CN107178584B - Automatic transmission - Google Patents

Automatic transmission Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107178584B
CN107178584B CN201710345409.0A CN201710345409A CN107178584B CN 107178584 B CN107178584 B CN 107178584B CN 201710345409 A CN201710345409 A CN 201710345409A CN 107178584 B CN107178584 B CN 107178584B
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China
Prior art keywords
gear
double
ring
face
positioning
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CN201710345409.0A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN107178584A (en
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向永川
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H3/00Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion
    • F16H3/02Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion
    • F16H3/08Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts
    • F16H3/10Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts with one or more one-way clutches as an essential feature
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D41/00Freewheels or freewheel clutches
    • F16D41/12Freewheels or freewheel clutches with hinged pawl co-operating with teeth, cogs, or the like
    • F16D41/16Freewheels or freewheel clutches with hinged pawl co-operating with teeth, cogs, or the like the action being reversible
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D45/00Freewheels or freewheel clutches combined with automatic clutches
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H3/00Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion
    • F16H3/02Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion
    • F16H3/08Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts
    • F16H3/087Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts characterised by the disposition of the gears
    • F16H3/089Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts characterised by the disposition of the gears all of the meshing gears being supported by a pair of parallel shafts, one being the input shaft and the other the output shaft, there being no countershaft involved
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H61/00Control functions within control units of change-speed- or reversing-gearings for conveying rotary motion ; Control of exclusively fluid gearing, friction gearing, gearings with endless flexible members or other particular types of gearing
    • F16H61/04Smoothing ratio shift
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H61/00Control functions within control units of change-speed- or reversing-gearings for conveying rotary motion ; Control of exclusively fluid gearing, friction gearing, gearings with endless flexible members or other particular types of gearing
    • F16H61/04Smoothing ratio shift
    • F16H2061/0474Smoothing ratio shift by smoothing engagement or release of positive clutches; Methods or means for shock free engagement of dog clutches
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H2200/00Transmissions for multiple ratios
    • F16H2200/0021Transmissions for multiple ratios specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H2200/00Transmissions for multiple ratios
    • F16H2200/003Transmissions for multiple ratios characterised by the number of forward speeds
    • F16H2200/0034Transmissions for multiple ratios characterised by the number of forward speeds the gear ratios comprising two forward speeds
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H2200/00Transmissions for multiple ratios
    • F16H2200/20Transmissions using gears with orbital motion
    • F16H2200/203Transmissions using gears with orbital motion characterised by the engaging friction means not of the freewheel type, e.g. friction clutches or brakes
    • F16H2200/2035Transmissions using gears with orbital motion characterised by the engaging friction means not of the freewheel type, e.g. friction clutches or brakes with two engaging means

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • General Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • One-Way And Automatic Clutches, And Combinations Of Different Clutches (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses an automatic gear transmission, which comprises a gear transmission system and a gear shifting mechanism execution system; the gear shifting mechanism executing system comprises an automatic clutch and a matched end face gear ratchet mechanism or a reverse action gear shifting mechanism. The method is characterized in that: the end face gear ratchet mechanism is also provided with a positive action device, and the automatic clutch also comprises a double-cone friction clutch; the double-conical-surface friction clutch is formed by assembling a plurality of throwing blocks which are arranged in a circle on a centrifugal frame through hoop springs; one end face of a driven ratchet wheel of the end face gear mechanism is provided with a centrifugal reverse thrust device, and the other end face of the driven ratchet wheel is provided with a compressed spring and a forward action device; the double-conical-surface friction clutch has large transmission torque and stable performance; the forward action device reduces frequent impact when the ratchet is engaged, so that gear transmission is stable. The automatic transmission has high transmission efficiency and can save electricity when being used for an electric vehicle.

Description

Automatic transmission
Technical Field
The invention relates to an automatic gear shifting transmission for gear shifting and speed changing in electric vehicle transmission, in particular to a full-automatic gear shifting and speed changing device of a drive axle differential motor of an electric vehicle, and belongs to the technical field of mechanical transmission.
Background
The manual gear shifting operation of the differential motor of the existing electric vehicle drive axle is complicated, and the driving safety is influenced; the motor type and electromagnet type automatic gear shifting need a special controller, and have the advantages of high manufacturing cost, high failure rate and inconvenient use.
In the prior art, the automatic transmission disclosed in the chinese utility model patent application (application No. 201520367985.1) includes a gear transmission system, a shift mechanism executing system, and a power connection system, wherein the shift mechanism executing system includes a control device, a reverse action device, and a shift switching device; the gear shifting switching device is characterized in that the driven frame is sleeved on the gear shaft, the driven frame sliding sleeve is assembled with the crank of the guide rod, the guide rod is assembled with the moving combination body, and the moving combination body is combined with or separated from the rotating combination body to realize gear shifting and speed changing. When the movable combination body and the rotary combination body are combined or separated, the transmission impact is large, and the electric car is not suitable for being assembled on a high-grade electric car.
The Chinese utility model patent application (application number: 201620647518.9) discloses an automatic transmission, which comprises a gear transmission system and a gear shifting mechanism execution system; the gear shifting mechanism executing system comprises an automatic clutch and a face tooth ratchet mechanism; the spring push type clutch is characterized in that a driven gear is provided with a sleeve seat which is matched with a driven shaft in a rotating mode, a driven ratchet wheel is matched with the driven shaft in a sliding mode through splines, one end face of the driven ratchet wheel is provided with a driven ratchet, the spring push type clutch is further provided with a centrifugal reverse pushing device, the centrifugal reverse pushing device forces the driven ratchet wheel to move and separate from the driven gear in a high rotating speed state, the other end face of the driven ratchet wheel is provided with a compressed spring, the end face of the driven gear is provided with a driving ratchet, and the driving ratchet. The driving ratchet and the driven ratchet have the problems of frequent combination and separation at a certain speed, the working condition that the ratchets are damaged by frequent impact is easily caused, the service life is short finally, and the performance is unstable.
The two patents are applied by the inventor, the actual problem that a driving wheel hub and a driving axle differential motor of an electric vehicle are comfortable to drive can not be well solved when the electric vehicle is actually loaded and applied, and the automatic transmission aims to solve the problem.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to: the automatic transmission solves the problems of high manufacturing cost, low mechanical efficiency and high maintenance cost in the application of a driving hub and a driving axle differential motor in the prior automatic transmission technology. The invention provides an automatic gear transmission which is applied to a driving hub and a drive axle differential motor to ensure that the vehicle gear shifting and speed changing performance is stable and reliable, the mechanical efficiency is high, and the gear shifting is smooth and comfortable during driving.
The above object of the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
an automatic gear transmission comprises a gear transmission system and a gear shifting mechanism execution system; the gear transmission system is double-shaft two-gear transmission or epicyclic gear train gear transmission, and the gear shifting mechanism execution system comprises an automatic clutch and an end face gear mechanism or an automatic clutch and a reverse action gear shifting mechanism.
The end face gear ratchet mechanism is also provided with a positive action device, and the automatic clutch is a double-conical-face friction clutch; the double-conical-surface friction clutch comprises a double-conical-surface cavity, a centrifugal frame, throwing blocks and hoop springs, wherein the throwing blocks are arranged on the centrifugal frame in a circumferential mode through the hoop springs.
The end face gear ratchet mechanism is characterized in that a driven gear is provided with a sleeve seat which is matched with a driven shaft in a rotating way, and a driven ratchet wheel and a circular ring disc in a centrifugal reverse pushing device are matched with the driven shaft in a sliding way through splines; the end face gear ratchet mechanism is a one-way reverse-thrust overrunning clutch or a two-way reverse-thrust overrunning clutch; one end face of the driven ratchet wheel of the unidirectional reverse-pushing overrunning clutch is provided with a driven ratchet, the unidirectional reverse-pushing overrunning clutch is provided with a centrifugal reverse-pushing device, the other end face of the driven ratchet wheel is provided with a compressed spring and a forward action device, the forward action device is characterized in that the driven ratchet wheel is provided with a double-ring steel leaf spring through a cylinder or is provided with a double-ring steel leaf spring or a petal fork-shaped steel leaf spring through a positioning pawl, one end face of the driven gear is provided with a driving ratchet, and the driving ratchet is matched with the driven ratchet.
The automatic clutch is matched with the end face gear ratchet mechanism, a double conical surface cavity of the automatic clutch is assembled on an external spline sleeve seat fixed on the second-gear driving gear through an internal spline sleeve seat, and the centrifugal frame is assembled on a gear shaft through an internal spline of the cylindrical seat.
The automatic clutch is matched with the reverse action gear shifting mechanism, a double conical surface cavity of the automatic clutch is assembled on the gear shaft through an internal spline sleeve seat, and the centrifugal frame is assembled on the motor shaft through an internal spline of the cylindrical seat.
The bidirectional reverse-pushing overrunning clutch is characterized in that a forward-rotating driven ratchet is arranged on one end face of a forward-rotating driven ratchet wheel, a centrifugal reverse-pushing device is assembled, a compressed spring and a forward-acting device are assembled on the other end face of the forward-rotating driven ratchet wheel, the forward-acting device is formed by assembling a double-ring steel leaf spring on the forward-rotating driven ratchet wheel through a cylinder, or a plurality of positioning claws are arranged on the circumference of the forward-rotating driven ratchet wheel in a circumferential arrangement mode, each positioning claw is provided with an arc-shaped groove for assembling the double-ring steel leaf spring or a petal fork-shaped steel leaf spring, and a forward-rotating; the other end face of the driven gear is provided with a reverse driving ratchet matched with a reverse driven ratchet on one end face of the reverse driven ratchet, the reverse driven ratchet is provided with a centrifugal reverse pushing device, and the other end face of the reverse driven ratchet is provided with a compressed spring.
The double-conical-surface friction clutch comprises a disc seat, an internal spline sleeve seat, a conical surface body and a large cylinder, wherein the large cylinder is provided with an internal round step and an internal clamp spring groove; or a circular ring pad is assembled between the conical ring and the large inner snap spring; the centrifugal frame comprises a cylinder seat, a baffle, a sliding cavity, a V-shaped cavity and a bottom plate, wherein the cylinder seat is provided with an external clamp spring groove, a throwing block is provided with a cuboid sliding block, the sliding block is matched with the sliding cavity, a plurality of throwing blocks are arranged in a circumferential mode and are assembled on the centrifugal frame through C-shaped hoop springs to form a double-conical-surface round cake capable of expanding or contracting, a bidirectional external conical surface of the double-conical-surface round cake is matched with a bidirectional internal conical surface of the double-conical-surface cavity, a concave ring groove is formed in the outer circle of the double-conical-surface round cake, a convex block is arranged in the concave ring groove; or the openings of the two C-shaped hoop springs are oppositely and overlapped in the concave ring grooves, the opening of each C-shaped hoop spring is respectively arranged at the convex blocks of the two throwing blocks, the convex blocks are provided with notches, and every two convex blocks are respectively arranged on the two adjacent throwing blocks.
The driven ratchet wheel is assembled with a double-ring steel leaf spring or a petal fork-shaped steel leaf spring through positioning claws, the double-ring steel leaf spring is an assembled double-ring steel leaf spring with a barb inner snap spring or a self-locking assembled double-ring steel leaf spring, the barb inner snap spring is an assembled double-ring steel leaf spring, barbs at two ends of the barb inner snap spring are assembled between the two positioning claws, the positioning claws are provided with arc-shaped groove end surface steps, the double-ring steel leaf spring comprises an energy storage steel sheet, a positioning inner ring and a positioning outer ring, and the positioning outer ring is arranged between the arc-shaped groove end; when the positioning inner ring and the positioning outer ring are on the same plane, the end face of the forward rotation driven ratchet and the end face of the forward rotation driving ratchet are on the same plane, and the energy storage steel sheet is in a squeezed state. The positioning inner ring is assembled on the driven shaft.
The positioning claw of the self-locking assembly type double-ring steel leaf spring is provided with an arc-shaped groove, the double-ring steel leaf spring comprises an energy storage steel sheet, a positioning inner ring, a positioning outer ring and a locking plate, a positioning edge and a flange are arranged on the circumference of the positioning outer ring, the positioning claw is arranged between the flange and the locking plate, and the positioning edge is arranged in the arc-shaped groove; when the positioning inner ring and the positioning outer ring are on the same plane, the end face of the forward rotation driven ratchet and the end face of the forward rotation driving ratchet are on the same plane, and the energy storage steel sheet is in a squeezed state; the positioning inner ring is assembled on the driven shaft.
The petal fork-shaped steel sheet spring comprises a positioning inner ring, an energy storage steel sheet and a fork-shaped steel sheet, the energy storage steel sheet and the fork-shaped steel sheet are arranged on the outer circle of the positioning inner ring in a circumferential manner, and the fork-shaped steel sheet is forked in an arc-shaped groove of the positioning claw; when the positioning inner ring and the forked steel sheet are on the same plane, the end face of the forward rotation driven ratchet and the end face of the forward rotation driving ratchet are also on the same plane, and the energy storage steel sheet is in a squeezed state. The positioning inner ring is fixed on the driven shaft.
The automatic clutch is matched with the end face gear ratchet mechanism, a gear shaft of the automatic clutch is in transmission connection with a motor shaft through an elastic coupling, a left claw body of the elastic coupling comprises an inner spline sleeve, a baffle plate and force claws, the left end face of the left claw body is provided with the baffle plate, a plurality of force claws are arranged on the outer circumference of the inner spline sleeve, the force claws protrude out of the right end face of the inner spline sleeve, the axial length of the force claws is twice of that of the inner spline sleeve, the structure of the right claw body is the same as that of the left claw body or is only different from that of an inner spline hole, and a plum blossom rubber pad is assembled between the left claw body and the right claw body.
The automatic clutch is matched with the reverse action gear shifting mechanism, the automatic clutch is a double-conical-surface friction clutch, a double-conical-surface cavity is assembled on an external spline at the right end of the gear shaft through an internal spline sleeve seat, through bearing end face and outer jump ring location or through bearing end face and drum seat terminal surface location, circle is equipped with interior protruding ring step in the drum seat of centrifuge rack, the rotatory sliding fit assembly of drum seat is at the right-hand member position of gear axle, gear axle right-hand member center is equipped with the screw hole, gear axle right-hand member terminal surface and the interior protruding ring end face and the lock of drum seat fill up a terminal surface contact, another terminal surface of lock pad is fastened by the screw hole assembly of interior hexagonal bolt through the gear axle, drum seat right-hand member hole is equipped with the external splines adaptation of internal spline and motor shaft, the casing is equipped with the circular concave ring chamber adaptation of circular end cover and half right shell, the round hole assembly oil blanket in the middle of the circular end cover, oil blanket and motor shaft.
The automatic clutch is matched with the reverse action gear shifting mechanism, the automatic clutch is a double-conical-surface friction clutch, a double-conical-surface cavity is assembled on an external spline at the right end of the gear shaft through an internal spline sleeve seat and is positioned with an external clamp spring through a bearing end surface, and the centrifugal frame is assembled on the external spline of the motor shaft through an internal spline of the cylindrical seat; the casing is provided with a circular end cover matched with a circular concave ring cavity of the right half shell, an oil seal is assembled in a circular hole in the middle of the circular end cover, and the oil seal is matched with the motor shaft.
The automatic clutch is matched with the end face gear mechanism or the automatic clutch is matched with the reverse action gear shifting mechanism, and the automatic clutch comprises a shoe block type automatic clutch or a multi-piece type automatic clutch.
The double-shaft two-gear transmission is characterized in that a gear shaft is meshed with a second-gear driven gear through a second-gear driving gear assembled by an automatic clutch, a first-gear driving gear fixed on the gear shaft is meshed with a first-gear driven gear, the first-gear driven gear is assembled on a driven shaft through an end face tooth ratchet mechanism, the second-gear driven gear is assembled and fixed with the driven shaft, and the driven shaft outputs power through a chain wheel or a gear or is provided with a small gear which is meshed with a large gear of a differential mechanism to output power.
The double-shaft second-gear transmission can also be realized by assembling a second-gear driving gear and a first-gear driving gear on a gear shaft through a reverse action gear shifting mechanism, wherein the second-gear driving gear is meshed with a second-gear driven gear, the first-gear driving gear is meshed with a first-gear driven gear, the gear shaft is in transmission connection with a motor shaft through an automatic clutch, the second-gear driven gear and the first-gear driven gear are respectively assembled and fixed with a driven shaft, and the driven shaft outputs power through a chain wheel or a gear or is meshed with a large gear of a differential mechanism through a driven.
The reverse action gear shifting mechanism is characterized in that a reverse action device is connected with an operating device, a sliding sleeve fixed by a driven frame in the reverse action device is provided with a first guide rod and a second guide rod, the first guide rod and the second guide rod are arranged in two deep grooves of a gear shaft and penetrate through a positioning check ring and a second gear driving gear, and the first guide rod and the second guide rod are connected with a steel sheet synchronous elastic combination sleeve or an elastic combination sleeve or a steel ball clutch.
Compared with the prior art, the automatic gear transmission has the beneficial effects that:
1. the automatic transmission adopts the double-conical-surface friction clutch, so that transmission impact generated by acceleration and deceleration during gear shifting and speed changing is effectively buffered, the double-conical-surface friction clutch is large in transmitted torque and long in service life, and the continuity and reliability of power transmission are ensured by adopting the end-face gear ratchet mechanism.
2. The automatic clutch is matched with the reverse action gear shifting mechanism, so that transmission impact during gear shifting and speed changing is effectively buffered, particularly, when a vehicle slides, the automatic clutch is automatically separated, the motor can stop running, the sliding resistance of the vehicle is reduced, the service life of a drive axle can be prolonged, and the endurance mileage of the electric vehicle is increased.
3. The device has the advantages that the highest mechanical efficiency is obtained by adopting pure mechanical gear transmission, the energy conservation and emission reduction are facilitated, particularly, in the working condition of transmission exceeding, the positive action device is adopted, the meshing and separating reliability of the ratchets is guaranteed, the device is applied to a second-gear differential motor, can be assembled in the existing electric vehicle, and is good in production succession and low in manufacturing cost.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a first embodiment of a second speed differential electric machine of the automatic transmission of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is an axial cross-sectional view of the bi-directional thrust reverser overrunning clutch of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a partial structural schematic view of a self-locking assembled double-ring steel leaf spring;
FIG. 4 is a partial structural schematic view of a petal fork shaped steel leaf spring;
FIG. 5 is an exploded view of the resilient coupling;
FIG. 6 is an exploded left side view of FIG. 2;
FIG. 7 is an exploded view of the right hand portion of FIG. 2;
FIG. 8 is a schematic structural view of the second embodiment of the second speed differential electric machine of the automatic transmission of the present invention;
FIG. 9 is an end-on schematic view of the double-cone friction clutch of FIG. 8;
FIG. 10 is an axial cross-sectional view of FIG. 9;
FIG. 11 is a schematic view of a circumferential arrangement of flappers;
FIG. 12 is a schematic view of the structure of the centrifuge rack;
fig. 13 is an exploded view of the left hand portion of fig. 10.
Detailed Description
Referring to fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, fig. 1 shows a second-speed differential motor of an automatic transmission according to a first embodiment of the present invention, which is mounted to a transaxle of a three-wheeled electric vehicle and a four-wheeled electric vehicle.
In order to make the vehicle start stable and improve the comfort of gear shifting and acceleration and deceleration, a drive axle of the electric vehicle adopts a double-conical-surface friction clutch 5 to be matched with a bidirectional reverse-thrust overrunning clutch 12 to realize the speed shifting, a left half shell 241 is provided with a round hole and a flange plate which penetrate through a gear shaft 1, the round hole is provided with a bearing seat, the round hole is used for fixing the outer ring of a bearing, the inner ring of the bearing 68 is fixed on the right convex step of an external spline sleeve seat 215, the right end of the external spline sleeve seat is fixed with a second-gear driving gear 21, a cylinder cover 43 is fixed with the flange plate through bolts, a right half shell 243 of a machine shell 39 is fixedly assembled with a motor 44, the right end of the gear shaft is in transmission connection with a motor shaft 46 through splines, and the.
The bidirectional reverse-thrust overrunning clutch 12 is only provided with a positive action device on the bidirectional reverse-thrust overrunning clutch disclosed in the published Chinese utility model patent application number: 2016206475189.
The gear shaft 1 is positioned and rotatably matched with the external spline sleeve seat 215 and the second-gear driving gear 21 through the retainer ring 84, the left end surface of a shaft step 101 of the gear shaft is in sliding fit with the right end surface of the second-gear driving gear 21, a double-conical-surface cavity of the double-conical-surface friction clutch 5 is assembled on the external spline sleeve seat 215 fixed on the second-gear driving gear 21 through the internal spline sleeve seat 81 and is assembled and positioned through the external snap spring 34, and the cylinder seat 153 of the centrifugal frame is assembled and positioned at the left end part of the gear shaft through the internal spline and is assembled and positioned through the external snap spring 69. The double-conical-surface cavity is provided with a disc seat, an inner spline sleeve seat 81, a conical surface body 83 and a large cylinder 194, a wave plate spring ring 161 is assembled between an inner circular step of the large cylinder and an outer circular step of the conical surface ring, the conical surface ring 16 is assembled on the large cylinder 194 through an inner circular snap spring, and the outer circle of the conical surface ring is provided with convex teeth which are assembled in a groove of the large cylinder; six throwing blocks 154 are circumferentially arranged and assembled on the centrifugal frame to form a double-conical-surface circular cake, and the excircle of the double-conical-surface circular cake forms a concave ring groove to assemble a C-shaped hoop spring 155.
The first-gear driving gear 20 is formed on a gear shaft in a machining mode, the second-gear driving gear 21 is meshed with a second-gear driven gear 27, the first-gear driving gear 20 is meshed with a first-gear driven gear 26, the second-gear driven gear is fixed on the driven shaft 4, the first-gear driven gear 26 is assembled on the driven shaft 4 through a bidirectional reverse-thrust overrunning clutch 12, and a small gear 8 is formed in the middle of the driven shaft and meshed with a large gear 271 of a differential.
The left end face of a forward rotation driven ratchet wheel in the bidirectional reverse-thrust overrunning clutch is provided with a forward rotation driven ratchet and is provided with a centrifugal reverse-thrust device, and the right end face of the forward rotation driven ratchet wheel is provided with a compressed forward rotation petal-shaped steel leaf spring and a forward action device; the driven shaft 4 is provided with an outer clamp spring 110 through an outer clamp spring groove 401 and an outer clamp spring 118 through an outer clamp spring groove 402, a first-gear driven gear 26 is axially positioned and assembled, the first-gear driven gear is provided with a sleeve seat 263 and is matched with the driven shaft in a rotating way, the right end surface of the first-gear driven gear is provided with a forward rotation driving ratchet 264, a forward rotation driven ratchet 127 is in sliding fit with the driven shaft 4 through a spline 131, the left end surface of the forward rotation driven ratchet is provided with a large convex ring, the left end surface of the large convex ring is provided with a forward rotation driven ratchet 133 which is matched with the forward rotation driving ratchet 264, the left end surface of the forward rotation driven ratchet is also provided with a small convex ring 132, the left end surface of the small convex ring is contacted with a small steel ball 121, the small steel ball is assembled in a conical surface annular groove 182 of a forward rotation circular disc 128, the forward rotation circular disc is assembled with the driven shaft through, the right end surface of the circular ring of the forward rotation petal-shaped steel leaf spring 116 is contacted with an outer clamp spring 119, and the outer clamp spring 119 is arranged in an outer clamp spring groove 403; six positioning claws are arranged on the circumference of the right end face of the forward rotation driven ratchet wheel, the positioning claws 152 are provided with arc-shaped grooves 153 and inner convex end faces, barbs 156 at two ends of the barb inner snap spring 32 are assembled between the two positioning claws, the double-ring steel leaf spring 6 is provided with an energy storage steel sheet 182, a positioning inner ring 181 and a positioning outer ring 183, and the positioning outer ring 183 is arranged between the inner convex end faces of the positioning claws 152 and the barb inner snap spring 32; the clamping spring in the barb is assembled in the arc-shaped groove of the positioning claw. The positioning inner ring 181 is installed between the outer clamp spring 119 of the driven shaft and the washer 99, the right end face of the washer is positioned by the outer clamp spring 31, and the driven shaft 4 is provided with the outer clamp spring 119 through the outer clamp spring groove 403 and the outer clamp spring 31 through the outer clamp spring groove 404. When the positioning inner ring 181 and the positioning outer ring 183 are on the same plane, the end surface of the forward rotation driven ratchet 133 and the end surface of the forward rotation driving ratchet 264 are on the same plane, and the energy storage steel sheet 182 of the double ring steel sheet spring 6 is in a pressing state.
In order to omit a clamping spring in the barb, the double-ring steel leaf spring 6 can also be made into a self-locking assembly type double-ring steel leaf spring, the positioning claw 152 is provided with an arc-shaped groove 153, as shown in fig. 3, the double-ring steel leaf spring comprises an energy storage steel sheet 182, a positioning inner ring 181, a positioning outer ring 183 and a locking sheet 186, the positioning outer ring 183 is circumferentially provided with a mounting edge 187, a positioning edge 185 and a flange 184 in an arrangement manner, the positioning claw is arranged between the flange and the locking sheet 186, the positioning edge is arranged in the arc-shaped groove, the locking sheet is a straight small steel sheet 188 when being generated, and the small steel; in order to save production cost, the self-locking assembled double-ring steel leaf spring can be replaced by a petal fork-shaped steel leaf spring, as shown in fig. 4, the petal fork-shaped steel leaf spring comprises a positioning inner ring 181, an energy storage steel sheet 182 and a fork-shaped steel sheet 189, the energy storage steel sheet and the fork-shaped steel sheet are circumferentially arranged on the outer circle of the positioning inner ring, the fork-shaped steel sheet 189 is forked in the arc-shaped grooves of the positioning claws, and four fork-shaped steel sheets are circumferentially arranged in the corresponding arc-shaped grooves of the four positioning claws.
The left end face of the first-gear driven gear is provided with a reverse driving ratchet 265, a reverse driven ratchet 114 is in sliding fit with a driven shaft through a spline 143, the right end face of the reverse driven ratchet is provided with a large convex ring, the right end face of the large convex ring is provided with a reverse driven ratchet 141 matched with the reverse driving ratchet 265, the right end face of the reverse driven ratchet is also provided with a small convex ring 142, the right end face of the small convex ring is in contact with a small steel ball 111, the small steel ball is assembled in a conical surface annular groove of a reverse annular disc 11, the reverse annular disc is assembled with the driven shaft through the spline, four blocking pieces are circumferentially distributed and fixed in the conical surface annular groove of the reverse annular disc, the left end face of the reverse driven ratchet is assembled with a compressed reverse petal-shaped steel leaf; the total number of the steel balls assembled in the reverse rotation circular ring disc is four more than that of the steel balls assembled in the forward rotation circular ring disc. The bi-directional thrust reverser overrunning clutch shown in fig. 2 is in an overrunning operating condition. The second gear of the automatic transmission shown in fig. 1 is in a disengaged state, which indicates that the vehicle is in a low-speed running state or a stopped state.
In order to achieve elastic buffering when the ratchets are engaged and prolong the service life of the automatic transmission, the gear shaft 1 and the motor shaft can be in transmission connection through the elastic coupling, as shown in fig. 5, a left claw body 71 of the elastic coupling comprises an inner spline sleeve 74, a baffle plate 72 and a force claw 73, the baffle plate 72 is arranged on the left end face of the left claw body 71, three force claws 73 are arranged on the outer circumference of the inner spline sleeve 74 in a circumferential arrangement mode, the force claws protrude out of the right end face of the inner spline sleeve, the axial length of the force claws is twenty millimeters, the axial length of the inner spline sleeve is ten millimeters, the thickness of the baffle plate is five millimeters thick, the structure of the right claw body 76 is the same as that of the left claw body, and a plum rubber gasket 75 is assembled. The inner spline sleeve 74 of the left claw body 71 is assembled on the outer spline of the gear shaft, the inner spline sleeve of the right claw body 76 is assembled on the outer spline of the motor shaft, the axial length of the elastic coupling is only twenty-three millimeters, and the production cost can be saved.
As shown in fig. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13, in order to make the vehicle start smooth and the acceleration and deceleration more smooth and comfortable, an automatic clutch is used to cooperate with a reverse action gear shifting mechanism to realize the speed shifting speed change, and fig. 8 shows a second embodiment of the second gear differential motor of the automatic gear transmission of the invention, which can be assembled on the drive axle of a three-wheel electric vehicle and a four-wheel electric vehicle with high gear.
The reverse action gear shifting mechanism is specifically introduced in the published Chinese utility model patent (application number: 2015203679851), wherein the gear shaft is axially and sequentially provided with an operating device, a reverse action device and a transmission switching device, the operating device is a steel ball inclined plane device, and the steel ball inclined plane device is a steel ball groove matched with a steel ball claw; the steel ball in the steel ball groove contacts with the working surface of the steel ball claw. Also specifically described in the published Chinese patent application No. 2012101255418.
The left half shell of the machine shell 39 is provided with a round hole and a flange plate which penetrate through the gear shaft 1, a cylinder cover 43 is fixed with the flange plate, a bearing seat is arranged at the bottom of the cylinder cover, the right half shell 243 of the machine shell is fixedly assembled with the motor, the gear shaft is assembled in the machine shell through a bearing, a driven shaft 4 and a differential gear wheel 271 assembly, the gear shaft 1 is assembled with an operating device 9, a reverse action device 10 and an elastic combination sleeve 7, a second-gear driving gear 21 is meshed with a second-gear driven gear 27, a first-gear driving gear 20 is meshed with a first-gear driven gear 26, the second-gear driven gear and the first-gear driven gear are fixed on the driven shaft 4 through splines, and a small gear 8 processed by the driven.
The operating device 9 adopts a steel ball groove to be matched with the steel ball claw, and a steel ball arranged in the steel ball groove is contacted with the working surface of the steel ball claw 91; the operating device is connected with the reverse action device 10 through a connecting sheet 34, the right end of the steel ball claw and the left end of the reverse action device are provided with a compressed tower-shaped large pressure spring 411, a driven frame of the reverse action device is provided with a first guide rod 15 and a second guide rod 3 through a sliding sleeve, and the right ends of the two guide rods are connected with an elastic combination sleeve 7.
The double-conical-surface cavity of the double-conical-surface friction clutch 5 is assembled on an external spline at the right end of the gear shaft 1 through an internal spline sleeve seat, the internal spline sleeve seat 81 is assembled between the blocking pad 157 and the cylinder seat 153, an internal convex circular ring step 149 is arranged on the left side of the inner circle of the cylinder seat of the centrifugal frame 196, the cylinder seat 153 is assembled at the right end of the gear shaft in a rotating and sliding fit mode, a screw hole is formed in the center of the right end of the gear shaft, the end face of the right end of the gear shaft and the end face of the internal convex circular ring of the cylinder seat are in contact with the left end face of the locking pad, the right end face of the locking pad 151 is assembled and fastened through the screw hole of the gear shaft 1 through an internal hexagonal bolt 152, an internal spline 146 is arranged at the right end of the inner hole of the cylinder seat 153 and matched with the external spline of the motor shaft 45, the shell.
The double-conical-surface cavity 82 of the double-conical-surface friction clutch comprises a disc seat, an inner spline sleeve seat 81, a conical surface body 83 and a large cylinder 194, wherein the inner spline sleeve seat 81 and the conical surface body 83 are machined on the disc seat, the large cylinder is provided with an inner circular step and an inner clamp spring groove 195, the conical surface ring 16 is provided with an outer circular step, a wave plate spring ring 161 is assembled between the inner circular step of the large cylinder 194 and the outer circular step of the conical surface ring 16, and the conical surface ring 16 is assembled on the large cylinder 194 through the inner large clamp spring 164; a circular ring pad 163 is assembled between the conical ring and the large inner snap spring, so that the space of the double-conical cavity is adjusted conveniently; the centrifugal frame 196 comprises a cylindrical seat 153, a baffle plate 156, a sliding cavity 144, a V-shaped cavity 145 and a bottom plate 191, wherein the cylindrical seat is provided with an outer clamp spring groove 141, a throwing block 154 is provided with a cuboid sliding block 148, the sliding block is matched with the sliding cavity 144, six throwing blocks are circumferentially arranged and assembled on the centrifugal frame 196 through C-shaped hoop springs to form a double-conical-surface round cake 197 capable of expanding or contracting, a bidirectional outer conical surface 147 of the double-conical-surface round cake is matched with a bidirectional inner conical surface of the double-conical-surface cavity, and a convex tooth 79 is arranged on the excircle of a conical-surface ring and assembled in a groove 78 of a; the C-shaped hoop spring 155 is assembled in a concave groove 194 formed in the outer circle of the double-conical-surface round cake, the openings of the C-shaped hoop spring are arranged on two sides of the convex block 192 of one throwing block and the convex block 193 of the other throwing block, and the two convex blocks are respectively arranged on the two adjacent throwing blocks. The left end faces of the sliding blocks of the six throwing blocks are in contact with the bottom plate 191, the right end faces of the sliding blocks are in contact with the baffle 156, the baffle is assembled and positioned through the outer snap spring 162, and the outer snap spring 162 is arranged on the outer snap spring groove 141 of the cylindrical seat 153.
Fig. 8 shows the second gear in the engaged state, which illustrates the automatic transmission in a high-speed operating state.
The speed change principle and the operation process of the automatic gear transmission are as follows:
the first embodiment of the second-gear differential motor of the automatic transmission is described, as shown in fig. 1, fig. 2, fig. 6 and fig. 7, which belongs to automatic gear shifting of rotating speed, when the double-conical friction clutch 5 assembled on the gear shaft 1 starts and rotates at low rotating speed, the double-conical disc 197 formed by assembling the thrower block on the centrifugal frame and the double-conical cavity are in a separated state, the second-gear driving gear 21 assembled on the double-conical cavity slides and rotates on the gear shaft, the first-gear driving gear 20 on the gear shaft is in meshing transmission with the first-gear driven gear 26, the first-gear driven gear drives the driven shaft 4 through the end-face gear mechanism 12, and the driven shaft and the pinion rotate to drive the differential gear to rotate, so that the first-gear large torque driving is realized.
When the driving resistance of the vehicle is reduced, the vehicle speed is accelerated, and the vehicle is accelerated to run, the end surface tooth ratchet mechanism 12 is a bidirectional reverse-pushing overrunning clutch, and a reverse driving ratchet of the first-gear driven gear and a reverse driven ratchet of the reverse driven ratchet are firstly separated along with the rise of the rotating speed due to the action of a reverse pushing device; meanwhile, the throwing block on the centrifugal frame overcomes the action force of the C-shaped hoop spring 155 under the action of continuously increased centrifugal force to expand, so that the double-conical-surface round cake 197 and the double-conical-surface cavity are in a combined state, the second-gear driving gear 21 assembled in the double-conical-surface cavity drives the second-gear driven gear 27, the second-gear driving gear 21 obtains power to accelerate the second-gear driven gear 27 to rotate, the driven shaft 4 accelerates to rotate, and the pinion 8 drives the differential large gear 271 to drive the vehicle to advance in an accelerated manner, so that the high-speed running of the second gear is realized; the second-gear driven gear 27 drives the driven shaft 4 to rotate at a high speed, and the driven shaft and the first-gear driven gear are forced to automatically surmount and separate through the end face tooth ratchet mechanism 12.
When the resistance of the bicycle is increased or the bicycle is operated to decelerate, the throwing block on the centrifugal frame is contracted because the acting force of the C-shaped hoop spring overcomes the continuously reduced centrifugal force, so that the double-conical-surface round cake 197 and the double-conical-surface cavity are in a separated state, and the transmission can be automatically changed from the second gear to the first gear, thereby repeatedly realizing the second-gear automatic variable speed transmission of the automatic gear transmission. The second gear shown in fig. 1 is in a disengaged state, which illustrates the automatic transmission in a low speed operating state or a stopped state.
Although the present invention has been described above with reference to the accompanying drawings, the present invention is not limited to the above-mentioned embodiments, which are only illustrative and not restrictive, for example, the bidirectional reverse-thrust overrunning clutch 12 and the double-cone friction clutch 5 of the present invention can also be applied to some embodiments of the present applicant's chinese utility model patent applications (application numbers: 201520367985.1, 201320068179.5, 201620017202.1 and 201620647518.9, respectively) previously filed, such as the embodiment of the second-gear hub motor, and many modifications can be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the present invention. These are all within the scope of the invention.

Claims (2)

1. An automatic gear transmission comprises a gear transmission system and a gear shifting mechanism execution system; the gear transmission system is double-shaft two-gear transmission or epicyclic gear train gear transmission, and the gear shifting mechanism execution system comprises an automatic clutch and an end face gear mechanism or an automatic clutch and a reverse action gear shifting mechanism;
the method is characterized in that: the end face gear ratchet mechanism is also provided with a positive action device, and the automatic clutch is a double-conical-face friction clutch;
the double-conical-surface friction clutch comprises a double-conical-surface cavity, a centrifugal frame, throwing blocks and hoop springs, wherein the throwing blocks are arranged in a circumferential mode and assembled on the centrifugal frame through the hoop springs;
the end face gear ratchet mechanism is a one-way reverse-thrust overrunning clutch or a two-way reverse-thrust overrunning clutch,
one end face of the driven ratchet wheel of the unidirectional reverse-push overrunning clutch is provided with driven ratchet teeth and is assembled with a centrifugal reverse-push device, the other end face of the driven ratchet wheel is assembled with a compressed spring and a forward action device, the forward action device is that the driven ratchet wheel is assembled with a double-ring steel leaf spring through a cylinder or the driven ratchet wheel is assembled with a double-ring steel leaf spring or a petal fork-shaped steel leaf spring through a positioning pawl, one end face of the driven gear is provided with driving ratchet teeth, and the driving ratchet teeth are matched with the driven ratchet teeth;
the double-ring steel leaf spring is an assembly type double-ring steel leaf spring with a barb inner snap spring or a self-locking assembly type double-ring steel leaf spring,
the double-ring steel sheet spring comprises an energy storage steel sheet, a positioning inner ring and a positioning outer ring, and the positioning outer ring is arranged between the arc-shaped groove end surface step and the barb inner snap spring; when the positioning inner ring and the positioning outer ring are on the same plane, the end face of the forward rotation driven ratchet and the end face of the forward rotation driving ratchet are on the same plane, and the energy storage steel sheet is in a squeezed state;
the positioning claw of the self-locking assembly type double-ring steel leaf spring is provided with an arc-shaped groove, the double-ring steel leaf spring comprises an energy storage steel sheet, a positioning inner ring, a positioning outer ring and a locking plate, a positioning edge and a flange are arranged on the circumference of the positioning outer ring, the positioning claw is arranged between the flange and the locking plate, and the positioning edge is arranged in the arc-shaped groove; when the positioning inner ring and the positioning outer ring are on the same plane, the end face of the forward rotation driven ratchet and the end face of the forward rotation driving ratchet are on the same plane, and the energy storage steel sheet is in a squeezed state;
the petal fork-shaped steel sheet spring comprises a positioning inner ring, an energy storage steel sheet and a fork-shaped steel sheet, the energy storage steel sheet and the fork-shaped steel sheet are arranged on the outer circle of the positioning inner ring in a circumferential manner, and the fork-shaped steel sheet is forked in an arc-shaped groove of the positioning claw; when the positioning inner ring and the forked steel sheet are on the same plane, the end face of the forward rotation driven ratchet and the end face of the forward rotation driving ratchet are also on the same plane, and the energy storage steel sheet is in a squeezed state.
2. The automatic transmission of claim 1, wherein: the double-conical-surface friction clutch comprises a disc seat, an internal spline sleeve seat, a conical surface body and a large cylinder, wherein the large cylinder is provided with an internal round step and an internal clamp spring groove; or a circular ring pad is assembled between the conical ring and the large inner snap spring;
the centrifugal frame comprises a cylinder seat, a baffle, a sliding cavity, a V-shaped cavity and a bottom plate, wherein the cylinder seat is provided with an outer clamp spring groove, a throwing block is provided with a cuboid slider, the slider is matched with the sliding cavity, a plurality of throwing blocks are arranged in a circumferential mode and assembled on the centrifugal frame through C-shaped hoop springs to form a double-conical-surface round cake capable of expanding or contracting, the two-way outer conical surface of the double-conical-surface round cake is matched with the two-way inner conical surface of the double-conical-surface cavity, the outer circle of the double-conical-surface round cake forms a concave ring groove, the concave ring groove is provided with a convex block, the opening of each C-shaped hoop spring is arranged at the convex block, or the two C-shaped hoop springs are assembled in the concave ring groove in an overlapping mode in which the opening directions are opposite, the opening of each C-shaped.
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EP3926207A1 (en) * 2020-06-16 2021-12-22 Kontopoulos, Leonidas Kyros Power transmission system with at least one divided freewheel gear

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CN108644326B (en) * 2018-04-27 2020-11-17 重庆乾威科技有限公司 Automatic transmission for electric vehicle
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CN109869448B (en) * 2019-03-21 2023-08-22 吉林博承传动系统科技有限公司 Two-gear automatic gearbox for electric vehicle and gear shifting control method of two-gear automatic gearbox
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