CN104792274B - A kind of measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation - Google Patents

A kind of measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104792274B
CN104792274B CN201510154900.6A CN201510154900A CN104792274B CN 104792274 B CN104792274 B CN 104792274B CN 201510154900 A CN201510154900 A CN 201510154900A CN 104792274 B CN104792274 B CN 104792274B
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tunnel
point
cylinder
tube coupling
cloud
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CN201510154900.6A
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CN104792274A (en
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谢雄耀
朱侃唯
刘晨
刘欢
何佳敏
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同济大学
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation, including:Step S1:Three-dimensional laser scanner obtains the working base point coordinate and tunnel point cloud of each survey station;Step S2:Using working base point as splicing datum mark, tunnel point cloud is integrated into unified reference frame, and the point cloud of polycyclic tube coupling is divided into according to tube coupling;Step S3:According to improved face of cylinder fitting algorithm, by the point-cloud fitting of an endless tube section, for the face of cylinder, simultaneously extraction tube nodal axisn line point coordinates, the face of cylinder project in plane the tunnel point cloud contour line for obtaining two dimension along tube coupling axis direction, ellipse are fitted to according to ellipse fitting algorithm;Step S4:Ellipse is expanded into the elliptic cylinder of three-dimensional along axis, and then obtains the three-dimensional convergent deformation in whole tunnel.Compared with prior art, the present invention can obtain the longitudinal axis and convergent deformation in construction and operation phase tunnel, and without laying monitoring point, measurement efficiency is high, and comprehensive Monitoring Data is provided for constructing tunnel and operation.

Description

A kind of measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation

Technical field

The present invention relates to tunnel deformation monitoring technical field, more particularly, to a kind of measurement side of circular tunnel convergent deformation Method.

Background technology

In recent years, it is major in order to solve metropolitan traffic jam issue with the fast development of Urbanization in China Greatly develop city track traffic engineering in city.Except subway tunnel, the vcehicular tunnel in China is built scale and also constantly expanded Greatly, at present vcehicular tunnel just with average annual 350 kilometers of speed increase.Construction period and operation stage in tunnel, deformation monitoring All it is indispensable.Because tunnel is among the rock soil medium of complicated condition, the interaction mechanism of stratum and structure is simultaneously It is indefinite thus still theoretical without fairly perfect structure design of tunnel at present.

Currently used tunnel deformation e measurement technology has convergence gauge, geodesic survey, Bassett collective system.Though these technologies So there is higher precision, but measurement efficiency is relatively low, while a small amount of measuring point data can only be obtained, the change in tunnel can not be reflected comprehensively Shape.If in order to reflect the deformation state in whole piece tunnel, need to lay monitoring section with very intensive interval, although in skill It is feasible in art, but its cost will be very expensive.

Chinese patent CN102878975A discloses a kind of tunnel convergence deformation monitoring method, in selected tunnel cross section On along lining cutting ring lay some anchor points, and using these anchor points as monitoring reference point;The adjacent anchor point of each two it Between successively with one it is rigid, have full-length measurement installing arm connect with a sliding sleeve, measure installing arm on One obliquity sensor is installed, while a type vibration wire extensometer is installed between measurement installing arm and sliding sleeve;Again will be upper Two free ends for stating the system component to be formed correspondingly are anchored in two anchorings adjacent in lining cutting by anchor point hinged-support respectively Point on;And form the continuous ring link of some system components in this way and go down, until reaching the unit number of Observation Design requirement;It is real Existing monitoring method is simple, and cost is cheap, and hold facility tunnel sectional area is small, can realize the monitoring of higher precision.The patent is present A small amount of measuring point data can only be obtained, the defects of deformation in whole tunnel can not be reflected comprehensively.

The content of the invention

It is an object of the present invention to overcome the above-mentioned drawbacks of the prior art and provide a kind of circular tunnel is restrained The measuring method of deformation, the convergent deformation of circular tunnel can be quickly and efficiently obtained, without laying monitoring point, is reduced for tunnel The interference of road structure, measurement efficiency is very high, and can obtain tunnel three-dimensional convergent deformation, to construct and runing the tunnel of phase Provide comprehensive Monitoring Data.

The purpose of the present invention can be achieved through the following technical solutions:

A kind of measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation, including:

Step S1:Multiple laser scanning survey stations are laid along length of tunnel direction, establish what is determined by three-dimensional laser scanner Reference frame, the public working base point of at least three is set up between each laser scanning survey station, and three-dimensional laser scanner obtains every The working base point coordinate and tunnel point cloud of one laser scanning survey station;

Step S2:Using working base point in step S1 as splicing datum mark, by all laser scanning survey stations in step S1 Tunnel point cloud is integrated into a unified reference frame, obtains tunnel three-dimensional point cloud, and according to tube coupling by tunnel three-dimensional point Cloud is divided into the point cloud of polycyclic tube coupling;

Step S3:According to improved face of cylinder fitting algorithm by the point-cloud fitting of an endless tube section in step S2 be the face of cylinder simultaneously Extraction tube nodal axisn line point coordinates, after the face of cylinder carries out coordinate transform and noise reduction process according to tube coupling axis point coordinates, along tube coupling axle Line direction projection is to the tunnel point cloud contour line that two dimension is obtained in plane, according to ellipse fitting algorithm by the tunnel point cloud wheel of two dimension Profile is fitted to the ellipse of the cross section convergent deformation for representing tunnel, by any point on ellipse apart from the center of circle numerical value with Tunnel standard radius of circle carries out numeric ratio pair, asks for both differences, that is, has obtained tube coupling convergent deformation value corresponding at this;

Step S4:According to plane strain condition, ellipse in step S3 is expanded into the elliptic cylinder of three-dimensional along axis, this is ellipse The face of cylinder represents the convergent deformation of an endless tube section, and the three-dimensional convergence that the elliptic cylinder as corresponding to polycyclic tube coupling obtains whole tunnel becomes Shape.

Spacing in the step S1 between each laser scanning survey station is determined that tunnel radius is smaller, swashs by tunnel radius Optical scanning survey station spacing is smaller.

Tunnel three-dimensional point cloud is segmented in a cloud the poster processing soft and carried out in the step S2, and point cloud the poster processing soft is deleted It is more than the point of setting value with tube coupling distance.

Described cloud the poster processing soft is appointing in Cylone, Polyworks, Realworks Survey, Geomagic Meaning is a kind of.

The fitting on the face of cylinder is carried out in the step S3 according to least square method, it is undetermined by least square method acquisition five Parameter y0、z0、λ、R, by point-cloud fitting it is the face of cylinder according to five undetermined parameters, wherein, y0For fixing point on tube coupling axis Y-axis coordinate, z0For the z-axis coordinate of fixing point on tube coupling axis, λ is after tube coupling axis direction unit vector projects to x/y plane With the angle of x-axis,For the angle between tube coupling axis direction unit vector and x/y plane, R is cylinder radius surface to be fitted.

The fitting on the face of cylinder is specially in the step S3:The point cloud that residual error is more than setting value is deleted, then a cloud is carried out Uniformly vacuate, then face of cylinder fittings carried out with 100 clouds, using this fitting result as an initial value again to an endless tube section Point cloud carries out face of cylinder fitting.

The face of cylinder carries out coordinate transform according to tube coupling axis point coordinates in the step S3 includes:Cylinder revolves towards around z-axis Turn, rotated further around y-axis, tube coupling axis is overlapped with x-axis eventually through translation, and rectangular coordinate system origin is located at tube coupling axis On.

The face of cylinder is specially according to axis point coordinates progress noise reduction process in the step S3:Right angle is sat after coordinate transform Mark system is converted to cylindrical coordinate, then the statistical method erased noise point based on error distribution.

It is described based on error distribution statistical method erased noise point be specially:Tube coupling is that section is divided into 360 groups with 1 °, pin To each group of cloud data, the standard deviation of radial coordinate of this group of cloud data under cylindrical coordinate is asked for, then by each point Radial coordinate subtracts difference that tunnel internal diameter obtains compared with standard deviation, and difference is more than into the points of 3 times of standard deviations as making an uproar Sound point, is deleted.

Compared with prior art, the present invention has advantages below:

1) present invention carries out non-cpntact measurement using three-dimensional laser scanning technique, without arranging monitoring point at the scene, you can The three-dimensional coordinate in quick measurement tunnel, reduces the interference for tunnel structure, measurement efficiency is very high.

2) the tunnel coordinate for scanning to obtain from different survey stations is integrated into uniform coordinate by the present invention by target splicing In system, so as to obtain complete tunnel position coordinate, substantial amounts of measuring point data can reflect the deformation in tunnel comprehensively.

3) present invention proposes the algorithm of a set of laser scanning data processing, and three-dimensional modeling is carried out to tunnel, so as to The convergent deformation of circular tunnel is accurately measured, the tunnel to construct and runing the phase provides comprehensive Monitoring Data.

4) fit procedure on the face of cylinder is devised in the present invention, face of cylinder plan is carried out after the larger point cloud of residual error is deleted Close, effectively lift precision;To the pipe node cloud to be fitted, uniformly vacuated with a cloud the poster processing soft, to taking out Point cloud after dilute carries out face of cylinder fitting, ensures to save the calculating time while precision;First cylinder is carried out with 100 clouds Face is fitted, and face of cylinder fitting is carried out to substantial amounts of point cloud again using this fitting result as an initial value, so effective to save Time of algorithm.

5) each pipe node cloud after the present invention finishes to segmentation utilizes point cloud the poster processing soft point cloud frame selection tool The point of selected distance tube coupling farther out, noise point deletion is regarded as, while noise reduction process is carried out to the face of cylinder after coordinate transform, Because now noise reduction process needs to delete apart from the close noise spot in section of jurisdiction, these points can not select mode to delete by artificial frame, So using the statistical method being distributed based on error come erased noise point, the purpose of noise reduction is reached with this, there is provided data it is accurate Degree.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the workflow diagram of the measuring method of the circular tunnel convergent deformation shown in the present invention;

Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of face of cylinder fitting;

Fig. 3 is that coordinate rotates schematic diagram around z-axis;

Fig. 4 is that coordinate rotates schematic diagram around y-axis;

Fig. 5 is an endless tube section cross section ellipse fitting result schematic diagram;

Fig. 6 is one section of tunnel three-dimensional elliptical cylindrical distortion cloud atlas.

Embodiment

The present invention is described in detail with specific embodiment below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.The present embodiment is with technical solution of the present invention Premised on implemented, give detailed embodiment and specific operating process, but protection scope of the present invention is not limited to Following embodiments.

The invention discloses a kind of measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation, it is related to in-site measurement and the side of data processing two Face.In terms of in-site measurement, the present invention is surveyed using any circular tunnel as scanning target using three-dimensional laser scanning technique Amount, the three-dimensional coordinate for the measuring point that thousands of individual spacing are several millimeters can be obtained, measuring speed is very fast, and point cloud can be by It is automatically logged into the storage system of three-dimensional laser scanner, these coordinate datas can be exported in data processing stage.Data The point cloud of all survey stations is integrated into a unified reference frame by processing stage, is established the threedimensional model in tunnel, is passed through Improved face of cylinder fitting algorithm, coordinate transform, the convergence of noise reduction, ellipse fitting, elliptic cylinder modeling acquisition circular tunnel become Shape.

As shown in figure 1, after a circular tunnel is determined as measurement object, the monitoring of its convergent deformation includes:

Step S1:Multiple laser scanning survey stations are laid along length of tunnel direction, establish what is determined by three-dimensional laser scanner Reference frame, the public working base point of at least three (target), three-dimensional laser scanner are set up between each laser scanning survey station Obtain the working base point coordinate and tunnel point cloud of each laser scanning survey station.

Spacing between each laser scanning survey station is determined by tunnel radius, between the smaller then laser scanning survey station of tunnel radius Away from smaller, to ensure the Zone Full in described multiple survey stations covering whole piece tunnel.Laser scanner completes the scanning work at a station After work, by the way of station is manually removed be moved to the next stop measures again.

Step S2:Data in step S1 are imported in point cloud the poster processing soft, splicing is used as using working base point in step S1 Datum mark, the part tunnel cloud data that all laser scanning survey stations obtain in step S1 is integrated into a unified reference and sat In mark system, so as to obtain complete tunnel three-dimensional point cloud, whole piece tunnel three-dimensional point cloud is segmented according to tube coupling, each ring The point cloud segmentation of tube coupling is the point cloud of polycyclic tube coupling, to carry out data processing according to an endless tube section.

Carried out in step S2 according to tube coupling cut-point cloud in a cloud the poster processing soft, using a cloud frame selection tool, according to Feature between tube coupling and tube coupling is manually split.Meanwhile each pipe node cloud after being finished for segmentation, utilize a cloud The point of frame selection tool selected distance section of jurisdiction farther out, is regarded as noise point deletion.

Point cloud the poster processing soft is any one in Cylone, Polyworks, Realworks Survey, Geomagic Kind.

Step S3:According to improved face of cylinder fitting algorithm by the point-cloud fitting of an endless tube section in step S2 be the face of cylinder simultaneously Extraction tube nodal axisn line point coordinates, after the face of cylinder carries out coordinate transform and noise reduction process according to tube coupling axis point coordinates, along tube coupling axle Line direction projection is to the tunnel point cloud contour line that two dimension is obtained in plane, according to existing ellipse fitting algorithm by the tunnel of two dimension Point cloud contour line is fitted to the ellipse of the cross section convergent deformation for representing tunnel, by any point on ellipse apart from the center of circle Numerical value carries out numeric ratio pair with tunnel standard radius of circle, asks for both differences, that is, has obtained tube coupling convergent deformation corresponding at this Value.The tunnel cross section convergent deformation figure of a certain endless tube piece is as shown in Figure 5.Wherein, tube coupling axis point coordinates be tube coupling axis (i.e. Face of cylinder axis) on any two point coordinates.

As shown in Fig. 2 carrying out the fitting on the face of cylinder in step S3 according to least square method, i.e., obtained by least square method Five undetermined parameter y0、z0、λ、R, the face of cylinder according to five undetermined parameters by point-cloud fitting for optimization, wherein, y0For The y-axis coordinate of fixing point, z on tube coupling axis0For the z-axis coordinate of fixing point on tube coupling axis, λ be tube coupling axis direction unit to Amount projects to the angle after x/y plane with x-axis,For the angle between tube coupling axis direction unit vector and x/y plane, R is to treat The cylinder radius surface of fitting, measuring point pi=(xi,yi,zi) any point is represented,

The present invention has carried out corresponding improvement to the fit procedure on the face of cylinder simultaneously, is specially:Delete residual error and be more than setting value Point cloud, then a cloud is uniformly vacuated, then face of cylinder fittings are carried out with 100 clouds, using this fitting result as one Initial value carries out face of cylinder fitting to the point cloud of an endless tube section again.Above-mentioned face of cylinder fit procedure is same lifting calculation accuracy When save calculate the time.

The face of cylinder carries out coordinate transform according to tube coupling axis point coordinates in step S3 includes:Cylinder rotates towards around z-axis, such as Shown in Fig. 3, rotated further around y-axis, as shown in figure 4, making tube coupling axis be overlapped with x-axis eventually through translation, and make rectangular coordinate system Origin is located on tube coupling axis.

The face of cylinder is specially according to axis point coordinates progress noise reduction process in step S3:By rectangular coordinate system after coordinate transform Cylindrical coordinate is converted to, i.e., x, y, z coordinate value, is converted to radial coordinate r (distance of point to x-axis), angle, θ (is put and put down in yoz On face with y-axis angle), then and x-axis coordinate value x carries out noise reduction process, noise reduction process needs to delete close apart from tube coupling Noise spot, these points can not select mode to delete by artificial frame, therefore using the statistical method erased noise point of error distribution.

Based on error distribution statistical method erased noise point be specially:Tube coupling is that section is divided into 360 groups with 1 °, for every One group of cloud data, ask for radial coordinate r of this group of cloud data under cylindrical coordinate standard deviation, then the radial direction by each point Coordinate r subtracts difference that tunnel internal diameter obtains compared with standard deviation, and difference is more than into the point of 3 times of standard deviations as noise spot (rough error point), is deleted, the purpose of noise reduction is reached with this.

Step S4:According to plane strain condition, the cross section convergent deformation of all positions is consistent to incite somebody to action in the axial direction Ellipse is expanded into the elliptic cylinder of three-dimensional along axis in step S3, and the elliptic cylinder represents the convergent deformation of an endless tube section, by more Elliptic cylinder corresponding to endless tube section obtains the three-dimensional convergent deformation in whole tunnel, completes the modeling of tunnel three-dimensional elliptical cylinder.One section The three-dimensional elliptical cylindrical distortion cloud atlas in tunnel is as shown in Figure 6.

The above-mentioned description to embodiment is that this hair is understood that and used for ease of those skilled in the art It is bright.Person skilled in the art obviously easily can make various modifications to these embodiments, and described herein General Principle is applied in other embodiment without by performing creative labour.Therefore, the invention is not restricted to above-described embodiment, Those skilled in the art do not depart from improvement that scope made and modification all should be in this hairs according to the announcement of the present invention Within bright protection domain.

Claims (8)

  1. A kind of 1. measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation, it is characterised in that including:
    Step S1:Multiple laser scanning survey stations are laid along length of tunnel direction, establish the reference determined by three-dimensional laser scanner Coordinate system, sets up the public working base point of at least three between each laser scanning survey station, and three-dimensional laser scanner, which obtains, each to swash Working base point coordinate and tunnel the point cloud of optical scanning survey station;
    Step S2:Using working base point in step S1 as splicing datum mark, by the tunnel of all laser scanning survey stations in step S1 Point cloud is integrated into a unified reference frame, obtains tunnel three-dimensional point cloud, and divide tunnel three-dimensional point cloud according to tube coupling It is segmented into the point cloud of polycyclic tube coupling;
    Step S3:The point-cloud fitting of an endless tube section in step S2 for the face of cylinder and is extracted according to improved face of cylinder fitting algorithm Tube coupling axis point coordinates, after the face of cylinder carries out coordinate transform and noise reduction process according to tube coupling axis point coordinates, along tube coupling axis side To project in plane obtain two dimension tunnel point cloud contour line, according to ellipse fitting algorithm by two dimension tunnel point cloud contour line The ellipse of the cross section convergent deformation for representing tunnel is fitted to, numerical value and tunnel by any point on ellipse apart from the center of circle Standard radius of circle carries out numeric ratio pair, asks for both differences, that is, has obtained tube coupling convergent deformation value corresponding at this;
    The fitting on the face of cylinder is specially in the step S3:The point cloud that residual error is more than setting value is deleted, then a cloud is carried out uniform Vacuate, then face of cylinder fittings carried out with 100 clouds, using this fitting result as an initial value again to the point cloud of an endless tube section Carry out face of cylinder fitting;
    Step S4:According to plane strain condition, ellipse in step S3 is expanded into three-dimensional elliptic cylinder, the cylindroid along axis Face represents the convergent deformation of an endless tube section, and elliptic cylinder obtains the three-dimensional convergent deformation in whole tunnel as corresponding to polycyclic tube coupling.
  2. A kind of 2. measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step S1 In spacing between each laser scanning survey station determine that tunnel radius is smaller by tunnel radius, laser scanning survey station spacing is got over It is small.
  3. A kind of 3. measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step S2 Middle tunnel three-dimensional point cloud is segmented in a cloud the poster processing soft and carried out, and point cloud the poster processing soft is deleted is more than setting with tube coupling distance The point of value.
  4. 4. the measuring method of a kind of circular tunnel convergent deformation according to claim 3, it is characterised in that after described cloud Processing software is any one in Cylone, Polyworks, Realworks Survey, Geomagic.
  5. A kind of 5. measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step S3 The middle fitting that the face of cylinder is carried out according to least square method, five undetermined parameter y are obtained by least square method0、z0、λ、, R, root By point-cloud fitting it is the face of cylinder according to five undetermined parameters, wherein, y0For the y-axis coordinate of fixing point on tube coupling axis, z0For tube coupling axle The z-axis coordinate of fixing point on line, λ project to the angle after x/y plane with x-axis for tube coupling axis direction unit vector,For tube coupling Angle between axis direction unit vector and x/y plane, R are cylinder radius surface to be fitted.
  6. A kind of 6. measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step S3 The middle face of cylinder carries out coordinate transform according to tube coupling axis point coordinates to be included:Cylinder rotates towards around z-axis, is rotated further around y-axis, finally Tube coupling axis is overlapped with x-axis by translation, and rectangular coordinate system origin is located on tube coupling axis.
  7. A kind of 7. measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step S3 The middle face of cylinder carries out noise reduction process according to axis point coordinates:Rectangular coordinate system is converted into cylindrical coordinates after coordinate transform System, then the statistical method erased noise point based on error distribution.
  8. 8. the measuring method of a kind of circular tunnel convergent deformation according to claim 7, it is characterised in that described based on mistake The statistical method erased noise point of difference cloth is specially:Tube coupling is that section is divided into 360 groups with 1 °, for each group of cloud data, The standard deviation of radial coordinate of this group of cloud data under cylindrical coordinate is asked for, then the radial coordinate of each point is subtracted in tunnel Compared with standard deviation, the point that difference is more than into 3 times of standard deviations is deleted the difference that footpath obtains as noise spot.
CN201510154900.6A 2015-04-02 2015-04-02 A kind of measuring method of circular tunnel convergent deformation CN104792274B (en)

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