CN107432131B - Saline-alkali soil improvement method - Google Patents

Saline-alkali soil improvement method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107432131B
CN107432131B CN201710564549.7A CN201710564549A CN107432131B CN 107432131 B CN107432131 B CN 107432131B CN 201710564549 A CN201710564549 A CN 201710564549A CN 107432131 B CN107432131 B CN 107432131B
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soil
saline
alkali soil
microbial inoculum
compound microbial
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CN107432131A (en
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宋国防
宋新卫
张文敏
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Shandong Guanghe Garden Co ltd
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Shandong Guanghe Garden Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting

Abstract

The invention discloses a saline-alkali soil improvement method, which belongs to the technical field of agriculture and comprises the following steps of ①, evenly spreading mushroom planting waste materials on the surface of soil, then irrigating water after deep ploughing by a deep ploughing machine, soaking for 10-15 hours, ②, draining water in the saline-alkali soil, carrying out rotary tillage, simultaneously applying organic farmyard manure, amino acid fertilizer and compound microbial agent during the rotary tillage, and then planting seedlings in the saline-alkali soil after 3 days of soil cultivation.

Description

Saline-alkali soil improvement method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of agriculture, in particular to a saline-alkali soil improvement method.
Background
The salinization of soil is a worldwide problem, the form is very severe, the salinized soil area is about 10 hundred million hectares all over the world, 9913 million hectares in China, about 14.7 hundred million acres, and more than 100 cities in China are located in a saline-alkali soil distribution area. The saline-alkali soil in China is mainly concentrated in arid and semi-arid regions in North China, northwest China and northeast China, and in addition, as chemical fertilizers are excessively applied for a long time in the cultivation process, secondary salinization of the soil is aggravated, hardening is serious, and salinized and alkalized soil is continuously enlarged.
The existing domestic saline-alkali soil improvement technology is summarized as ① physical improvement comprising land leveling, deep ploughing and upturned soil sunning, soil loosening in time, terrain lifting and micro-area soil improvement, ② hydraulic engineering improvement comprising irrigation and drainage matching, light pressure salt accumulation, irrigation salt washing and underground salt elimination, ③ chemical improvement comprising gypsum, phosphogypsum, calcium superphosphate, humic acid, peat, vinegar residue and the like, ④ biological improvement comprising planting rice, planting salt-tolerant plant sesbania or planting salt-tolerant trees and the like.
Disclosure of Invention
To solve the above problems, an object of the present invention is to provide.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
a saline-alkali soil improvement method aims at saline-alkali soil per mu and comprises the following steps:
①, uniformly spreading 500-550 kg of mushroom planting waste on the surface of soil, then carrying out deep ploughing by a deep ploughing machine for 40 cm, then irrigating water, and soaking for 10-15 hours;
② removing water in the saline-alkali soil, rotary tillage, the rotary tillage depth is more than 20cm, applying 50-60 kg of organic farmyard manure, 5-10 kg of amino acid fertilizer and 1-2 kg of compound microbial inoculum while rotary tillage, and then implementing seedling planting after 3-5 days of soil cultivation, wherein the compound microbial inoculum comprises photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus licheniformis, lactobacillus acidophilus and bacillus subtilis, wherein the viable count of the photosynthetic bacteria, the bacillus licheniformis, the lactobacillus acidophilus and the bacillus subtilis in each gram of the compound microbial inoculum is respectively more than 3 × 108、5×108、4×108And 2 × 108
Preferably, in step ②, after the water in the saline-alkali soil is drained, the soil is compacted by a compacting device, and then rotary tillage is performed, wherein the compacting device can be a roller press or a tamping machine, as long as the soil can be compacted to form a compact impermeable aggregate layer.
Preferably, the mushroom planting waste material is subjected to the following pretreatment processes: crushing the mushroom planting waste to more than 100 meshes, and then adding 0.1-0.5% of carbendazim by mass ratio for sterilization; the preferable steps can kill the mixed bacteria in the mushroom planting waste materials and prevent the mass propagation of harmful bacteria in the saline-alkali soil.
Preferably, after the field planting of the seedlings is implemented, in the field management process, the compound microbial inoculant is continuously irrigated at regular intervals without watering empty water; through the supplement of the compound microbial inoculum, the structure of the soil can be optimized, the soil is looser, and the demand of beneficial substances for the soil in the growth process of crops is adjusted.
Further preferably, the irrigation amount per mu of the compound microbial inoculum is respectively 0.5kg, 1kg and 2kg in the seedling stage, the middle growth stage and the full-bearing stage.
Further preferably, the method comprises the following steps of aiming at each mu of saline-alkali soil:
① smashing 520 kg of mushroom planting waste to more than 100 meshes, adding 0.3% of carbendazim for sterilization, uniformly spreading on the surface of soil, deeply ploughing by a deep ploughing machine for 40 cm, irrigating water and soaking for 14 hours;
② draining water in saline-alkali soil, compacting the soil by a tamping machine, then carrying out rotary tillage with a rotary tillage depth of more than 20cm, applying 55kg of organic farmyard manure, 8kg of amino acid fertilizer and 1.5kg of compound microbial inoculum while carrying out rotary tillage, and then carrying out seedling planting after 3 days of soil cultivation, wherein the compound microbial inoculum comprises photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus licheniformis, lactobacillus acidophilus and bacillus subtilis, and the number of viable bacteria of the photosynthetic bacteria, the bacillus licheniformis, the lactobacillus acidophilus and the bacillus subtilis in each gram of the compound microbial inoculum is respectively more than 3 × 108、5×108、4×108And 2 × 108
③ in the field management process after the field planting, the composite microbial inoculum is irrigated continuously and regularly without watering empty water, wherein the irrigation amount per mu in the seedling stage, the middle growth stage and the full bearing stage is respectively 0.5kg, 1kg and 2 kg.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
the saline-alkali soil improvement method is improvement under the original soil environment condition, a high ridging mode, a saline-alkali washing mode and the like are not adopted, but the waste materials in the current mushroom planting process are adopted to form an air-permeable anti-seepage aggregate layer, the anti-seepage aggregate layer and a saline-alkali layer of the surface are mixed through deep ploughing, and then the saline-alkali is washed clean through irrigation, and the anti-seepage aggregate layer can effectively prevent the surface planting soil from being salinized, so that the planting layer can be suitable for planting for a long time, a large amount of fresh water resources are not needed for washing, and the water consumption is effectively reduced;
the saline-alkali soil improvement method disclosed by the invention has the advantages that the rotary tillage operation is carried out after the saline-alkali water is drained completely, and the organic farmyard manure, the amino acid fertilizer and the compound microbial agent are applied while the rotary tillage can effectively improve the biological group of the soil, improve the pH value of the soil, increase the fertilizer required by crops, improve the structure of the soil and the microbial species, and are beneficial to the downward extension of the root systems of the crops, so that the soil improvement can be kept for a long time;
experimental research shows that after photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus licheniformis, lactobacillus acidophilus and bacillus subtilis are combined into the compound microbial agent according to a specific proportion, the compound microbial agent can achieve synergistic growth and reproduction in the environment of saline-alkali soil by combining the method of the invention, the variety and the number of any strain in the compound microbial agent are reduced, for example, the photosynthetic bacteria are removed, a large amount of mixed bacteria are generated in other microbial agents, the growth of beneficial bacteria in the compound microbial agent is inhibited, the quality of the microbial agent is not up to the standard, and the saline-alkali soil remediation effect cannot be achieved.
The waste materials in the mushroom planting process adopted by the invention have wide sources, low price and strong pertinence, effectively reduce the cost of saline-alkali soil improvement, find a good treatment way for the waste materials in the mushroom planting process, realize the change of waste into valuable, and have multiple economic and social benefits of saline-alkali soil improvement, ecological environment beautification and improvement and the like; and all the raw materials used can directly provide nutrient elements or are finally converted into products which can provide the growth needs for plants, and secondary pollution can not be caused. The method of the invention reduces the salt content of the saline-alkali soil to 0.5%, and reduces the alkalization degree by more than 40% compared with the alkalization degree before improvement.
Detailed Description
The mushroom planting waste material is waste material after planting edible mushrooms, and the edible mushrooms can be oyster mushrooms, pleurotus eryngii, needle mushrooms and the like.
The amino acid fertilizer of the present invention was produced by australian international (usa) biology ltd.
The invention is further described with reference to specific examples.
Example 1
A saline-alkali soil improvement method aims at saline-alkali soil per mu and comprises the following steps:
① uniformly spreading 500 kg of mushroom planting waste on the soil surface, then irrigating water after deep ploughing by a deep ploughing machine for 40 cm, and soaking for 10 hours;
② removing water from the saline-alkali soil, rotary tillage to a depth of more than 20cm, applying 50kg of organic farmyard manure, 5kg of amino acid fertilizer and 1kg of compound microbial inoculum while rotary tillage, and planting the seedlings after 3 days of soil cultivation, wherein the compound microbial inoculum comprises photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus licheniformis, lactobacillus acidophilus and bacillus subtilis, and the viable count of the photosynthetic bacteria, the bacillus licheniformis, the lactobacillus acidophilus and the bacillus subtilis in each gram of the compound microbial inoculum is respectively more than 3 × 108、5×108、4×108And 2 × 108
Example 2
A saline-alkali soil improvement method aims at saline-alkali soil per mu and comprises the following steps:
① uniformly spreading 550 kg of mushroom planting waste on the soil surface, then carrying out deep ploughing by a deep ploughing machine for 40 cm, then irrigating water, and soaking for 15 hours;
② removing water from the saline-alkali soil, rotary tillage to a depth of more than 20cm, applying 60kg of organic farmyard manure, 10kg of amino acid fertilizer and 2kg of compound microbial inoculum while rotary tillage, and planting the seedlings after 3 days of soil cultivation, wherein the compound microbial inoculum comprises photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus licheniformis, lactobacillus acidophilus and bacillus subtilis, and the viable count of the photosynthetic bacteria, the bacillus licheniformis, the lactobacillus acidophilus and the bacillus subtilis in each gram of the compound microbial inoculum is respectively more than 3 × 108、5×108、4×108And 2 × 108
Example 3
A saline-alkali soil improvement method aims at saline-alkali soil per mu and comprises the following steps:
①, uniformly spreading 520 kg of mushroom planting waste on the surface of soil, then carrying out deep ploughing by a deep ploughing machine for 40 cm, then irrigating water, and soaking for 12 hours;
② removing water from the saline-alkali soil, rotary tillage to a depth of more than 20cm, applying 55kg of organic farmyard manure, 6kg of amino acid fertilizer and 1.5kg of compound microbial inoculum while rotary tillage, and planting seedlings after 3 days of soil cultivation, wherein the compound microbial inoculum comprises photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus licheniformis, lactobacillus acidophilus and bacillus subtilis, and the viable count of the photosynthetic bacteria, the bacillus licheniformis, the lactobacillus acidophilus and the bacillus subtilis in each gram of the compound microbial inoculum is respectively more than 3 × 108、5×108、4×108And 2 × 108
Example 4
A saline-alkali soil improvement method aims at saline-alkali soil per mu and comprises the following steps:
① smashing 520 kg of mushroom planting waste to more than 100 meshes, adding 0.3% of carbendazim for sterilization, uniformly spreading on the surface of soil, deeply ploughing by a deep ploughing machine for 40 cm, irrigating water and soaking for 14 hours;
② draining water in saline-alkali soil, compacting the soil by a tamping machine, then carrying out rotary tillage with a rotary tillage depth of more than 20cm, applying 55kg of organic farmyard manure, 8kg of amino acid fertilizer and 1.5kg of compound microbial inoculum while carrying out rotary tillage, and then carrying out seedling planting after 3 days of soil cultivation, wherein the compound microbial inoculum comprises photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus licheniformis, lactobacillus acidophilus and bacillus subtilis, and the number of viable bacteria of the photosynthetic bacteria, the bacillus licheniformis, the lactobacillus acidophilus and the bacillus subtilis in each gram of the compound microbial inoculum is respectively more than 3 × 108、5×108、4×108And 2 × 108
③ in the field management process after the field planting, the composite microbial inoculum is irrigated continuously and regularly without watering empty water, wherein the irrigation amount per mu in the seedling stage, the middle growth stage and the full bearing stage is respectively 0.5kg, 1kg and 2 kg.
The influence of the saline-alkali soil improvement method disclosed by the embodiment 1-4 on the physical properties of the soil.
Test site: the pH value of the soil of saline-alkali soil in Daqing city of Heilongjiang province is 10.22, the water content in the soil is 25%, the soil structure is firm and is not easy to break, sorghum and corn are planted on the improved land and the land before improvement respectively by adopting the method of the embodiment of the invention, and the pH value, the water content, the seedling height and the root length of the soil are tested after 2 months, and the results are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1 comparison of saline-alkali soil improvement methods of examples 1-4 on soil physical properties and crop growth tests
The results in table 1 show that the saline-alkali soil improvement methods of examples 1 to 4 greatly improve the physical properties of soil, so that the soil is loosened from a hardened state, the increase of oxygen content in the soil is facilitated, the growth of plant roots can be effectively promoted, and the growth of crops is vigorous; from the growth condition of crops, the soil which is not improved is hardened and the corn sorghum crops can not grow normally, but the crops grow vigorously by adopting the method of the invention, and the aim of improving saline-alkali soil is achieved.
The chemical shapes of the soil surface layers of the saline-alkali soil are analyzed 1 year and two years after the saline-alkali soil improvement method in the embodiment 3 and the embodiment 4 is adopted, the soil taking depth is 0-20 cm, and the results are shown in the table 2.
Table 2 influence of saline-alkali soil conditioner of example 3 and example 4 on chemical properties of soil surface layer
As can be seen from the data in table 2, after the saline-alkali soil improvement method of embodiment 3 or 4 of the present invention is used to improve saline-alkali soil for one or two years, chemical components in the soil are significantly improved, the pH value of the soil is significantly reduced, and is close to the acid-base level of the soil, which is suitable for the growth of crops, the contents of carbonate ions, bicarbonate ions, and sodium ions in the soil are significantly reduced to the normal level, and the content of calcium ions is increased, so as to achieve the purpose of alkali reduction and desalination, especially, the method of embodiment 4 can recover the soil to the normal state after being used for one year, and has the characteristics of rapid effect and low cost.

Claims (4)

1. A saline-alkali soil improvement method is characterized in that: aiming at each mu of saline-alkali soil, the method comprises the following steps:
① smashing 500-550 kg of mushroom planting waste to more than 100 meshes, then adding carbendazim with the mass ratio of 0.1-0.5% for sterilization, uniformly spreading on the soil surface, then carrying out deep ploughing by a deep ploughing machine for 40 cm, then irrigating water, and soaking for 10-15 hours;
② draining water in saline-alkali soil, compacting soil with a compacting device, rotary tillage to a depth of more than 20cm, applying 50-60 kg of organic farmyard manure, 5-10 kg of amino acid fertilizer and 1-2 kg of compound microbial inoculum while rotary tillage, and planting seedlings after 3-5 days of cultivation, wherein the compound microbial inoculum comprises photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus licheniformis, lactobacillus acidophilus and bacillus subtilis, and the number of viable bacteria of photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus licheniformis, lactobacillus acidophilus and bacillus subtilis in each gram of compound microbial inoculum is respectively more than 3 × 108、5×108、4×108And 2 × 108
2. The method for improving saline-alkali soil according to claim 1, characterized in that: after the field planting of the seedlings is implemented, the compound microbial inoculant is poured uninterruptedly at regular intervals without pouring empty water in the field management process.
3. The method for improving saline-alkali soil according to claim 2, characterized in that: the irrigation amount of the compound microbial inoculum per mu in the seedling stage, the growth middle stage and the full-bearing stage is respectively 0.5kg, 1kg and 2 kg.
4. The method for improving saline-alkali soil according to claim 1, characterized in that: aiming at each mu of saline-alkali soil, the method comprises the following steps:
① pulverizing 520 kg of mushroom planting waste to above 100 meshes, adding 0.3% carbendazim for sterilization, uniformly spreading on the soil surface, deep ploughing with a deep ploughing machine for 40 cm, irrigating water, and soaking for 14 hours;
② draining water in saline-alkali soil, compacting the soil by a tamping machine, then carrying out rotary tillage, carrying out rotary tillage with a rotary tillage depth of more than 20cm, applying 55kg of organic farmyard manure, 8kg of amino acid fertilizer and 1.5kg of compound microbial inoculum while carrying out rotary tillage, and then carrying out seedling planting after 3 days of soil cultivation, wherein the compound microbial inoculum comprises photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus licheniformis, lactobacillus acidophilus and bacillus subtilis, and the number of viable bacteria of the photosynthetic bacteria, the bacillus licheniformis, the lactobacillus acidophilus and the bacillus subtilis in each gram of the compound microbial inoculum is respectively more than 3 × 108、5×108、4×108And 2 × 108
③ in the field management process after the field planting, the composite microbial inoculum is irrigated continuously and regularly without watering empty water, wherein the irrigation amount per mu in the seedling stage, the middle growth stage and the full bearing stage is respectively 0.5kg, 1kg and 2 kg.
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CN108184358A (en) * 2018-01-12 2018-06-22 郑晓华 A kind of physics and the effective ways in bioconjugation improvement salt-soda soil

Citations (6)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102517030A (en) * 2011-11-07 2012-06-27 孙东军 Saline-alkali soil improver
CN104045469A (en) * 2014-07-08 2014-09-17 南京农业大学 Special bio-organic fertilizer for saline-alkali soil as well as preparation method and application of special bio-organic fertilizer
CN104193559A (en) * 2014-09-09 2014-12-10 天津海林园艺环保科技工程有限公司 Seashore saline soil improving and conditioning agent and preparation method thereof
CN104919931A (en) * 2015-06-15 2015-09-23 刘长生 Saline land improvement method
CN106180161A (en) * 2016-07-15 2016-12-07 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 A kind of method preventing desulfurated plaster improvement alkaline land soil secondary pollution
CN106467748A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-03-01 滁州市朝昱农业科技有限公司 A kind of modification method in salt-soda soil

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102517030A (en) * 2011-11-07 2012-06-27 孙东军 Saline-alkali soil improver
CN104045469A (en) * 2014-07-08 2014-09-17 南京农业大学 Special bio-organic fertilizer for saline-alkali soil as well as preparation method and application of special bio-organic fertilizer
CN104193559A (en) * 2014-09-09 2014-12-10 天津海林园艺环保科技工程有限公司 Seashore saline soil improving and conditioning agent and preparation method thereof
CN104919931A (en) * 2015-06-15 2015-09-23 刘长生 Saline land improvement method
CN106180161A (en) * 2016-07-15 2016-12-07 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 A kind of method preventing desulfurated plaster improvement alkaline land soil secondary pollution
CN106467748A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-03-01 滁州市朝昱农业科技有限公司 A kind of modification method in salt-soda soil

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