention to an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) having a low switching loss, high frequency, wide safe operating area other excellent properties as an electronic power switch, to the power electronic switches T1 ~ T6 is coupled to three-phase full-bridge inverter circuit DC ← → AC bidirectional flow of energy can be achieved; 3, the present invention is to output the three-phase full-bridge inverter circuit provided in the circuit frequency transformer, can achieve isolation AC voltage of the solar cell array and the utility grid; 4, the present invention is to detect the load current and the reactive power control mode harmonic components, it is an open-loop compensation, in favor of the stability control system; 5, in the present invention, the open circuit voltage and the output power of the solar cell array is determined as a detection signal of the day and night, the system can be accurately determined at the same time 并网发电和无功补偿状态还是仅处于无功补偿状态;6、本发明在电网故障时,可以将蓄电池存储的能量逆变成380V/50Hz交流电,继续给区域内的交流负载供电,实现系统的可靠离网运行,实现后备式电源功能;7、本发明在蓄电池电压低于充电启动电压时,由电网(晚上)或电网与阵列(白天)或阵列(电网故障)等多种充电方式对蓄电池进行充电,实现系统的高效可靠的能量管理,能够有效地、充分地利用能源且不增加额外硬件;8、本发明以电网对蓄电池进行浮充,可以大大减小装置对电网的污染,且可延长蓄电池的寿命。 The grid and the reactive power compensation only in the state or state reactive power compensation; 6, according to the present invention, when a grid fault, the battery energy can be stored inverted into 380V / 50Hz AC power to the AC load continued in the region of the implementation system from reliable network operation to achieve back-up power source function; 7, according to the present invention, when the battery voltage is below the charging start voltage (at night) or the grid array (day) or array (grid faults) by the grid for charging a variety of battery charging system more efficient and reliable management of the energy can be effectively, their energy without additional hardware; 8, the present invention is carried out in order to float the battery power, the device can be greatly reduced contamination of the grid, and extended battery life.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

:图1为本发明电路原理图。 : FIG. 1 is a circuit schematic diagram of the invention.

图2(a)为负载无功电流为0时(即ia=0),光伏并网功率调节器输出电流ica(有效值8.23A0与电网相电压ea的波形关系。 FIG 2 (a) of the reactive load current is 0 (i.e., ia = 0), and photovoltaic power grid ICA regulator output current (rms 8.23A0 relation to the grid voltage waveform of ea.

图2(b)为无功发生器发感性无功(滞后ea90°)时,负载电流ia(有效值8.37A)与光伏并网功率调节器输出电流ica(有效值11.6A)波形,ica超前ia约43°图3为并网电流和电网电压波形。 Figure 2 (b) is a reactive Generator has inductive reactive (lagging ea90 °), the load current IA (RMS 8.37A) of the photovoltaic power grid ICA regulator output current (rms 11.6a) waveform, ica lead ia 3 is about 43 ° grid current and grid voltage waveform.

图4为网侧充电电流和电网电压同步信号波形。 FIG 4 the charging current and grid voltage waveform synchronization signal line side.

图5独立逆变空载时,控制板上检测的逆变电压波形。 FIG 5 is independently an inverter at no-load, the control board of the inverter voltage waveform detected.

以下通过具体实施方式对本发明作进一步描述:实施例:参见图1,本实施例采用DSP控制单元,并设置由DSP控制单元控制的IGBT功率电子开关T1~T6,功率电子开关T1~T6联接成三相全桥逆变电路设置在太阳电池阵列的输出回路中,DSP控制单元对于功率电子开关T1~T6的控制方式为正弦波脉宽调制SPWM。 The following by specific embodiments of the present invention is further described: Example: Referring to Figure 1, the present embodiment employs DSP control unit, and provided IGBT power electronic switches controlled by the DSP control unit T1 ~ T6, the power electronic switches T1 ~ T6 is coupled to three-phase full-bridge inverter circuit provided at the output of the solar cell array circuit, DSP control unit for control of power electronic switches T1 ~ T6 is sinusoidal pulse width modulation SPWM.

图1所示,本实施例中的电路设置还包括: 1, the circuit arrangement of the present embodiment further comprises:

在太阳电池阵列的输出回路中串联防反二极管D1。 In the output circuit of the solar cell array in series blocking diode D1. 在夜晚,太阳电池阵列开路电压为零,不能向市电网提供有功能量,而光伏并网功率调节器还需要补偿负载无功,为维持逆变桥路的正常工作,母线直流电压必须达到一定值,防反二极管D1可防止所述母线直流电压加到太阳电池阵列引出的电压正负极上,保护太阳电池板。 At night, the open circuit voltage of the solar cell array is zero, can not provide the amount of the functional utility grid, and grid photovoltaic power conditioner also needs to compensate the reactive load, in order to maintain the normal operation of the inverter bridge, the DC bus voltage must reach a certain value, blocking diode D1 prevents the voltage of the DC bus voltage to the solar cell array on the positive and negative leads, protected solar panels.

在三相全桥逆变电路的交流输出串联电抗器L,再与工频变压器连接。 The AC output of the three-phase full-bridge inverter circuit series reactor L, and then connected to the frequency transformer. 电抗器L作用是连接电网和平滑并网电流,其参数的选择关系到并网电流波形的误差脉动幅度和跟踪电流的有效范围。 Reactor L is connected effect and smoothness and net current grid, to select the relationship of its parameters and the error range of the effective current waveform ripple amplitude and network of tracking current.

在光伏并网功率调节器交流侧串接软启动电阻R2,电阻上并接交流接触器KM2。 Soft start resistor R2 connected in series in a photovoltaic power conditioner AC grid side, and a resistor connected with AC contactor KM2. 在光伏并网功率调节器与市电网之间连接的闸刀闭合之前,交流接触器KM2处于常开状态,合闸后,市电网电压经过软启动电阻R2由三相全桥逆变电路向直流侧电容充电,当DSP检测到直流侧电压达一定值时,控制交流接触器KM2闭合,短接软启动电阻R2。 Before the knife between the photovoltaic grid power regulator connected to the utility grid is closed, the AC contactor KM2 in a normally open state, after closing, the city mains voltage via a resistor R2 to soft start the DC three-phase full-bridge inverter circuit side capacitor charging, when the DSP detects DC voltage up to a certain value, the control AC contactor KM2 is closed, shorting the soft start resistor R2. 软启动电阻R2是防止夜晚时,由于直流侧电容电压为零,直接合闸会造成大的冲击电流。 Soft start resistor R2 is to prevent the night, since the DC capacitor voltage is zero, the direct cause closing a large inrush current.

具体实施中,太阳电池阵列的工作电压和输出电流决定并网有功功率的大小,还具有太阳电池阵列最大功率跟踪功能,使并网发电功率为太阳电池阵列的最大输出功率;负载电流中无功与谐波含量决定并网无功功率的大小,经过功率合成和功率变换,光伏并网功率调节器的输出能量并入市电网,形成并网发电、无功补偿和谐波抑制的统一控制。 In particular embodiments, the operating voltage and the output current of the solar cell array is determined and the magnitude of the active power grid, further comprising a solar cell array MPPT, so that grid power is the maximum power output of the solar cell array; reactive load current determines the size of the grid and the reactive power and harmonic content of the power combiner and power through conversion, the energy output of the photovoltaic grid power regulator and power market, and form a grid, and no power compensation harmonic suppression control unity.

具体实施:无功负载是实验专用的30KVA有源无功发生器SVG。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION: reactive load is a test-specific active 30KVA var generator SVG.

图2(a)为负载无功电流为0时(即ia=0),光伏并网功率调节器输出电流ica(有效值8.23A)与电网相电压ea的波形关系,其中ea是控制板上的电压采样电路的输出信号,ica与ea同相位,系统处于并网发电状态。 FIG 2 (a) of the reactive load current is 0 (i.e., ia = 0), and photovoltaic power grid ICA regulator output current (effective value 8.23A) and the grid phase voltages ea waveform relationship, wherein the control board is ea the output voltage signal sampling circuit, and the ICA ea phase, the system is in the state of the grid.

图2(b)为无功发生器发感性无功(滞后ea90°)时,负载电流ia(有效值8.37A)与光伏并网功率调节器输出电流ica(有效值11.6A)波形,ica超前ia约43°,系统处于并网发电和无功补偿状态。 Figure 2 (b) is a reactive Generator has inductive reactive (lagging ea90 °), the load current IA (RMS 8.37A) of the photovoltaic power grid ICA regulator output current (rms 11.6a) waveform, ica lead ia about 43 °, and the system is grid reactive power compensation state.

由图2(a)和图2(b)可知,在无功负载投入运行前,光伏并网功率调节器输出的电流完全为有功;在无功负载投入运行后,光伏并网功率调节器的并网电流中包含了无功电流,其相位和幅值均发生变化,且电网电流isa在无功负载投入前后变化不大,实验结果表明,该系统无功检测和补偿效果良好。 (A) and 2 (b) 2 shows that, in the reactive load put into operation before the current photovoltaic grid power regulator output completely active; in reactive load put into operation, photovoltaic grid power regulator and grid current comprises a reactive current in that phase and amplitude changes occurred, and the grid current isa reactive load before and after the input is not changed, the experimental results show that the detection system and no good power compensation effect.

并网电流跟踪实验如图3所示。 Grid current chase experiments shown in Figure 3. 图3中,示波通道1为一相并网电流波形,示波通道2为电网相电压波形,电流有效值为28.2A,电网充电模式下电网侧电流波形如图4所示;独立逆变时,装置输出的电压波形如图5所示。 In Figure 3, Channel 1 of the oscilloscope a phase grid current waveform, channel 2 of the oscilloscope grid phase voltage waveform and the current effective value of 28.2A, the grid-side current waveform of the power charging mode shown in Figure 4; individual inverter voltage waveform, the output of the apparatus shown in Fig.

Claims (3)

1.具备离网/并网、充电控制及功率调节功能的光伏变流装置,其特征在于:太阳电池阵列和蓄电池的输出经由切换电路接入直流母线,阵列输出端串接有防反二极管,蓄电池输出由二极管、功率电阻和接触器并联接入母线;采用DSP控制单元,设置由所述DSP控制单元控制的IGBT功率电子开关T1~T6,所述功率电子开关T1~T6联接成三相全桥逆变电路设置在阵列串接二极管后的输出回路中,所述DSP控制单元对于功率电子开关T1~T6的控制方式为正弦波脉宽调制SPWM;逆变输出侧经电抗L由变压器隔离变换,通过接触器KM2并入电网,KM2触点两侧并接有软启动功率电阻R2;在并网节点之后的电网负载侧采用霍尔电流互感器,检测负载电流中无功和谐波分量,由DSP控制单元根据此产生并网电流无功分量,以补偿负载所需的无功和谐波电流。 1. The network includes off / grid, charging control and power conditioning functions photovoltaic converter means, wherein: the solar cell array and the battery output DC bus access, the array output end in series blocking diode via the switching circuit, battery output from the diode, and a contact power resistor parallel access bus; a control unit using the DSP, the DSP is provided by the control unit which controls the IGBT power electronic switches T1 ~ T6, the power electronic switches T1 ~ T6 is coupled to a three-phase full bridge inverter circuit disposed in series with the output circuit of the diode array, the DSP control unit for control of power electronic switches T1 ~ T6 is sinusoidal pulse width modulation of SPWM; inverter output side through a reactance L of the insulating converter transformer , the grid through the contactor KM2, KM2 contacts on both sides and is connected with the soft-start power resistor R2; the grid and the load side after the network node using a Hall current transformer, the load current detection reactive and harmonic components, and net current generates reactive component by the DSP according to this control unit, to compensate for reactive power and harmonic load current required.
2.根据权利要求1所述的装置,其特征是在所述逆变电路与电网之间设置接触器KM3。 2. The apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the contactor KM3 disposed between the inverter circuit and the power grid.
3.根据权利要求1所述的装置,其特征是以所述太阳电池阵列的开路电压和输出功率作为判断白天和夜晚的探测信号。 3. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the open circuit voltage is the output power of the solar cell array and a detection signal is determined as the day and night.
CN 200610039109 2006-03-25 2006-03-25 Photovoltaic converter with functions of disconnecting net, connecting net, charging control and regulating power CN1835332A (en)

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