CN113615612A - Large-size river crab soil pond culture method - Google Patents

Large-size river crab soil pond culture method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113615612A
CN113615612A CN202110955809.XA CN202110955809A CN113615612A CN 113615612 A CN113615612 A CN 113615612A CN 202110955809 A CN202110955809 A CN 202110955809A CN 113615612 A CN113615612 A CN 113615612A
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China
Prior art keywords
pond
crab
culture method
river crab
water
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CN202110955809.XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
马天利
刘智俊
丁华静
周捷
杨洁
葛永春
王晶晶
全俊俊
杨池堂
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Guangming Food Group Shanghai Youth Farm Co ltd
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Guangming Food Group Shanghai Youth Farm Co ltd
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Priority to CN202110955809.XA priority Critical patent/CN113615612A/en
Publication of CN113615612A publication Critical patent/CN113615612A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of aquaculture and discloses a large-size river crab soil pond culture method which comprises the following steps: s1, pond selection: selecting a pond opening with a good and pollution-free water source and a flat pond bottom, arranging anti-escape plates around the pond bottom, arranging a water inlet and a water outlet on two sides of the pond respectively, draining water in the pond from the water outlet, removing natural enemy organisms of river crabs, and then insolating for 15 days to form a basic aquaculture pond; s2, designing a pond type: in the east-west direction of the pond mouth, the length of the pond mouth can be correspondingly adjusted according to the actual geographic condition, the width of the pond mouth is unchanged, a deep groove is designed and formed in the center of the bottom of the pond, and a platform with the width of 8m is formed around the deep groove; according to the invention, the difficulty of pond mouth management is reduced, the manual pond entering time is shortened, the river crab stress is reduced through a reasonable length-width ratio, the river crab shell returning environment is effectively created by separating the river crab shell returning and feeding spaces, the substrate environment is improved through unifying the river crab feeding and oxygenation areas, and the growth of the river crabs is promoted.

Description

Large-size river crab soil pond culture method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of aquaculture, in particular to a large-size river crab soil pond culture method.
Background
The aquaculture industry is that human beings utilize the waters available for cultivation (including planting), according to the ecological habits of the cultivation objects and the requirements for the water environmental conditions, the aquaculture technology and facilities are applied to engage in aquatic economic animal and plant cultivation, and is one of the agricultural production departments, when the aquaculture is carried out, the cultivation of river crabs is not lacked, the cultivation benefit of river crabs is in direct proportion to the size of cultivation, the cultivation specification becomes the bottleneck limiting the enrichment of cultivation practitioners, and the traditional river crab cultivation mode has the following problems: 1. the bottom structure of the mouth of the traditional river crab culture pond is unreasonable, which is not beneficial to river crab unshelling, thereby limiting the growth and growth specifications of river crabs; 2. the bottom structure of the mouth pond of the traditional river crab culture pond is unreasonable, and the contradiction between river crab overwintering and aquatic weed growth is difficult to consider. Either sacrificing the growth of river crabs in the winter season or sacrificing key growth nodes of aquatic weeds; 3. the bottom structure of the mouth of the traditional river crab culture pond is unreasonable, and the situation that the moss is easily overflowed is easy to occur, so that unnecessary medicine application and artificial intervention are caused, and the growth and specification of the river crabs are influenced; 4. the length-width ratio of the mouth of the traditional river crab culture pond is unreasonable, manual operation is limited, and rowing or underwater operation is needed in many times. The river crabs like to be quiet and are disturbed frequently to influence the normal foraging of the river crabs, thereby influencing the growth specifications of the river crabs; 5. the traditional river crab culture water grass collocation is unreasonable, and river crab culture is influenced. The aquatic weed planting mode is unreasonable, so that the optimal environment for healthy culture of the river crabs cannot be created, and the specification of the river crabs is further influenced; 6. in many areas for river crab cultivation, oxygenation equipment is not laid, so that the yield and specification of river crabs are influenced; 7. river crab breeding, bottom laying and oxygenation and aquatic weed planting are not organically combined in many areas. Thereby influencing the growth of the river crabs growing on the waterweeds to a certain extent; 8. at present, river crabs are fed once a day, the requirement of the growth of large-size river crabs is not met, and the river crabs need to be domesticated and fed for multiple times.
Disclosure of Invention
Technical problem to be solved
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides a large-size river crab soil pond culture method, which solves the problems in the background art.
(II) technical scheme
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme: a large-size river crab soil pond culture method comprises the following steps:
s1, pond selection: selecting a pond opening with a good and pollution-free water source and a flat pond bottom, arranging anti-escape plates around the pond bottom, arranging a water inlet and a water outlet on two sides of the pond respectively, draining water in the pond from the water outlet to clear natural enemy organisms of river crabs, and then insolating for 15 days to form a basic aquaculture pond;
s2, designing a pond type: in the east-west direction of the pond mouth, the length of the pond mouth can be correspondingly adjusted according to the actual geographic condition, the width of the pond mouth is unchanged, a deep groove is designed and formed in the center of the bottom of the pond, and a platform with the width of 8m is formed around the deep groove;
s3, laying a bottom pipe of the aerator: the middle of the bottom of the pool is provided with an oxygen increasing main pipe, oxygen increasing branch pipes are arranged on the two sides of the oxygen increasing main pipe, the oxygen increasing branch pipes are provided with nanometer air outlet holes, and the oxygen increasing main pipe is connected with an oxygen increasing machine;
s4, killing and planting grass: putting 10cm of water into the pond, putting 80-100kg of quicklime into each mu of water for disinfection, and planting short cold-resistant picrass in the picrass planting area of the pond after 15 days to form a culture pond;
s5, crab larva throwing: selecting high-quality crab seeds and crab seedlings which are strong in physique and free of damage, and putting the crab seedlings into a pond before and after 2 months;
s6, throwing in snails: throwing snails in each mu before and after Qingming, 400 jin are thrown in each mu, and 400 jin of snails are thrown in each mu after the river crabs retreat for the third time in 6 months;
s7, feeding management: in the process of cultivating the river crabs, the cultivation conditions are observed and adjusted frequently, the pH value is most suitable for 7.0-7.8, the dissolved oxygen content is more than 6mg/L, fresh water is injected in time, and the fresh water is injected once every 5-8 days and within 10cm each time; in the first week, feeding 3-4 times a day, continuously feeding baits in corresponding crab catching stages, then gradually converting the baits into granular feed with comprehensive nutrition and proper particle size, wherein the protein is about 40 percent, the daily feeding amount is 100 percent of the crab stock, in the first two months, feeding 3 times a day, feeding complete granular feed, partially increasing animal baits such as fresh small fish and the like to deal with a transition stage which is not suitable for partial river crab conversion feed, the daily feeding amount is 5-8 percent of the crab stock, the feeding time is gradually acclimatized and adjusted from night to day time, then feeding 3 times a day, matching plant feed with animal feed and complete feed, and the daily feeding amount is 2-5 percent of the crab stock;
s8, water weed management: and (3) removing newly grown waterweeds with the width of 2m on the two sides of the hose of the aerator at regular intervals, thinning the locally dense waterweeds in the tape grass planting area, and controlling the height of the waterweeds with the width of 8m on a platform to keep the height within 30cm along with water flow.
Preferably, the mouth of the pond is 27m wide and 50m long, and the pond depth is 60 cm.
Preferably, the height of the escape prevention panel is 80 cm.
Preferably, the calibers of the water inlet pipe and the water outlet pipe are both 20cm, and a double-layer 30-50-mesh filter screen is arranged at the pipe orifice.
Preferably, the deep groove has a length of 33m, a width of 10m and a depth of 50 cm.
Preferably, the interval of the oxygen increasing branch pipes is 6m, the nanometer air outlet holes are arranged on the oxygen increasing branch pipes at intervals of 4m, and the oxygen increasing machine is provided with an air separator in front.
Preferably, the short cold-resistant tape grass in the step S4 avoids the oxygen increasing pipeline by 2m each.
Preferably, the crab larvae are thrown at a density of 600 river crabs per mu in the step S5, and the river crabs are selected to be about 40 crabs per kilogram.
Preferably, in the step S6, the spiral shell is subjected to circulating water ultraviolet purification and disinfection 24 hours before being put into the pool, and is soaked for 5min by using a potassium permanganate diluted solution before being put into the pool.
(III) advantageous effects
The invention provides a large-size river crab soil pond culture method, which has the following beneficial effects:
(1) the invention reduces the difficulty of pond mouth management, reduces the artificial pond entering time and reduces river crab stress through a reasonable length-width ratio.
(2) The invention promotes the river crabs to stably overwinter and the normal growth of aquatic weeds in the overwintering period by reasonably planning the mouth type of the pond.
(3) The invention effectively creates the river crab shell-removing environment by separating the river crab shell-removing and feeding space.
(4) The invention improves the substrate environment and promotes the growth of the river crabs by unifying the feeding and oxygenation areas of the river crabs.
(5) The invention promotes the feeding by domesticating and culturing the feeding habit of the river crabs in the daytime and feeding the feed for a plurality of times, reduces the bait waste and protects the growth environment of the river crabs.
(6) The invention simplifies the variety of the river crab aquatic weeds, reduces the time for manual work to enter the pond and reduces the number of workers entering and exiting the pond. Reducing stress of river crab, and promoting growth of river crab.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the structure of a mouth of a pond according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a structure of a pond mouth after an aerator pipeline is laid;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the structure of the invention after being matched with the pipeline of the aerator and the sowthistle planted.
In the figure: 1. a pond opening; 2. a water inlet; 3. deep grooves; 4. an escape prevention panel; 5. a water outlet; 6. an oxygenation branch pipe; 7. a main oxygen increasing pipe; 8. an aerator; 9. a bitter herb planting area; 10. and (4) a nanometer air outlet.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
As shown in fig. 1-3, the present invention provides a technical solution: a large-size river crab soil pond culture method comprises the following steps:
s1, pond selection: selecting a pond mouth with a good and pollution-free water source and a flat pond bottom, arranging anti-escape plates with the height of 80cm around the pond bottom, arranging a water inlet and a water outlet on two sides of the pond respectively, wherein the calibers of the water inlet pipe and the water outlet pipe are both 20cm, arranging a double-layer 30-50 mesh filter screen at the mouth of the pipe, draining water in the pond from the water outlet, clearing natural enemy organisms of river crabs, and then insolating for 15 days to form a basic culture pond;
s2, designing a pond type: the width of the pond mouth is 27m and the length of the pond mouth is 50m in the east-west direction, the depth of the pond is 60cm, the length of the pond mouth can be correspondingly adjusted according to the actual geographic condition, the width of the pond mouth is unchanged, a deep groove is designed in the center of the bottom of the pond, the length of the deep groove is 33m, the width of the deep groove is 10m and the depth of the deep groove is 50cm, and a platform with the width of 8m is formed on the periphery of the deep groove;
s3, laying a bottom pipe of the aerator: arranging an oxygen increasing main pipe in the middle of the bottom of the pond, arranging oxygen increasing branch pipes on the oxygen increasing main pipe towards two sides, wherein the interval of the oxygen increasing branch pipes is 6m, and the oxygen increasing branch pipes are provided with nanometer air outlet holes every 4m, the nanometer air outlet holes control the air flow rate, and are suitable for mild oxygen increasing;
s4, killing and planting grass: putting 10cm of water into the pond, putting 80-100kg of quicklime into each mu of water for disinfection, planting short cold-resistant picrass in the picrass planting area of the pond after 15 days, avoiding oxygen increasing pipelines by 2m respectively, and forming a culture pond;
s5, crab larva throwing: selecting high-quality crab seeds and crab seedlings which are strong in physique and free of damage, selecting about 40 crab seedlings per jin before and after 2 months, and putting the crab seedlings into a pond with the putting density of 600 crab seedlings per mu;
s6, throwing in snails: throwing snails before and after clearing, throwing 400 jin in each mu, performing circulating water ultraviolet purification killing 24 hours before throwing, soaking in a potassium permanganate diluted solution for 5min before entering a pool, and throwing 400 jin of snails in each mu after river crabs retreat for the third time in 6 months;
s7, feeding management: in the process of cultivating the river crabs, the cultivation conditions are observed and adjusted frequently, the pH value is most suitable for 7.0-7.8, the dissolved oxygen content is more than 6mg/L, fresh water is injected in time, and the fresh water is injected once every 5-8 days and within 10cm each time; in the first week, feeding 3-4 times a day, continuously feeding baits in corresponding crab catching stages, then gradually converting the baits into granular feed with comprehensive nutrition and proper particle size, wherein the protein is about 40 percent, the daily feeding amount is 100 percent of the crab stock, in the first two months, feeding 3 times a day, feeding complete granular feed, partially increasing animal baits such as fresh small fish and the like to deal with a transition stage which is not suitable for partial river crab conversion feed, the daily feeding amount is 5-8 percent of the crab stock, the feeding time is gradually acclimatized and adjusted from night to day time, then feeding 3 times a day, matching plant feed with animal feed and complete feed, and the daily feeding amount is 2-5 percent of the crab stock;
s8, water weed management: and (3) removing newly grown waterweeds with the width of 2m on the two sides of the hose of the aerator at regular intervals, thinning the locally dense waterweeds in the tape grass planting area, and controlling the height of the waterweeds with the width of 8m on a platform to keep the height within 30cm along with water flow.
It is noted that, herein, relational terms such as first and second, and the like may be used solely to distinguish one entity or action from another entity or action without necessarily requiring or implying any actual such relationship or order between such entities or actions. Also, the terms "comprises," "comprising," or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus.
Although embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes, modifications, substitutions and alterations can be made in these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the appended claims and their equivalents.

Claims (9)

1. A large-size river crab soil pond culture method is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
s1, pond selection: selecting a pond opening (1) with a good and pollution-free water source and a flat pond bottom, arranging anti-escape plates (4) around the pond bottom, arranging a water inlet (2) and a water outlet (5) on two sides of the pond respectively, draining water in the pond from the water outlet (5) to clear natural enemy organisms of river crabs, and then insolating for 15 days to form a basic aquaculture pond;
s2, designing a pond type: the length of the pond mouth (1) can be correspondingly adjusted according to the actual geographic condition in the east-west direction, the width of the pond mouth is unchanged, a deep groove (3) is designed and formed in the center of the bottom of the pond, and a platform with the width of 8m is formed around the deep groove (3);
s3, laying a bottom pipe of the aerator: an oxygen increasing main pipe (7) is arranged in the middle of the bottom of the pool, oxygen increasing branch pipes (6) are arranged on the oxygen increasing main pipe (7) towards two sides, nanometer air outlet holes (10) are formed in the oxygen increasing branch pipes (6), and the oxygen increasing main pipe (7) is connected with an oxygen increasing machine (8);
s4, killing and planting grass: putting 10cm deep water into the pond, putting 80-100kg of quicklime into each mu for disinfection, and planting short cold-resistant eel grass on an eel grass planting area (9) of the pond after 15 days to form a culture pond;
s5, crab larva throwing: selecting high-quality crab seeds and crab seedlings which are strong in physique and free of damage, and putting the crab seedlings into a pond before and after 2 months;
s6, throwing in snails: throwing snails in each mu before and after Qingming, 400 jin are thrown in each mu, and 400 jin of snails are thrown in each mu after the river crabs retreat for the third time in 6 months;
s7, feeding management: in the process of cultivating the river crabs, the cultivation conditions are observed and adjusted frequently, the pH value is most suitable for 7.0-7.8, the dissolved oxygen content is more than 6mg/L, fresh water is injected in time, and the fresh water is injected once every 5-8 days and within 10cm each time; in the first week, feeding 3-4 times a day, continuously feeding baits in corresponding crab catching stages, then gradually converting the baits into granular feed with comprehensive nutrition and proper particle size, wherein the protein is about 40 percent, the daily feeding amount is 100 percent of the crab stock, in the first two months, feeding 3 times a day, feeding complete granular feed, partially increasing animal baits such as fresh small fish and the like to deal with a transition stage which is not suitable for partial river crab conversion feed, the daily feeding amount is 5-8 percent of the crab stock, the feeding time is gradually acclimatized and adjusted from night to day time, then feeding 3 times a day, matching plant feed with animal feed and complete feed, and the daily feeding amount is 2-5 percent of the crab stock;
s8, water weed management: the method is characterized in that newly grown waterweeds with the width of 2m on the two sides of a hose of the aerator are periodically removed, the locally dense waterweeds in a bitter grass planting area (9) are sparse, and the height of the waterweeds with a platform with the width of 8m is controlled to be kept within 30cm along with water flow.
2. The large-sized river crab soil pond culture method according to claim 1, wherein the large-sized river crab soil pond culture method comprises the following steps: the mouth width of the pond is 27m, the length of the pond is 50m, and the pond depth is 60 cm.
3. The large-sized river crab soil pond culture method according to claim 1, wherein the large-sized river crab soil pond culture method comprises the following steps: the height of the escape-proof plate (4) is 80 cm.
4. The large-sized river crab soil pond culture method according to claim 1, wherein the large-sized river crab soil pond culture method comprises the following steps: the calibers of the water inlet pipe (2) and the water outlet pipe (5) are both 20cm, and a double-layer 30-50 mesh filter screen is arranged at the pipe orifice.
5. The large-sized river crab soil pond culture method according to claim 1, wherein the large-sized river crab soil pond culture method comprises the following steps: the deep groove (3) is 33m long, 10m wide and 50cm deep.
6. The large-sized river crab soil pond culture method according to claim 1, wherein the large-sized river crab soil pond culture method comprises the following steps: the interval of the oxygen increasing branch pipes (6) is 6m, the nanometer air outlet holes (10) are arranged on the oxygen increasing branch pipes (6) at intervals of 4m, and the oxygen increasing machine (8) is provided with a front air separator.
7. The large-sized river crab soil pond culture method according to claim 1, wherein the large-sized river crab soil pond culture method comprises the following steps: the short cold-resistant tape grass in the step S4 avoids the oxygen increasing pipeline by 2m respectively.
8. The large-sized river crab soil pond culture method according to claim 1, wherein the large-sized river crab soil pond culture method comprises the following steps: the crab fry throwing density in the step S5 is 600 river crabs per mu, and the river crabs are selected to be about 40 per kilogram.
9. The large-sized river crab soil pond culture method according to claim 1, wherein the large-sized river crab soil pond culture method comprises the following steps: in the step S6, the snails are subjected to circulating water ultraviolet purification and disinfection 24 hours before being put in, and are soaked in a potassium permanganate diluted solution for 5min before being put into a pool.
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Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101305700A (en) * 2008-06-08 2008-11-19 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 River crab breeding method using early-bred crab larva
CN101305699A (en) * 2008-06-08 2008-11-19 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 River crab breeding method
CN107897074A (en) * 2017-11-16 2018-04-13 合肥康青源养殖有限公司 Ecologically breeding river crabs method
CN108184738A (en) * 2018-03-14 2018-06-22 和县明信水产养殖专业合作社 A kind of river crab high-efficiency stepped formula pond breeding method
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101305700A (en) * 2008-06-08 2008-11-19 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 River crab breeding method using early-bred crab larva
CN101305699A (en) * 2008-06-08 2008-11-19 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 River crab breeding method
CN107897074A (en) * 2017-11-16 2018-04-13 合肥康青源养殖有限公司 Ecologically breeding river crabs method
CN108184738A (en) * 2018-03-14 2018-06-22 和县明信水产养殖专业合作社 A kind of river crab high-efficiency stepped formula pond breeding method
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Application publication date: 20211109