CN106680025A - Undisturbed columnar sampling device and method for shallow water surface sediments - Google Patents

Undisturbed columnar sampling device and method for shallow water surface sediments Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106680025A
CN106680025A CN201710081638.6A CN201710081638A CN106680025A CN 106680025 A CN106680025 A CN 106680025A CN 201710081638 A CN201710081638 A CN 201710081638A CN 106680025 A CN106680025 A CN 106680025A
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China
Prior art keywords
piston
deposit
sampling
rod
water surface
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Pending
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CN201710081638.6A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
施曙东
管晓涛
闫国杰
许严
李文超
罗芳艳
王�琦
石寒松
周骏
邱轶
邓国民
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SHANGHAI PUDONG ROAD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION CO Ltd
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SHANGHAI PUDONG ROAD BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION CO Ltd
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Priority to CN201710081638.6A priority Critical patent/CN106680025A/en
Publication of CN106680025A publication Critical patent/CN106680025A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/02Devices for withdrawing samples
    • G01N1/04Devices for withdrawing samples in the solid state, e.g. by cutting
    • G01N1/08Devices for withdrawing samples in the solid state, e.g. by cutting involving an extracting tool, e.g. core bit

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  • Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Analytical Chemistry (AREA)
  • Biochemistry (AREA)
  • General Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • General Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • Immunology (AREA)
  • Pathology (AREA)
  • Sampling And Sample Adjustment (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses an undisturbed columnar sampling device for shallow water surface sediments. The device comprises a hollow sampling pipe, a piston rod arranged in the sampling pipe, and a piston arranged at the lower end of the rod handle piston rod, wherein the sampling pipe is glidingly embedded with the piston; a layer of water filtering cover is mounted at one end, in contact with a water body, of the piston; a plurality of small-area water through holes are formed in the water filtering cover; the piston rod adopts a hollow rod body; an opening is formed in the lower end of the hollow rod body; the lower end of the hollow rod body penetrates through the piston and is connected with the water filtering cover; a non-return flap is arranged in the rod body at the lower end of the hollow rod body; the upper end of the hollow rod body is communicated with a drainage hose. The invention further discloses an undisturbed columnar sampling method for the shallow water surface sediments. The device can more efficiently perform undisturbed sampling on the sediments, can further accurately control the thicknesses of the sediments, and meanwhile is simple to operate and low in cost.

Description

The undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit and method
Technical field
The present invention relates to environmental monitoring sampler technical field, shallow water river channel or lake are can be used in particular to one kind Deng the undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit and method in water body environment.
Background technology
Deposit monitoring is an important component in water body environment investigation and scientific research, each in research water body Transportion and transformation and the influence to ECOLOGY OF BENTHOS IN for planting pollutant are significant.Sediment sampling device is water One of essential instrument in body environmental monitoring, sediment sampling device is mainly grab type deposit known to current China Sampling apparatus and column shaped deposit sampling apparatus.
Grab type sediment sampling apparatus structure is simple and convenient to operate, but it relies on and artificially jettisonings and by sampling apparatus Own wt inserts it into deposit, it is difficult to controlling depth, and, seal big to surface sediment samples disturbance is poor, causes sample The problems such as product are lost in, go bad, can not reflect real surface deposit situation.
Column shaped deposit sampling apparatus obtains column shaped deposit sample, the post for using at present by being inserted perpendicularly into deposit Shape sediment sampling device has gravity sampling apparatus, vibration type piston sampling apparatus and gravity piston sampling apparatus, these sampling cartridges Most complex structure is put, volume large and bulky, operation inconvenience is expensive.
The content of the invention
It is not enough that the technical problems to be solved by the invention are directed to above-mentioned prior art, there is provided a kind of shallow water surface deposit Undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus and method, the present invention more effectively and to the undisturbed sampling of deposit, and can be controlled accurately System sampling thickness of deposits, while simple to operate, cheap, easy to operate, sampling process is smaller to sediment disturbance, adopts Sample can reflect deposit truth.
In order to realize above-mentioned technical purpose, the technical scheme that the present invention takes is:
The undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit, it is characterised in that including:Hollow sampling pipe, it is arranged on and adopts Piston rod in sample pipe and it is arranged at the piston of rod handle piston-rod lower end;The sampling pipe and the piston sliding gomphosis;Institute State piston and one metafiltration water cover is installed with water body contact jaw;The drainage is covered and is provided with water hole;Piston rod is the hollow body of rod, The hollow body of rod lower end is opening and is connected with the drainage lid through the piston;The bar of the lower end of the hollow body of rod Non-return flap is provided with vivo, the upper end of the hollow body of rod connects with scupper hose.
Further, the sampling pipe and the piston rod are hard material.
Further, the hard material is stainless steel.
Further, the sampling pipe and deposit contact end are wedge-shaped snap-type shape, are beneficial to after deposit of sampling Deposit is maintained in the sampling pipe.
Further, the sampling pipe indicates scale;The piston rod surface also indicates scale, the piston rod surface When the piston is pushed into the bottom at sampling pipe contact deposit end, the scale with the sampling pipe is consistent scale.
Further, the piston rod includes two hollow bodies of rod, and two upper ends of the hollow body of rod are formed with handle " π " type is connected and connected with scupper hose.
Further, two hollow bodies of rod are bonded to one in handle, form scupper hose.
Further, the piston uses elastomeric material;The aperture of the water hole that the drainage is covered is 1 ~ 2mm.
Further, the hollow body of rod is sampled fixed or is detachably connected with the piston.
Further, the piston-rod lower end is provided with thread segment, and the drainage lid is set on the thread segment with the piston, Fixed by nut two ends.
In order to realize above-mentioned technical purpose, another technical scheme that the present invention takes is:
The undisturbed column method of sampling of shallow water surface deposit, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
Step one:Piston rod in the above-mentioned undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit is pulled to upper end highest Place, and the undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit are vertically slowly placed into sampling waters;
Step 2:When the sampling pipe is contacted to deposit surface, the sampling pipe air and water body contact position appearance are write down Face scale L mm, take the skin depth a mm of deposit as needed, the sampling pipe are slowly inserted, when the sampling pipe Air shows during to (L+a) mm with water body contact position outer surface scale, stops inserting;
Step 3:Slowly by the piston rod push to deposit contact end, when the piston rod and the sampling pipe top weight When scale is shown as L mm at conjunction, stop push-in;
Step 4:The undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit are integrally slowly taken out, under nitrogen atmosphere, by institute State piston rod and be pushed into bottom, then the deposit that will be gathered is preserved.
The actual demand that the present invention samples according to shallow-water deposit thing, develops one kind and is suitable for shallow water body deposit unperturbed Dynamic, easy to operate column-shaped sampling apparatus and the method for sampling, its advantage is:
1st, using non-return flap discharge structure, by the overlying water discharge on deposit, water layer is reduced to the pressure of deposit, make piston Lower storage sediments zones form negative pressure, and deposit can be made together to depart from water body with sampling apparatus.To top layer in sampling process Deposit undisturbed, the design of porous water filtration lid can effectively improve drainage efficiency and prevent flexible pipe from blocking;
2nd, sampling pipe and piston rod upper surface are respectively marked with scale, can take the surface deposit of different-thickness, and can effectively control Piston processed finally advances position so that deposit and overlying water undisturbed are separated;
3rd, sampling pipe and deposit contact end use wedge-shaped click-on design, and wedge shape is beneficial to sampling apparatus insertion deposit.Buckle When water body is taken out equipped with sediment sampling device, and the negative pressure that piston is formed keeps deposit to be attached in sampling pipe simultaneously.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is schematic structural view of the invention.
Fig. 2 is piston rod and piston structure schematic diagram in the present invention.
Fig. 3 is the partial enlargement structural representation at A in Fig. 1(Sampling pipe and deposit contact end profile).
Fig. 4 is the partial enlargement structural representation at B in Fig. 2(The built-in flexible pipe of piston rod converges figure).
Fig. 5 is the partial enlargement structural representation at C in Fig. 2.
Fig. 6 is the structural representation of the drainage lid of piston in the present invention.
In Fig. 1 to Fig. 6,1- sampling pipes, 2 piston rods, 3- scupper hoses, 4- pistons, 5- non-return flaps, 6- nuts, 7 drainages Lid.
Specific embodiment
With reference to specific examples below and accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in further detail.Implement process of the invention, Condition, experimental technique etc., except the following special content part for referring to, are the universal knowledege and common knowledge of this area, this hair It is bright that content is not particularly limited.
Embodiment 1
The undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit are to prevent the nothing into water by non-return flap draining in the present invention Disturbance columnar sampler, forms negative pressure and wedge-shaped buckle adheres to so that sediment sample can be with sampling apparatus together by piston Take out, complete whole sampling process.
The undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of this shallow water surface deposit, including:Hollow sampling pipe 1, it is arranged on sampling pipe 1 Interior piston rod 2 and it is arranged at the piston 4 of the lower end of rod handle piston rod 2;The sampling pipe 1 and the sliding gomphosis of the piston 4;Institute State piston 4 and one metafiltration water cover 7 is installed with water body contact jaw;The water hole of multiple small areas is provided with the drainage lid 7;Piston Bar 2 is the hollow body of rod, and the hollow body of rod lower end is opening and is connected with the drainage lid 7 through the piston 4;In Non-return flap 5 is provided with the body of rod of the lower end of the empty body of rod, the upper end of the hollow body of rod connects with scupper hose.
Further, the sampling pipe 1 and the piston rod 2 are hard material.The hard material is stainless steel.It is described Sampling pipe 1 is wedge-shaped snap-type shape with deposit contact end, is beneficial to the deposit after deposit of sampling and is maintained at the sampling In pipe 1.The sampling pipe 1 indicates scale;The surface of the piston rod 2 also indicates scale, and the scale on the surface of the piston rod 2 is in institute When stating piston 4 and being pushed into the bottom at the contact of sampling pipe 1 deposit end, the scale with the sampling pipe 1 is consistent.The piston Bar 2 includes two hollow bodies of rod, and two upper ends of the hollow body of rod form " π " type and are connected and connect with scupper hose with handle It is logical.Two hollow bodies of rod are bonded to one in the handle of piston, form scupper hose 3.The piston 4 uses rubber material Material;The aperture of the water hole on the drainage lid 7 is 1 ~ 2mm.The hollow body of rod is fixed with the sampling of the piston 4 or can Dismounting connection.The lower end of the piston rod 2 is provided with thread segment, and the drainage lid 7 is set on the thread segment with the piston 4, Fixed by the two ends of nut 6.
As shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, in the present embodiment 1, the undisturbed column sampling cartridge of shallow water surface deposit Put, including sampling pipe 1, and the piston rod 2 in sampling pipe 1 is embedded in, and it is placed in the scupper hose in hollow piston rod 2 3 and non-return flap 5, scupper hose 3 and non-return flap 5 are connected to the one end of piston 4, and the other end of piston 4 is added with drainage lid 7.The present embodiment 1 Proposed in sampling apparatus in sampling pipe 1 be made of stainless steel, piston rod 2 is made up of PVC, and piston 4 is made of rubber, only Valve 5 is returned to be made of silica gel.The a-quadrant of sampling pipe 1 is designed as wedge-shaped snap-type in sampling apparatus proposed in the present embodiment 1 Shape, is maintained in sampling pipe 1 beneficial to the deposit after deposit of sampling.Sampled in sampling apparatus proposed in the present embodiment 1 Pipe 1 and piston rod 2 can be according to the water depth design lengths in sampling waters, and in sampling pipe 1 and the outer surface of piston rod 2 from contact Deposit end starts to indicate scale, and is consistent, and this is capable of the thickness of precise acquisition deposit.Proposed in the present embodiment 1 Sampling apparatus in piston rod 2 use two hollow piston rods, and be connected into " π " type with a hollow piston handle type so that interior Logical scupper hose 3 connects draining in hollow piston handle.Piston 4 and sampling in sampling apparatus proposed in the present embodiment 1 The sliding gomphosis of pipe 1, piston rod 2 passes through piston 4 and drainage lid 7, is fixed with nut 6, and certain sky can be reserved on drainage lid 7 Between as discharge overlying water chaor, overlying water separates by the non-return flap 5 in hollow piston rod with deposit, and effective prevents Only overlying water is due to Action of Gravity Field backflow.
Embodiment 2
The undisturbed method of sampling of this shallow water surface deposit, comprises the following steps:
Step one:By the work in the undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit described in claim embodiment 1 Stopper rod 2 is pulled to upper end highest point, and the undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit are vertically slowly placed to sampling In waters;
Step 2:When the sampling pipe 1 is contacted to deposit surface, write down outside the air of the sampling pipe 1 and water body contact position Figure L mm, take the skin depth a mm of deposit as needed, and the sampling pipe 1 is slowly inserted, and are adopted when described The air of sample pipe 1 shows during to (L+a) mm with water body contact position outer surface scale, stops inserting;
Step 3:Slowly by the piston rod 2 push to deposit contact end, when the piston rod 2 and the top of the sampling pipe 1 When overlapping position scale is shown as L mm, stop push-in;
Step 4:The undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit are integrally slowly taken out, under nitrogen atmosphere, by institute State piston rod 2 and be pushed into bottom, then the deposit that will be gathered is preserved.
Using before the undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of this shallow water surface deposit the piston 4 should being checked with the sampling pipe Whether the connection between the sliding gomphosis between 1, and each position consolidates;
Embodiment 3
This shallow water surface deposit column-shaped sampling apparatus and method are used in the present embodiment 3, the organic glass of column is used to laboratory The deposit of glass unit simulation black-odor riverway is sampled experiment.
In the present embodiment 3, the column plexi glass device internal diameter for simulating black-odor riverway is 0.14 m, a height of 1.00 m, bottom Mud is covered with 0.05 m fine sands, and the thickness of deposits adopted back from black-odor riverway is 0.3 m, and overlying water is highly 0.6 m, this deposition Thing takes the deposit of the cm of top layer 5.
First, according to simulation black-odor riverway depth, the piston rod 2 of the m of sampling pipe 1 and 1.2 of 1 m is prepared.Install and debug Sampling apparatus, it is ensured that sampling apparatus is firm and piston rod 2 can in sampling pipe 1 normal sliding gomphosis.
Then piston rod 2 is pulled to highest point, then sampling apparatus slowly and is ensured vertically to be put into simulating riverway.When adopting The liquid level display scale of the outer surface of sample pipe 1 be 0.6 m when, the bottom of surface sampling pipe 1 and contact deposit.Now, slowly will Sampling pipe 1 is forcibly inserted into deposit, when the liquid level display scale of the outer surface of sampling pipe 1 is 0.65 m, stops insertion.
Scupper hose 3 can be accessed during piston rod 2 slowly then push water, during push-in it is another in container, The interference to simulating riverway can be reduced.When piston rod 2 is when using that scale is for 0.6 m at the most significant end of pipe 1, stop push-in.
Finally, sampling apparatus is taken out.Sampling pipe 1 is put into preservation shuttle containing sediment sample one end, and will Piston rod 2 is pushed into bottom, then the deposit that will be gathered is placed and preserved.
Embodiment 4
This shallow water surface deposit column-shaped sampling apparatus and method are used in the present embodiment 4, certain shallow water type black-odor riverway is sunk Product thing is sampled experiment.
In the present embodiment, sample the m of water depth 1.5, and thickness of deposits is more than 0.5 m, and water velocity is slow, and this sinks Product thing takes the deposit of the cm of top layer 5.
First, according to black-odor riverway depth, the piston rod 2 of the m of sampling pipe 1 and 2.2 of 2 m is prepared.Install and debug sampling Device, it is ensured that sampling apparatus is firm and piston rod 2 can in sampling pipe 1 normal sliding gomphosis.
Then piston rod 2 is pulled to highest point, then sampling apparatus slowly and is ensured vertically to be put into river course.Work as sampling pipe The liquid level display scale of 1 outer surface be 1.5 m when, the bottom of surface sampling pipe 1 and contact deposit.Now, slowly will sampling Pipe 1 is forcibly inserted into deposit, when the liquid level display scale of the outer surface of sampling pipe 1 is 1.55 m, stops insertion.
During piston rod 2 slowly then to push water, when piston rod 2 is when using that scale is for 1.5 m at the most significant end of pipe 1, stop Thrust enters.
Finally, sampling apparatus is taken out.Sampling pipe 1 is put into preservation shuttle containing sediment sample one end, and will Piston rod 2 is pushed into bottom, then the deposit that will be gathered is placed and preserved.
Protection content of the invention is not limited to above technical scheme, under the spirit and scope without departing substantially from inventive concept, Those skilled in the art it is conceivable that change and advantage be all included in the present invention, and be with appending claims Protection domain.

Claims (11)

1. undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit, it is characterised in that:Including hollow sampling pipe(1), set Piston rod in sampling pipe 1(2)And it is arranged at rod handle piston rod(2)The piston of lower end(4);The sampling pipe(1)With institute State piston(4)Sliding gomphosis;The piston(4)One metafiltration water cover is installed with water body contact jaw(7);The drainage lid(7)On It is provided with water hole;Piston rod(2)It is the hollow body of rod, the hollow body of rod lower end is opening and through the piston(4) With the drainage lid(7)Connection;Non-return flap is provided with the body of rod of the lower end of the hollow body of rod(5), the upper end of the hollow body of rod with Scupper hose is connected.
2. undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is described to adopt Sample pipe(1)With the piston rod(2)It is hard material.
3. undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit according to claim 2, it is characterised in that:It is described hard Material is stainless steel.
4. undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is described to adopt Sample pipe(1)It is wedge-shaped snap-type shape with deposit contact end, is beneficial to the deposit after deposit of sampling and is maintained at the sampling Pipe(1)It is interior.
5. undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is described to adopt Sample pipe(1)Indicate scale;The piston rod(2)Surface also indicates scale, the piston rod(2)The scale on surface is in the piston (4)It is pushed into sampling pipe(1)During the bottom at contact deposit end, with the sampling pipe(1)Scale be consistent.
6. undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The work Stopper rod(2)Including two hollow bodies of rod, two upper ends of the hollow body of rod form " π " type and are connected and and scupper hose with handle Connection.
7. undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit according to claim 6, it is characterised in that:Described two The hollow body of rod of root is bonded to one in handle, forms scupper hose(3).
8. undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The work Plug(4)Using elastomeric material;The drainage lid(7)On water hole aperture be 1 ~ 2mm.
9. undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In described The empty body of rod and the piston(4)Sampling is fixed or is detachably connected.
10. undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is described Piston rod(2)Lower end is provided with thread segment, the drainage lid(7)With the piston(4)It is set on the thread segment, by nut (6)Two ends are fixed.
A kind of 11. undisturbed column method of samplings of shallow water surface deposit, it is characterised in that including:
Step one:By in the undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit any one of claim 1-10 Piston rod(2)Be pulled to upper end highest point, and by the undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit vertically slowly place to In sampling waters;
Step 2:When the sampling pipe(1)When contact is to deposit surface, the sampling pipe is write down(1)Air is contacted with water body Place outer surface scale L mm, take the skin depth a mm of deposit, by the sampling pipe as needed(1)Slowly insert, when The sampling pipe(1)Air shows during to (L+a) mm with water body contact position outer surface scale, stops inserting;
Step 3:Slowly by the piston rod(2)Push to deposit contact end, when the piston rod(2)With the sampling pipe (1)When top overlapping position scale is shown as L mm, stop push-in;
Step 4:The undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit are integrally slowly taken out, under nitrogen atmosphere, by institute State piston rod(2)Bottom is pushed into, then the deposit that will be gathered is preserved.
CN201710081638.6A 2017-02-15 2017-02-15 Undisturbed columnar sampling device and method for shallow water surface sediments Pending CN106680025A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107505167A (en) * 2017-08-17 2017-12-22 上海市城市排水有限公司 A kind of drainage pipeline undisturbed sediment sampler and its method for sampling
CN107621386A (en) * 2017-11-10 2018-01-23 广东恒畅环保节能检测科技有限公司 A kind of sludge sampler
CN110031258A (en) * 2019-05-21 2019-07-19 南京信息工程大学 A kind of deposit anaerobic protection high-resolution layering collection device and collection method
CN112033766A (en) * 2020-09-04 2020-12-04 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 In-situ sampling device and method for foaming gas in superficial sediment

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CN204964246U (en) * 2015-08-18 2016-01-13 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所 Shallow water type does not have disturbance column sediment sample ware
CN105784420A (en) * 2016-04-13 2016-07-20 浙江大学 Shallow water deposit and water sample collection device and method thereof
CN205607693U (en) * 2016-04-13 2016-09-28 浙江大学 Shallow -water deposit thing and water sample collection system
CN206479351U (en) * 2017-02-15 2017-09-08 上海浦东路桥建设股份有限公司 The undisturbed column-shaped sampling apparatus of shallow water surface deposit

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN204694494U (en) * 2015-05-29 2015-10-07 中国水利水电科学研究院 A kind of detachable shallow-water deposit thing original position columnar samples sampling apparatus
CN204964246U (en) * 2015-08-18 2016-01-13 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所 Shallow water type does not have disturbance column sediment sample ware
CN105784420A (en) * 2016-04-13 2016-07-20 浙江大学 Shallow water deposit and water sample collection device and method thereof
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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107505167A (en) * 2017-08-17 2017-12-22 上海市城市排水有限公司 A kind of drainage pipeline undisturbed sediment sampler and its method for sampling
CN107621386A (en) * 2017-11-10 2018-01-23 广东恒畅环保节能检测科技有限公司 A kind of sludge sampler
CN110031258A (en) * 2019-05-21 2019-07-19 南京信息工程大学 A kind of deposit anaerobic protection high-resolution layering collection device and collection method
CN112033766A (en) * 2020-09-04 2020-12-04 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 In-situ sampling device and method for foaming gas in superficial sediment
CN112033766B (en) * 2020-09-04 2024-03-26 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 In-situ sampling device and method for foaming gas in superficial sediment

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