CN106346126A - Method for electron beam welding of titanium alloy and red copper dissimilar metal - Google Patents

Method for electron beam welding of titanium alloy and red copper dissimilar metal Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106346126A
CN106346126A CN201610867917.0A CN201610867917A CN106346126A CN 106346126 A CN106346126 A CN 106346126A CN 201610867917 A CN201610867917 A CN 201610867917A CN 106346126 A CN106346126 A CN 106346126A
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welding
titanium alloy
copper
vacuum
titanium
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CN106346126B (en
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周琦
郭顺
彭勇
罗添元
向阳
孔见
王毅
李洪强
王希凯
尹凡
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Nanjing University of Science and Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/0033Preliminary treatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/0046Welding
    • B23K15/0053Seam welding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/06Electron-beam welding or cutting within a vacuum chamber
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K2103/00Materials to be soldered, welded or cut
    • B23K2103/18Dissimilar materials

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for electron beam welding of titanium copper dissimilar metal, in particular to a method for electron beam welding of TC4 titanium alloy and T2 red copper. The method comprises the steps of first performing preparatory work before welding; finishing primary deflecting copper welding; using small beam to perform back centering welding quickly, and performing root forming intensification; finally on the basis of the primary welding and the secondary welding, using electron beam to perform welding close to one side of the titanium alloy. According to the welding method, the distribution and content of primary harmful orientation intermetallic compounds can be effectively controlled, and the strength and reliability of a welded joint are improved.

Description

A kind of titanium alloy and red copper dissimilar metal electro-beam welding method
Technical field
The present invention relates to different-metal material welding field is and in particular to tc4 titanium alloy and t2 red copper welding method.
Background technology
The composite construction of dissimilar metal is applied more and more extensive in fields such as Aero-Space, shipbuilding, power industries.Titanium alloy Because its thermostability is strong, specific strength is high, have good plasticity, toughness and corrosion resistance, it is widely used in Aero-Space, oil The fields such as work.Copper alloy has excellent electric conductivity, heat conductivity, excellent corrosion resistance, and some copper alloys also have higher strong Degree, all multi-parts of application and aerospace field.
Titanium copper different-metal material welding not only can realize the multifunction of material in conjunction with material behavior each other, simultaneously high-strength Titanium copper joint also can be explored as transition structure, to solve other different-metal material welding difficult problems such as titanium steel.Traditional titanium copper welding, bag Include soldering, molten soldering etc., due to bi-material each other between physical property larger difference and unfavorable fragility metallic compound life Become, strength of joint can only achieve the 70% about of copper intensity it is difficult to realize practical engineering application.
The composite construction of titanium-copper heterogenous metal not only meets the demands such as conduction of heat, conductivity, wearability and corrosion resistance, and And can bear certain intensity while mitigating weight, but melting welding traditional at high temperature easily produces in a large number in joint Titanium-copper weld metal zone brittle intermetallic thing, the serious mechanical property reducing joint.The key of titanium-copper heterogenous metal welding exists In efficiently controlling the formation of intermetallic compound and grow up, such as explode weldering, friction welding (FW) of Solid-phase welding method can form titanium-copper Joint, but it is restricted at aspects such as shape and size.Zhao Hai is raw, and .qcr0.8/tc4 foreign material electro-beam welding process grinds Study carefully [d]. Harbin Institute of Technology, in 2007. literary compositions, qcr0.8/tc4 foreign material has been carried out with electron beam centering weldering research, but Interfacial reaction thickness, classes of compounds and quantity are many, and cuti based solid solution district's groups are knitted thick, and weld strength is low, and connectivity is poor.Liu Big, Chen Guoqing, Zhang Binggang, etc. copper/titanium alloy electro-beam welding process optimizes [j]. welding journal, 2008,29 (5). and right in literary composition Copper/titanium alloy electro-beam welding process is optimized, and the method using the inclined brazing of electron beam improves on the original basis Strength of joint, but effect is not it is obvious that yet suffering from substantial amounts of weld metal zone brittle intermetallic thing in weld seam and being distributed irregular, Incomplete root penetration is also to cause strength of joint to improve one of inapparent reason.How technique overcomes in above-mentioned solder technology Problem become the technical barrier of tc4 titanium alloy and t2 red copper welding.
Content of the invention
Present invention aim at providing a kind of titanium copper dissimilar metal electro-beam welding method, by realizing changing between brittle metal The mode of compound controlled growth, is greatly optimized joint weakness faying face, low to solve the problems, such as titanium copper dissimilar metal bond strength.
Realize the object of the invention to adopt the following technical scheme that
A kind of tc4 titanium alloy and the electro-beam welding method of t2 red copper, specifically comprise the following steps that
Step 1, tc4 titanium alloy sheet and t2 copper plate are carried out welding front preparation;
Step 2, extracting vacuum, set welding parameter: beam voltage, focus current, welding and assembling height and filament electricity Stream;
Step 3, sets electronic beam current: 40ma-50ma, speed of welding: 10mm/s, and line rises, fall time: 1.5s; Make Electron beam deflection in t2 copper plate side, amount of bias scope: 1mm-3mm, welded, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, Start trunnion axis motion, complete t2 copper plate side front and carry out vacuum welding;
Step 4, sets electronic beam current: 10ma-20ma, speed of welding: 15-20mm/s, and line rises, fall time: 1.5s;Carry out tc4 titanium alloy sheet and t2 copper plate back centering weldering, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis fortune Move and complete vacuum welding;Electron beam welding has significantly deep perforation effect, and depth-to-width ratio is big, and welding point root position is due to electricity Beamlet biasing welding, it is understood that there may be lack of fusion, for the excellent welding quality of guarantee joint, electron beam back uses little line fast Fast centering weldering carries out root molding strengthening.
Step 5, sets electronic beam current: 20ma-30ma, speed of welding: 10mm/s, and line rises, fall time: 1.5s, By Electron beam deflection in titanium side, amount of bias is 1.5-3.5mm, carries out the welding of tc4 titanium alloy side, lower restraint and treats that complete molten bath is formed Afterwards, start trunnion axis motion and complete vacuum welding.By again transforming to biasing welding titanium copper joint weak boundary, realize reverse Fragility between metallic compound growth, thus realizing the high-strength combination of joint.
Further, in step 1, prepare before weldering to concretely comprise the following steps:
Step 1.1, removes titanium copper surface to be welded and periphery 300mm region surface oxygen using 280#, 400#, 600# mesh number sand paper Change layer, and carry out surface and oil contaminant cleaning using acetone;
Step 1.2, makes tc4 titanium alloy sheet and t2 copper plate place simultaneously gapless closed butt joint on the table.
Further, in step 2, rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e-3、7e-2.
Further, in step 2, the welding parameter that sets is as beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 600ma- 650ma, welding and assembling height 260mm-290mm, heater current 400ma-450ma.
Further, tc4 titanium alloy percent mass consists of: ti:89.12%, al:6.42%, v:4.30%, fe: 0.05%th, c:0.03%;T2 red copper percent mass consists of: cu: >=99.9%, o:0.06%.
The present invention compares with respect to prior art, has remarkable advantage as follows:
1st, the present invention employs the welding method of first line biasing copper side during titanium copper different-metal material welding, should The distribution of compound and content between method effective control nascent unfavorable orientation metal, improve welding point intensity and can By property.
2nd, the back interface in test piece for welding has carried out little line quick centring welding, improves the combination of the root of joint Intensity, thus improve the connection reliability of welding point further.
3rd, in the adjacent titanium side of inclined brazing welding seam, carried out once titanium welding partially, inclined titanium is welded on and does not destroy original inclined copper On the basis of being welded to connect interface, by Thermal Cycle, change the growth side of compound between nascent unfavorable orientation metal To, composition and content.Welding point bond strength is substantially improved.Tensile strength reaches more than the 90% of copper base metal, is 220mpa- 250mpa.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is the welding structure schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is seam cross-section schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is weld seam sem micro-organization chart in embodiment 1;
Fig. 4 is weld seam sem micro-organization chart in embodiment 2.
Specific embodiment
The technology of the present invention method is not limited to the specific embodiment of act set forth below, also include each specific embodiment it Between combination in any.
Zd60-6a 5001 type vacuum electron beam welder using Beijing Aviation manufacturing engineering Research Institute carries out tc4 titanium Alloy and the electron beam welding of t2 red copper, enter welding procedure as shown in Figure 1 and are welded, the section of weld joint obtaining is illustrated after assembling Figure is as shown in Figure 2.
Embodiment 1
In present embodiment, the electron beam adjacent solder method of titanium alloy tc4 and t2 red copper is sequentially included the following steps:
Remove titanium copper surface to be welded and periphery 300mm region surface oxide layer using 280#, 400#, 600# mesh number sand paper, and Carry out surface and oil contaminant cleaning using acetone.Titanium copper material is tc4 and t2 red copper respectively, and wherein, tc4 titanium alloy percent mass forms For: ti:89.12%, al:6.42%, v:4.30%, fe:0.05%, c:0.03%;T2 red copper percent mass consists of: cu: >=99.9%, o:0.06%.Test piece for welding is assembled, square groove gapless closed butt joint.Fixing docking test plate (panel) in Vacuum chamber beam spot surface focus or lower focal position, interface is parallel to the horizontal guide rail direction of motion.
Extracting vacuum, and treat that rifle vacuum, room vacuum reach welding condition, rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e-3、 7e-2, load high pressure, and carry out welding parameter setting.Wherein, beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 650ma, welding is high Degree 280mm, heater current 430ma;Electronic beam current: 45ma, speed of welding: 10mm/s, line rises, fall time: 1.5s;Open Dynamic vacuum chamber motor system servo enables, mobile interface vertical direction, makes Electron beam deflection in copper side, amount of bias scope: 1.5mm.Welded after completing parameter setting, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion complete first Welding.
Close chamber's vacuum, will connect test plate (panel) and dismantle on stationary fixture, exchange the back side as solder side, retighten, protect Hold original welding and assembling height constant and make interface parallel to moving horizontally guide rail.Using acetone, solder side is cleared up.
To welding requirements vacuum and following, rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e to extracting vacuum-3、7e-2Again set Determining electron beam parameter is: beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 650ma, welding and assembling height 280mm, heater current 430ma; Electronic beam current: 15ma, speed of welding: 15mm/s, line rises, fall time: 1.5s.Welded after completing parameter setting, Under restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion complete second back welding.
It is again switched off vacuum, test plate (panel) will be connected and dismantle on stationary fixture, using original first solder side again as just Face is simultaneously fixing, keeps original welding and assembling height constant simultaneously and makes interface parallel to moving horizontally guide rail.Using acetone to welding Face is cleared up.
Make Electron beam deflection in titanium side, amount of bias is 2mm, extracting vacuum, and rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e-3、 7e-2, resetting electron beam parameter is: beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 650ma, welding and assembling height 280mm, filament Electric current 430ma;Electronic beam current: 20ma, speed of welding: 10mm/s, line rises, fall time: 1.5s.After completing parameter setting Welded, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion complete the 3rd road adjacent solder.
It is illustrated in figure 3 welding seam part subregional sem micro-organization chart in the embodiment of the present invention 1.Interface gold as shown in the figure Between genus, compound transition layer is formed well, does not have compound between thicker continuous metal.
The strength of joint of titanium alloy tc4 plate and t2 copper plate reaches 245mpa.
Embodiment 2
In present embodiment, the electro-beam welding method of titanium alloy tc4 and t2 red copper is sequentially included the following steps:
Remove titanium copper surface to be welded and periphery 300mm region surface oxide layer using 280#, 400#, 600# mesh number sand paper, and Carry out surface and oil contaminant cleaning using acetone.Titanium copper material is tc4 and t2 red copper respectively, and wherein, tc4 titanium alloy percent mass forms For: ti:89.12%, al:6.42%, v:4.30%, fe:0.05%, c:0.03%;T2 red copper percent mass consists of: cu: >=99.9%, o:0.06%.Test piece for welding is assembled, square groove gapless closed butt joint.Fixing docking test plate (panel) in Vacuum chamber beam spot surface focus or lower focal position, interface is parallel to the horizontal guide rail direction of motion.
Extracting vacuum, and treat that rifle vacuum, room vacuum reach welding condition, rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e-3、 7e-2, load high pressure, and carry out welding parameter setting.Wherein, beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 650ma, welding is high Degree 280mm, heater current 430ma;Electronic beam current: 45ma, speed of welding: 10mm/s, line rises, fall time: 1.5s;Open Dynamic vacuum chamber motor system servo enables, mobile interface vertical direction, makes Electron beam deflection in copper side, amount of bias scope: 1.5mm.Welded after completing parameter setting, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion complete first Welding.
Close chamber's vacuum, will connect test plate (panel) and dismantle on stationary fixture, exchange the back side as solder side, retighten, protect Hold original welding and assembling height constant and make interface parallel to moving horizontally guide rail.Using acetone, solder side is cleared up.
Extracting vacuum respectively reaches 8e to welding requirements vacuum, rifle vacuum, room vacuum-3、7e-2, reset electronics Bundle parameter is: beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 650ma, welding and assembling height 280mm, heater current 430ma;Electron beam Stream: 15ma, speed of welding: 15mm/s, line rises, fall time: 1.5s.Welded after completing parameter setting, lower bundle is simultaneously After complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion and complete the welding of second back.
It is illustrated in figure 4 welding seam part subregional sem micro-organization chart in the embodiment of the present invention 2.Interface gold as shown in the figure Between genus, compound transition layer is thicker, and is distributed mixed and disorderly.
Titanium alloy tc4 plate and the t2 copper plate electron beam strength of joint that only copper side is welded partially reach 162mpa.
Embodiment 3
The electron beam adjacent solder method of titanium alloy tc4 and t2 red copper is sequentially included the following steps:
Remove titanium copper surface to be welded and periphery 300mm region surface oxide layer using 280#, 400#, 600# mesh number sand paper, and Carry out surface and oil contaminant cleaning using acetone.Titanium copper material is tc4 and t2 red copper respectively, and wherein, tc4 titanium alloy percent mass forms For: ti:89.12%, al:6.42%, v:4.30%, fe:0.05%, c:0.03%;T2 red copper percent mass consists of: cu: >=99.9%, o:0.06%.Test piece for welding is assembled, square groove gapless closed butt joint.Fixing docking test plate (panel) in Vacuum chamber beam spot surface focus or lower focal position, interface is parallel to the horizontal guide rail direction of motion.
Extracting vacuum, and treat that rifle vacuum, room vacuum reach welding condition, rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e-3、 7e-2, load high pressure, and carry out welding parameter setting.Wherein, beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 650ma, welding is high Degree 280mm, heater current 430ma;Electronic beam current: 45ma, speed of welding: 10mm/s, line rises, fall time: 1.5s;Open Dynamic vacuum chamber motor system servo enables, mobile interface vertical direction, makes Electron beam deflection in copper side, amount of bias scope: 1.5mm.Welded after completing parameter setting, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion complete first Welding.
Close chamber's vacuum, will connect test plate (panel) and dismantle on stationary fixture, exchange the back side as solder side, retighten, protect Hold original welding and assembling height constant and make interface parallel to moving horizontally guide rail.Using acetone, solder side is cleared up.
Extracting vacuum to welding requirements vacuum and, rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e-3、7e-2, reset electricity Beamlet parameter is: beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 650ma, welding and assembling height 280mm, heater current 430ma;Electronics Line: 15ma, speed of welding: 15mm/s, line rises, fall time: 1.5s.Welded after completing parameter setting, lower bundle And after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion and complete the welding of second back.
It is again switched off vacuum, test plate (panel) will be connected and dismantle on stationary fixture, using original first solder side again as just Face is simultaneously fixing, keeps original welding and assembling height constant simultaneously and makes interface parallel to moving horizontally guide rail.Using acetone to welding Face is cleared up.
Make Electron beam deflection in titanium side, amount of bias is 2.5mm, extracting vacuum, and rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e-3、 7e-2, resetting electron beam parameter is: beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 650ma, welding and assembling height 280mm, filament Electric current 430ma;Electronic beam current: 20ma, speed of welding: 10mm/s, line rises, fall time: 1.5s.After completing parameter setting Welded, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion complete the 3rd road adjacent solder.
The strength of joint of titanium alloy tc4 plate and t2 copper plate reaches 228mpa.
Embodiment 4
In the present embodiment, the electron beam adjacent solder method of titanium alloy tc4 and t2 red copper is sequentially included the following steps:
Remove titanium copper surface to be welded and periphery 300mm region surface oxide layer using 280#, 400#, 600# mesh number sand paper, and Carry out surface and oil contaminant cleaning using acetone.Titanium copper material is tc4 and t2 red copper respectively, and wherein, tc4 titanium alloy percent mass forms For: ti:89.12%, al:6.42%, v:4.30%, fe:0.05%, c:0.03%;T2 red copper percent mass consists of: cu: >=99.9%, o:0.06%.Test piece for welding is assembled, square groove gapless closed butt joint.Fixing docking test plate (panel) in Vacuum chamber beam spot surface focus or lower focal position, interface is parallel to the horizontal guide rail direction of motion.
Extracting vacuum, and treat that rifle vacuum, room vacuum reach welding condition, rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e-3、 7e-2Hereinafter, load high pressure, and carry out welding parameter setting.Wherein, beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 650ma, weldering Meet height 280mm, heater current 430ma;Electronic beam current: 45ma, speed of welding: 10mm/s, line rises, fall time: 1.5s;Start vacuum chamber motor system servo to enable, mobile interface vertical direction, make Electron beam deflection in copper side, amount of bias Scope: 1.5mm.Welded after completing parameter setting, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion and complete the Weld together.
Close chamber's vacuum, will connect test plate (panel) and dismantle on stationary fixture, exchange the back side as solder side, retighten, protect Hold original welding and assembling height constant and make interface parallel to moving horizontally guide rail.Using acetone, solder side is cleared up.
To welding requirements vacuum and following, rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e to extracting vacuum-3、7e-2Again set Determining electron beam parameter is: beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 650ma, welding and assembling height 280mm, heater current 430ma; Electronic beam current: 15ma, speed of welding: 15mm/s, line rises, fall time: 1.5s.Welded after completing parameter setting, Under restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion complete second back welding.
It is again switched off vacuum, test plate (panel) will be connected and dismantle on stationary fixture, using original first solder side again as just Face is simultaneously fixing, keeps original welding and assembling height constant simultaneously and makes interface parallel to moving horizontally guide rail.Using acetone to welding Face is cleared up.
Make Electron beam deflection in titanium side, amount of bias is 3mm, extracting vacuum, and rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e-3、 7e-2, resetting electron beam parameter is: beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 650ma, welding and assembling height 280mm, filament Electric current 430ma;Electronic beam current: 20ma, speed of welding: 10mm/s, line rises, fall time: 1.5s.After completing parameter setting Welded, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion complete the 3rd road adjacent solder.
The strength of joint of titanium alloy tc4 plate and t2 copper plate reaches 220mpa.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of tc4 titanium alloy and the electro-beam welding method of t2 red copper are it is characterised in that specifically comprise the following steps that
Step 1, tc4 titanium alloy sheet and t2 copper plate are carried out welding front preparation;
Step 2, extracting vacuum, set welding parameter: beam voltage, focus current, welding and assembling height and heater current;
Step 3, sets electronic beam current: 40ma-50ma, speed of welding: 10mm/s, and line rises, fall time: 1.5s;Make electricity Beamlet is offset to t2 copper plate side, amount of bias scope: 1mm-3mm, is welded, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start Trunnion axis moves, and completes t2 copper plate side front and carries out vacuum welding;
Step 4, sets electronic beam current: 10ma-20ma, speed of welding: 15-20mm/s, and line rises, fall time: 1.5s;Enter Row tc4 titanium alloy sheet and t2 copper plate back centering weldering, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, start trunnion axis motion complete true Missing solder connects;
Step 5, sets electronic beam current: 20ma-30ma, speed of welding: 10mm/s, and line rises, fall time: 1.5s, by electricity Beamlet is offset to titanium side, amount of bias be 1.5-3.5mm, carry out tc4 titanium alloy side welding, lower restraint and after complete molten bath is formed, Start trunnion axis motion and complete vacuum welding.
2. the electro-beam welding method of tc4 titanium alloy according to claim 1 and t2 red copper is it is characterised in that step 1 In, before described weldering, preparation process is:
Step 1.1, removes titanium copper surface to be welded and the oxidation of periphery 300mm region surface using 280#, 400#, 600# mesh number sand paper Layer, and carry out surface and oil contaminant cleaning using acetone;
Step 1.2, makes tc4 titanium alloy sheet and t2 copper plate place simultaneously gapless closed butt joint on the table.
3. the electro-beam welding method of tc4 titanium alloy according to claim 1 and t2 red copper is it is characterised in that step 2 In, described rifle vacuum, room vacuum respectively reach 8e-3、7e-2.
4. the electro-beam welding method of tc4 titanium alloy according to claim 1 and t2 red copper is it is characterised in that step 2 In, the welding parameter that sets is as beam voltage: 60kv, focus current 600ma-650ma, welding and assembling height 260mm- 290mm, heater current 400ma-450ma.
5. the electro-beam welding method of tc4 titanium alloy according to claim 1 and t2 red copper is it is characterised in that described Tc4 titanium alloy percent mass consists of: ti:89.12%, al:6.42%, v:4.30%, fe:0.05%, c:0.03%;T2 is purple Copper mass percentage composition is: cu: >=99.9%, o:0.06%.
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