CN110679265B - Double-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester - Google Patents

Double-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110679265B
CN110679265B CN201911043761.4A CN201911043761A CN110679265B CN 110679265 B CN110679265 B CN 110679265B CN 201911043761 A CN201911043761 A CN 201911043761A CN 110679265 B CN110679265 B CN 110679265B
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China
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connecting frame
green chinese
vehicle body
wheel
blade
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CN110679265A (en
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李天华
常金明
郭展赫
张浩文
侯加林
李玉华
吴彦强
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Shandong Agricultural University
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Shandong Agricultural University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D13/00Diggers, e.g. potato ploughs

Abstract

The invention relates to a double-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester which comprises a high-ground-clearance vehicle body and a ditching device arranged at the bottom of the high-ground-clearance vehicle body, wherein the ditching device comprises an upper connecting frame fixed on the high-ground-clearance vehicle body, a lower connecting frame hinged with the upper connecting frame through a transverse hinge shaft, and a hydraulic cylinder for driving the lower connecting frame to rotate around the transverse hinge shaft; the ditching device comprises a rigid rod fixedly connected with the lower connecting frame, a front chain wheel and a lower chain wheel which are rotatably connected to the rigid rod, a blade chain saw wound on the front chain wheel and the lower chain wheel, and a ditching driving device for driving the blade chain saw to rotate, wherein the blade chain saw extends along the traveling direction of the high-clearance vehicle body, and the front chain wheel is positioned at one end of the blade chain saw, which is far away from the lower connecting frame.

Description

Double-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of agricultural mechanical equipment, in particular to a double-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester.
Background
In recent years, the consumption of Chinese green Chinese onions is continuously improved, and the export quantity of the Chinese green Chinese onions always accounts for a great proportion in the export total quantity of vegetables. Therefore, with the continuous adjustment of agricultural planting structures, China puts forward new requirements on the yield and the quality of the green Chinese onions, while the chives of the nutmeg green Chinese onions are straight and long in length, tall and big in plant and rich in nutritional value, and can be successfully distinguished in a plurality of green Chinese onion varieties. However, as the green Chinese onions are used as crops with small plant spacing, the higher harvest rate is difficult to ensure; particularly, the deep planting green Chinese onions similar to the shallots in the dune are high in green part emergence and deep in onion stalk part, so that the difficulty in harvesting is further increased. The existing green Chinese onion harvester is mainly suitable for medium and short green Chinese onions, has an unsatisfactory harvesting effect on the deep-planted green Chinese onions, and has the advantages of high green Chinese onion damage rate, low harvesting rate, long time consumption, low efficiency and high harvesting cost; the manual harvesting method is complicated in process and time-consuming and tedious. Therefore, a novel harvester is needed to realize high-quality and high-efficiency mechanized harvesting of deep-planted green Chinese onions.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides the double-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester which can integrate ditching and soil loosening, realize lossless excavation and ordered laying, save manpower and material resources, reduce the damage rate of green Chinese onions and improve the operation efficiency.
The invention is realized by the following technical scheme, and provides a double-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester which comprises a highland crack vehicle body and a ditching device arranged at the bottom of the highland crack vehicle body, wherein the ditching device comprises an upper connecting frame fixed on the highland crack vehicle body, a lower connecting frame hinged with the upper connecting frame through a transverse hinge shaft, and a hydraulic cylinder for driving the lower connecting frame to rotate around the transverse hinge shaft, the transverse hinge shaft is vertical to the walking direction of the highland crack vehicle body, and at least two ditchers arranged along the width direction of the highland crack vehicle body are arranged on the lower connecting frame; the ditching device comprises a rigid rod fixedly connected with the lower connecting frame, a front chain wheel and a lower chain wheel which are rotatably connected to the rigid rod, a blade chain saw wound on the front chain wheel and the lower chain wheel, and a ditching driving device for driving the blade chain saw to rotate, wherein the blade chain saw extends along the traveling direction of the high-clearance vehicle body, and the front chain wheel is positioned at one end of the blade chain saw, which is far away from the lower connecting frame.
According to the scheme, the high-ground-clearance vehicle body is used as a main body for walking and mounting each part, so that the requirement on the height of the green Chinese onions is met, the green Chinese onions are prevented from being damaged during harvesting, the lower connecting frame is driven by the hydraulic cylinder to rotate up and down, and the adjustment of the ditching depth is realized; two furrow openers are located the both sides on spring onions ridge respectively, and during the results, drive arrangement drive blade chain saw rotates, and the soil of many spring onions ridge root both sides is ditched to conveniently reap the spring onions body.
Preferably, the number of the furrow openers is two, the number of the furrow openers in each group is two, and a channel opposite to the scallion ridge is formed between the two furrow openers in the same group. According to the optimized scheme, two groups of furrow openers are arranged, double-row furrow opening operation can be completed simultaneously, and harvesting efficiency is improved.
As optimization, a mechanical shaking blade is arranged between the front chain wheels of the two furrow openers in the same group, the mechanical shaking blade is connected between the two front chain wheel mounting frames at the front end of each group of furrow openers, and the mechanical shaking blade is fixed on the front chain wheel mounting frames through a built-in rotating shaft. According to the optimized scheme, the mechanical shaking blade is arranged between the two front chain wheels and is driven to move forwards and backwards at a constant speed by the rotation of the built-in rotating shaft in a rotating angle limiting manner, so that the forefront part of the furrow opener can reach the position below the root of the green Chinese onion conveniently; and after the green Chinese onion reaches the area below the root, the mechanical shaking blade further shakes to loosen the soil, so that the green Chinese onion is harvested conveniently.
As optimization, the shaft which is rotationally connected with the lower wheel carrier is also uniformly provided with spiral cutters connected with a driving device. This optimization scheme drives spiral cutter rotation through drive arrangement when the operation, and soil can be driven to cutter rotation direction one side, between two sets of furrow openers rather than the outside promptly, so can not pile up scallion one side. The harvesting is not influenced, the purpose of loosening the soil can be achieved, and the harvesting efficiency is further improved.
Preferably, two front wheel hubs of the high-ground-clearance vehicle body are respectively and rotatably connected with a lower L-shaped bent pipe, the two lower L-shaped bent pipes are respectively and fixedly connected with a vertical rod, and the vertical rods are respectively and fixedly connected with the vehicle body through upper L-shaped bent pipes. According to the optimization scheme, the lower L-shaped bent pipe, the vertical rod and the upper L-shaped bent pipe are arranged to form a gantry type frame structure with the vehicle body, so that green Chinese onions can pass through the gantry type frame structure conveniently, and the damage to the green Chinese onions can be reduced.
As optimization, still including being located the reposition of redundant personnel guider in ditching device the place ahead, reposition of redundant personnel guider includes that both ends overlap respectively the mounting panel on two vertical poles and from the mounting panel to the preceding slope extension of automobile body marcing four flow distribution plates, and the arc deflector rigid coupling is passed through to the one end of keeping away from the mounting panel on the two flow distribution plates in the middle, and the opening of arc deflector is towards the mounting panel place side. According to the flow dividing guide device, the two adjacent ridges of the green Chinese onions are separated through the arc-shaped guide plates, and the flow dividing plates form an outer opening corresponding to the ridges of the green Chinese onions, so that the green Chinese onions can more smoothly enter a rear designated area for flow dividing, and the situation that a large number of green Chinese onions are accumulated and blocked is effectively avoided; meanwhile, the situation that part of the green Chinese onions are missed or damaged by wheels, blade chain saws and rotary cutters due to the error of the relative movement route is also prevented.
Preferably, the vertical rod is fixedly sleeved with an arc-shaped blocking piece, and the arc-shaped arches of the arc-shaped blocking piece are oppositely arranged. This optimization scheme is through setting up the cambered surface separation blade, prevents that the green Chinese onion from being drawn into in the wheel and causing the injury of different degrees simultaneously to automobile body and green Chinese onion when passing the rear.
As optimization, the lower L-shaped elbow is further sleeved with a U-shaped wheel baffle plate which extends to the front of the front wheel, and two side edges of the U-shaped wheel baffle plate respectively extend to two sides of the front wheel. This optimization scheme blocks the wheel through setting up U type fender wheel board, lets some shallots that grow the slope pass through from fender wheel board both sides, avoids impairedly.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the high-ground-clearance vehicle body is used as a walking device and the furrow opener is used as a ditching device, and the furrow opener is conveniently lengthened by increasing the length of the rigid rod; the high ground clearance is far away from the ground, so that the green onions are effectively prevented from being damaged by the vehicle body, and the smooth passing of the green onions with the knurls is also ensured; the lengthened furrow opener is well suitable for the characteristics of tall plants such as the shallot with a dune and the like, and long onion stalk and green onion on the soil; aiming at a series of characteristics of the nutty green Chinese onion, the invention realizes integration of ditching and soil loosening, has complete functions, avoids fussy manual labor, reduces the working difficulty and the working intensity and effectively improves the working efficiency.
2. Compared with a push type ditching device, the traction type ditching device effectively avoids the situation that the ditching device is not moved due to insufficient thrust or the situation that the ditching device is blocked when meeting hard objects such as large stones, and the like, thereby avoiding the situations of potential safety hazards such as vehicle body damage, vehicle body forward overturn and the like.
3. The invention adopts the onion shunting guide device to ensure that the onions can carry out relative motion through an appointed path, thereby solving the problem of improving the damage rate of the onions caused by the fact that the chapter-dune onions cannot enter a correct path due to the conditions of inclination, lodging and the like, and indirectly improving the yield.
4. The invention adopts a double-row type harvesting method, namely the ditching device is provided with four ditches, two ditches are a group, and two groups of ditches work simultaneously to ditch the two sides of the chives with the stamps and loosen the soil, thereby improving the working efficiency and reducing the working strength.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the overall structure;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the construction of the furrowing device (with a mechanical shaking blade);
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the structure of the onion shunt guide;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the connection between the protection device and the green Chinese onion shunt guide device (the cambered surface baffle on the right half part is hidden);
shown in the figure:
1. high ground clearance automobile body, 2, T type connecting rod, 3.1, go up L type return bend, 3.2, lower L type return bend, 4, cambered surface separation blade, 5, pneumatic cylinder, 6, U type catch wheel board, 7, go up the link, 8, lower link, 9, spiral cutter, 10, mechanical shake blade, 11, preceding sprocket, 12, preceding sprocket mounting bracket, 13, rigid bar, 14, blade chain saw, 15, vertical bar, 16, cylindrical horizontal pole, 17, cylindrical connecting rod, 18, axle, 19, lower sprocket, 20, piston rod, 21, square hack lever, 22, flow distribution plate, 23, arc deflector, 24, lower wheel carrier.
Detailed Description
In order to clearly illustrate the technical features of the present solution, the present solution is explained below by way of specific embodiments.
As shown in figure 1, the double-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester comprises a walking device, a transmission device, a hydraulic device, a ditching device, a soil loosening device, a green Chinese onion shunt guide device and a protection device.
The running gear comprises a high-clearance vehicle body 1 provided with two small front wheels and two large rear wheels, and a ditching device arranged at the bottom of the high-clearance vehicle body, wherein an engine for driving the rear wheels to rotate is fixed on the high-clearance vehicle body, and the engine is arranged on a connecting chassis for stabilizing the combined vehicle body.
The transmission device comprises electric and hydraulic transmission equipment arranged in the high-clearance vehicle body, and a front chain wheel and a lower chain wheel which enable a furrow opener blade chain saw in the furrow opener to rotate back and forth.
The hydraulic device comprises a hydraulic cylinder 5 in the ditching device and a hydraulic system connected with the hydraulic cylinder, and the ditching device is unfolded and folded through the reciprocating motion of a piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder, so that the ditching depth can be freely controlled.
The ditching device comprises an upper connecting frame 7 fixed on the high-clearance vehicle body, a lower connecting frame 8 hinged to the upper connecting frame 7 through a transverse hinge shaft, and a hydraulic cylinder 5 driving the lower connecting frame to rotate around the transverse hinge shaft, wherein the cylinder body of the hydraulic cylinder 5 is hinged to the upper connecting frame through a cylindrical cross rod 16, a piston rod 20 of the hydraulic cylinder 5 is hinged to the lower connecting frame through a cylindrical connecting rod 17, and the cylindrical cross rod 16, the cylindrical connecting rod 17 and the transverse hinge shaft are parallel to each other and are arranged horizontally. The upper connecting frame is connected with the cylindrical cross bar 16 through the lower ends of two T-shaped connecting rods 2, and the upper ends of the T-shaped connecting rods are connected with the high-ground-clearance vehicle body 1. The transverse hinge shaft is perpendicular to the traveling direction of the high-clearance vehicle body, at least two furrow openers distributed in the width direction of the high-clearance vehicle body are arranged on the lower connecting frame, the number of the furrow openers is two, the number of the furrow openers in each group is two, and a channel opposite to the scallion ridge is formed between the two furrow openers in the same group.
The furrow opener comprises a rigid rod 13 fixedly connected with a lower connecting frame, a front chain wheel 11 and a lower chain wheel 19 which are rotatably connected on the rigid rod 13, a blade chain saw 14 wound on the front chain wheel and the lower chain wheel, and a furrow opening driving device for driving the blade chain saw 14 to rotate, wherein the front chain wheel and the lower chain wheel are in transmission connection through the blade chain saw, the blade chain saw extends along the traveling direction of a high-clearance vehicle body, the front chain wheel is positioned at one end of the blade chain saw, which is far away from the lower connecting frame, and triangular blades which are arranged in a staggered mode are arranged on the blade chain saw 14, so that soil can be effectively broken under the high-speed movement of the blade chain saw. Specifically, the rigid rod is located between the upper side edge and the lower side edge of the blade chain saw 14, one end of the rigid rod, which is far away from the lower connecting frame, is fixedly connected with a front chain wheel mounting frame 12, the front chain wheel is rotatably connected to the front chain wheel mounting frame 12, the rigid rod is further fixedly connected with a lower wheel frame extending downwards, a lower chain wheel 19 is rotatably connected to a lower wheel frame 24, and the lower chain wheel 19 is located at the rear lower part of the rigid rod 13. The lower connecting frame is also fixedly connected with a square frame rod 21, and the four furrow openers are regularly fixed on the square frame rod 21 through bolts and nuts.
The soil loosening device comprises a spiral cutter positioned on a lower wheel frame and a mechanical shaking blade 10 arranged between front chain wheels of two furrow openers in the same group, wherein the mechanical shaking blade 10 is fixed on a front chain wheel mounting frame 12 through a built-in rotating shaft and is concentrically matched and fixed with the two front chain wheel mounting frames and the two front chain wheels. The spiral cutters 9 are uniformly and fixedly arranged on the shaft 18 along the axial direction, the shaft 18 is rotatably connected to the lower wheel frame, the shaft 18 and the lower wheel frame can rotate relative to each other, the shaft 18 and the lower chain wheel 19 are connected through keys, the driving device drives the rotation of the shaft 18 to drive the spiral cutters 9 to rotate freely, and when the spiral cutters rotate, the lower chain wheel rotates simultaneously. The mechanical shaking blade 10 is fixed between two furrow opener chain wheels through a built-in rotating shaft, and the rotating shaft rotates with a limited rotating angle to enable the mechanical shaking blade to move forwards and backwards at a constant speed, so that the forefront part of the furrow opener can reach the root position of the green Chinese onion conveniently; and after the green Chinese onion reaches the root region, the mechanical shaking blade is further shaken to achieve the purpose of loosening the soil, so that the green Chinese onion is harvested conveniently.
Two front wheel hubs of the high-clearance vehicle body are respectively and rotatably connected with a lower L-shaped bent pipe 3.2, the two lower L-shaped bent pipes 3.2 are respectively and fixedly connected with an upward extending vertical rod 15, and the vertical rods 15 are respectively and fixedly connected with the vehicle body through upper L-shaped bent pipes 3.1.
The protection device comprises a vertical rod, a fixed cambered surface blocking piece 4 and a U-shaped blocking wheel plate 6, wherein the two side edges of the vertical rod respectively extend to the two sides of the front wheel, and the cambered surface blocking piece 4 is oppositely arched. The U-shaped wheel baffle 6 is sleeved and fixed on the lower L-shaped bent pipe 3.2 and extends to the front of the front wheel. The U-shaped wheel blocking plate 6 blocks wheels, and the green Chinese onions growing obliquely pass through the U-shaped wheel blocking plate from two sides, so that the green Chinese onions are prevented from being damaged, the cambered surface blocking pieces are matched and fixed with the vertical rods concentrically, and the green Chinese onions are prevented from being rolled into wheels when passing through the rear, so that the green Chinese onions are prevented from being injured at different degrees on the vehicle body and the green Chinese onions.
The shallot reposition of redundant personnel guider of this embodiment is located ditching device the place ahead, establish the mounting panel on two vertical poles and from the mounting panel four splitter plates 22 that the place ahead slope that the automobile body marched including both ends difference cover, the one end of keeping away from the mounting panel on two splitter plates 22 in the middle passes through arc deflector 23 rigid coupling, the opening of arc deflector 23 is towards the mounting panel place side, the splitter plate forms the outer opening formula that corresponds with the shallot ridge. The two ends of the arc guide plate are respectively fixed with the left and the right open-type splitter plates in a butt joint mode to form a whole. Compared with other shapes, the arc-shaped guide plate can enable the green Chinese onions to more smoothly enter a rear designated area for shunting, so that the situation that a large number of green Chinese onions are accumulated and blocked is effectively avoided; meanwhile, the situation that part of the green Chinese onions are missed or damaged by wheels, blade chain saws or spiral cutters due to the error of the relative movement route is also prevented.
The use method of the double-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester comprises the following specific steps: the walking device high ground clearance vehicle body advances along the assigned route, and after reaching the ridge, the green Chinese onion reaches the furrow opener room through the green Chinese onion reposition of redundant personnel guider, and the existence of protection device during this period has reduced the damaged rate of chapter green Chinese onion as far as possible. Meanwhile, the ditching device is put down through the telescopic motion of the hydraulic cylinder, so that different ditching depths can be selected for green Chinese onions with different planting depths; a blade chain saw in the furrow opener rotates around a transmission chain wheel and a rigid rod to break the soil, so that the aim of ditching is fulfilled. In addition, the continuous rotation of the spiral blade and the reciprocating motion of the mechanical shaking blade in the soil loosening device loosen and remove soil at the root of the green Chinese onion, so that the green Chinese onion is convenient to harvest.
Of course, the above description is not limited to the above examples, and the undescribed technical features of the present invention can be implemented by or using the prior art, and will not be described herein again; the above embodiments and drawings are only for illustrating the technical solutions of the present invention and not for limiting the present invention, and the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the preferred embodiments, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that changes, modifications, additions or substitutions within the spirit and scope of the present invention may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the present invention, and shall also fall within the scope of the claims of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. The utility model provides a self-propelled shallot harvester of planting deeply of double row which characterized in that: the ditching device comprises an upper connecting frame (7) fixed on the high-ground-clearance vehicle body, a lower connecting frame (8) hinged with the upper connecting frame (7) through a transverse hinge shaft, and a hydraulic cylinder driving the lower connecting frame to rotate around the transverse hinge shaft, wherein the transverse hinge shaft is vertical to the traveling direction of the high-ground-clearance vehicle body, and at least two ditchers distributed in the width direction of the high-ground-clearance vehicle body are arranged on the lower connecting frame;
the furrow opener comprises a rigid rod (13) fixedly connected with the lower connecting frame, a front chain wheel (11) and a lower chain wheel (19) which are rotatably connected to the rigid rod (13), a blade chain saw (14) wound on the front chain wheel and the lower chain wheel, and a furrow opening driving device for driving the blade chain saw (14) to rotate, wherein the blade chain saw extends along the traveling direction of the high-clearance vehicle body, and the front chain wheel is positioned at one end of the blade chain saw, which is far away from the lower connecting frame.
2. The two-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester of claim 1, wherein: the number of the furrow openers is two, two furrow openers are arranged in each group, and a channel opposite to the scallion ridge is formed between the two furrow openers in the same group.
3. The two-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester of claim 2, wherein: a mechanical shaking blade (10) is arranged between the front chain wheels of the two furrow openers in the same group, and the mechanical shaking blade (10) is concentrically matched and fixed with the two front chain wheel mounting frames (12) and the two front chain wheels (11) through a built-in rotating shaft.
4. The two-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester of claim 1, wherein: the shaft (18) which is rotationally connected with the lower wheel carrier (24) is also uniformly provided with a spiral cutter (9) which is connected with a driving device.
5. The two-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester of claim 1, wherein: two front wheel hubs of the high-clearance vehicle body are respectively and rotatably connected with a lower L-shaped bent pipe (3.2), the two lower L-shaped bent pipes (3.2) are respectively and fixedly connected with a vertical rod (15), and the vertical rods (15) are respectively and fixedly connected with the vehicle body through upper L-shaped bent pipes (3.1).
6. The two-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester of claim 5, wherein: still including being located the reposition of redundant personnel guider in ditching device the place ahead, reposition of redundant personnel guider includes that both ends overlap respectively and establish mounting panel on two vertical poles and from four flow distribution plate (22) that the place ahead slope that the mounting panel marched to the automobile body extends, and arc deflector (23) rigid coupling is passed through to the one end of keeping away from the mounting panel on two flow distribution plate (22) in the middle, and the opening of arc deflector (23) is towards mounting panel place side.
7. The two-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester of claim 5, wherein: the vertical rod is fixedly sleeved with an arc-shaped blocking piece (4), and the arc-shaped arches of the arc-shaped blocking piece (4) are oppositely arranged.
8. The two-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester of claim 5, wherein: still overlap on L type return bend (3.2) down and establish U type fender wheel board (6) that are fixed with and extend to the front wheel the place ahead, the both sides limit of U type fender wheel board (6) extends to the front wheel both sides respectively.
CN201911043761.4A 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 Double-row self-propelled deep planting green Chinese onion harvester Active CN110679265B (en)

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CN112602438A (en) * 2020-12-14 2021-04-06 国家林业和草原局哈尔滨林业机械研究所 Shellfish soil excavating device of fritillaria ussuriensis bulb harvester

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