CN111270987B - Method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in remote area under coal mine - Google Patents

Method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in remote area under coal mine Download PDF

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CN111270987B
CN111270987B CN202010064329.XA CN202010064329A CN111270987B CN 111270987 B CN111270987 B CN 111270987B CN 202010064329 A CN202010064329 A CN 202010064329A CN 111270987 B CN111270987 B CN 111270987B
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fracturing
plate
impact
energy
rock burst
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CN111270987A (en
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王恩元
张超林
刘晓斐
沈荣喜
冯小军
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China University of Mining and Technology CUMT
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B7/00Special methods or apparatus for drilling
    • E21B7/04Directional drilling
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/25Methods for stimulating production
    • E21B43/26Methods for stimulating production by forming crevices or fractures
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B47/00Survey of boreholes or wells
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B47/00Survey of boreholes or wells
    • E21B47/06Measuring temperature or pressure
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B7/00Special methods or apparatus for drilling
    • E21B7/02Drilling rigs characterized by means for land transport with their own drive, e.g. skid mounting or wheel mounting

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in a remote area under a coal mine, which comprises the steps of analyzing and evaluating the impact risk of a mining project and adjacent areas according to geological and mining conditions, determining an impact vibration source, a stress wave propagation path and a rock burst dangerous area, formulating key technical parameters of directional drilling and segmented controllable fracturing, constructing directional long drilled holes and branch drilled holes to the impact vibration source or the impact stress wave propagation path area by using a directional drilling machine, performing retreating, step-by-step and segmented controllable fracturing, monitoring and analyzing the effective impact area of the directional drilled hole segmented fracturing, and quantitatively evaluating the accurate prevention and control effect of the remote area. The method can effectively reduce the bending energy, the fracture energy, the impact energy and the structural activation energy of the high-position top plate, or cut off the propagation path of the impact stress wave or reduce the propagation strength of the stress wave, finally realizes remote, regional, accurate and efficient prevention and control of the rock burst, and is particularly suitable for prevention and control of large rock bursts of a top plate fracture type, a structural activation type and the like.

Description

Method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in remote area under coal mine
Technical Field
The invention relates to a rock burst prevention and control method, in particular to a precise rock burst prevention and control method for a remote area under a coal mine.
Background
Statistics shows that over 80% of rock burst mines in China have thick-layer hard roofs. In the process of deep coal and resource exploitation, the influence of a thick-layer hard top plate on rock burst is firstly that large-area suspended roof enables the vertical stress concentration degree of local coal bodies to be higher and the energy density to be higher, and secondly that the dynamic instability of the coal rock bodies is instantaneously caused by strong dynamic load formed by large-area sudden fracture of the top plate. Has the characteristics of wide impact range, high release energy and sudden and violent occurrence, and is easy to cause huge damage. Roof fracture type and fault activation type rock burst are main reasons for occurrence of heavy and extra-large rock burst in the process of coal mine deep mining in recent years.
At present, regional prevention measures and local danger relieving measures are mainly used for treating rock burst. The regional prevention and control measures comprise pressure relief protective layer mining, top plate presplitting, bottom plate presplitting, coal seam water injection and the like; the local danger relieving measures mainly comprise local deep hole pressure relief blasting, large-diameter drilling pressure relief, hydraulic fracturing, hydraulic slotting and the like.
The mining of the pressure relief protective layer has the problems that most coal mines have no pressure relief protective layer or a proper pressure relief protective layer is very difficult to select, the last three regional measures and the local measures have small action range of single-hole measures, large measure engineering quantity, poor controllability and accuracy and low efficiency, and are implemented in mining spaces such as a working face, a roadway and the like, so that the production influence is large, the rock burst disaster or accident is easily induced by close-range construction, and the measure construction is risky.
According to the latest research results, the rock burst is a vibration stress wave generated by roof fracture, fault activation or large-range coal body breakage and the like, and the stress wave is propagated and coupled with surrounding rocks with high stress or high stress gradient in a mining space, so that the surrounding rocks in the mining space and a supporting system are locally and instantaneously damaged, and the mining space is damaged. Therefore, effective prevention and control of rock burst must be implemented from three rock burst evolution areas, namely, an impact vibration source, a stress propagation path, a high-stress/high-stress gradient surrounding rock and the like, and particularly, the former two areas are effectively controlled so as to effectively prevent and control the heavy and extra-large rock burst.
In contrast, the invention provides a method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in a remote area under a coal mine.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in a remote area under a coal mine, aiming at solving the problem that rock burst occurs in the remote prevention and control area.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme: a method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in a remote area under a coal mine well comprises the following steps:
a. analyzing and evaluating the impact dangerousness of the excavation project and adjacent areas according to geological and mining conditions, determining the main control factor of rock burst, judging the position and the strength of an impact vibration source, and determining a rock burst dangerous area;
b. if the step a is judged to be influenced by the top plate fracture; on the basis of the step a, determining the actual energy of the roof fracture impact vibration source according to the position and range of the impact vibration source and the impact danger area, the coal rock stratum properties and the characteristic parameters and by combining the dynamic stress wave energy analysis result of the indoor coal rock sample;
c. if the step a judges that the fault activation is influenced, on the basis of the step a, determining a fault activation shock stress wave propagation path;
d. according to the parameters in the step b or the step c, establishing accurate prevention and control technical parameters of the underground remote area of the coal mine, wherein the accurate prevention and control technical parameters comprise the following steps: drilling track design of directional drilling and staged controllable fracturing, staged fracturing interval, fracturing water pressure/flow and fracturing direction;
e. according to the design of the step d, a kilometer directional drilling machine is used for impacting a vibration source or an impact stress wave propagation path area to a high-position top plate through a drilling field to construct a directional long drill hole and a plurality of branch drill holes; sequentially putting a fracturing pipe and a packer into the well, and performing step-by-step segmented controllable fracturing from the deep part of the drilled hole from inside to outside according to a backward mode;
f. carrying out inversion research on an effective influence area of the directional drilling staged fracturing and comparing the actual energy of a top plate fracture impact vibration source before and after the staged controllable fracturing; it is detected whether the desired target is reached.
Further, in step b, the actual energy source of the coal mine roof fracture seismic source comprises: the bending energy, the breaking energy and the impact energy of the top plate are three parts; the actual energy acquisition comprises the following steps:
b1, simplifying the rock stratum structure before the top plate is broken into an elastic foundation beam structure, comprehensively considering the pressure of the top plate and the overlying rock stratum, the influence range of the face advance bearing pressure, the top plate overhang length before the top plate is broken, the lithology and the physical and mechanical properties of the top plate, analyzing the displacement change and the bending moment change of the top plate, and calculating to obtain the bending energy of the top plate;
b2, researching the energy accumulation and release process in the roof breaking process through the thickness of the overlying strata and the position of the space region where the elastic beam is compressed and rebounded after the roof is broken, and calculating to obtain the roof breaking energy.
b3, calculating the impact energy acting on the roadway or the working face after the roof is broken according to the lithology and physical and mechanical properties of the roof, the thickness of the roof, the breaking dimension, the suspension length and height and the distance from the roof to the roadway or the working face.
b4, comprehensively considering occurrence characteristics and physical and mechanical properties of coal mine coal and rock strata, and combining stope structure and evolution characteristics, energy conversion and conservation theory to determine the actual energy of the roof fracture seismic source.
Further, in the implementation of step d, the method comprises the following steps: combining the results of the step a and the step b or the step a and the step c, establishing a geometric model based on elastic/elastic plastic materials according to the coal rock layer where the mine roadway is tested and the actual geological conditions of three roadway zones, performing single-stage fracturing, double-stage staged fracturing and multi-stage fracturing numerical simulation experiments by adopting a finite element numerical simulation method, and formulating and optimizing the geometric model, wherein the method comprises the following steps of: drilling track design of directional drilling and staged controllable fracturing, staged fracturing interval, fracturing water pressure/flow and fracturing direction key technical parameters.
Further, in the implementation of the step e, during the drilling work of the kilometer directional drilling machine, the penetration impact shock source or the impact danger area of the drill hole is more than 15 meters; meanwhile, the blank area of the plurality of branch drill holes is not more than 5 meters.
Furthermore, in the implementation of the step f, the micro-seismic monitoring and the vibration positioning analysis are adopted, the length, the width, the height, the size or the expansion direction space distribution form and the dynamic expansion process of the long-distance directional drilling staged fracturing crack are researched and described, the effective influence range of the long-distance staged fracturing is determined, and the accurate prevention and control effect of the long-distance region is comprehensively and quantitatively evaluated by combining the reduction of the actual energy of the top plate fracture impact vibration source.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects: according to the method, the rock burst is prevented and controlled in a long-distance, large-range and accurate area by combining the directional long drilling with the efficient and accurate controllable sectional fracturing measures, and the preventing efficiency and effect of the rock burst and the working advance, safety and action range of the measures are obviously improved. The method has the advantages of convenience, rapidness, high efficiency, good controllability, accurate measures and effects, long-distance implementation, good safety and small influence on production. The device is particularly suitable for regional prevention and control of remote large-range impact hazard sources such as high-position hard top plates and structural region fault activation.
Specifically, the following advantages are mainly provided:
1. directional drilling is carried out on a high-position hard top plate or a rock stratum through a rock stratum drilling field, so that a large amount of construction in a coal bed by the traditional rock stratum rock burst treatment method is avoided, the influence on normal production operation of a coal mine is small, the normal replacement production of the coal mine can be ensured, and the economic benefit of the coal mine is improved;
2. the ultra-long drilling crawler-type full-hydraulic directional drilling machine is adopted, the drilling depth can reach 1000m to 3000m, meanwhile, a plurality of branch drilling holes can be constructed, the remote and large-range area prevention and control of rock burst are realized, the operation efficiency is high, and the construction advance is good;
3. by determining the actual energy of a roof fracture seismic source and combining a finite element numerical simulation method, the key technical process parameters of drilling track design, staged fracturing distance, fracturing water pressure/flow and fracturing direction of directional drilling and staged controllable fracturing are optimized, the invalidity and repeatability of construction are effectively avoided, the prevention and control effect is obviously improved, and the operation cost is reduced;
4. a kilometer directional drilling machine is combined with staged controllable fracturing, a drilling hole is required to penetrate through an impact hazard source or impact dangerous area boundary for more than 15 meters, a blank area between measures is not more than 5 meters, meanwhile, an effective impact area of the staged fracturing of the directional drilling hole is researched in an inverted mode after construction, the accurate prevention and control effect of a remote area is quantitatively evaluated, the accuracy of the rock burst prevention and control measures is achieved, the effectiveness of the prevention and control measures is guaranteed, and finally rock burst tendency is completely eliminated.
5. The method is characterized in that long drilling segmented fracturing is carried out on an impact vibration source or an impact stress wave propagation path area, the impact vibration source can be uniformly pre-fractured, so that the bending energy, the fracture energy and the impact energy of a high-position top plate are effectively reduced, the impact stress wave propagation path is cut off, so that the stress wave propagation strength is reduced, the two methods are feasible aiming at the top plate fracture type and fault activation type rock burst theory, the construction is simple and efficient, and the effective prevention and control of the rock burst can be ensured. Correspondingly, the high-position top plate fracture type rock burst can also be prevented by cutting off the propagation path of the stress wave.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a coal mine underground remote area accurate roof fracture prevention and control type rock burst of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the accurate prevention and control of roof fracture type rock burst in a remote area of an underground coal mine according to the invention;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of an active rock burst of a precise fault control and prevention remote area in an underground coal mine;
FIG. 4 is a plan view of the underground remote area accurate fault activation type rock burst prevention and control of the coal mine.
In the figure, 1, a drill site; 2. a coal seam; 3. impacting a vibration source; 4. a rock burst hazard zone; 5. a hard top plate; 6. directional long drilling; 7. branch drilling I; 8. drilling a branch hole II; 9. fracturing the crack; 10. an upper gate way; 11. a lower gate way; 12. stopping the mining line; 13. a stress wave propagation path; 14. breaking the disc; 15. fault plane; 16. and (5) branch drilling III.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in further detail below with reference to the figures and specific examples.
The invention discloses a method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in a remote area under a coal mine, which comprises a coal seam 2 in a stoping line 12 and a hard top plate 5 above the coal seam 2; the impact shock source 3 generated by the fault plane 15 in the hard top plate 5 and/or the broken disc 14 above the hard top plate 5 is generally provided with an upper gate way 10 and a lower gate way 11 on two sides of the stoping line 12; further comprising the steps of:
a. analyzing and evaluating the impact dangerousness of the excavation project and adjacent areas according to geological and mining conditions, determining the main control factor of the rock burst, judging the position and the strength of an impact vibration source, and determining a rock burst dangerous area 4.
b. If the step a is judged to be influenced by the top plate fracture; as shown in fig. 1 and 2, on the basis of step a, the actual energy of the roof fracture impact shock source 3 is determined according to the positions and ranges of the impact shock source 3 and the impact dangerous area 4, the coal rock layer properties and characteristic parameters and the result of dynamic stress wave energy analysis of the indoor coal rock sample. In the implementation of this step, the actual energy sources for the breaking seismic sources of the coal mine roof 5 include: the bending energy, the breaking energy and the impact energy of the top plate are three parts; the actual energy acquisition comprises the following steps:
b1, simplifying the rock stratum structure before the top plate is broken into an elastic foundation beam structure, comprehensively considering the pressure of the top plate 5 and the overlying rock stratum, the influence range of the face advance bearing pressure, the overhang length of the top plate 5 before the top plate is broken, the lithology and the physical and mechanical properties of the top plate 5, analyzing the displacement change and the bending moment change of the top plate, and calculating the bending energy of the top plate.
b2, researching the energy accumulation and release process in the top plate 5 breaking process through the thickness of the overlying rock stratum and the position of a space region where the elastic beam is compressed and rebounded after the top plate 5 is broken, and calculating to obtain the breaking energy of the top plate 5.
b3, calculating the impact energy acting on the roadway or the working face after the roof is broken according to the lithology and physical and mechanical properties of the roof 5, the thickness of the roof 5, the breaking dimension, the suspension length and height, the distance from the roadway or the working face and the like.
b4, comprehensively considering occurrence characteristics and physical and mechanical properties of coal mine coal and rock strata, and combining stope structure and evolution characteristics, energy conversion, conservation theory and the like to determine the actual energy of the roof fracture seismic source.
c. If step a determines that the fault activation is affected, as shown in fig. 3 and 4, on the basis of step a, a fault activation shock stress wave propagation path 13 needs to be determined.
d. According to the parameters in the step b or the step c, the process for establishing the accurate prevention and control of the underground remote area of the coal mine comprises the following steps: the method comprises the steps of drilling track design of directional drilling and staged controllable fracturing, staged fracturing distance, fracturing water pressure/flow and fracturing direction. In specific implementation, combining results of the step a and the step b or the step a and the step c, establishing a geometric model based on elastic/elastic plastic materials according to actual geological conditions such as a coal rock layer where a test mine roadway is located and a roadway three-zone, performing single-stage fracturing, double-stage staged fracturing and multi-stage fracturing numerical simulation experiments by adopting a finite element numerical simulation method, and formulating and optimizing the geometric model, wherein the method comprises the following steps of: the drilling path design of directional drilling and staged controllable fracturing, the staged fracturing interval, the fracturing water pressure/flow and the technological parameters of the key technology of the fracturing direction.
e. According to the design of the step d, constructing a directional long drill hole 6 and a plurality of branch drill holes to the high-position top plate impact vibration source 3 or the impact stress wave propagation path 13 area through a drill site 1 by utilizing a kilometer directional drilling machine; in the invention, the number of the branch drilling holes comprises three, which are respectively: branch bore I7, branch bore II 8 and branch bore III 16. Then sequentially putting the fracturing pipe and the packer into the well, and performing staged fracturing step by step from the deep part of the drilled hole from inside to outside according to a retreating mode. Further, in the implementation of the step e, during the drilling work of the kilometer directional drilling machine, the penetration impact vibration source 3 or the impact dangerous area 4 of the drill hole is more than 15 meters; meanwhile, the blank area of the plurality of branch drill holes is not more than 5 meters.
f. Carrying out inversion research on an effective influence area of the directional drilling staged fracturing; it is detected whether the desired target is reached. The method comprises the steps of adopting methods such as microseismic monitoring and vibration positioning analysis, researching and depicting the length, width, height, size, expansion direction and other spatial distribution forms of the long-distance directional drilling staged fracturing crack and the dynamic expansion process thereof, determining the effective influence range of the long-distance staged fracturing, and comprehensively and quantitatively evaluating the accurate prevention and control effect of a long-distance area by combining the actual energy reduction of the top plate fracture impact vibration source.
And (4) summarizing the construction process, parameters and effects of the steps a to f, and providing guidance for subsequent rock burst prevention and control work.
In the above steps, the specific implementation process can be divided into case one: as shown in fig. 1 and 2, if the rock burst is of the roof fracture type, the directional long drill hole 6 and the plurality of branch drill holes penetrate the boundary 15 meters of the impact shock source 3, while leaving a blank space of 5 meters between measures. If an ultra-long drilling crawler-type full-hydraulic directional drilling machine with the drilling depth of more than 1500 m is adopted, the length, width and height of a drilling site 1 are respectively 10m, 6m and 5m, the rated pressure is 16MPa, and a drilling rod with the diameter of 113mm is selected.
The specific implementation process can be further divided into two cases: as shown in fig. 3 and 4, if the rock burst is fault activation type, the directional long drill hole 6 and a plurality of branch drill holes penetrate through the boundary of the dangerous area 4 for 15 meters, and the blank space between measures is 5 meters. The method adopts an ultra-long drilling crawler-type full-hydraulic directional drilling machine with the drilling depth of more than 1500 meters, the length, width and height of a drilling field are respectively 9m, 6m and 4m, the rated pressure is 15MPa, and a drilling rod with the diameter of 85mm is selected.

Claims (5)

1. The method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in the underground remote area of the coal mine is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
a. analyzing and evaluating the impact dangerousness of the excavation project and adjacent areas according to geological and mining conditions, determining the main control factor of rock burst, judging the position and the strength of an impact vibration source, and determining a rock burst dangerous area (4);
b. if the step a judges that the roof is influenced by the fracture of the roof; on the basis of the step a, determining the actual energy of the roof fracture impact vibration source (3) according to the positions and ranges of the impact vibration source (3) and the rock burst dangerous area (4), the properties and characteristic parameters of the coal rock stratum and the energy analysis result of the dynamic stress wave of the indoor coal rock sample;
c. if the influence of fault activation is judged in the step a, on the basis of the step a, a fault activation impact stress wave propagation path (13) needs to be determined;
d. according to the parameters in the step b or the step c, the accurate prevention and control process parameters of the underground remote area of the coal mine are formulated, and the process comprises the following steps: drilling track design of directional drilling and staged controllable fracturing, staged fracturing interval, fracturing water pressure/flow and fracturing direction;
e. according to the design of the step d, constructing a directional long drill hole (6) and a plurality of branch drill holes to a high-position top plate impact vibration source (3) or an impact stress wave propagation path (13) area by using a kilometer directional drilling machine through a drill site (1); sequentially putting a fracturing pipe and a packer into the well, and performing controllable fracturing from the deep part of the borehole from inside to outside in a retreating way, step by step and in a segmented way;
f. carrying out inversion research on an effective influence area of the directional drilling staged fracturing, and comparing the actual energy of a top plate fracture impact vibration source before and after the staged controllable fracturing; it is detected whether the desired target is reached.
2. The method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in the remote area of the underground coal mine according to claim 1, which is characterized in that: in the step b, the actual energy source of the fracture seismic source of the coal mine roof (5) comprises the following steps: the bending energy, the breaking energy and the impact energy of the top plate are three parts; the actual energy acquisition comprises the following steps:
b1, simplifying the rock stratum structure before the top plate is broken into an elastic foundation beam structure, comprehensively considering the pressure of the top plate (5) and the overlying rock stratum, the influence range of the face advance bearing pressure, the cantilever roof length of the top plate (5) before the top plate is broken, the lithology and the physical and mechanical properties of the top plate (5), analyzing the displacement change and the bending moment change of the top plate, and calculating to obtain the bending energy of the top plate;
b2, researching the energy accumulation and release process in the top plate (5) breaking process through the thickness of the overlying rock stratum and the position of a space region where the elastic beam is compressed and rebounded after the top plate (5) is broken, and calculating to obtain the breaking energy of the top plate (5);
b3, calculating the impact energy acting on the roadway or the working face after the top plate is broken according to the lithological and physical and mechanical properties of the top plate (5), the thickness of the top plate (5), the breaking dimension, the suspension length and height and the distance from the roadway or the working face;
b4, comprehensively considering occurrence characteristics and physical and mechanical properties of coal mine coal and rock strata, and combining stope structure and evolution characteristics, energy conversion and conservation theory to determine the actual energy of the roof fracture seismic source.
3. The method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in the remote area of the underground coal mine according to claim 1, which is characterized in that: in the implementation of step d, the method comprises the following steps: combining the results of the step a and the step b or the step a and the step c, establishing a geometric model based on elastic/elastic plastic materials according to the actual geological conditions of the coal rock layer where the mine roadway is located and the three zones of the roadway, performing single-stage fracturing, double-stage staged fracturing and multi-stage fracturing numerical simulation experiments by adopting a finite element numerical simulation method, and formulating and optimizing the geometric model, wherein the method comprises the following steps of: the drilling path design of directional drilling and staged controllable fracturing, the staged fracturing interval, the fracturing water pressure/flow and the technological parameters of the key technology of the fracturing direction.
4. The method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in the remote area of the underground coal mine according to claim 1, which is characterized in that: in the implementation of the step e, in the drilling work process of the kilometer directional drilling machine, a drill hole penetrates through an impact vibration source (3) or an impact ground pressure dangerous area (4) to be more than 15 meters; meanwhile, the blank area of the plurality of branch drill holes is not more than 5 meters.
5. The method for accurately preventing and controlling rock burst in the remote area of the underground coal mine according to claim 1, which is characterized in that: and f, in the implementation of the step f, micro-seismic monitoring and vibration positioning analysis are adopted, the space distribution form and the dynamic expansion process of the length, the width, the height, the size and the expansion direction of the long-distance directional drilling staged fracturing crack are researched and described, the effective influence range of the long-distance staged fracturing is determined, and the accurate prevention and control effect of the long-distance region is comprehensively and quantitatively evaluated by combining the reduction amount of the actual energy of the top plate fracture impact vibration source.
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