CN112884647A - Embedded part construction positioning method based on BIM point cloud technology guidance - Google Patents

Embedded part construction positioning method based on BIM point cloud technology guidance Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112884647A
CN112884647A CN202110106454.7A CN202110106454A CN112884647A CN 112884647 A CN112884647 A CN 112884647A CN 202110106454 A CN202110106454 A CN 202110106454A CN 112884647 A CN112884647 A CN 112884647A
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point cloud
scanning
bim
embedded part
data
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Inventor
张涌
陆跃东
胡苹
李永闯
王鲁敏
蒋东斌
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Qingdao Guoxin Haitian Center Construction Co ltd
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Qingdao Guoxin Haitian Center Construction Co ltd
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Priority to CN202110106454.7A priority Critical patent/CN112884647A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T3/00Geometric image transformation in the plane of the image
    • G06T3/40Scaling the whole image or part thereof
    • G06T3/4038Scaling the whole image or part thereof for image mosaicing, i.e. plane images composed of plane sub-images
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T17/00Three dimensional [3D] modelling, e.g. data description of 3D objects
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T5/00Image enhancement or restoration
    • G06T5/001Image restoration
    • G06T5/002Denoising; Smoothing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2207/00Indexing scheme for image analysis or image enhancement
    • G06T2207/10Image acquisition modality
    • G06T2207/10028Range image; Depth image; 3D point clouds

Abstract

The invention discloses a BIM point cloud technology-based embedded part construction positioning method, which relates to the technical field of construction of constructional engineering and comprises the following steps: s1: scanning: carrying out three-dimensional laser scanning positioning on the structural embedded part, and acquiring point cloud data; s2: point cloud data processing: firstly, point cloud splicing is carried out, data of different stations are unified to the same coordinate system, and then point cloud filtering is carried out, wherein the point cloud filtering mainly comprises the steps of deleting impurity points, deleting external isolated points, deleting non-connection items, deleting redundant points and reducing noise; s3: BIM modeling: the method has the advantages of accurately calculating the position deviation of the embedded part and reducing the construction difficulty.

Description

Embedded part construction positioning method based on BIM point cloud technology guidance
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of constructional engineering construction, in particular to a BIM point cloud technology-based embedded part construction positioning guiding method.
Background
Along with the acceleration of the urbanization process, the scale of construction engineering projects is gradually enlarged, the building shape is increasingly complex, and the number of different structures of the building is increased. Conventional two-dimensional construction drawings often cannot meet the requirements of construction, the phenomena of low production efficiency, serious material waste and more reworking are caused, great influence is caused to site construction, and certain challenge is formed to measurement work.
Taking tower curtain wall engineering as an example, the curtain is complicated changeable in molding, and this region is supported for the steel construction and the top does not have the floor, and steel construction processing installation accuracy can influence the installation of curtain. In later curtain wall engineering, due to the fact that structural space is high and span is large, the following technical difficulties exist, and certain difficulty is caused for site construction.
(1) The construction difficulty is large: the tower crown operation height is 200 meters, no external protection exists in the early stage of construction, the requirement on the measurement and paying-off work of a steel structure embedded part is high, the inclined plane design exists in the tower crown scheme, a dihedral angle profile is formed by intersecting angles of two surfaces, and the processing difficulty is high; (2) the adaptor is difficult to make an order: due to welding errors of a steel structure, the maximum deviation of an embedded part can reach 50-60mm, the maximum adjustment deviation of a curtain wall adapter is 20mm, the structural deviation cannot be adjusted through the adapter, and the adapter with a special size needs to be arranged at a position with larger structural deviation, so that the size and the specification of the adapter are more; (3) the plate is difficult to assemble and cut: there are dihedral angle handing-over in many places of tower crown scheme, and the section bar cutting needs a plurality of dihedral angles, leads to plate equipment processing difficulty, and on-the-spot embedded part size deviation is big, leads to the plate to articulate the difficulty. Therefore, the position deviation of the steel structure embedded part is accurately calculated, and the positioning of the curtain wall plate is decisive.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects in the prior art, the invention provides a method for guiding the construction and positioning of an embedded part based on a BIM point cloud technology, so as to achieve the effects of accurately calculating the position deviation of the steel structure embedded part and reducing the construction difficulty.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a method for guiding embedded part construction positioning based on a BIM point cloud technology comprises the following steps:
s1: scanning: carrying out three-dimensional laser scanning positioning on the structural embedded part, and acquiring point cloud data;
s2: point cloud data processing: firstly, point cloud splicing is carried out, data of different stations are unified to the same coordinate system, and then point cloud filtering is carried out, wherein the point cloud filtering mainly comprises the steps of deleting impurity points, deleting external isolated points, deleting non-connection items, deleting redundant points and reducing noise;
s3: BIM modeling: and carrying out BIM modeling on the processed point cloud data, establishing a geometric model of a key part of the structural embedded part, and calculating the position deviation of the embedded part.
Preferably, step S1 specifically includes the following steps:
s1-1: early preparation work: the method comprises the steps of instrument configuration, data collection, site survey, control point layout and working plan formulation;
s1-2: performing site reconnaissance;
s1-3: designing a scanning scheme: carrying out target and station survey according to a planned scanning route map in the site reconnaissance process;
s1-4: acquiring point cloud data: and carrying out data acquisition by using a scanner to obtain point cloud data of a site.
Preferably, in step S1-2, the site survey includes the main tasks of:
(1) checking the position and the existing storage condition of the control point according to control point information provided by field personnel, and analyzing the use possibility of the point location;
(2) judging the approximate position of the scanning station according to the spatial position and the form distribution of the site and the scanning range of the scanner;
(3) combining with actual field conditions, considering later point cloud splicing, planning a scanning route map, drawing a corresponding scanning route map, determining a primary scanning route, and optimizing the scanning route by considering later data processing and point cloud quality;
(4) according to the designed scanning route map, the number and the approximate position of the stations are roughly determined, and a corresponding specific work plan is made, wherein the specific work plan mainly comprises personnel arrangement, a scanning process, scheduling arrangement and logistics support.
Preferably, in step S1-3, when targeting, a certain number of common points are selected, and the common points are selected from spherical targets or circular targets.
Preferably, in step S1-3, the stations are configured according to the scan plan route map, the stations are reasonably distributed within the effective range for ensuring the operation of the scanner, and after the stations are determined, the positions of the common points are reasonably distributed, so as to ensure a certain number of common points between adjacent stations.
Preferably, in step S1-4, the specific steps of the scanning are: according to the survey station position placement instrument designed by the scheme, leveling work is paid attention, a project is newly built, proper resolution and corresponding parameter setting are determined according to the distance between a scanning object and a scanner, then a proper public point position is selected and placed, scanning is started finally, the scanning data quality is checked after the station to be measured is finished, after the data quality is determined to be good, the instrument is moved to the next survey station for station change measurement, and finally point cloud data of a site are obtained.
Preferably, in step S2, the noise point ratio that needs to be reduced is 0.1% -5%.
Preferably, in step S3, the BIM modeling is performed by a top-down model-driven method: the building is described by a building geometric entity, a model library consisting of various three-dimensional primitives is established in advance for model matching, and the best matching effect is selected as the model of the building according to the matching effect.
Preferably, in step S3, the BIM modeling is performed by a bottom-up data-driven method: certain features of the building are quantified and a model of the building is uniquely determined based on the measured data.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
the scanning data processing work is very complicated due to the fact that the obtained point cloud data amount is very large, point cloud data can be optimized, point cloud splicing is firstly carried out, the scanning operation scans targets from different directions, point cloud data of a plurality of stations are obtained, each station data has own coordinate, the task of point cloud splicing is to unify the data of different stations to the same coordinate system, and the point cloud data splicing process is a corresponding process, namely the point cloud data set corresponds to the point cloud data set and is consistent with the mathematical mapping principle. Because the scanner is adopted to obtain the point cloud data of the target object, the point cloud data is influenced by the measuring instrument or other random factors, and a certain number of noise points are difficult to avoid in the point cloud data, in order to ensure the reliability of the information of the target object, point cloud filtering is also carried out on the point cloud data, so that the point cloud data can reflect the appearance characteristics of the target object, a foundation is laid for accurately carrying out BIM modeling in the later period, the position deviation of the embedded part is calculated according to a geometric model of a key part for building the structure embedded part, and the difficulty is reduced for subsequent construction.
Detailed Description
The technical solution of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the following examples. The following examples are only for illustrating the technical solutions of the present invention more clearly, and therefore are only examples, and the protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereby.
It is to be noted that, unless otherwise specified, technical or scientific terms used herein shall have the ordinary meaning as understood by those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains.
Example 1
The embodiment provides a method for guiding embedded part construction positioning based on a BIM point cloud technology, which comprises the following steps:
s1: scanning: carrying out three-dimensional laser scanning positioning on the structural embedded part, and acquiring point cloud data;
s2: point cloud data processing: firstly, point cloud splicing is carried out, data of different stations are unified to the same coordinate system, and then point cloud filtering is carried out, wherein the point cloud filtering mainly comprises the steps of deleting impurity points, deleting external isolated points, deleting non-connection items, deleting redundant points and reducing noise;
s3: BIM modeling: and carrying out BIM modeling on the processed point cloud data, establishing a geometric model of a key part of the structural embedded part, and calculating the position deviation of the embedded part.
The scanning data processing work is very complicated due to the fact that the obtained point cloud data volume is very large, point cloud data can be optimized, point cloud splicing is firstly carried out, the scanning operation scans targets from different directions, point cloud data of a plurality of stations are obtained, each station data has own coordinates, the task of point cloud splicing is to unify the data of different stations to the same coordinate system, the point cloud data splicing process is a corresponding process, namely the point cloud data set corresponds to the point cloud data set and is consistent with the mathematical mapping principle, and point cloud registration mainly comprises two core contents: and the corresponding relation is that the number of transformation parameters is 7, wherein the transformation parameters generally comprise three translation parameters, three rotation parameters and one scale parameter. Because the scanner is adopted to obtain the point cloud data of the target object, the point cloud data is influenced by the measuring instrument or other random factors, and a certain number of noise points are difficult to avoid in the point cloud data, in order to ensure the reliability of the information of the target object, point cloud filtering is also carried out on the point cloud data, so that the point cloud data can reflect the appearance characteristics of the target object, a foundation is laid for accurately carrying out BIM modeling in the later period, the position deviation of the embedded part is calculated according to a geometric model of a key part for building the structure embedded part, and the difficulty is reduced for subsequent construction.
In step S1, a three-dimensional laser scanner may be used for scanning, and the application of the three-dimensional laser scanning technology in various fields is well established, especially in the fields of cultural relic preservation, ancient building renovation, medical treatment and the like, and the three-dimensional laser scanning technology is primarily applied in the construction stage due to the development of the BIM technology. The BIM technology mainly goes through a concept import stage, a theoretical research and initial exploration stage, a rapid development stage and a deep application stage in China. From initial research into IFC standards to research into BIM standards, technologies and software, BIM is now entering large-scale engineering practice, standard development and deep applications around "BIM +". The BIM + is mainly the integration of BIM and nine applications such as cloud computing, Internet of things, GIS, virtual reality technology, 3D printing and three-dimensional laser scanning technology.
In the process of switching the BIM application from the design stage to the construction stage, the phenomenon of 'information attenuation' can occur, and the integration of the 3D laser scanning technology and the BIM can well make up for the defect.
The integrated application meaning is as follows:
the three-dimensional laser scanning technology is the latest technology in the whole three-dimensional data acquisition and reconstruction technology system, can efficiently and completely record the complex situation of a construction site, is compared with a designed BIM model, and brings great help for project quality inspection and project acceptance. Therefore, the three-dimensional laser scanning technology is an effective link for connecting the BIM model and the engineering field.
Application point of integrated application:
engineering quality detection and acceptance inspection
The method can not meet the requirement of completely recording the building information, and can not effectively detect the overall quality of the project, and the three-dimensional laser scanning technology makes up for the defect. The method comprises the steps that a three-dimensional laser scanner is used for scanning a construction site, obtained point cloud data can be imported into BIM basic software after being processed, an actual model capable of reflecting the construction site can be generated and compared with a designed BIM model, and problems can be found timely to assist decision making.
Second, the building is reconstructed
In a reconstruction project on the basis of original building reservation, a three-dimensional laser scanner is used for obtaining point cloud data of an outer vertical surface and an inner portion of a building, huge point cloud data are obtained, modeling is carried out in Trimble SketchUp2014 based on the point cloud data, and a building model is restored. And the point cloud model is served for BIM design of the whole specialty and the whole process.
Thirdly, deformation monitoring
The reliability of the traditional building deformation monitoring mode mainly depends on the reasonability of deformation monitoring points embedded in building characteristic parts, and the traditional mode cannot reflect the maximum deformation of the building to the maximum extent. The monitoring mode based on the three-dimensional laser scanner can carry out omnibearing measurement on the building, can effectively obtain high-precision and high-density observation data, and the data can completely cover the whole monitored object. For example, in a curtain wall system and a steel structure system on a construction site, the change range and the magnitude of the change range can be effectively detected by using a three-dimensional laser scanning technology, and the high-precision deformation monitoring effect is achieved.
The three-dimensional laser scanning technology comprises two parts of point cloud data acquisition and interior data processing. Before point cloud data are acquired, it is crucial to make a detailed work plan, and the quality of acquired data influences the establishment of a later-stage three-dimensional model. Therefore, a corresponding technical route is required to be established according to the scanning work arrangement in combination with the site survey situation, and a feasible scanning route is planned.
Therefore, specifically, step S1 includes the following steps:
s1-1: early preparation work: the method comprises the steps of instrument configuration, data collection, site survey, control point layout and working plan formulation;
s1-2: performing site reconnaissance;
s1-3: designing a scanning scheme: carrying out target and station survey according to a planned scanning route map in the site reconnaissance process;
s1-4: acquiring point cloud data: and carrying out data acquisition by using a scanner to obtain point cloud data of a site.
Preferably, in step S1-2, the site survey includes the main tasks of:
(1) checking the position and the existing storage condition of the control point according to control point information provided by field personnel, and analyzing the use possibility of the point location;
(2) judging the approximate position of the scanning station according to the spatial position and the form distribution of the site and the scanning range of the scanner;
(3) combining with actual field conditions, considering later point cloud splicing, planning a scanning route map, drawing a corresponding scanning route map, determining a primary scanning route, and optimizing the scanning route by considering later data processing and point cloud quality;
(4) according to the designed scanning route map, the number and the approximate position of the stations are roughly determined, and a corresponding specific work plan is made, wherein the specific work plan mainly comprises personnel arrangement, a scanning process, scheduling arrangement and logistics support.
In field scanning, the design of a scanning scheme is the most important link, which relates to the scanning work efficiency and the quality of point cloud data and influences the progress of field construction. According to the planned rough scanning route map in the process of the reconnaissance, the rough distance between the scanner and the target is estimated, so that the resolution of the scanner can be conveniently selected, corresponding instrument parameters can be conveniently set, and the selection of the resolution and the determination of the parameters influence the scanning precision and the working efficiency. The target should be selected and the station position determined in the design of the scanning scheme.
Therefore, specifically, in step S1-3, since the scanning objects have large spatial distribution and complex structure, and cannot be measured at one station, multiple measurements need to be performed, and in order to splice together data that are not measured at the same station, a certain number of common points are selected when targeting, and the common points are spherical targets or circular targets. In step S1-3, during station measurement, stations are set according to the scan plan route map, stations are reasonably distributed within an effective range for ensuring the operation of the scanner, and after the stations are determined, the positions of common points are reasonably distributed, so as to ensure a certain number of common points between adjacent stations. The scanning scheme mainly relates to scanning route design, survey station position determination, common point placement and the like, and the scanning scheme is determined through careful analysis. During the actual scanning process, there may be inconsistency with the plan, and the plan may be fine-tuned accordingly.
And acquiring point cloud data of the airport terminal in order to guide later construction. The three-dimensional laser scanner can generally obtain point cloud data and image data, real-time data inspection is needed in the data obtaining process, data obtaining is carried out by setting resolution, scanning distance and environmental parameters, the image data can be obtained by a digital camera of the system before the point cloud data is obtained, data collection is carried out by the scanner, on-site point cloud data is obtained, and meanwhile, coordinates of a three-dimensional measuring point are obtained by the total station.
Thus, specifically, in step S1-4, the specific steps of the scanning are: according to the survey station position placement instrument designed by the scheme, leveling work is paid attention, a project is newly built, proper resolution and corresponding parameter setting are determined according to the distance between a scanning object and a scanner, then a proper public point position is selected and placed, scanning is started finally, the scanning data quality is checked after the station to be measured is finished, after the data quality is determined to be good, the instrument is moved to the next survey station for station change measurement, and finally point cloud data of a site are obtained.
Specifically, in step S2, the noise point ratio that needs to be reduced is 0.1% to 5%.
Specifically, in step S3, a top-down model-driven method is used for BIM modeling: the building is described by a building geometric entity, a model library consisting of various three-dimensional primitives is established in advance for model matching, and the best matching effect is selected as the model of the building according to the matching effect. The model-driven method has the advantage of high efficiency.
Specifically, in step S3, the BIM modeling is performed by a bottom-up data-driven method: certain features of the building are quantified and a model of the building is uniquely determined based on the measured data. The method directly utilizes the actually obtained point cloud data to extract various characteristic parameters of the building, and the data driving method has the advantages of higher pertinence, flexibility and reliability and wider application range.
The embedded plate BIM has the construction advantages that: along with the work progress, errors such as measurement, installation lead to original design drawing inconsistent with the scene after the construction, this has caused very big influence to furred ceiling work, and this is just one of the leading reasons for establishing the BIM model. The BIM is established by meeting the ceiling construction requirement, guiding the ordering of materials, improving the working efficiency, and printing a three-dimensional drawing by the generated BIM model, so that the construction can be performed more visually and vividly on site, and the construction management is facilitated.
Finally, it should be noted that: the above embodiments are only used to illustrate the technical solution of the present invention, and not to limit the same; while the invention has been described in detail and with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that: the technical solutions described in the foregoing embodiments may still be modified, or some or all of the technical features may be equivalently replaced; such modifications and substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the present invention, and they should be construed as being included in the following claims and description.

Claims (9)

1. A BIM point cloud technology-based embedded part construction positioning method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
s1: scanning: carrying out three-dimensional laser scanning positioning on the structural embedded part, and acquiring point cloud data;
s2: point cloud data processing: firstly, point cloud splicing is carried out, data of different stations are unified to the same coordinate system, and then point cloud filtering is carried out, wherein the point cloud filtering mainly comprises the steps of deleting impurity points, deleting external isolated points, deleting non-connection items, deleting redundant points and reducing noise;
s3: BIM modeling: and carrying out BIM modeling on the processed point cloud data, establishing a geometric model of a key part of the structural embedded part, and calculating the position deviation of the embedded part.
2. The method for guiding embedded part construction positioning based on the BIM point cloud technology as claimed in claim 1, wherein the step S1 specifically comprises the following steps:
s1-1: early preparation work: the method comprises the steps of instrument configuration, data collection, site survey, control point layout and working plan formulation;
s1-2: performing site reconnaissance;
s1-3: designing a scanning scheme: carrying out target and station survey according to a planned scanning route map in the site reconnaissance process;
s1-4: acquiring point cloud data: and carrying out data acquisition by using a scanner to obtain point cloud data of a site.
3. The BIM point cloud technology-based embedded part construction positioning method as claimed in claim 2, wherein in step S1-2, the site survey comprises the following main operations:
(1) checking the position and the existing storage condition of the control point according to control point information provided by field personnel, and analyzing the use possibility of the point location;
(2) judging the approximate position of the scanning station according to the spatial position and the form distribution of the site and the scanning range of the scanner;
(3) combining with actual field conditions, considering later point cloud splicing, planning a scanning route map, drawing a corresponding scanning route map, determining a primary scanning route, and optimizing the scanning route by considering later data processing and point cloud quality;
(4) according to the designed scanning route map, the number and the approximate position of the stations are roughly determined, and a corresponding specific work plan is made, wherein the specific work plan mainly comprises personnel arrangement, a scanning process, scheduling arrangement and logistics support.
4. The BIM point cloud technology-based embedded part construction positioning method as claimed in claim 2, wherein in step S1-3, a certain number of common points are selected when targeting, and the common points are selected from spherical targets or circular targets.
5. The BIM point cloud technology-based embedded part construction positioning method as claimed in claim 4, wherein in step S1-3, during station measurement, stations are set according to a scan planning route map, stations are reasonably distributed within an effective range for ensuring the operation of the scanner, and after the stations are determined, the positions of common points are reasonably distributed, so that a certain number of common points are ensured between adjacent stations.
6. The method for guiding embedded part construction positioning based on the BIM point cloud technology as claimed in claim 5, wherein in step S1-4, the scanning comprises the following specific steps: according to the survey station position placement instrument designed by the scheme, leveling work is paid attention, a project is newly built, proper resolution and corresponding parameter setting are determined according to the distance between a scanning object and a scanner, then a proper public point position is selected and placed, scanning is started finally, the scanning data quality is checked after the station to be measured is finished, after the data quality is determined to be good, the instrument is moved to the next survey station for station change measurement, and finally point cloud data of a site are obtained.
7. The BIM point cloud technology-based embedded part construction positioning method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step S2, the proportion of noise points to be reduced is 0.1% -5%.
8. The BIM point cloud technology-based embedded part construction positioning method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step S3, a top-down model driving method is adopted for BIM modeling: the building is described by a building geometric entity, a model library consisting of various three-dimensional primitives is established in advance for model matching, and the best matching effect is selected as the model of the building according to the matching effect.
9. The method for guiding embedded part construction positioning based on the BIM point cloud technology as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step S3, a bottom-up data-driven method is adopted for BIM modeling: certain features of the building are quantified and a model of the building is uniquely determined based on the measured data.
CN202110106454.7A 2021-01-26 2021-01-26 Embedded part construction positioning method based on BIM point cloud technology guidance Pending CN112884647A (en)

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