CN104919931A - Saline land improvement method - Google Patents

Saline land improvement method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104919931A
CN104919931A CN201510329055.1A CN201510329055A CN104919931A CN 104919931 A CN104919931 A CN 104919931A CN 201510329055 A CN201510329055 A CN 201510329055A CN 104919931 A CN104919931 A CN 104919931A
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saline
soil
microorganism
improvement
land improvement
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刘长生
欧阳竹
刘泽
刘洵
陈琛
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Binzhou golden source Agricultural Engineering Technology Co., Ltd.
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刘长生
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Abstract

The invention provides a saline land improvement method and belongs to the technical field of saline land improvement. The saline land improvement method comprises the following steps of locally smashing straws of plants growing in a saline land and then spreading the straws on the saline land, continuing to sequentially spread a composite microbiological material for renovation and urea on the surface of the saline land spread with smashed straws, and plowing and watering the saline land spread with the smashed straws, the composite microbiological material for renovation and the urea on the surface, wherein the composite microbiological material for renovation comprises raw material components: 4-6 parts by weight of organic manure, 2-4 parts by weight of humic acid, 0.7-3 parts by weight of agricultural organic waste, 0.2-0.4 part by weight of marine organic waste, 0.01-0.02 part by weight of liquid fungicide and 0.005-0.01 part by weight of solid fungicide. The saline land improvement method has the advantages of being low in renovation cost, small in working amount, convenient to operate and free of secondary pollution.

Description

A kind of saline and alkali land improvement method
Technical field
The present invention relates to alkaline land improving technical field, in particular to a kind of saline and alkali land improvement method.
Background technology
Saline land to refer to inside soil that contained salinity has influence on the soil of the normal growth of crop, and the serious regional plant of salt affected soil almost can not be survived.Utilize in saline land in process, slight alkaline land, moderate saline-alkali soil, heavy salinized can be divided into.
Slight alkaline land salt content below 0.3%, emergence rate 70%-80%, pH is about 7.1-8.5; Heavy salinized ground salt content is more than 0.6%, and emergence rate is lower than 50%, more than pH9.5; Moderate saline-alkali soil salt content is at 0.3-0.6%, and emergence rate 50%-70%, pH is about 8.5-9.5.
The main Crack cause in saline land has:
Climate reasons: arid and semi-arid area, precipitation is little, and evaporation discharge is large, and the salinity be dissolved in water easily gathers at upper soll layer.
Geographical reason: water soluble salt moves from high to lower with water, gathers in low lying areas.In subrange, salinity often accumulates in the little convex place of local.The soil of river and channel both sides easily accumulates salinity; Coastal area easily forms coastal saline-alkali soil.
The soil texture and underground water: speed and the height of soil capillary water motion, the size of subterranean water level height and salinity.
Cultivation management improper: broad irrigation, or only fill with the secondary salinization of not arranging and causing.
At present, in prior art, the ameliorative measure in saline land is mainly around 2 points: one, soil salt content is reduced to the adaptable degree of crop; Its two, improve the Salt And Alkali Tolerance ability of crop, deacclimatize the salt marsh environment of soil.Concrete measure is as follows: 1) physical measure: the flood desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching; Shallow group wells forced-ventilated is filled with by force; Hidden pipe salt discharge; Cover and press down salt; Deep ploughing etc.2) chemical measure: the composition changing soil colloid absorbed cation; Regulate the acid-base value of soil; Chemistry inorganic matter drenches salt etc.3) agricultural and biological control measure: improving soil fertility; The introduction of degeneration-resistant, salt tolerant and Growth range with breed; Improve farmland ecological environment etc.
But, in the prior art, the comprehensive processing method in above-mentioned saline land, specifically there is following defect in it:
1) the flood desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching consumes too much water resource, is unfavorable for water saving; Quantities is large, and drainage system drops into higher, uneconomical; Source of irrigation water is saline-alkali water, and it is larger more to fill with saline and alkaline degree.
2) when groundwater level is higher (as beach saline land, groundwater level only has 0.8 meter in dry season), the measure such as (requiring that groundwater level is at 2.5 meters to 3 meters), hidden pipe salt discharge (requiring that groundwater level is at about 1.5 meters) that shallow group wells forced-ventilated is filled with by force is also inapplicable; Simultaneously underground hidden pipe desalting system, the engineering of shallow multi-boreholes, maintenance, administrative expenses are very high; Numerous escape canal and a large amount of engineering soil cubic meter of stone take farmland;
3) soil conditioner requires comparatively strict for salinity kind, Crop Planting Structure and water-efficient irrigation condition etc., and applicability is narrower; And majority with mineral, biochemical high-molecular complex etc. for raw material is made, resource-constrained, easily causes secondary pollution.
In view of this, special proposition the present invention.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of saline and alkali land improvement method, the improvement method in this saline land combines the operation of microorganism composite repairing material, urea and straw-returning, the vitality of alkaline land soil can be activated, create and recover the natural metabolism function of alkaline land soil, thus reach quick improvement saline land, effect that to become saline-alkali wasteland be good farmland, has that rehabilitation cost is low, quantities is little, operation is convenient and can not form the technique effect of secondary pollution.
In order to realize above-mentioned purpose of the present invention, spy by the following technical solutions:
The invention provides a kind of saline and alkali land improvement method, comprise the following steps:
1), growing plants stalk on saline land is paved on saline land after pulverizing on the spot;
2), continue to pave successively microorganism composite repairing material and urea at the saline and alkaline the earth's surface pulverizing rear stalk that paves;
Wherein, according to weight parts, the material component of described microorganism composite repairing material comprises: organic manure 4-6 part, humic acid 2-4 part, agriculture organic waste materials 0.7-3 part, marine products organic waste materials 0.2-0.4 part, liquid bacterial agent 0.01-0.02 part, solid fungicide 0.005-0.01 part;
3), surface is paved after turning in the saline land of crushing straw, microorganism composite repairing material and urea and water.
This saline and alkali land improvement method provided by the invention, with microorganism composite repairing material, urea and derive from the stalk in saline land for repair materials; And the operation by turning over, make it be embedded in saline land.Wherein, by the effect of microorganism in microorganism composite repairing material, accelerate formation and the mineralising of soil humus, impel Zinc fractions granular structure, improve transparency and the nutrient situation in saline land, add deep plough level, make the soil of ground moistening be in loose aeration status for a long time, be conducive to salt leaching, suppress the accumulation of salt in the surface soil; The organic acid that microorganism contained in liquid bacterial agent and solid fungicide produces in process of growth, can the alkalescence of sweetening of the soil, improves utilization rate of fertilizer, thus be conducive to the drip washing of saline-alkali soil salinity; Straw-returning supplements abundant humus and organic matter to soil, improves the buffer capacity of soil.Wherein, humus effectively can form sodium humate in conjunction with sodium ion unnecessary in soil, reduces surface soil alkalinity.Sodium humate can also stimulate plant growth, strengthens its saline-alkaline tolerance; Organic nutrient preserving capability, moisture capacity and the air capacity of soils that can improve soil, reduces evaporation, suppresses salinity.In sum, by using salt affected soil provided by the invention improvement microorganism composite repairing material, in conjunction with straw-returning, can acute activation soil vitality, create and recover the natural metabolism function of soil, and reach quick improvement saline land, become the effect that saline-alkali wasteland is good farmland.
Optionally, in step 2) in, it is that described urea applies the 4-67 of weight doubly that described microorganism composite repairing material applies weight.
The urea applied in saline land, for microbial growth and breeding provide nitrogen, and then can avoid microorganism in the process of fermentation maturity soil and stalk, consume the urea in soil, and cause microorganism and crop contention urea, make succeeding crop occur the situation of nutrient deficiency.
In the process of concrete operations, the preferred applied amount of microorganism composite repairing material is 100-1000kg/ mu (specifically depending on soil alkaline degree), and urea 15-25kg/ is per mu evenly to be spread fertilizer over the fields in earth's surface.
Optionally, in step 3) in, described in the degree of depth of turning over be greater than 20 centimetres.
The effect of turning over, during the first makes microorganism composite repairing material, urea, stalk etc. place into the soil, for the fermentable stalk that becomes thoroughly decomposed provides environment; On the other hand, by turning over, making the soil of ground moistening be in loose aeration status for a long time, being conducive to salt leaching, suppress the accumulation of salt in the surface soil.
After turning over, surperficial microorganism composite repairing material, urea and crops straw etc. are embedded in soil, interact, under the effect of microorganism, make crushing straw be decomposed in the short period of time and be converted into nutriment between each component.Urea then exists with the form of ammonia, and for microorganism and plant growth provide nitrogen element, humus effectively can form sodium humate in conjunction with sodium ion unnecessary in soil, reduces the alkalescence of soil.Sodium humate can also stimulate plant growth, strengthens its saline-alkaline tolerance.Organic nutrient preserving capability, moisture capacity and the air capacity of soils that can improve soil, reduces evaporation, suppresses salinity; In addition, the organic acid produced in microorganism growth process, the alkalescence of all right sweetening of the soil; Therefore, after turning over, different components is by multiple different approach thus realize the effect of alkaline land improving.
Optionally, it is characterized in that, in step 3) after also comprise: by the saline land Planting Crops seed after watering 15-20 days.
After turning over, water immediately, and the soil turned over is irrigated, meet the demand of each organic components moisture in the process of metabolism so on the one hand, also can make urea rapid solution on the other hand.Turn over rear 15-20 days, and alkaline land improving completes, and can be used for Planting Crops.
In addition, in the process of the plantation of Planting Crops, preferably adopt some salt resistances or the stronger crop varieties of resistance, lay down 81 as little, littlely lay down 60, Jimai 22 etc.
Optionally, described crop seeds is through microorganism seed seed coating medicine dressing or through composite microbial bacteria immersion kind.
For the crop seed of plantation, utilize microorganism seed seed coating medicine dressing, or after composite microbial bacteria immersion kind, the active ingredients such as the organic biofertilizer in microorganism seed seed coating medicine, humic acid, composite microbial bacteria liquid, or the complex microorganism bacterial classification in liquid microbe microbial inoculum and the effect of metabolite thereof, can reach promotion seed germination, water conservation, maintenance is nutrient slowly-released, suppression disease grows, cushion acid-base value around seed, improve the effects such as seed salt resistance.
Optionally, described organic manure comprises one or more in cow dung, pig manure, sheep excrement, horsehit and chicken manure.
Cow dung, pig manure, sheep excrement, horsehit and chicken manure for microorganism-decomposing fermentation contained in soil indigenous microorganism or microorganism composite repairing material, thus can produce the organic molecule of a large amount of Gong crops absorptions.
Optionally, described agriculture organic waste materials comprises one or more in the peat composed of rotten mosses, rice bran, stalk, powdered rice hulls, mushroom tongue, bark end and wheat bran.
The peat composed of rotten mosses, rice bran, stalk, powdered rice hulls, mushroom tongue, bark end and wheat bran can be decomposed by the microorganisms comparatively rapidly, thus the organic molecule that formation can be absorbed by crops.
Optionally, described marine products organic waste materials comprises one or more in the fish dregs of rice, shrimp med, conch meal, kelp base powder and marine alga.
Optionally, in described liquid bacterial agent containing one or more in actinomycetes, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and azotobacter;
And/or;
Described composite microbial bacteria liquid be by one or more cultivation and fermentation in actinomycetes, azotobacter, bacillus subtilis, photosynthetic bacteria, saccharomycete after bacterium liquid.
Optionally, in described solid fungicide containing one or more in actinomycetes, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and azotobacter.
Containing multiple-microorganism in liquid bacteria liquid, solid fungicide and composite microbial bacteria liquid, therefore, it can realize fast decoupled stalk and organic matter, what is more important, when these microorganisms are embedded in 20 cm (ploughing depth), soil oxygen content, organic matter (comprising stalk) and moisture are sufficient, and proportioning is proper, be beneficial to very much these microorganisms to breed in large quantities, it produces a large amount of organic acids in metabolic process, realized the lixiviating in saline land by neutralization, realize repairing effect.
Compared with prior art, beneficial effect of the present invention is:
(1), this saline and alkali land improvement method provided by the invention with microorganism composite repairing material, urea for repair materials carry out straw-returning operation simultaneously, utilize different repair materials and alkaline land soil and mutually between the reaction that occurs realize the reparation in saline land, cost is low, and quantities is little.
(2), this saline and alkali land improvement method waters after turning over, and needed for the moisture of satisfied different repair materials in repair process, without the need to large hydraulic pressure salt and salt discharge, water consumption is little, economizes on resources, and saving of work and time create a further reduction rehabilitation cost.
(3), realize the Appropriate application also achieving refuse while saline land is repaired, also can not cause secondary pollution simultaneously, reasonably be configured with resource.
(4), based on the feature of salt affected soil improvement microorganism composite repairing material (solid powder, liquid), after reparation completes, directly disposablely can complete sowing, fertilising, spray bacterium, moisturizing work, greatly use manpower and material resources sparingly, seize favourable farming season, improve crop yield.And the high heat that microorganism produces in fermentation soil course can kill pathogene, worm's ovum and weed seed in organic materials and soil, reduces the generation of damage by disease and insect.
Accompanying drawing explanation
In order to be illustrated more clearly in the embodiment of the present invention or technical scheme of the prior art, be briefly described to the accompanying drawing used required in embodiment or description of the prior art below.
Fig. 1 is the operational flowchart that the invention provides saline and alkali land improvement method.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, embodiment of the present invention are described in detail, but it will be understood to those of skill in the art that the following example only for illustration of the present invention, and should not be considered as limiting the scope of the invention.Unreceipted actual conditions person in embodiment, the condition of conveniently conditioned disjunction manufacturer suggestion is carried out.Agents useful for same or the unreceipted production firm person of instrument, be and can buy by commercially available the conventional products obtained.
Please refer to Fig. 1, the invention provides a kind of saline and alkali land improvement method, comprise the following steps:
S1: growing plants stalk on saline land is paved on saline land after pulverizing on the spot;
S2: the saline and alkaline the earth's surface pulverizing rear stalk continues to pave successively microorganism composite repairing material and urea paving;
Crushing straw, microorganism composite repairing material and urea are added in saline land simultaneously, the defects such as rotation of crops interval time that can solve that conventional straw directly returning to field causes is short, crop-residue incorporation large, decomposition speed is slow, avoid causing therefrom wholely, sowing, emergence difficult, burning seedling, damage by disease and insect increase, seedling growth is subject to nitrogen stress, the impact of reduction material and the problems such as yellow seedling, easily lodging.
Wherein, according to weight parts, the material component of described microorganism composite repairing material comprises: organic manure 4-6 part, humic acid 2-4 part, agriculture organic waste materials 0.7-3 part, marine products organic waste materials 0.2-0.4 part, liquid bacterial agent 0.01-0.02 part, solid fungicide 0.005-0.01 part;
S3: water after turning in the saline land of the crushing straw that paved on surface, microorganism composite repairing material and urea.
This saline and alkali land improvement method, with microorganism composite repairing material, urea and derive from the stalk in saline land for repair materials; And the operation by turning over, make it be embedded in saline land, carry out saline land reparation.Wherein, by the effect of microorganism in microorganism composite repairing material, accelerate formation and the mineralising of soil humus, impel Zinc fractions granular structure, improve transparency and the nutrient situation in saline land, add deep plough level, make the soil of ground moistening be in loose aeration status for a long time, be conducive to salt leaching, suppress the accumulation of salt in the surface soil; The organic acid that microorganism contained in liquid bacterial agent and solid fungicide produces in process of growth, can the alkalescence of sweetening of the soil, improves utilization rate of fertilizer, thus be conducive to the drip washing of saline-alkali soil salinity; Straw-returning supplements abundant humus and organic matter to soil, improves the buffer capacity of soil.Wherein, humus effectively can form sodium humate in conjunction with sodium ion unnecessary in soil, reduces surface soil alkalinity.Sodium humate can also stimulate plant growth, strengthens saline-alkaline tolerance; Organic nutrient preserving capability, moisture capacity and the air capacity of soils that can improve soil, reduces evaporation, suppresses salinity.
To sum up, by using salt affected soil provided by the invention improvement microorganism composite repairing material, in conjunction with straw-returning, can acute activation soil vitality, create and recover the natural metabolism function of soil, and reach quick improvement saline land, become the effect that saline-alkali wasteland is good farmland.
On the basis of such scheme, in order to reach better repairing effect, can in conjunction with following at least one item or whole preferred operations; Preferably, in step 2) in, it is that described urea applies the 4-67 of weight doubly (more preferably 4-28 doubly) that described microorganism composite repairing material applies weight, more specifically, the preferred applied amount of microorganism composite repairing material is 100-1000kg/ mu (specifically depending on soil alkaline degree), urea 15-25kg/ mu; Preferably, in step 3) in, described in the degree of depth of turning over be greater than 20 centimetres; Preferably, in step 3) after also comprise: by the saline land Planting Crops seed after watering 15-20 days.Preferably, in the process of the plantation of Planting Crops, adopt some salt resistances or the stronger crop varieties of resistance, lay down 81 as little, littlely lay down 60, Jimai 22 etc.Preferably, described crop seeds is through microorganism seed seed coating medicine dressing or through composite microbial bacteria immersion kind.
In addition, soil water-stable aggregates motion replaces for collection salt and desalination, while utilizing microbial technique to improve soil, and also can in the process of plantation, the cropping pattern such as select that two-cropping for wheat and corn in one year, wheat-cotton yield two crops a year, grain-cotton 2 years three is ripe, soil realizes annual vegetation, and moisture-salt transport changes system stability desalination into, and machine sowing received by wheat and corn machine, compared with cotton planting pattern, peasant is increasing both production and income not only, also can separate amplification quantity labour, greatly increase productivity.
In addition, for the component of microorganism composite repairing material, can carry out following preferably limiting: described organic manure comprise in cow dung, pig manure, sheep excrement, horsehit and chicken manure one or more; Described agriculture organic waste materials comprise the peat composed of rotten mosses, rice bran, stalk, powdered rice hulls, mushroom tongue, bark end and wheat bran in one or more; Described marine products organic waste materials comprise in the fish dregs of rice, shrimp med, conch meal, kelp base powder and marine alga one or more; Containing one or more in actinomycetes, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and azotobacter in described liquid bacterial agent; Described composite microbial bacteria liquid be by one or more cultivation and fermentation in actinomycetes, azotobacter, bacillus subtilis, photosynthetic bacteria, saccharomycete after bacterium liquid; Containing one or more in actinomycetes, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and azotobacter in described solid fungicide.
Next, in conjunction with above content, following specific embodiment has been enumerated to saline and alkali land improvement method of the present invention:
Embodiment 1
Coastal saline-alkali ground growing plants stalk is crushed on the spot the crushing straw that length is less than 10 centimetres, and after the saline and alkaline the earth's surface that it paved to as far as possible equably, continues pave successively on surface, saline land microorganism composite repairing material (150,000 grams/acre) and urea (15,000 grams/acre); Machinery is turned over, and ploughing depth is 20-30 centimetre, and rear soil of turning over after having turned over waters permeable, after 15-20 days, completes reparation.
The formula of microorganism composite repairing material is: organic manure 4 parts, humic acid 2 parts, agriculture organic waste materials 0.7 part, marine products organic waste materials 0.2 part, liquid bacterial agent 0.01 part, solid fungicide 0.005 part.
Wherein, organic manure comprises the cow dung of arbitrary proportion, pig manure, sheep excrement and chicken manure; Agricultural organic waste materials comprises the peat composed of rotten mosses of arbitrary proportion, rice bran, stalk, powdered rice hulls, mushroom tongue, bark end and wheat bran; Marine products organic waste materials comprises the fish dregs of rice of arbitrary proportion, shrimp med, conch meal, kelp base powder and marine alga; Liquid bacterial agent is the strain fermentating liquid of actinomycetes containing arbitrary proportion, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, azotobacter; Solid fungicide is the solid state rheology thing of actinomycetes containing arbitrary proportion, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, azotobacter.
Embodiment 2
Coastal saline-alkali ground growing plants stalk is crushed on the spot the crushing straw that length is less than 10 centimetres, and after the saline and alkaline the earth's surface that it paved to as far as possible equably, continues pave successively on surface, saline land microorganism composite repairing material (200,000 grams/acre) and urea (15,000 grams/acre); Machinery is turned over, and ploughing depth is 20-35 centimetre, and rear soil of turning over after having turned over waters permeable, after 15-20 days, completes reparation.
The formula of microorganism composite repairing material is: organic manure 6 parts, humic acid 4 parts, agriculture organic waste materials 3 parts, marine products organic waste materials 0.4 part, liquid bacterial agent 0.02 part, solid fungicide 0.01 part.
Wherein, organic manure comprises the cow dung of arbitrary proportion, pig manure, sheep excrement and chicken manure; Agricultural organic waste materials comprises the peat composed of rotten mosses of arbitrary proportion, rice bran, stalk, powdered rice hulls, mushroom tongue, bark end and wheat bran; Marine products organic waste materials comprises the fish dregs of rice of arbitrary proportion, shrimp med, conch meal, kelp base powder and marine alga; Liquid bacterial agent is the strain fermentating liquid of actinomycetes containing arbitrary proportion, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, azotobacter; Solid fungicide is the solid state rheology thing of actinomycetes containing arbitrary proportion, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, azotobacter.
Embodiment 3
Coastal saline-alkali ground growing plants stalk is crushed on the spot the crushing straw that length is less than 10 centimetres, and after the saline and alkaline the earth's surface that it paved to as far as possible equably, continues pave successively on surface, saline land microorganism composite repairing material (300,000 grams/acre) and urea (20,000 grams/acre); Machinery is turned over, and ploughing depth is 20-35 centimetre, and rear soil of turning over after having turned over waters permeable, after 15-20 days, completes reparation.
The formula of microorganism composite repairing material is: organic manure 4 parts, humic acid 3 parts, agriculture organic waste materials 1.4 parts, marine products organic waste materials 0.3 part, liquid bacterial agent 0.014 part, solid fungicide 0.007 part.
Wherein, organic manure is cow dung and chicken manure (weight proportion is 4:1.3); Agricultural organic waste materials comprises the stalk of arbitrary proportion, powdered rice hulls, mushroom tongue, bark end and wheat bran; Marine products organic waste materials comprises the fish dregs of rice of arbitrary proportion, shrimp med, conch meal, kelp base powder and marine alga; Liquid bacterial agent is the strain fermentating liquid of actinomycetes containing arbitrary proportion, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and azotobacter; Solid fungicide is the solid state rheology thing of actinomycetes containing arbitrary proportion, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and azotobacter.
Embodiment 4
Coastal saline-alkali ground growing plants stalk is crushed on the spot the crushing straw that length is less than 10 centimetres, and after the saline and alkaline the earth's surface that it paved to as far as possible equably, continues pave successively on surface, saline land microorganism composite repairing material (400,000 grams/acre) and urea (25,000 grams/acre); Machinery is turned over, and ploughing depth is 20-35 centimetre, and rear soil of turning over after having turned over waters permeable, after 15-20 days, completes reparation.
The formula of microorganism composite repairing material is: organic manure 5.9 parts, humic acid 3 parts, agriculture organic waste materials 0.8 part, marine products organic waste materials 0.3 part, liquid bacterial agent 0.014 part, solid fungicide 0.007 part.
Wherein, organic manure is pig manure and chicken manure (weight proportion is 5.3:0.6); Agricultural organic waste materials comprises the stalk of arbitrary proportion, powdered rice hulls, mushroom tongue, bark end and wheat bran; Marine products organic waste materials comprises the fish dregs of rice of arbitrary proportion, shrimp med, conch meal, kelp base powder and marine alga; Liquid bacterial agent is the strain fermentating liquid of actinomycetes containing arbitrary proportion, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and azotobacter; Solid fungicide is the solid state rheology thing of actinomycetes containing arbitrary proportion, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and azotobacter.
Test example
Wheat (crop seeds is through microorganism seed seed coating medicine dressing or through composite microbial bacteria immersion kind) is all planted in saline land after above-described embodiment 1-4 repairs, and carry out follow-up conventional fertilizer application, the management such as to water, statistics crop yield.
Wherein, the formula of microorganism seed seed coating medicine is: organic biofertilizer 1.6 parts, humic acid 0.17 part, composite microbial bacteria liquid 0.1 part, vermiculite power 0.02 part, fixative 2 parts.Composite microbial bacteria liquid be by actinomycetes, azotobacter, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete cultivation and fermentation after bacterium liquid; Organic biofertilizer is obtained (by all kinds of muck according to after arbitrary proportioning heap fermentation to temperature constant, obtaining organic biofertilizer) by fermentation by cow dung, chicken manure and sheep excrement.Fixative is specially the mixed liquor of starch and water, and the percetage by weight of starch is 5%.
Comparative example
Conventional restorative procedure is used to identical beach saline land: the flood desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching adds deep ploughing, the wheat seed that then plantation is consistent with test example process, and carry out follow-up identical conventional fertilizer application, the management such as to water, add up output.
After the saline and alkali land improvement method repair saline-land that various embodiments of the present invention provide, Planting Crops output condition, comparative example output condition specifically please refer to table 1.
Rear long-term cropping and comparative example output are repaired in the saline land that table 1 embodiment 1-4 provides
Project Salt content (%) PH value Crop yield (pound/acre)
Embodiment 1 0.3 8-9 952
Embodiment 2 0.3 8-9 1001
Embodiment 3 >1.5 8-9 436
Embodiment 4 >1.5 8-9 590
Comparative example 1 0.3 8-9 524
Comparative example 2 >1.5 8-9 130
Can be found out by table 1, wheat is planted after the restorative procedure repair saline-land in this saline land provided by the invention, different at salt content, pH value is when 8-9, its the highest per mu yield can reach more than 1000 jin, contrasts with by planting wheat after Typical physical repair saline-land, and per mu yield is the highest exceeds about 230 kilograms, therefore, repairing effect is obvious.
In sum, saline and alkali land improvement method provided by the invention is to improveing beach saline land, successful.Beach saline land subterranean water level high (dry season is 0.8m only), salinity is large, saline-alkali soil area is large, distribution is wide, land utilization change is frequent, ecological environment frailty, salinization of soil phenomenon is serious, adopts large hydraulic pressure salt, forced-ventilated is filled with by force, the prior art such as hidden pipe row alkali is difficult to improve.
Adopt saline and alkali land improvement method provided by the invention, prevent its accumulation of salt in the surface soil repeatedly while realizing beach saline land improvement, once after thoroughly improveing, soil 30cm soil layer construction improves, and forms granular structure, and suppress salt solution to rise, soil not easily again salination occurs.The present invention is applicable to the salinization of soil improvement that other reason causes simultaneously.
Microorganism composite repairing material provided by the invention applies by microorganism and humus, repair and reconstruction Soil Micro-environment and the crop root ecosphere; Accelerate formation and the mineralising of soil humus, build soil aggregate, improvement saline land; Improve transparency and the nutrient situation in saline land, add deep plough level, be conducive to salt leaching, suppress the accumulation of salt in the surface soil; The root metabolite of plant growth is affected in efficient decomposition soil, various agriculture chemical remains and larger molecular organics, be translated into the nutrient component needed for plant, growth factor, organic acid etc., the alkalescence of sweetening of the soil, improve utilization rate of fertilizer, thus be conducive to the drip washing of saline-alkali soil salinity, balanced raising soil nutrient, fertilizing soil.
Microorganism composite repairing material, applying of urea are carried out with straw-returning by the present invention simultaneously, quick decomposition stalk, improve soil nutrient and the humus content of organic matter, improve the buffer capacity of soil; Humus effectively can form sodium humate in conjunction with sodium ion unnecessary in soil, reduces surface soil alkalinity; Sodium humate can also stimulate plant growth, strengthens its saline-alkaline tolerance.Organic nutrient preserving capability, moisture capacity and the air capacity of soils that can improve soil, reduces evaporation, suppresses salinity; The rotation of crops interval time simultaneously solving that conventional straw directly returning to field causes is short, crop-residue incorporation large, decomposition speed is slow, avoid it to cause wholely, sowing, emergence difficult, burning seedling, damage by disease and insect increase, seedling growth is subject to nitrogen stress, the impact of reduction material and the problems such as yellow seedling, easily lodging.
Microorganism composite repairing material of the present invention, its primary raw material is fowl and animal excrement, farm and sideline product processing industry discarded object, stalk etc.After fast harmless treatment being carried out to it, kill and wherein the germ of harm, residual adult and the material such as worm's ovum, grass-seed are produced to plantation, decompose the organic waste wherein easily causing integrated environment to pollute, be translated into the nutrient favourable to plant growth, organic, trophic factors, antibacterial disease-resistance substance, organic acids etc., reduce soil salinization degree, stimulate plant growth, strengthen crop saline-alkaline tolerance.For the recycling of fowl and animal excrement, farm and sideline product processing industry discarded object, stalk etc. provides effective ways, while solving environmental pollution, create huge social value, economic worth, the ecological value.
In the process of the present invention's saline land Planting Crops after repair, by crop seed microorganism seed seed coating medicine dressing, or plant with after composite microbial bacteria immersion kind.By active ingredients such as the organic biofertilizer in microorganism seed seed coating medicine, humic acid, composite microbial bacteria liquid, or the complex microorganism bacterial classification in composite microbial bacteria liquid and the effect of metabolite thereof, saline land uses, promotion seed germination, water conservation can be reached, maintenance is nutrient slowly-released, suppression disease grows, cushion acid-base value around seed, improve the effects such as seed salt resistance.
Finally, this saline and alkali land improvement method provided by the invention, it does not take farmland in improved, process, water conservation and moisture-holding, and quantities is little, and cost is low; The raw material adopted is the organic waste such as fowl and animal excrement, stalk, it is returned after harmless treatment and imposes on farmland, achieve changing rejected material to useful resource conversion, protection of the environment, improvement soil three win.Not only can solve current shortage of resources and environmental pollution two hang-up, and for alleviation soil pollution situation, realize Agricultural recycling economy, set up conservation-minded society and be of great significance.
Although illustrate and describe the present invention with specific embodiment, however it will be appreciated that can to make when not deviating from the spirit and scope of the present invention many other change and amendment.Therefore, this means to comprise all such changes and modifications belonged in the scope of the invention in the following claims.

Claims (10)

1. a saline and alkali land improvement method, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
1), growing plants stalk on saline land is paved on saline land after pulverizing on the spot;
2), continue to pave successively microorganism composite repairing material and urea at the saline and alkaline the earth's surface pulverizing rear stalk that paves;
Wherein, according to weight parts, the material component of described microorganism composite repairing material comprises: organic manure 4-6 part, humic acid 2-4 part, agriculture organic waste materials 0.7-3 part, marine products organic waste materials 0.2-0.4 part, liquid bacterial agent 0.01-0.02 part, solid fungicide 0.005-0.01 part;
3), surface is paved after turning in the saline land of crushing straw, microorganism composite repairing material and urea and water.
2. saline and alkali land improvement method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step 2) in, it is that described urea applies the 4-67 of weight doubly that described microorganism composite repairing material applies weight.
3. saline and alkali land improvement method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step 3) in, described in the degree of depth of turning over be greater than 20 centimetres.
4. the saline and alkali land improvement method according to any one of claim 1-3, is characterized in that, in step 3) after also comprise:
By the saline land Planting Crops seed after watering 15-20 days.
5. saline and alkali land improvement method according to claim 4, is characterized in that, described crop seeds is through microorganism seed seed coating medicine dressing or through composite microbial bacteria immersion kind.
6. saline and alkali land improvement method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, described organic manure comprise in cow dung, pig manure, sheep excrement, horsehit and chicken manure one or more.
7. saline and alkali land improvement method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, described agriculture organic waste materials comprise the peat composed of rotten mosses, rice bran, stalk, powdered rice hulls, mushroom tongue, bark end and wheat bran in one or more.
8. saline and alkali land improvement method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, described marine products organic waste materials comprise in the fish dregs of rice, shrimp med, conch meal, kelp base powder and marine alga one or more.
9. saline and alkali land improvement method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, containing one or more in actinomycetes, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and azotobacter in described liquid bacterial agent;
And/or;
Described composite microbial bacteria liquid be by one or more cultivation and fermentation in actinomycetes, azotobacter, bacillus subtilis, photosynthetic bacteria, saccharomycete after bacterium liquid.
10. saline and alkali land improvement method according to claim 5, is characterized in that, containing one or more in actinomycetes, bacillus subtilis, saccharomycete, lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria and azotobacter in described solid fungicide.
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