CN108956331A - Unsaturated soil capillary sucks direct shear apparatus and application method - Google Patents

Unsaturated soil capillary sucks direct shear apparatus and application method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108956331A
CN108956331A CN201810527516.XA CN201810527516A CN108956331A CN 108956331 A CN108956331 A CN 108956331A CN 201810527516 A CN201810527516 A CN 201810527516A CN 108956331 A CN108956331 A CN 108956331A
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shear box
sample
tested
shear
box
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杨松
周明凯
黄剑峰
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Yunnan Agricultural University
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Yunnan Agricultural University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/24Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady shearing forces

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
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Abstract

The present invention provides unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus and application method, comprising: pedestal, the shear box being set on the base, Vertical loading device, matric suction measurement device, promote capillary suction apparatus at horizontal loading apparatus;Sample to be tested is placed in the shear box;The matric suction measurement device is set in sample to be tested;The Vertical loading device is set to above shear box, provides Vertical loading for shear box;The horizontal loading apparatus is connect with shear box, provides horizontal addload for shear box.The present invention, which solves existing unsaturated soil direct shear apparatus, cannot simulate nature soil body humidification state, can accurately measure soil strength parameter in unsaturated soil humidification process.

Description

Unsaturated soil capillary sucks direct shear apparatus and application method
Technical field
The invention belongs to civil engineering instrument test technical fields, are related to unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus and user Method.
Background technique
A series of engineerings that unsaturated soils theory is related to, as natural in the case of construction and the operation of earth dam, environmental change Land upheaval caused by slight slope, the stability of slope of earth excavation, swelled ground and many practical problems in collapsible soil, are intended to pair Seepage flow, the body of soil become and shearing strength characteristic is had gained some understanding and just be can solve.To saturated soil and arid soil, shearing strength all with saturation Effective stress in soil is directly proportional.When the soil body is in unsaturated state, water, gas and soil particle three-phase coexistence, shearing strength Rule will be totally different from the situation of saturation or drying.Therefore influence of the research unsaturated soil matric suction to its shearing strength, The assessment and prediction of Slope Stability play an important role.The intensity of unsaturated soil can reduce and have become after drying and watering cycle Common recognition is however, same drying and watering cycle process, and the strength change laws of soil sample are but because of different drying and watering cycles in humidification or dehumidification Mode and there is difference.The main reason for leading to these differences is humidification or the day of dehumidification mode and the soil body during strength test Right shape is detached from.
The test method for studying soil strength in current soil test indoors mainly has: direct shear apparatus, triaxial apparatus, plane are answered Become instrument and true triaxil tester etc..Slope and land slide failure mechanism, direct shear test are studied in order to simulate the similar stress condition of practical side slope It is more common and simple test method.
1, the sample of axial translation technology control matric suction is different from natural rock-filled state:
The direct shear apparatus for unsaturated soil exploitation controls frequently with axial translation technology, measures matric suction at present, and axis is flat Shifting method is to increase pore air pressure and pore water pressure simultaneously, remains unchanged the net impact state variable in sample.Axis translation Technology, which can be avoided the soil body and negative pore water pressure occurs, to cavitate, but the matrix that cannot really simulate the natural unsaturation soil body is inhaled Power state.Toll passes through largely test discovery: when controlled suction is equal, being contained with the soil body of axial translation technology control matric suction Water is greater than the water content in soil body nature situation.I.e. under the conditions of same matrix suction, axial translation technology controls matric suction Sample is different from natural rock-filled state.
2, the pressure chamber air-tightness of axial translation technology is difficult to ensure:
Currently used unsaturated soil direct shear apparatus seals the cutting system of entire staight scissors instrument to be with air pressure capable of being increased to soil sample Pressure chamber seal, so that its direct shear apparatus structure is become complicated, and increase the problem for keeping pressure chamber air-tightness, It is difficult really to reflect the suction force state of the natural unsaturation soil body.
3, it is difficult to ensure in shear history that sample is in the nature that capillary sucks:
Sample is in shear history, and humidity, temperature in capillary suction condition and local environment have necessarily relationship, no It can guarantee which kind of state it is in.
4, the test period is long, at high cost:
Mostly use double pressure chambers unsaturated soil triaxial tester greatly both at home and abroad.However, using double pressure chambers unsaturated soil three Shaft experiment instrument measures unsaturation soil classifiction, needs to expend great amount of cost purchase special instrument, and the test period is very long, For be pressed for time or the limited practical engineering project of economic resources for, the measurement of the shear strength parameter of unsaturated soil is very It is difficult.
Summary of the invention
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a kind of unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus and application method, solves Problems of the prior art.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention is that unsaturated soil capillary sucks direct shear apparatus, comprising: pedestal 33 is arranged the bottom of at Shear box 1, Vertical loading device 2, horizontal loading apparatus 3, matric suction measurement device 4, promotion capillary suction apparatus on seat 3 5, which is characterized in that place sample to be tested 24 in the shear box 1, the matric suction measurement device 4 is set to sample to be tested In 24, the Vertical loading device 2 is set to 1 top of shear box, and the horizontal loading apparatus 3 connect with shear box 1, is set to The both ends of shear box 1, the promotion capillary suction apparatus 5 are connect with shear box 1.
Preferably, 24 bottom of sample to be tested with filter paper 30 is seamless contacts, 24 top of sample to be tested is sequentially placed more Hole poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 28 and pressure transmission plate 25 are equipped with intercommunicating pore among the pressure transmission plate 25.
Preferably, the matric suction measurement device 4 includes fast reaction tensometer 15 and digital display meter 16, described quickly anti- Tensometer 15 is answered to be placed on the top of 24 shear surface of sample to be tested, 15 probe diameter of fast reaction tensometer is 1CM, described quick It is provided with spring 23 on reaction tensometer 15, pottery clay plates 31, the pottery clay plates 31 are placed in the fast reaction tensometer 15 It is in close contact with sample to be tested 24, digital display meter 16 is fixed on 33 side of pedestal, the fast reaction tensometer 15 and digital display meter 16 It is connected by conducting wire.
Preferably, the pottery clay plates 31 can also be placed on after sample to be tested 24 drills close to drilling described in the position of shear surface Depth is up to the height of 1/2 sample to be tested 24, and the bore diameter is identical as the outside diameter of fast reaction tensometer 15.
Preferably, the shear box 1 includes upper shear box 6, lower shear box 7 and shear box top cover 8;The lower shear box 7 It is movably disposed on pedestal 33, the pedestal 33 is equipped with the spherical guide 32 that ball 35 is formed, and spherical guide 32 is simultaneously Two rows of column, lower shear box 7 are arranged on spherical guide 32, and the upper shear box 6 is placed in the top of lower shear box 7, above cuts It cuts box 6 and the cavity shape of lower shear box 7 is identical and equal sized, form cutting ring sample, and corresponding position is equipped with pin hole 27, fold Upper shear box 6 is fixedly connected by pin 26 across pin hole 27 with lower shear box 7 after putting alignment, and the shear box top cover 8 is arranged Above pressure transmission plate 25, pin 26 passes through pin hole 27 and is fixedly connected with shear box top cover 8 with pressure transmission plate 25, the shear box top Spacing is equipped between lid 8 and pressure transmission plate 25.
Preferably, the permeable stone 29 and filter paper 30 of saturation are successively placed in the lower shear box 7.
Preferably, the Vertical loading device 2 includes load cylinder 9, pressure sensor 10, and the pressure sensor 10 is set It is placed in the end of load cylinder 9, the top of the load cylinder 9 is equipped with crossbeam 36, and 36 both ends of crossbeam are fixed with column 37, described Axial load 34 is equipped in the middle part of crossbeam 36.
Preferably, the horizontal loading apparatus 3 includes propeller 11, ring 12 of measuring one's own ability, horizontal displacement meter 13 and fixed baffle 14, the propeller 11 is fixedly connected with 7 side of lower shear box of shear box 1, the upper shearing of the measure one's own ability ring 12 and shear box 1 6 side of box is fixedly connected, and horizontal displacement meter 13 connects measure one's own ability ring 12 and fixed baffle 14, and the fixed baffle 14 and pedestal 33 are solid Fixed connection.
Preferably, the promotion capillary suction apparatus 5 includes water tank 17, conduit 18, fluid flowmeter 19 and inlet valve 20,24 bottom of sample to be tested placed in shear box 1 is arranged in water inlet, is connected between water inlet and water tank 17 by conduit 18 It connects, the water tank 17 is supported with support frame 21, and wherein 17 level scale of water tank and 24 bottom of sample to be tested maintain an equal level, conduit 18 It is equipped with inlet valve 20 and fluid flowmeter 19, the fluid flowmeter 19 measures the weight of sample sucking water.
The application method of unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus, which is characterized in that the unsaturated soil capillary sucks staight scissors The operating procedure of instrument are as follows:
Step 1: it is sequentially placed into lower shear box 7 after permeable stone 29 and filter paper 30 are saturated, upper shear box 6 and lower shearing Box 7 is connected after stacking alignment by pin 26, and lower 7 side of shear box is connect with the propeller 11 of horizontal loading apparatus 3, upper shearing 6 side of box is connect with 12 end of ring of measuring one's own ability;
Step 2: sample to be tested 24 is produced with cutting ring identical with 1 interface dimensions of shear box, sample to be tested center is according to need Sample to be tested hole is drilled through, drilling depth is up to 1/2 sample to be tested height, and bore diameter is outer with fast reaction tensometer 15 Side diameter is identical;
Step 3: the sample to be tested 24 in cutting ring is placed on upper 6 inner cavity of shear box, is pressed sample to be tested 24 with stripper Enter into upper shear box 6 and lower shear box 7, make 24 bottom of sample to be tested with filter paper 30 is seamless contacts, 24 top of sample to be tested It is sequentially placed porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 28 and pressure transmission plate 25, fast reaction tensometer 15 is put into the intercommunicating pore among pressure transmission plate 25 In, spring 23 is placed, shear box top cover 8 is placed on 25 top of pressure transmission plate and connects fastening with pin 26, makes fast reaction The pottery clay plates 31 and sample to be tested 24 of 15 bottom end of power meter are in close contact, and digital display meter 16 can show reading, the digital display meter 16 at this time Measure sample matric suction;
Step 4: adding water into water tank 17, and the water level arrival in water tank 17 is made to maintain an equal level with 24 bottom of sample to be tested At scale, the inlet valve 20 at conduit 18 is closed;
Step 5: the slowly propeller 11 of rotation horizontal loading apparatus 3 pushes lower shear box 7 by pushing ram, passes through shifting Dynamic secondary slow parallel sliding, stopping when making the pointer fine motion of horizontal displacement meter 13 will connect upper shear box 6 and lower shear box 7 Bolt makes the sample to be tested 24 in shear box 1 be in shearing original state after extracting in pin hole 27, i.e., upper 6 He of shear box Lower shear box 7 is in the original state of relative movement;
Step 6: being directed at 8 center of shear box top cover for the axial load 34 at 36 middle part of crossbeam, and adjust vertical load, posting Bar pushes shear box top cover 8 to move downward, and applies scheduled pressure at right angle to sample to be tested 24;
Step 7: opening inlet valve 20, and regulations speed controller starts servo motor, and horizontal propeller drives pushing ram, Push lower shear box 7 is horizontal to move horizontally along spherical guide 32, horizontal displacement meter 13 measure the horizontal displacement of lower shear box 7 away from From the horizontal displacement meter 13 measures the horizontal shear displacement of sample to be tested 24, i.e., the level with 24 shear surface of sample to be tested is cut It is identical to cut displacement;
Step 8: during test, by record test period, horizontal shear displacement, matric suction, water content and vertically Pressure calculates the shearing strength of sample to be tested.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are:
1, promote capillary suction apparatus, sample can be made to be automatically drawn into moisture in shear history, and increase porous organic Glass plate increases the connectivity of sample and atmosphere, keeps the air pressure of soil body hole equal with atmospheric pressure, sample is made to be in nature shape Under state, the suction force state of the natural unsaturation soil body is simulated.
2, sample to be tested in the raw under, keep the air pressure of soil body hole it is equal with atmospheric pressure, can really simulate day The suction force state of the right unsaturation soil body, soil body suction force state is identical as the state of the neighbouring unsaturation soil body of earth surface of side slope when test.
3, sample to be tested in the raw under, avoid the pressure chamber for sealing the cutting system of entire direct shear apparatus sealing Get up, not only making its direct shear apparatus, the structure can be simplified, and avoids keeping the problem of pressure chamber air-tightness.
4, the different disadvantage of suction force state and natural rock-filled using soil body when axial translation technology, and the present invention are overcome The variation of water content of soil is measured by flowmeter real-time perfoming in capillary suction process.
5, the unsaturated soil back-pressure direct shear apparatus UBPS of the prior art controls matric suction using axial translation technology, and one non- Saturated sample back-pressure direct shear test, each time need one to two weeks, price 900,000;Existing ZFY-1 type unsaturated soil strain control Standard direct shear apparatus controls matric suction, shear rate 0.002-2mm/min, price 5.3 ten thousand using axial translation technology;This hair Matric suction, shear rate 0.015-1.8mm/min, cost price about 10,000 are measured using fast reaction tensometer.Present invention dress It sets easy to operate, simple structure, be easy to grasp, rapidly, the test period is short, low in cost for fast reaction tensometer reading.
Detailed description of the invention
In order to more clearly explain the embodiment of the invention or the technical proposal in the existing technology, to embodiment or will show below There is attached drawing needed in technical description to be briefly described, it should be apparent that, the accompanying drawings in the following description is only this Some embodiments of invention for those of ordinary skill in the art without creative efforts, can be with It obtains other drawings based on these drawings.
Fig. 1 is unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus positive structure schematic.
Fig. 2 is unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus side structure schematic diagram.
Fig. 3 is unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus shear box structural schematic diagram.
Fig. 4 is upper shear box schematic elevation view.
Fig. 5 is upper shear box schematic top plan view.
Fig. 6 is lower shear box schematic elevation view.
Fig. 7 is lower shear box schematic top plan view.
Fig. 8 is pressure transmission plate schematic top plan view.
Fig. 9 is pressure transmission plate schematic elevation view.
Figure 10 is shear box top cover schematic top plan view.
Figure 11 is shear box top cover schematic elevation view.
Figure 12 is pin schematic diagram.
Figure 13 is Vertical loading schematic device
Figure 14 is horizontal loading apparatus schematic diagram.
Figure 15 is to promote capillary suction apparatus schematic diagram.
Figure 16 is porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate schematic top plan view.
Figure 17 is porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate schematic elevation view.
In figure, shear box -1, Vertical loading device -2, horizontal loading apparatus -3, matric suction measurement device -4 promote hair Thin suction apparatus -5, upper shear box -6, lower shear box -7, shear box top cover -8, load cylinder -9, pressure sensor -10 promote Device -11, ring -12 of measuring one's own ability, horizontal displacement meter -13, fixed baffle -14, fast reaction tensometer -15, digital display meter -16, water tank - 17, conduit -18, fluid flowmeter -19, inlet valve -20, support frame -21, spring -23, sample to be tested -24, pressure transmission plate -25, pin Nail -26, pin hole -27, porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate -28, permeable stone -29, filter paper -30, pottery clay plates -31, ball guide passage -32, bottom Seat -33, axial load -34, ball -35, crossbeam -36, column -37.
Specific embodiment
Following will be combined with the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and technical solution in the embodiment of the present invention carries out clear, complete Site preparation description, it is clear that described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.It is based on Embodiment in the present invention, it is obtained by those of ordinary skill in the art without making creative efforts every other Embodiment shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
In the present embodiment, with reference to Fig. 1-17, unsaturated soil capillary sucks direct shear apparatus, comprising: pedestal 33 is arranged in pedestal Shear box 1, Vertical loading device 2, horizontal loading apparatus 3, matric suction measurement device 4, promotion capillary suction apparatus on 33 5, which is characterized in that place sample to be tested 24 in the shear box 1, the matric suction measurement device 4 is placed in sample to be tested It in 24, is connected above the Vertical loading device 2 and shear box 1, provides Vertical loading, the horizontal addload dress for shear box 1 It sets 3 to connect with shear box 1, is set to the both ends of shear box 1, provide horizontal addload, the promotion capillary sucking dress for shear box 1 It sets 5 to connect with shear box 1, promotes capillary suction apparatus 5 that sample to be tested 24 can be made to suck moisture, simulation soil in shear history Body is humidified state naturally.
Preferably, 24 bottom of sample to be tested with filter paper 30 is seamless contacts, 24 top of sample to be tested is sequentially placed more Hole poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 28 and pressure transmission plate 25 have macropore among the porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 28, around have aperture (such as Figure 16, 17) intercommunicating pore, is equipped among the pressure transmission plate 25, the intermediate diameter macropores of porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 28 and 25 intercommunicating pore of pressure transmission plate are straight Diameter is identical, and the setting of porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 28 can be such that sample to be tested 24 is communicated with the atmosphere, and in shear history, can suck Moisture simulates soil body nature.
Preferably, the matric suction measurement device 4 includes fast reaction tensometer 15 and digital display meter 16, described quickly anti- 15 inside low side of tensometer is answered to be placed with pottery clay plates 31, range 0-500kPa, precision 0.2%FS, temperature range is- 10-60 DEG C, the outer diameter and diameter macropores and pressure transmission plate 25 among porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 28 of the fast reaction tensometer 15 Connection bore dia is identical, and fast reaction tensometer 15 passes through 25 intercommunicating pore of macropore and pressure transmission plate among porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 28 It is placed on the top of 24 shear surface of sample to be tested, makes the pottery clay plates 31 and sample to be tested 24 of 15 inside low side of fast reaction tensometer It is in close contact, wherein pottery clay plates 31 are equivalent to inductive probe, it is in close contact with sample to be tested 24, after pottery clay plates 31 are saturated with water, Surface tension is generated on hole gas-liquid interface, so that the gas and liquid two phases isolation of 31 two sides of pottery clay plates is come, therefore using fast Speed reaction tensometer 15 directly can quickly measure matric suction, while porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 28 also guarantees with pressure transmission plate 25 The stabilization of fast reaction tensometer, 15 probe diameter of fast reaction tensometer are 1CM, are set on the fast reaction tensometer 15 It is equipped with spring 23, the digital display meter 16 is fixed on 33 side of pedestal, and the fast reaction tensometer 15 and digital display meter 16 are logical Cross conducting wire connection.
Preferably, the pottery clay plates 31 can also be placed on after sample to be tested 24 drills close to the position of shear surface, the brill Hole depth is up to the height of 1/2 sample to be tested 24, and the bore diameter is identical as the outside diameter of fast reaction tensometer 15.
Preferably, the shear box 1 includes upper shear box 6, lower shear box 7 and shear box top cover 8;The lower shear box 7 It is movably disposed on pedestal 33, the pedestal 33 is equipped with the spherical guide 32 that ball 35 is formed, and spherical guide 32 is simultaneously Two rows of column, lower shear box 7 are contacted with spherical guide 32, can be moved in parallel by spherical guide 32, and the upper shear box 6 is put It is placed in the top of lower shear box 7, upper shear box 6 and the cavity shape of lower shear box 7 are identical and equal sized, form cutting ring examination Sample, and corresponding position is equipped with pin hole 27, pin 26 consolidates upper shear box 6 and lower shear box 7 across pin hole 27 after stacking alignment Fixed connection, the shear box top cover 8 are set to 25 top of pressure transmission plate, and corresponding position is provided with pin hole 27, and pin 26 passes through bolt Shear box top cover 8 is fixedly connected by hole 27 with pressure transmission plate 25, and spacing is equipped between the shear box top cover 8 and pressure transmission plate 25, if Spacing is to be fixedly connected with shear box top cover 8 and pressure transmission with pin 26 since spring 23 is set on fast reaction tensometer 15 Plate 25, can be elastic by 26 adjustment spring 23 of pin, so that adjustable 31 bottom surface of pottery clay plates is located at the suitable position of sample to be tested 24 It sets, the part of 8 intermediate projections of shear box top cover is used for fixed spring 23.
Preferably, bottom is successively placed with the permeable stone 29 and filter paper 30 of saturation in the lower shear box 7, and permeable stone 29 has Very high permeability, filter paper 30 has good strainability and has strong absorbent properties to liquid, tight with sample to be tested 24 Contiguity touching, can make sample to be tested 24 suck moisture in shear history, while prevent the hole in blocking permeable stone 29, protect Water holding circulation is smooth, and the simulation soil body is humidified state naturally.The diameter of permeable stone 29 and filter paper 30 and upper shear box 6 and lower shear box 7 Inner cavity intracavity diameter it is identical, thickness is according to 29 thickness of standard permeable stone.
Preferably, the Vertical loading device 2 includes load cylinder 9, pressure sensor 10, and the pressure sensor 10 is set It is placed in the end of load cylinder 9, the top of the load cylinder 9 is equipped with crossbeam 36, and 36 both ends of crossbeam are fixed with column 37, described Axial load 34 is equipped in the middle part of crossbeam 36, the central contact of the axial load 34 and shear box top cover 8, wherein axial load 34 is by load Cylinder 9 controls, and applies 24 plus vertical load to sample to be tested, the column 37 supports entire Vertical loading device 2.
Preferably, the horizontal loading apparatus 3 includes propeller 11, ring 12 of measuring one's own ability, horizontal displacement meter 13 and fixed baffle 14, the propeller 11 is fixedly connected with 7 side of lower shear box of shear box 1, the upper shearing of the measure one's own ability ring 12 and shear box 1 6 side of box is fixedly connected, and horizontal displacement meter 13 connects measure one's own ability ring 12 and fixed baffle 14, and wherein the range of horizontal displacement meter 13 is 0-10mm, the fixed baffle 14 are fixedly connected with pedestal 33.
Preferably, the promotion capillary suction apparatus 5 includes water tank 17, conduit 18, fluid flowmeter 19 and inlet valve 20,24 bottom of sample to be tested placed in shear box 1 is arranged in water inlet, is connected between water inlet and water tank 17 by conduit 18 It connects, wherein the internal diameter of water inlet is equal to the internal diameter of conduit 18, and the conduit 18 of water inlet is connect by bolt with water inlet, to increase Strong fastness.Wherein water tank 17 is supported with support frame 21, ensure that the stabilization of water tank 17, the level scale of water tank 17 with 24 bottom of sample to be tested maintains an equal level, and to eliminate the influence of hydraulic slope, conduit 18 is equipped with inlet valve 20 and fluid flowmeter 19, institute Inlet valve 20 is stated for whether controlling the water in water tank 17 to the flowing of 24 direction of sample to be tested, i.e., whether sample to be tested 24 carries out Capillary sucks, and the water in water tank 17 is merely able to reach the upper surface of permeable stone 29 by conduit 18, and sample to be tested 24 is in Then sample to be tested 24 sucks moisture for unsaturated state, therefore sample to be tested 24 is in the natural shape of capillary sucking in shear history State, the fluid flowmeter 19 measure the weight of sample sucking water.
Embodiment one:
With reference to Fig. 1-17, the present invention provides the application method of unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus, which is characterized in that described The operating procedure of unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus are as follows:
Step 1: it is sequentially placed into lower shear box 7 after permeable stone 29 and filter paper 30 are saturated, upper shear box 6 and lower shearing Box 7 is fixedly connected after stacking alignment by pin 26, and lower 7 side of shear box is connect with the propeller 11 of horizontal loading apparatus 3, on 6 side of shear box is connect with 12 end of ring of measuring one's own ability, and provides horizontal addload for shear box 1;
Step 2: sample to be tested 24 is produced with cutting ring identical with 1 cavity interface dimensions of shear box;
Step 3: the sample to be tested 24 in cutting ring is placed on upper 6 inner cavity of shear box, is pressed sample to be tested 24 with stripper Enter into upper shear box 6 and lower shear box 7, make 24 bottom of sample to be tested with filter paper 30 is seamless contacts, 24 top of sample to be tested It is sequentially placed porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 28 and pressure transmission plate 25, fast reaction tensometer 15 is put into the intercommunicating pore among pressure transmission plate 25 In, spring 23 is placed on fast reaction tensometer 15, and shear box top cover 8 is placed on 25 top of pressure transmission plate and is connected with pin 26 Fastening is connect, with the part fixed spring 23 of 8 intermediate projections of shear box top cover, makes the pottery clay plates 31 of 15 bottom end of fast reaction tensometer It is in close contact with sample to be tested 24, digital display meter 16 can show that reading, the digital display meter 16 measure sample matric suction at this time;
Step 4: adding water into water tank 17, when the level scale in water tank 17 maintains an equal level with 24 bottom of sample to be tested, Close the inlet valve 20 at conduit 18;
Step 5: the slowly propeller 11 of rotation horizontal loading apparatus 3 pushes lower shear box 7 by pushing ram, passes through rolling The slow parallel sliding of pearl guide rail 32, stopping when making the pointer fine motion of horizontal displacement meter 13 will connect upper shear box 6 and lower shear box 7 pin 26 makes the sample to be tested 24 in shear box 1 be in shearing original state after extracting in pin hole 27, i.e., upper shearing Box 6 and lower shear box 7 are in the original state of relative movement;
Step 6: being directed at 8 center of shear box top cover for the axial load 34 at 36 middle part of crossbeam, and adjust vertical load, posting Bar pushes shear box top cover 8 to move downward, and applies scheduled pressure at right angle to sample to be tested 24;
Step 7: opening inlet valve 20, and regulations speed controller starts servo motor, and horizontal propeller 11, which drives, to be promoted Bar pushes lower shear box 7 is horizontal to move horizontally along spherical guide 32, and horizontal displacement meter 13 measures the horizontal displacement of lower shear box 7 Distance, the horizontal displacement meter 13 measure the horizontal shear displacement of sample to be tested 24, the i.e. level with 24 shear surface of sample to be tested Shear displacemant is identical;
Step 8: during test, by record test period, horizontal shear displacement, matric suction, water content and vertically Pressure calculates the shearing strength of sample to be tested.
Embodiment two:
With reference to Fig. 1-17, the present invention provides the application method of unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus, which is characterized in that described The operating procedure of unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus are as follows:
Step 1: it is sequentially placed into lower shear box 7 after permeable stone 29 and filter paper 30 are saturated, permeable stone 29 has very high Permeability, filter paper 30 have good strainability and have strong absorbent properties to liquid, and sample to be tested 24 can be made to cut Suck moisture during cutting, the simulation soil body is humidified state naturally.Upper shear box 6 and lower shear box 7 pass through pin after stacking alignment 26 are fixedly connected, and lower 7 side of shear box is connect with the propeller 11 of horizontal loading apparatus 3, upper 6 side of shear box and ring 12 of measuring one's own ability End connection provides horizontal addload for shear box 1;
Step 2: sample to be tested 24 is produced with cutting ring identical with 1 cavity interface dimensions of shear box, in sample to be tested 24 The heart drills through sample to be tested hole, and drilling depth is up to 1/2 sample to be tested height, and bore diameter is outer with fast reaction tensometer 15 Side diameter is identical, and the identical integrality that can guarantee sample to be tested 24 of diameter, bore diameter is too small, and fast reaction tensometer 15 can not Be put into the drilling of sample to be tested 24, bore diameter is excessive, cause gap around fast reaction tensometer 15 with drilling, i.e., on (sample to be tested top half) stress of sample to be tested 24 is concentrated in shear box, and sample destroys, test failure;
Step 3: the sample to be tested 24 in cutting ring is placed on upper 6 inner cavity of shear box, is pressed sample to be tested 24 with stripper Enter into upper shear box 6 and lower shear box 7, make 24 bottom of sample to be tested with filter paper 30 is seamless contacts, 24 top of sample to be tested It is sequentially placed porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate 28 and pressure transmission plate 25, fast reaction tensometer 15 is put into the intercommunicating pore among pressure transmission plate 25 In, spring 23 is placed on fast reaction tensometer 15, and shear box top cover 8 is placed on 25 top of pressure transmission plate and is connected with pin 26 Fastening is connect, with the part fixed spring 23 of 8 intermediate projections of shear box top cover, makes the pottery clay plates 31 of 15 bottom end of fast reaction tensometer It is in close contact with 24 shear surface of sample to be tested, digital display meter 16 can show that reading, the digital display meter 16 measure sample matrix and inhale at this time Power;
Step 4: adding water into water tank 17, so that level scale and 24 bottom of sample to be tested in water tank 17 is maintained an equal level, closes Close the inlet valve 20 at conduit 18;
Step 5: the slowly propeller 11 of rotation horizontal loading apparatus 3 pushes lower shear box 7 by pushing ram, passes through rolling The slow parallel sliding of pearl guide rail 32, stopping when making the pointer fine motion of horizontal displacement meter 13 will connect upper shear box 6 and lower shear box 7 pin 26 makes the sample to be tested 24 in shear box 1 be in shearing original state after extracting in pin hole 27, i.e., upper shearing Box 6 and lower shear box 7 are in the original state of relative movement;
Step 6: being directed at 8 center of shear box top cover for the axial load 34 at 36 middle part of crossbeam, and adjust vertical load, posting Bar pushes shear box top cover 8 to move downward, and applies scheduled pressure at right angle to sample to be tested 24;
Step 7: opening inlet valve 20, and regulations speed controller starts servo motor, and horizontal propeller 11, which drives, to be promoted Bar pushes lower shear box 7 is horizontal to move horizontally along spherical guide 32, and horizontal displacement meter 13 measures the horizontal displacement of lower shear box 7 Distance, the horizontal displacement meter 13 measure the horizontal shear displacement of sample to be tested 24, the i.e. level with 24 shear surface of sample to be tested Shear displacemant is identical;
Step 8: during test, by record test period, horizontal shear displacement, matric suction, water content and vertically Pressure calculates the shearing strength of sample to be tested.
The foregoing is merely illustrative of the preferred embodiments of the present invention, is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.It is all Any modification, equivalent replacement, improvement and so within the spirit and principles in the present invention, are all contained in protection scope of the present invention It is interior.

Claims (10)

1. unsaturated soil capillary sucks direct shear apparatus, comprising: pedestal (33), the shear box (1) being arranged on pedestal (33) vertically add It carries and sets (2), horizontal loading apparatus (3), matric suction measurement device (4), promotes capillary suction apparatus (5), which is characterized in that Sample to be tested (24) are placed in the shear box (1), the matric suction measurement device (4) is set in sample to be tested (24), The Vertical loading device (2) is set to above shear box (1), and the horizontal loading apparatus (3) connect with shear box (1), if The both ends of shear box (1) are placed in, the promotion capillary suction apparatus (5) connect with shear box (1).
2. unsaturated soil capillary according to claim 1 sucks direct shear apparatus, which is characterized in that sample to be tested (24) bottom Portion and filter paper (30) seamless contact, sample to be tested (24) top is sequentially placed porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate (28) and pressure transmission plate (25), intercommunicating pore is equipped among the pressure transmission plate (25).
3. unsaturated soil capillary according to claim 1 sucks direct shear apparatus, which is characterized in that the matric suction measurement dress Setting (4) includes fast reaction tensometer (15) and digital display meter (16), and the fast reaction tensometer (15) is placed on sample to be tested (24) top of shear surface, fast reaction tensometer (15) probe diameter are 1CM, are arranged on the fast reaction tensometer (15) Have spring (23), is placed with pottery clay plates (31) in the fast reaction tensometer (15), the pottery clay plates (31) and sample to be tested (24) it is in close contact, digital display meter (16) is fixed on pedestal (33) side, the fast reaction tensometer (15) and digital display meter (16) It is connected by conducting wire.
4. unsaturated soil capillary according to claim 3 sucks direct shear apparatus, which is characterized in that the pottery clay plates (31) can also It being placed on after sample to be tested (24) drilling close to the position of shear surface, drilling depth is up to the height of 1/2 sample to be tested (24), Bore diameter is identical as the outside diameter of fast reaction tensometer (15).
5. unsaturated soil capillary according to claim 1 sucks direct shear apparatus, which is characterized in that the shear box (1) includes Upper shear box (6), lower shear box (7) and shear box top cover (8);The lower shear box (7) is movably disposed at pedestal (33) On, the pedestal (33) is equipped with the spherical guide (32) that ball (35) are formed, and spherical guide (32) is two rows arranged side by side, under cut It cuts box (7) to be arranged on spherical guide (32), the upper shear box (6) is placed in the top of lower shear box (7), upper shear box (6) identical and equal sized as the cavity shape of lower shear box (7), cutting ring sample is formed, and corresponding position is equipped with pin hole (27), Upper shear box (6) is fixedly connected by pin (26) across pin hole (27) with lower shear box (7) after stacking alignment, the shear box Top cover (8) is set to above pressure transmission plate (25), and pin (26) passes through pin hole (27) for shear box top cover (8) and pressure transmission plate (25) It is fixedly connected, spacing is equipped between the shear box top cover (8) and pressure transmission plate (25).
6. unsaturated soil capillary according to claim 5 sucks direct shear apparatus, which is characterized in that in the lower shear box (7) Successively it is placed with the permeable stone (29) and filter paper (30) of saturation.
7. unsaturated soil capillary according to claim 1 sucks direct shear apparatus, which is characterized in that the Vertical loading device It (2) include load cylinder (9), pressure sensor (10), the pressure sensor (10) is set to the end of load cylinder (9), The top of the load cylinder (9) is equipped with crossbeam (36), and crossbeam (36) both ends are fixed with column (37), in the middle part of the crossbeam (36) Equipped with axial load (34).
8. unsaturated soil capillary according to claim 1 sucks direct shear apparatus, which is characterized in that the horizontal loading apparatus (3) include propeller (11), ring of measuring one's own ability (12), horizontal displacement meter (13) and fixed baffle (14), the propeller (11) with cut Lower shear box (7) side for cutting box (1) is fixedly connected, and the ring of measuring one's own ability (12) and upper shear box (6) side of shear box (1) are solid Fixed connection, horizontal displacement meter (13) connection are measured one's own ability ring (12) and fixed baffle (14), the fixed baffle (14) and pedestal (33) It is fixedly connected.
9. unsaturated soil capillary according to claim 1 sucks direct shear apparatus, which is characterized in that the promotion capillary sucking dress Setting (5) includes water tank (17), conduit (18), fluid flowmeter (19) and inlet valve (20), and water inlet is arranged in shear box (1) Sample to be tested (24) bottom of interior placement is connect between water inlet and water tank (17) by conduit (18), the water tank (17) it is supported with support frame (21), wherein water tank (17) level scale and sample to be tested (24) bottom maintain an equal level, on conduit (18) Equipped with inlet valve (20) and fluid flowmeter (19), the weight of fluid flowmeter (19) the measurement sample sucking water.
10. based on the application method of the sucking direct shear apparatus of unsaturated soil capillary described in claim 1-9 any claim item, It is characterized in that, the operating procedure of the unsaturated soil capillary sucking direct shear apparatus are as follows:
Step 1: will be sequentially placed into lower shear box (7) after permeable stone (29) and filter paper (30) saturation, upper shear box (6) and under Shear box (7) is connected after stacking alignment by pin (26), the propeller of lower shear box (7) side and horizontal loading apparatus (3) (11) it connects, upper shear box (6) side is connect with ring of measuring one's own ability (12) end;
Step 2: sample to be tested (24) are produced with cutting ring identical with shear box (1) interface dimensions, sample to be tested center is according to need Drill through sample to be tested hole, drilling depth is up to 1/2 sample to be tested height, bore diameter and fast reaction tensometer (15) Outside diameter is identical;
Step 3: the sample to be tested (24) in cutting ring is placed on upper shear box (6) inner cavity, with stripper by sample to be tested (24) It is pressed into shear box (6) and lower shear box (7), makes sample to be tested (24) bottom and filter paper (30) seamless contact, it is to be measured Sample (24) top is sequentially placed porous poly (methyl methacrylate) plate (28) and pressure transmission plate (25), and fast reaction tensometer (15) is put into biography In the intermediate intercommunicating pore of pressing plate (25), places spring (23), shear box top cover (8) is placed on pressure transmission plate (25) top and uses pin (26) connection fastening is followed closely, the pottery clay plates (31) of fast reaction tensometer (15) bottom end and sample to be tested (24) are in close contact, this When digital display meter (16) can show reading, the digital display meter (16) measures sample matric suction;
Step 4: it to water tank (17) Zhong Jiashui, reaches the water level in water tank (17) and maintains an equal level with sample to be tested (24) bottom Scale at, close conduit (18) at inlet valve (20);
Step 5: slowly rotating the propeller (11) of horizontal loading apparatus (3), pushes lower shear box (7) by pushing ram, passes through The slow parallel sliding of prismatic pair makes to stop when the pointer fine motion of horizontal displacement meter (13), will connect upper shear box (6) and lower shearing After the bolt of box (7) is extracted from pin hole (27), the sample to be tested (24) in shear box (1) is made to be in shearing original state, I.e. upper shear box (6) and lower shear box (7) are in the original state of relative movement;
Step 6: the axial load (34) in the middle part of crossbeam (36) is directed at shear box top cover (8) center, and adjusts vertical load, is passed Carrying bar pushes shear box top cover (8) to move downward, and applies scheduled pressure at right angle to sample to be tested (24);
Step 7: opening inlet valve (20), regulations speed controller, starts servo motor, and horizontal propeller drives pushing ram, pushes away Dynamic lower shear box (7) are horizontal to be moved horizontally along spherical guide (32), and horizontal displacement meter (13) measures the horizontal position of lower shear box (7) Distance is moved, the horizontal shear displacement of horizontal displacement meter (13) measurement sample to be tested (24) is sheared with sample to be tested (24) The horizontal shear displacement in face is identical;
Step 8: during test, pass through record test period, horizontal shear displacement, matric suction, water content and vertical pressure Power calculates the shearing strength of sample to be tested.
CN201810527516.XA 2018-05-26 2018-05-26 Unsaturated soil capillary sucks direct shear apparatus and application method Pending CN108956331A (en)

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Application publication date: 20181207