CN106325307A - Photovoltaic plate control system for automatically following sunlight - Google Patents

Photovoltaic plate control system for automatically following sunlight Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106325307A
CN106325307A CN201610793140.8A CN201610793140A CN106325307A CN 106325307 A CN106325307 A CN 106325307A CN 201610793140 A CN201610793140 A CN 201610793140A CN 106325307 A CN106325307 A CN 106325307A
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China
Prior art keywords
chip microcomputer
solar
axis motor
control system
motor
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CN201610793140.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
谢辉
聂祥飞
赖于树
季海婷
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Chongqing Three Gorges University
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Chongqing Three Gorges University
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Priority to CN201610793140.8A priority Critical patent/CN106325307A/en
Publication of CN106325307A publication Critical patent/CN106325307A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D3/00Control of position or direction
    • G05D3/12Control of position or direction using feedback

Abstract

The invention discloses a photovoltaic plate control system for automatically following sunlight. The system comprises a single-chip microcomputer, a driving circuit, an X-axis motor, a Y-axis motor, a state information display module, and a solar cell panel apparatus, the single-chip microcomputer is connected with the state information display module and the driving circuit, the driving circuit is also connected with the solar cell panel apparatus through the X-axis motor and the Y-axis motor, the single-chip microcomputer employs AT89C51, and the single-chip microcomputer is used for calculating the solar elevation angle and azimuth at any moment, calculating the step number of operation of a stepping motor in pitching and horizontal directions in the current condition by employing software, sending data to the driving circuit, receiving data sent by a host computer, and driving operation of the motors. According to the system, the tracking precision is high, the operation is reliable, and the practicality is high.

Description

A kind of photovoltaic panel control system automatically following sunlight
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of control system, a kind of photovoltaic panel control system automatically following sunlight.
Background technology
Along with the energy crisis of 20 century 70s, global environmental pollution is on the rise, and adds every field new technique To low-carbon (LC), environmental protection, energy-conservation in the urgent need to, define a new upsurge taking turns Solar use.Solar energy as a kind of new forms of energy, Quite prominent advantage is occupied compared with conventional energy resource in energy development:
First, it is the mankind's the abundantest utilizable energy: on the earth, anywhere have solar energy, can be just Ground develops, and there is not transportation problem, and especially underdeveloped to traffic rural area, island and outlying district have important valency Value;
Second, nonstaining property: the most more intensive the recognizing of the mankind, the sustainable development of society and ecological environmental protection Being the integral part connected each other, environment and development can not be mutually disengaged.Solar energy is utilized to do the energy, truly real Existing low-carbon (LC), environmental protection, energy-conservation, this seems the most valuable in today that environmental pollution is on the rise.
3rd, economy: along with the development of solar utilization technique, the cost of Solar use has been greatly reduced.
For these reasons, brainstrust research prediction is unanimously thought: the 21 century mankind clean most, and the most cheap energy is exactly Solar energy.
At present human use's solar energy has three big technical fields, i.e. photothermal deformation, opto-electronic conversion and Photochemical convertion, this Outward, also energy storage technology.
The mankind are for the demand of renewable energy at attention today that petrochemical material day by day exhausts, and Solar use is Individual expansive excellent energy substitution scheme, because sun every day projects the energy of earth surface more than needed for the earth More than ten thousand times.The exploitation of Automatic Tracking System for Solar Cell and research, improve the generating efficiency of solar panel, reach Low cost, in high precision, use requirement flexibly, to large-scale use solar electrical energy generation, Appropriate application new forms of energy have important Meaning.
Solar energy is as the energy of a kind of cleanliness without any pollution, and development prospect is boundless, and solar electrical energy generation has become the whole world Technology with the fastest developing speed.But it there is also the problem that intermittence, direction of illumination and intensity are continually changing in time, this Just collection and utilization to solar energy are had higher requirement.At present, a lot of solar panel arrays are essentially all solid Fixed, not making full use of solar energy resources, generating efficiency is low.Test factually, in solar energy generates electricity, under the same terms, Use and improve 35% from motion tracking generating equipment than the generated energy of stationary power generation equipment, therefore in Solar use, carry out Sunlight real-time tracking is the most necessary.Owing to Solar use is by the shadow of the natural conditions such as landform, physical features, position, sexual intercourse Ring very big, conventional solar cell relatively costly and to change into the efficiency of electric energy the lowest, can not get universal utilization.Automatically with Design precisely in order to solve the problem that solar energy conversion efficiency is low, in order to more with the intelligent solar system of sunlight Utilize solar energy.Sunlit angle is not fixed, and wants to reach maximum Heat-collecting effect, solar heat-collection plate should and sunlight Line keeps vertical.So, the design is a set of solar automatic tracking Machinery Control System with single-chip microcomputer as control core, energy Enough make solar panels vertical with solar light all the time along with the change in sunlight direction.Specific requirement is structure letter List, low cost, not only can normally follow the trail of the sun when fine day, also can automatic tracing when the cloudy day occurs suddenly.The design chases after The advantages such as track precision is higher, can keep maximum solar energy utilization ratio, and have low cost, non-maintaining, have preferable popularization and application It is worth.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of photovoltaic panel control system automatically following sunlight, to solve above-mentioned background The problem proposed in technology.
For achieving the above object, the present invention provides following technical scheme:
A kind of photovoltaic panel control system automatically following sunlight, including single-chip microcomputer, drive circuit, X-axis motor, Y-axis Motor, status information display module and solaode panel assembly, described single-chip microcomputer connection state information display module respectively And drive circuit, drive circuit connects solaode panel assembly by X-axis motor and Y-axis motor the most respectively.
As the further scheme of the present invention: described single-chip microcomputer uses AT89C51.
As the present invention further scheme: described single-chip microcomputer is responsible for any time sun altitude and azimuthal meter Calculate, and use computed in software to go out pitching and the step number of the stepping motor operation of horizontal direction under the present situation, data are given Drive circuit, single-chip microcomputer receives the data that host computer is sent here, drives the operation of motor.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows: it is high, reliable, practical that the present invention has tracking accuracy Property the feature such as strong.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the schematic block circuit diagram of the photovoltaic panel control system automatically following sunlight;
Fig. 2 is sun altitude and azimuthal relation schematic diagram in the photovoltaic panel control system automatically following sunlight.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in the embodiment of the present invention, the technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention is carried out clear, complete Whole description, it is clear that described embodiment is only a part of embodiment of the present invention rather than whole embodiments.Based on Embodiment in the present invention, it is every other that those of ordinary skill in the art are obtained under not making creative work premise Embodiment, broadly falls into the scope of protection of the invention.
Referring to Fig. 1~2, in the embodiment of the present invention, a kind of photovoltaic panel control system automatically following sunlight, including list Sheet machine, drive circuit, X-axis motor, Y-axis motor, status information display module and solaode panel assembly, described monolithic Machine connection state information display module and drive circuit respectively, drive circuit is connected by X-axis motor and Y-axis motor the most respectively Connect solaode panel assembly;Described single-chip microcomputer uses AT89C51;Described single-chip microcomputer is responsible for any time sun altitude and side The calculating of parallactic angle, and use computed in software to go out the step number that under the present situation, the stepping motor of pitching and horizontal direction runs, will Data give drive circuit, and single-chip microcomputer receives the data that host computer is sent here, drive the operation of motor.
The operation principle of the present invention is: the design systematic study is the double-shaft auto-tracking system for the horizontal system of coordinates, Therefore using double coordinate Motor Control, double coordinate Motor Control are exactly to control 1 motor, in Y direction in X-direction Control 1 motor.These 2 motor simultaneously drive same object, make solar panel in one plane with arbitrarily Curvilinear motion.
Mechanical part is mainly top solar panel, motor control assembly and base.Top solar panel A controlling organization is fixed at middle part, and contact with controlling organization is a motor (y-axis motor).This motor can make top Solar panel in the vertical direction 360 degree rotation.Another motor (X-axis motor) can make rotating shaft in the horizontal direction 360 degree of rotations, thus drive solar panels 360 degree of rotations in the horizontal direction.Therefore, by controlling turning of the two motor Dynamic, it is possible to control top solar panel arbitrarily rotates on three-dimensional surface.Control part main by AT89C51 Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system Constitute.So we control the rotation of two motors by single-chip microcomputer, it is possible to realize top solar panel and follow the sun Rotate together, thus improve the solar energy conversion efficiency of solar panel.
The operation principle of frame for movement is X, elevation angle and direction, 2, azimuth are controlled by Y-axis 2 motor respectively System.The azimuth axis of tracker vertically plane, controls horizontal direction;Another root is vertical with azimuth axis is referred to as pitch axis, controls to hang down Nogata to.During work, sun follower rotates change azimuth according to the position of solar motion by azimuth axis and changes level Direction, so that sunray is with to accept platform vertical, to reach the purpose followed the tracks of.
The sun rises in east and drop in west every day, and apparent place Precise Representation can be used in the position of any time sun.Depending on daily motion track Follow the tracks of the real time position of sun when utilizing control unit to calculate daytime according to corresponding formula and parameter exactly, then send finger Make and go to drive sun tracker, to reach the purpose to sun real-time tracking to motor.Sun apparent place altitude of the sun Angle and two angles of solar azimuth are as coordinate representation.Sun altitude refers to that solar core direct projection is to local light and locality Horizontal angle.The solar azimuth i.e. orientation at sun place, refers to sunray projection on ground level and local meridian The angle of line, can regard the angle being erected at ground straight line shade in the sun with Due South approx as.System is adopted Azimuth and the elevation angle of the sun is followed the trail of, such that it is able to real-time tracing is too with level orientation motor and pitch orientation motor The device of sun.In order to improve the solar panel collecting efficiency to luminous energy, need to keep sunlight vertical irradiation as far as possible On solar panel.It is this change in location that can describe the sun from elevation angle and two, azimuth physical quantity, too Sun can cell panel to elevation angle and azimuthal tracking it is ensured that sunlight vertical irradiation cell panel, but in the ordinary course of things also Need photo-sensor feedback that the error followed the tracks of is modified, to improve the precision from motion tracking.Single-chip microcomputer is responsible for arbitrarily Moment sun altitude and azimuthal calculating, and it is electric with the stepping of horizontal direction to use computed in software to go out pitching under the present situation Data are given tracking system drive by the step number that motivation is run, and single-chip microcomputer receives the data that host computer is sent here, drive motor Operation.System has the function of the adjustment realizing reset, the adjustment of level orientation, pitch orientation.
Sun position on celestial sphere can be determined by sun altitude α s and solar azimuth γ s.Refer to Fig. 2.
(1) sun altitude α s is also known as altitude of the sun, the sun angle of pitch, refers between sunray and surface water plane Angle (0≤α s≤900), can be calculated by (1) formula:
(2) solar azimuth γ s refers to the sunray meridianal angle of projection and locality in the horizontal plane, can be by (2) formula determines:
(1) formula and each angular unit degree of being in (2) formula, whereinFor local latitude angle;δ is declination angle;When τ is Angle, the time i.e. represented by angle.
Note: solar declination and geographic latitude be all north latitude be just, south latitude is negative.The geographical longitude and latitude in solar electrical energy generation place Degree can conveniently be obtained by precise navigation instruments such as GPS.And the calculating of declination angle and hour angle needs to be determined by the time.
Angle between the line at declination angle δ Shi Di center and the equatoriat plane, every day, all place was on the turn.δ can be by (3) formula determines.
δ=23.45 × sin [360/365 × (284+n)] (3)
(3) in formula, n is the date sequence number in a year, number from starting January 1, and n=1 adds one day, n=n+ the most backward 1, such as we input 165 at this (my god), be equivalent to the June 12 in this year, input 286 (my god), be equivalent to the 10 of this year The moon 13, other are by that analogy.Can calculate with this, δ=0 ° during spring and fall equinoxes, δ=23.442 ° during the Summer Solstice, δ during Winter Solstice =-23.442 °.
The calculating of hour angle τ is relative complex.Owing to the motion on ecliptic of the real sun is not at the uniform velocity, but time fast time Slowly, therefore, the length on true solar day is also the most different.Watch time in daily life uses " mean solar time ", i.e. The sun is along the Mean Speed of annual motion, and in engineering calculation, if directly using watch time to calculate, will there is the time difference asks Topic (difference of " true solar time " and " mean solar time "), it is therefore necessary to use the true solar time (t0), otherwise cannot in Practical Calculation Arrive required precision.In order to obtain true solar time (t0) accurately, timing difference, China region can be come according to timing standard The time difference determine such as (4) formula:
T0=(120-longitude)/15-e/60 (4)
(4) in formula, longitude is the geographic logitude in photovoltaic generation place, the warp of Beijing standard time of CHINESE REGION Degree is 120 °, and e is the time difference, can be calculated by (5) formula and (6) formula:
β=360/365 × (n-1) (5)
E=0.0172+0.4281 × cos β-7.3615 × sin β-3.3495 × cos (2 β)-9.3619 × sin (2 β) (6)
Because earth rotation 1 enclosed in every 24 hours, every 15 ° is 1h, and during high noon, hour angle τ=0 °, morning τ>0 °, afternoon τ< 0°.Hour angle τ can be calculated by (7) formula:
τ=15 × (12+t0-t) (7)
(7) in formula, t is Beijing time.
Wherein, when the sun is in direction, due south, azimuth γ s=0 ° in (2) formula, γ s to the west of due south > 0 °, due south with γ s < 0 ° of east.In order to effectively follow the tracks of the position of the sun, in addition to the real time position of the sun to be calculated, in addition it is also necessary to know concrete certain It sunrise hour angle τ 1, sunset hour angle τ 2.Due to sun altitude α s=0 ° during sunrise sunset, (1) formula can calculate:
According to hour angle τ τ in the morning>0 °, afternoon τ<0 °, obtain sunrise hour angle τ 1 and sunset hour angle τ 2 such as (9) formula and (10) formula Shown in.
Calculate sunrise hour angle, after sunset hour angle, (7) formula can draw sunrise time t1 and sunset time t2.
Program realizes the sun system for tracking real-time tracking sun, when the light of direct projection to solar panel dies down, journey Sequence can change the direction of cell panel automatically, the sunlight of the intensity of maximum is removed to obtain in position.When any one light sensor is examined When the light intensity measured is less than threshold value, single-chip microcomputer will start X-axis by drive circuit and y-axis motor is combined motion, to adjust Whole solar panel towards.When two sensors all detect the light of more than threshold value motor will stop motion, from And realize solar panel and light is followed function.
It is obvious to a person skilled in the art that the invention is not restricted to the details of above-mentioned one exemplary embodiment, Er Qie In the case of the spirit or essential attributes of the present invention, it is possible to realize the present invention in other specific forms.Therefore, no matter From the point of view of which point, all should regard embodiment as exemplary, and be nonrestrictive, the scope of the present invention is by appended power Profit requires rather than described above limits, it is intended that all by fall in the implication of equivalency and scope of claim Change is included in the present invention.Should not be considered as limiting involved claim by any reference in claim.
Although moreover, it will be appreciated that this specification is been described by according to embodiment, but the most each embodiment only wraps Containing an independent technical scheme, this narrating mode of description is only that for clarity sake those skilled in the art should Description can also be formed those skilled in the art through appropriately combined as an entirety, the technical scheme in each embodiment May be appreciated other embodiments.

Claims (3)

1. automatically follow a photovoltaic panel control system for sunlight, including single-chip microcomputer, drive circuit, X-axis motor, Y-axis electricity Motivation, status information display module and solaode panel assembly, it is characterised in that described single-chip microcomputer connection state information respectively Display module and drive circuit, drive circuit connects solar panel by X-axis motor and Y-axis motor the most respectively and fills Put.
Automatically the photovoltaic panel control system following sunlight the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described single-chip microcomputer Use AT89C51.
Automatically the photovoltaic panel control system following sunlight the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described single-chip microcomputer It is responsible for any time sun altitude and azimuthal calculating, and uses computed in software to go out pitching and horizontal direction under the present situation The step number run of stepping motor, data are given drive circuit, single-chip microcomputer receives the data that host computer is sent here, drives electronic The operation of machine.
CN201610793140.8A 2016-08-31 2016-08-31 Photovoltaic plate control system for automatically following sunlight Pending CN106325307A (en)

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Cited By (4)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106933255A (en) * 2017-03-06 2017-07-07 杭州帷盛科技有限公司 Different terrain self-adapting solar energy tracking
CN107491096A (en) * 2017-08-07 2017-12-19 西安建筑科技大学 Efficient tracing type photovoltaic generating system and matrix
CN109240349A (en) * 2018-10-26 2019-01-18 齐鲁工业大学 A kind of night playback photovoltaic tracing system
CN109799843A (en) * 2019-01-11 2019-05-24 陈俊宇 It can access the solar energy orientation system and its working method of Internet of things system

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CN103968576A (en) * 2014-05-22 2014-08-06 成都博昱新能源有限公司 Sun tracking system for groove type solar thermal collector

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CN101764166A (en) * 2009-11-03 2010-06-30 科强能源系统工程股份有限公司 Solar photovoltaic tracking astronomic control system
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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106933255A (en) * 2017-03-06 2017-07-07 杭州帷盛科技有限公司 Different terrain self-adapting solar energy tracking
CN106933255B (en) * 2017-03-06 2019-12-13 杭州帷盛科技有限公司 Different-terrain self-adaptive solar tracking method
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CN109240349A (en) * 2018-10-26 2019-01-18 齐鲁工业大学 A kind of night playback photovoltaic tracing system
CN109799843A (en) * 2019-01-11 2019-05-24 陈俊宇 It can access the solar energy orientation system and its working method of Internet of things system

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Application publication date: 20170111