CN115049302A - Method for establishing ecological restoration system of production and construction project in dry and hot valley region - Google Patents

Method for establishing ecological restoration system of production and construction project in dry and hot valley region Download PDF

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CN115049302A
CN115049302A CN202210792755.4A CN202210792755A CN115049302A CN 115049302 A CN115049302 A CN 115049302A CN 202210792755 A CN202210792755 A CN 202210792755A CN 115049302 A CN115049302 A CN 115049302A
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soil
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刘胜
高飞
陈胜利
陈平平
侯永平
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PowerChina Kunming Engineering Corp Ltd
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for determining an ecological restoration system of a production and construction project in a dry-hot valley region, which mainly comprises the following steps: establishing an ecological restoration partition; the water and soil conservation ecological restoration target; establishing a reference ecosystem; establishing the content and method of the diagnosis and evaluation of the current ecosystem; establishing a technical scheme for water and soil conservation ecological restoration; establishing a water and soil conservation ecological restoration system and method; and establishing a working procedure for water and soil conservation ecological restoration. The invention relates to a method for establishing an ecological restoration system of a production and construction project in a dry and hot valley region based on the theory and method for restoring ecology, which can effectively improve the habitat conditions such as soil, moisture, micro-topography and the like by an economical and feasible method, restore a vegetation community more integrated with a regional primary ecosystem and the surrounding environment, is beneficial to enhancing the stability and the self succession capability of the vegetation community, meets the water and soil conservation and environmental protection targets of the project and simultaneously realizes the near-natural ecological restoration target of a construction region.

Description

Method for establishing ecological restoration system of production and construction project in dry and hot valley region
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of water and soil conservation ecological restoration, and particularly relates to a water and soil conservation ecological restoration technical system and method for production and construction projects in dry-hot valley areas based on ecology restoration.
Background
The dry and hot valley areas have the characteristics of abundant photo-thermal resources, hot climate, little rain, large evaporation capacity, deep and steep ditch, thin surface soil layer, obvious water and soil loss, low vegetation coverage, ecological fragility and the like. In the process of construction, production and construction projects in hot and dry valley areas usually cause soil resource loss in local areas, change of land surface morphology, disturbance of vegetation damage in land surface areas, and if reasonable prevention and control measures are not taken, serious water and soil loss can be caused, and even the degradation or loss of vegetation communities and ecological system functions can be caused.
By combining the characteristics of the ecological environment of the dry and hot valley regions, the conventional water and soil loss prevention measures and the construction of index systems cannot meet the requirements of recovering and maintaining the ecological system, so that the problems of single vegetation species, unstable community, poor natural succession capability, incapability of effectively keeping water and soil resources, even secondary water and soil loss damage, further degradation of the regional ecological system and the like can be caused.
The invention provides a set of ecological restoration technology system and index system for the hot and dry valley area based on the theory of restoring ecology and aiming at creating a green harmonious project with Bamboo mold nature of water and soil conservation in the hot and dry valley area. In the processes of planning, designing, planning water and soil conservation schemes, engineering construction and management of production construction projects in dry and hot valley areas, the technical system and the method provided by the invention can be fully applied to guide the water and soil conservation work of the projects, and the fusion of project production construction and regional environment ecology is improved.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the defects of the problems and provides a method for determining an ecological restoration system of a production and construction project in a dry and hot valley region.
The invention aims to provide a water and soil conservation ecological restoration technical system and a method for a production and construction project, which are constructed based on the theory and the method for restoring ecology, can effectively improve the habitat conditions such as soil, moisture, micro-topography and the like through an economical and feasible method, restore the vegetation community which is more integrated with the regional primary ecosystem and the surrounding environment, are beneficial to enhancing the stability and the self succession capability of the vegetation community, meet the water and soil conservation and environmental protection targets of the project and realize the near-natural ecological restoration target of a construction region.
The invention is realized by adopting the following technical scheme.
The method for establishing the ecological restoration system of the production and construction project in the dry and hot valley areas comprises the following steps:
(1) collecting target engineering data and regional natural social data;
(2) establishing project ecological restoration targets, including overall targets and specific targets;
(3) establishing a working range and establishing project ecological restoration subareas;
(4) establishing a reference ecosystem for ecological restoration;
(5) establishing the content and method for diagnosing and evaluating the damaged ecological system of the construction area;
(6) establishing an ecological restoration technical scheme;
(7) establishing an ecological restoration system and method;
(8) establishing an ecological restoration monitoring and post-evaluation method;
(9) and establishing the ecological restoration working process of the production and construction project.
Preferably, the overall goal of ecological restoration in the step (2) comprises: restoring and improving the habitat conditions of a degraded ecosystem disturbed by engineering construction damage, primarily flattening the broken ground surface, gradually improving the soil fertility, and restoring and improving the moisture conditions; secondly, through the intervention of artificial auxiliary biological elements, the damaged engineering area of the engineering construction and the structure and the function of the plant species, the vegetation community and the ecological system around the engineering construction are preliminarily recovered; protecting and restoring ecological landscape, consciously increasing the visual and aesthetic effects of the engineering area through ecological reconstruction, and showing the cultural idea and positive and healthy spiritual connotation of enterprises; and fourthly, the engineering water and soil conservation scheme, the environmental influence report and the replication requirements thereof are met, and the environment-friendly water conservation completion acceptance is met.
Preferably, the specific goals of ecological restoration in the step (2) comprise: ecosystem stability, biodiversity and soil and water conservation index, ecosystem stability includes community restoration degree, ecosystem intercommunication degree, interference killing feature and self-resuming ability, biodiversity biological population allocation degree, dominant population diversity, community structural integrity, biodiversity index and important species protection rate, soil and water conservation index includes soil and water loss degree of administration, forest grass vegetation recovery rate, forest grass coverage rate.
Preferably, the working range is established in the step (3), and project ecological restoration subareas are established, wherein the working range is established according to the engineering sign occupation range, the earth surface disturbance range and the water and soil loss responsibility range, and the ecological restoration subareas are established according to the engineering occupation attribute, the occupation type, the earth surface disturbance strength, the engineering function attribute and the like and are generally divided into a main engineering area, a construction production living area, a slag storage area, a soil and stone area, an intersection road area, a matching engineering area and the like.
Preferably, the reference ecosystem is established in the step (4), and the physical environment, biological diversity, species composition, community structure, environmental factors affecting the ecosystem and the like of the original ecosystem and the surrounding ecosystem of the project area are mainly established.
Preferably, the step (5) of diagnosing and evaluating the damaged ecosystem of the construction area comprises the diagnosis and evaluation of the ecological conditions such as terrain features (altitude, slope direction, gradient, slope position and the like), climatic conditions (precipitation, air temperature, illumination, air humidity and the like), soil conditions (thickness, texture, physicochemical properties and the like) and the like, and the diagnosis and evaluation of biological factors such as composition, structure, quantity, productivity of species, space-time distribution of the ecosystem, succession features and the like.
Preferably, the step (6) establishes an ecological restoration technical scheme, which mainly comprises three schemes, namely an ecological restoration scheme, an ecological reconstruction scheme and an ecological protection scheme.
The ecological restoration scheme comprises the steps of carrying out primary restoration on the habitat and biological elements by adopting the transformation of habitat conditions such as soil, moisture, micro-topography and the like and reasonable artificial auxiliary measures such as plant species selection, vegetation community allocation, construction and the like in areas where the structures and functions of the ecosystems such as a waste slag field, a soil and stone field and the like are seriously interfered and damaged, and restoring the ecosystem to the reference ecosystem or a background ecosystem before disturbance to the maximum extent after natural restoration for a certain period, so that the due structures, functions and service values of the ecosystem are realized and even optimized; and according to the ecological restoration subareas and the established reference ecological system, establishing the ecological restoration subareas and the vegetation community directions to be restored, which are suitable for the water and soil conservation ecological restoration scheme.
The ecological reconstruction scheme comprises the steps of carrying out artificial ecological design on areas which have serious interference and damage on the structures and functions of ecological systems such as permanent building areas, high and steep slope areas and the like and have difficulty in natural restoration, and consciously carrying out ecological reconstruction or reconstruction on the basis of considering human needs, aesthetic principles and spiritual culture connotations, wherein the ecological reconstruction scheme comprises landscape greening, ecological function and structure adjustment and the like of production and living areas.
The ecological protection scheme comprises the steps of reserving the existing ecological system for the areas with high ecological values, such as good landscape effect, good vegetation, high biological diversity, important biological resources and the like in the construction land acquisition range, and carrying out regional enclosure and cultivation; local listing protection is preferentially carried out on relatively independent important species resources; and carrying out ecological conservation technologies such as ex-situ protection on important species resources in the unavoidable disturbance area.
Preferably, the step (7) of establishing the ecological restoration technical system and the method comprises the following steps: ecological environment improvement technologies such as a soil protection and improvement technology, a water improvement technology, a micro-terrain improvement technology and the like, and biological technologies such as plant species selection, vegetation community configuration and the like; landscape reconstruction techniques including landscape design, aesthetic design, and the like; ecological protection technologies such as enclosure and education, propaganda and education, original site protection, ex-situ protection and the like.
The soil protection and improvement technology comprises the following steps: the soil protection refers to stripping, transferring and utilizing surface soil resources of a construction disturbance area before construction; the soil improvement technology adopts soil fertility recovery measures such as soil dressing (humus) improvement, biological fertilization, chemical improvement, soil structure curing and the like which are low in cost and easy to implement.
The water transformation technology comprises a rainwater collection and storage technology (a reservoir and a cistern), a rainwater collection and utilization technology (reverse slope land preparation, tree planting pit and ridging) and a water-saving irrigation technology (drip irrigation and spray irrigation).
The micro-terrain reconstruction technology comprises the slope control technologies of establishing a reasonable slope ratio, ecological slope protection and the like, and micro-terrain reconstruction measures of loosening and leveling a field, pushing high and filling a depression and the like.
The plant species selection technology comprises the selection of suitable local living species, the species selection such as pioneer species introduction and the like, and the species breeding measures such as local species breeding, local seed germchit bank reconstruction and the like.
The vegetation community configuration technology comprises community structure configuration and construction measures such as forest, shrub and grass collocation, community construction and the like.
The landscape reconstruction technology is based on ecological restoration, combines permanent buildings to carry out landscape greening on vacant lands of production and living areas, fully shows environment-friendly and water and soil conservation exemplary projects, and creates landscapes which meet the environmental requirements and planning themes of specific areas.
The ex-situ conservation technology comprises the step of transplanting important species resources in an unavoidable disturbance area in a land acquisition range to a rare plant garden for conservation on the basis of detailed ecological investigation.
Preferably, the step (8) of determining a water and soil conservation ecological restoration monitoring and post-evaluation method, wherein the water and soil conservation ecological restoration monitoring indexes comprise habitat conditions such as climatic conditions (precipitation, temperature, illumination and the like), soil conditions (thickness, texture, physicochemical properties and the like), and biological factors such as composition, structure, quantity, productivity and the like of species; the monitoring period is as follows: monitoring for 1 time every 3 years after ecological restoration is implemented, and monitoring for every 3-5 years; on the basis of the habitat condition and biological factor monitoring, the ecological restoration target of soil and water conservation is analyzed and evaluated item by item.
Preferably, the step (9) establishes the ecological restoration work flow of the production and construction project of the dry and hot valley areas, and the work flow is shown in the attached drawing.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a flow chart of the ecological restoration work of the production and construction project of the dry and hot valley region of the invention
Detailed Description
The method for establishing the ecological restoration system of the production and construction project in the dry and hot valley areas comprises the following steps:
(1) collecting target engineering data and regional natural social data;
the engineering data comprises engineering feasibility research reports, preliminary design reports, environmental impact reports, water and soil conservation scheme reports, biodiversity survey reports, construction drawings and the reply opinions of government relevant departments on the reports.
The regional natural and social data comprise the data of landform, geology, hydrological weather, vegetation, soil, social economy, water and soil conservation and the like.
(2) Establishing project ecological restoration targets, including overall targets and specific targets;
the overall goals of water and soil conservation and ecological restoration comprise: restoring and improving the habitat condition of a degraded ecosystem disturbed by engineering construction; secondly, through the intervention of artificial assistance on biological elements, the damaged engineering area of the engineering construction and the structure and the function of the plant species, the vegetation community and the ecological system around the engineering construction are preliminarily recovered; protecting and restoring ecological landscape, consciously increasing visual and aesthetic effects of engineering areas through ecological reconstruction, and showing cultural ideas and positive and healthy spiritual connotations; and thirdly, the engineering water and soil conservation scheme, the environmental influence report and the replication requirements thereof are met, and the environment-friendly water conservation completion acceptance is met.
Specific goals of ecological remediation are as follows:
specific target table for ecological restoration of production and construction projects in dry and hot valley areas
Figure BDA0003730953870000071
(3) Establishing a working range and establishing an ecological restoration partition
The working range is established according to the engineering sign occupation range, the earth surface disturbance range and the water and soil loss responsibility range, and the ecological restoration subarea is established according to the engineering occupation property, the occupation type, the earth surface disturbance intensity, the engineering function property and the like and is divided into a main engineering area, a construction production living area, a slag storage area, an earth and stone material area, an intersection road area, a matching engineering area and the like.
(4) Establishing ecological restoration reference ecosystem
Investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution characteristics and succession characteristics of vegetation in the engineering area, wherein the investigation content is as follows:
horizontal and vertical distribution characteristics of vegetation and succession characteristic survey sample table
Figure BDA0003730953870000081
And according to the distribution characteristics (altitude, gradient and slope direction) and succession characteristics of the current vegetation community, determining a quasi-reference ecological restoration system for engineering water and soil conservation ecological restoration. And typically include species of native terrain vegetation, artificially disturbed area natural restoration vegetation, artificial vegetation, and the like.
(5) Diagnosis and assessment of damaged ecosystem of construction area
The ecosystem that has been damaged or may be damaged by the construction disturbance is investigated, analyzed and evaluated. The emphasis is on the survey of the habitat factors, the survey contents are as follows:
habitat factor survey sample table
Figure BDA0003730953870000082
According to the investigation of the damaged ecosystem, the influence degree and the influence range of the elements of the ecosystem are mastered and used as important basis for establishing the next ecological restoration scheme, the ecological restoration system and the method.
(6) Establishment of ecological restoration scheme
The ecological restoration technical scheme mainly comprises three schemes of ecological restoration, ecological reconstruction and ecological protection.
According to the ecological restoration scheme, the directions of restoration subareas and vegetation communities of the ecological system to be restored included in the ecological restoration scheme are determined according to the ecological restoration subareas and the determined reference ecological restoration system; adopting a restoration scheme mainly based on ecological restoration for construction temporary occupied areas such as a waste slag yard, an earth and stone material yard, a construction temporary yard and the like; the method can specifically adopt the transformation of the soil, moisture, terrain and other site conditions and reasonable plant species selection, vegetation community configuration and construction.
The ecological reconstruction scheme carries out artificial ecological design on areas which are seriously interfered and damaged by the structures and functions of ecological systems in permanent building areas and high and steep slope areas and have difficulty in natural restoration, and consciously carries out ecological reconstruction or reconstruction on the basis of considering human needs, aesthetic principles and spiritual culture connotation, including landscape greening, ecological functions and structure adjustment of production and living areas.
The ecological protection scheme comprises the steps of reserving the existing ecological system for the areas with high ecological values, such as good landscape effect, good vegetation, high biological diversity, important biological resources and the like in the construction land acquisition range, and carrying out regional enclosure and cultivation; local listing protection is preferentially carried out on relatively independent important species resources; and carrying out ecological conservation technologies such as ex-situ protection on important species resources in the unavoidable disturbance area.
(7) Technical system and method for establishing ecological restoration body
Establishing an ecological restoration technical system and method, comprising the following steps: performing habitat transformation by a soil protection and improvement technology, a water transformation technology and a micro-terrain transformation technology, and performing biological transformation by plant species selection and plant community configuration technology; landscape reconstruction is carried out through landscape design and aesthetic design; ecological protection and conservation are carried out through enclosure and education, propaganda and education, original site protection and ex-situ protection technologies.
The soil protection and improvement technology comprises the following steps: the soil protection refers to stripping, transferring and utilizing surface soil resources of a construction disturbance area before construction, wherein the stripping thickness of the surface soil is 20-50 cm; the soil improvement technology adopts measures of low cost and easy implementation of soil dressing, humus transformation, biological fertilization, chemical improvement, soil structure curing and soil fertility restoration, and improves the thickness of surface soil by 20-50 centimeters.
The water transformation technology comprises a rainwater collection and storage technology, a rainwater collection and utilization technology and a water-saving irrigation technology; wherein, the rainwater is collected and stored and preferably selected from a reservoir, the volume of a single pool is 50-200 cubic meters, and the rainwater is guided through a matched water diversion canal or a water interception ditch or collected from an upstream channel or a slope; the rainwater collection and utilization technology comprises the measures of reverse slope soil preparation, tree planting pits, ridging and the like, wherein 3% -5% of inclination is formed in the field from outside to inside by the reverse slope soil preparation, fish scale pits can be adopted for soil preparation in areas with little rainfall in the north, cave-shaped soil preparation is adopted in areas with large rainfall in the south, and the diameter and depth of each cave are more than 30 cm; the water-saving irrigation technology comprises a drop irrigation technology and a spray irrigation technology, the drop irrigation technology is suitable for regions which are difficult to irrigate manually, such as ecological reconstruction region high and steep slope plant growth grooves, the spray irrigation technology is used for irrigation in open fields, and a semi-fixed or movable pipeline type system is suitable for being used as a spray irrigation system.
The micro-terrain reconstruction technology comprises the following steps of establishing a reasonable slope ratio: temporary slopes of the abandoned dreg site and the construction site are required to be larger than 1:1.5 as much as possible; the ecological slope protection side slope prevention and control technology comprises the following steps: the slope with the slope ratio more than 1:1 adopts the measures of spray seeding, ecological net hanging, plant growing tank, plant growing bag and vine climbing, the slope is between 1:1 and 1:1.5, and the comprehensive slope protection by using lattice beam grass planting and plant growing bag can be adopted; and (5) loosening and leveling the field, and pushing up the filled depression to perform micro-terrain reconstruction.
The plant species selection technology comprises the optimization of suitable native species, pioneer species introduction species selection, native species cultivation, and reconstruction of native seed germchit banks for species cultivation and propagation; the large-scale production construction project self-construction comprises a seeding propagation area, a nursery stock transplanting area, a big seedling cultivation area, a pioneer species domestication area and a rural soil seed cultivation nursery of the seedling cultivation area, and a road system and an irrigation system are constructed in a matching manner.
The vegetation community allocation technology adopts a mode of mixed crossing of forest, shrub and grass for community allocation, arbor is planted by planting seedlings, 1-3 years of I-grade seedlings with soil balls are preferably selected, and the number of the I-grade seedlings per hectare is 1000-2000 plants; the shrub can be planted or sown with 5000 plants or 50-80 kg per hectare; sowing or drilling grass seeds, selecting excellent seeds, not less than 3 seeds, selecting leguminous plants and gramineae plants for matching, wherein 80-120 kg per hectare; community establishment and community structure configuration: dominant species account for 80% of the number of reference ecosystems.
The landscape reconstruction technology is based on ecological restoration, combines with main engineering to permanently produce and live and other buildings and other peripheral open spaces to carry out landscape greening, fully shows environment-friendly and water and soil conservation exemplary engineering, and builds a landscape which meets the environmental requirements and planning themes of a specific area.
The ex-situ protection technology comprises the steps of transplanting important species resources of an unavoidable disturbance area in a land acquisition range to an area which is convenient for management and protection in a main engineering area for protection on the basis of detailed investigation; valuable and rare plant gardens are preferably arranged for important species resources, and transplanting and centralized conservation are carried out; (ii) a The arbor and shrub are transplanted with soil balls, the diameter of the soil balls is more than 10 times of the ground diameter, the nursery stock is properly trimmed before transplanting, the diameter of a planting pit is greater than 1/2 of the diameter of the root width, the planting pit is 1/3 deeper than the length of a root system, maintenance and hanging protection are enhanced after transplanting, and the management and maintenance standard is not lower than the I-level management and maintenance standard of landscaping engineering.
The technical system and the method for the water and soil conservation ecological restoration body are shown in the following table:
an ecological restoration technology system and a method table for production and construction projects in dry and hot valley areas.
Figure BDA0003730953870000111
The method and the constructed technical system are taken as guidance to form a perfect ecological restoration function partition map, and on the basis of the perfect ecological restoration function partition map, the design of the construction map of the ecological restoration engineering is carried out according to the set target requirement.
(8) Method for carrying out water and soil conservation ecological restoration monitoring and post-evaluation
The water and soil conservation ecological restoration monitoring indexes comprise habitat conditions such as climatic conditions (rainfall, air temperature, illumination and the like), soil conditions (thickness, texture, physicochemical properties and the like), biological factors such as composition, structure, quantity, productivity and the like of species; the monitoring period is as follows: monitoring for 1 time every 3 years after ecological restoration is implemented, and monitoring for every 3-5 years; on the basis of the habitat condition and the biological factor monitoring, the ecological restoration target of soil and water conservation is analyzed and evaluated item by item.
(9) The working flow of the ecological restoration of the production and construction project in the dry and hot valley areas is shown in the attached figure 1.
The above description is only a part of the specific embodiments of the present invention (since the present invention includes the numerical range, the embodiments are not exhaustive, the protection scope of the present invention includes the numerical range and other technical essential ranges), and the detailed contents or common general knowledge known in the schemes are not described too much. It should be noted that the above-mentioned embodiments do not limit the present invention in any way, and all technical solutions obtained by means of equivalent substitution or equivalent transformation for those skilled in the art are within the protection scope of the present invention. The scope of the claims of the present application shall be determined by the contents of the claims, and the description of the embodiments and the like in the specification shall be used to explain the contents of the claims.

Claims (10)

1. The method for establishing the ecological restoration system of the production and construction project in the dry and hot valley areas is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
(1) collecting target engineering data and regional natural social data;
(2) establishing project ecological remediation objectives, including establishment of overall objectives and establishment of specific objectives;
(3) establishing a working range and establishing project water and soil conservation ecological restoration subareas;
(4) establishing a reference ecosystem for ecological restoration;
(5) establishing the content and method for diagnosing and evaluating the damaged ecosystem of the construction area;
(6) establishing an ecological restoration technical scheme;
(7) establishing an ecological restoration system and method;
(8) establishing an ecological restoration monitoring and post-evaluation method;
(9) and establishing an ecological restoration work flow chart of a production construction project.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein in step 1, the engineering data includes engineering feasibility study reports, preliminary design reports, environmental impact reports, soil and water conservation plan reports, biodiversity survey reports, construction drawings, and government-related governing bodies' opinions on the above reports; the regional natural and social data comprise topographic and geomorphic, geological, hydrological and meteorological, vegetation, soil, social economy and water and soil conservation data.
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step 2, the general goal of soil and water conservation ecological restoration comprises: 1) restoring and improving the habitat conditions of the degraded ecosystem which is damaged and disturbed by engineering construction; 2) through the intervention of artificial assistance on biological elements, the damaged engineering area of the engineering construction and the structures and functions of the plant species, vegetation communities and ecological systems around the engineering construction are preliminarily recovered; 3) protecting and restoring ecological landscape, consciously increasing the visual and aesthetic effects of the engineering area through ecological reconstruction, and showing cultural ideas and positive and healthy spiritual connotation; 4) the engineering water and soil conservation scheme, the environmental influence report and the replication requirements thereof are met, and the environment-friendly water conservation completion acceptance is met;
specific goals of ecological remediation include: ecological system stability, biological diversity and water and soil conservation indexes;
the stability indexes of the ecological system comprise community restoration degree, ecological system connectivity degree, anti-interference capacity and self-restoration capacity; the community recovery degree is the ratio of the number of recovered communities to the number of damaged communities, and the value is set to be 80%; the ecological system connectivity is the connectivity of the damaged ecological system and other surrounding ecological systems, and the value is set to be 80%; the anti-interference capability is to resist the interference under normal natural conditions; the self-recovery capability is set to be that the recovered ecological system can perform self-recovery after 5 years of incubation;
the biodiversity index comprises the biological population allocation degree, dominant population diversity, community structure integrity, a biodiversity index and the important species protection rate;
the biological population allocation degree comprises the ratio of a population allocation mode of an ecological reconstruction area and an ecological restoration area to a population allocation mode of a reference ecological system; setting the allocation degree of the ecological reconstruction area to be not less than 20%; setting the allocation degree of the ecological restoration area to be 80%;
the dominant population diversity is the ratio of the recovered dominant species to the reference ecosystem dominant species, and the ratio is set to be 80%;
the community structural integrity comprises the coverage indexes of different set species;
the biodiversity index is calculated according to a calculation method of a Shannon-Vera index, and the value is set to be 0.7;
the important species protection rate is set according to an environmental impact report and the 100% protection of the species determined in batches;
the water and soil conservation indexes comprise water and soil loss treatment degree, forest and grass vegetation recovery rate and forest and grass coverage rate.
4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step 3 comprises establishing a working range according to a project characteristic land occupation range, a land surface disturbance range and a water and soil loss responsibility range, and establishing an ecological restoration subarea according to a project land occupation attribute, a land occupation type, a land surface disturbance intensity and a project function attribute, wherein the ecological restoration subarea is generally divided into a main project area, a construction and production living area, a slag storage area, a soil and stone material area, an intersection road area and a matching project area.
5. The method according to claim 1, wherein in step 4, the physical environment, biological diversity, species composition, community structure and environmental factors affecting the ecosystem of the original ecosystem and the surrounding ecosystem of the project area are established, the horizontal and vertical distribution characteristics and succession characteristics of the vegetation in the engineering area are investigated, and according to the distribution characteristics of the current vegetation community: and determining a quasi-reference ecological restoration system for engineering ecological restoration according to the altitude, the gradient, the slope direction and the succession characteristics.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein said step 5 comprises characterizing the terrain: altitude, slope direction, gradient, slope position, climate conditions: precipitation, air temperature, illumination, air humidity, soil conditions: the diagnostic evaluation of the habitat conditions of thickness, texture, physicochemical properties, and the diagnostic evaluation of the composition, structure, quantity, productivity of species and the spatiotemporal distribution of the ecosystem, biological factors of succession characteristics.
7. The method according to claim 1, wherein said step 6 comprises three types of ecological restoration scheme, ecological reconstruction scheme and ecological protection scheme;
the ecological restoration scheme comprises the steps of carrying out primary restoration on the habitat and biological elements by adopting the artificial auxiliary measures of transformation of soil, moisture and micro-terrain habitat conditions, reasonable plant species selection, vegetation community configuration and construction on the areas where the structures and functions of the ecosystems of the abandoned dreg site, the earth and stone material site and the construction and production living area are seriously interfered and damaged, and restoring the ecological environment and the biological elements to the reference ecosystem or the background ecosystem before disturbance to the maximum extent after natural restoration for a certain period so as to realize and even optimize the due structures, functions and service values of the ecological system; according to the ecological restoration subareas and the established reference ecological system, the ecological restoration subareas and the vegetation community directions to be restored, which are suitable for the water and soil conservation ecological restoration scheme, are established;
the ecological reconstruction scheme comprises the steps of carrying out artificial ecological design on areas which have serious interference and damage on the structures and functions of ecological systems in permanent building areas and high and steep slope areas and have difficulty in natural restoration, and consciously carrying out ecological reconstruction or reconstruction on the basis of considering human needs, aesthetic principles and spiritual culture connotations, wherein the ecological reconstruction scheme comprises landscape greening and ecological function and structure adjustment of production and living areas;
the ecological protection scheme comprises that the existing ecological system is reserved for the areas with good landscape effect, good vegetation, high biodiversity and high ecological value of important biological resources in the construction land acquisition range, and the area is enclosed and sealed; local listing protection is preferentially carried out on relatively independent important species resources; and carrying out ex-situ ecological conservation technology on important species resources in the unavoidable disturbance area.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein step 7 comprises: performing habitat transformation by a soil protection and improvement technology, a water transformation technology and a micro-terrain transformation technology, and performing biological transformation by plant species selection and plant community configuration technology; landscape reconstruction is carried out through landscape design and aesthetic design; ecological protection and conservation are carried out through the techniques of enclosure and cultivation, propaganda and education, original address protection and ex-situ protection;
the soil protection and improvement technology comprises the following steps: the soil protection refers to stripping, transferring and utilizing surface soil resources of a construction disturbance area before construction, wherein the stripping thickness of the surface soil is 20-50 cm; the soil improvement technology adopts measures of low cost and easy implementation of soil dressing, humus transformation, biological fertilization, chemical improvement, soil structure curing and soil fertility restoration, and the thickness of the improved surface soil is 20-50 cm;
the above-mentioned moisture transformation technique comprises: the rainwater collection and storage technology refers to selecting a water storage tank or a water cellar with the single tank capacity of 50-200 cubic meters; the rainwater collection and utilization technology comprises the steps of forming 3% -5% of inclined reverse slope soil preparation, fish scale pit soil preparation or pit soil preparation with the pit diameter and the pit depth of more than 30 cm from outside to inside; the water-saving irrigation technology comprises an irrigation technology for an open field and a drip irrigation technology for an area inconvenient for manual maintenance, and the spray irrigation adopts a semi-fixed or movable pipeline system;
the microtopography improvement technique comprises: determining a reasonable side slope ratio means that the side slopes of the waste slag yard and the construction site are more than 1: 1.5; the ecological comprehensive slope protection technology is adopted, namely, the comprehensive slope protection technology of spraying seeding, hanging ecological nets, planting grooves, planting bags and planting vine climbing is adopted for the side slope with the side slope ratio of more than 1:1, and the comprehensive slope protection technology of frame lattice beam grass planting and planting bags is adopted for the side slope with the slope gradient of 1:1-1: 1.5; the field is loosened and leveled, and the depression is filled up to carry out micro-terrain reconstruction;
the plant species selection technology comprises the optimization of suitable native species, pioneer species introduction species selection, native species cultivation, and reconstruction of native seed germchit banks for species cultivation and propagation; the self-construction of large-scale production construction projects comprises a seeding and breeding area, a nursery stock transplanting area, a big seedling cultivation area, a pioneer species domestication area and a rural soil seed cultivation nursery of a seedling cultivation area;
the vegetation community configuration technology adopts a mode of mixed arbor, shrub and grass for community configuration; planting the trees by adopting planting seedlings, wherein 1-3-year-old I-grade seedlings with soil balls are preferably selected, and the number of the I-grade seedlings per hectare is 1000-; the shrub can be planted or sown with 5000 plants or 50-80 kg per hectare; sowing or drilling grass seeds, selecting excellent seeds, not less than 3 seeds, selecting leguminous plants and gramineae plants for matching, wherein 80-120 kg per hectare;
the landscape reconstruction technology is based on ecological restoration, combines with main engineering to permanently build the vacant areas around buildings such as production and living and the like to carry out landscape greening, fully displays environment-friendly and water and soil conservation exemplary engineering, and builds a landscape which meets the environmental requirements and planning themes of a specific area;
the ex-situ protection technology comprises the steps of transplanting important species resources of an unavoidable disturbance area in a land acquisition range to an area which is convenient for management and protection in a main engineering area for protection on the basis of detailed investigation; valuable and rare plant gardens are suitable for arranging important species resources, and transplanting and centralized conservation are carried out; the arbor and shrub are transplanted with soil balls, the diameter of the soil balls is more than 10 times larger than the ground diameter, the nursery stock is properly trimmed before transplanting, the diameter of a planting pit is larger than 1/2 of the diameter of the root width, the planting pit is 1/3 deeper than the length of a root system, and the management standard after transplanting is not lower than the I-level management standard of the landscaping project.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein step 8 comprises climatic conditions: precipitation, air temperature, illumination; soil conditions: thickness, texture, physiochemical habitat conditions, and biological factors for species composition, structure, quantity, productivity; the monitoring period is as follows: monitoring for 1 time every 3 years after ecological restoration is implemented, and monitoring for every 3-5 years; on the basis of the habitat condition and the biological factor monitoring, the ecological restoration target of soil and water conservation is analyzed and evaluated item by item.
10. The method according to claim 3, wherein the coverage indicators of different species are, in particular, different species set as trees, shrubs, herbs; the coverage indexes are more than 20 percent of arbor, more than 40 percent of shrub and more than 80 percent of herbage.
CN202210792755.4A 2022-07-05 2022-07-05 Method for establishing ecological restoration system of production and construction project in dry and hot valley region Pending CN115049302A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN115486311A (en) * 2022-09-15 2022-12-20 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所 Plant community configuration method for ecological restoration of alpine lozenite and application
CN116993132A (en) * 2023-09-27 2023-11-03 四川公路桥梁建设集团有限公司 Green construction management and control system, method, device and medium

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN115486311A (en) * 2022-09-15 2022-12-20 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所 Plant community configuration method for ecological restoration of alpine lozenite and application
CN116993132A (en) * 2023-09-27 2023-11-03 四川公路桥梁建设集团有限公司 Green construction management and control system, method, device and medium

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