CN106180659B - A kind of strand directional solidification and the Combined water chill mould of regional choice cooling - Google Patents

A kind of strand directional solidification and the Combined water chill mould of regional choice cooling Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106180659B
CN106180659B CN201610765805.4A CN201610765805A CN106180659B CN 106180659 B CN106180659 B CN 106180659B CN 201610765805 A CN201610765805 A CN 201610765805A CN 106180659 B CN106180659 B CN 106180659B
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cooling
water
chassis
strand
chill mould
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CN106180659A (en
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张宗宁
唐明明
张倩倩
王汉东
王肇飞
赵景山
王风德
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Yantai Wanlong Vacuum Metallurgy Co Ltd
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Yantai Wanlong Vacuum Metallurgy Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D27/00Treating the metal in the mould while it is molten or ductile ; Pressure or vacuum casting
    • B22D27/04Influencing the temperature of the metal, e.g. by heating or cooling the mould
    • B22D27/045Directionally solidified castings
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K5/00Heat-transfer, heat-exchange or heat-storage materials, e.g. refrigerants; Materials for the production of heat or cold by chemical reactions other than by combustion
    • C09K5/16Materials undergoing chemical reactions when used
    • C09K5/18Non-reversible chemical reactions

Abstract

The present invention relates to the Combined water chill mould that a kind of strand directional solidification and regional choice cool down, realize that strand forces cooling and directional solidification from bottom to top, avoid vertical die wall and the column crystal of non-directional growth excessively flourishing and make its vertical chassis growth, eliminate center porosity, V-type segregation problems, obtain crystal grain refinement, ultrasound detection crystal grain uniformly, the flawless big substance casting forging stock of solidified structure dense uniform, ultrasonic flaw detection qualification rate improves;The cast die body first half is hollow insulation structure, the cooling water channel and chassis water cooling of cast die body lower half, mold different zones can be segmented with selectivity cooling, take into account and establish one-dimension temperature field and high intensity of cooling, strand sensible heat and the latent heat overwhelming majority are conducted from chassis, realize directional solidification;Use hot feeding head, molten glass layers, heating oxidant layer and the coating that inside is provided with so that shrinkage cavity area is concentrated mainly on hot feeding head part, improves the solid height in hot feeding head, reduces strand cutting head cutting tail accounting.

Description

A kind of strand directional solidification and the Combined water chill mould of regional choice cooling
Technical field
The invention belongs to metallurgical casting technical field, more particularly to a kind of strand directional solidification and the group of regional choice cooling Box-like junker mold.
Background technology
Coloured and ferrous metal near-net forming continuous casting billet, due to its production efficiency, lumber recovery, product quality, automation The advantage of degree and energy-saving and emission-reduction etc. obtains fast development, integrates casting in recent years and is cast with double roller of the rolling mill practice in one Technology particularly Typical Representative is rolled, and continuous casting ratio turns into the finger for weighing various countries' continuous casting technology level and continuous casting equipment manufacturing ability therewith One of mark.Under metallurgical overall situation formed various countries weight continuous casting light molding trend, molding research and application proportion it is small, designed capacity and System innovation lacks.But continuous casting is not met by the specific demand of the special thick strand in the fields such as nuclear power, high ferro, military project, such as ITER Nuclear radiation shield block and tokamak cooling wall, nuclear steam turbine rotor, type aircraft carrier deck steel, high temperature and high pressure containers steel and high level are built Shockproof thick plate steel is built, still relies upon the molding with big forging ratio, big substance, small quantities of various feature.
Due to the raising to big substance strand ultrasonic inspection, degree of segregation, grain size, mechanical property and uniformity requirement, Have there is production problem in substance 50t above forge pieces.Generally existing solidified structure compactness is relatively low, center porosity shrinkage cavity is intensive, The urgent problems to be solved such as flaw detection qualification rate is low.It is weight increase to trace it to its cause, and sectional dimension accordingly increases, intensity of cooling and solidifying Gu rate reduction, center coarse grains, tissue looseness, and V-type Feeding channel narrows in the height direction, feeding distance becomes big, Field trash is not easy to float, and the shoulder tissue segregation of falling V, and top shrinkage cavity is serious.
Realize that strand bottom first solidifies, the directional solidification difficult point from bottom to top solidified after rising head is that reinforced bottom is cold But, side wall insulation and riser heating, it is intended to which short transverse establishes one-dimensional big gradient temperature field.Side wall insulation is advantageous to establish one-dimensional Big gradient temperature field, but should under the conditions of aluminium alloy freezing rate reduce a lot, rest on solid-liquid two-phase region time length, dendrite, which has, to be filled The sufficient time is grown up, and liquid phase is split by main dendritic arm to be closed, and major branch is brilliant and Models For Secondary Dendrite Arm is mutually overlapped to form small space, obtains not Supplemented to liquid phase, form intensive shrinkage porosite or even microsegregation occurs.And highly it is more than average diameter ingot shape for ingot shape, bottom water Cooling capacity is limited, and the thermal resistance for having coagulated strand when bottom is more than die wall thermal resistance, and horizontal temperature gradient increases and exceedes Vertical Temperature Gradient, the heat flow density of middle and upper part molten steel in the horizontal direction start to be more than vertical direction heat flow density, this Two-Dimensional Heat pattern It is unfavorable for directional solidification.The Y of Chinese patent publication No. CN 201168769 disclose a kind of directional solidification water cooling ingot mould, whole side Wall winding arrangement cooling water pipe, and coordinate water-cooled chassis to accelerate cooling velocity, column crystal is in vertical die wall and chassis two-dimensional directional Solidification.Column crystalline phase overlaps to growth and at ingot casting center under the solidification model, and shrinkage cavity shrinkage porosity is concentrated mainly on ingot casting center.One The shrinkage cavity shrinkage porosity of dimension directional solidification, which is concentrated mainly on, to be emitted intraoral, and this is entirely different with bottom-up one-dimensional directional solidification.Japan The clear 60-33852 of patent discloses water-cooled chassis and surrounding water cooling dynamic model integrally cools down and compensates the slab ingot die casting process of air gap, should Invention intensity of cooling and uniformity ratio natural cooling greatly improve, and obtain the slab of densification.But individually improving intensity of cooling can only Intensity of cooling is improved, directional solidification is possible to terminate, it is impossible to improves Inner Quality of Billet completely.Chinese patent publication No. CN 102161079 A disclose a kind of water-cooled chassis and surrounding water cooling dynamic model Combined mould, and eliminate gas using big Reduction Technology Gap, and wide and thick slab center porosity, segregation and shrinkage cavity are effectively improved and eliminate, but can not be by dynamic model around and big pressure to round billet Lower Technology design mold.
It is mutually contradictory to improve intensity of cooling and side wall insulation, and there is presently no experience and design to unify both Come, it is therefore necessary to design to realize the directional solidification from bottom to top of round billet in the case where quickly forcing cooling condition, finally give cause Close structure organization and the alloy material of excellent properties.
The content of the invention
The present invention is directed to above-mentioned the shortcomings of the prior art, there is provided one kind can realize directional solidification and improve cooling The Combined water chill mould of intensity.
The technical scheme that the present invention solves above-mentioned technical problem is as follows:What a kind of strand directional solidification and regional choice cooled down Combined water chill mould, including chassis, the cast die body on the chassis and vulcanize contracting on the cast die body Rising head, it is characterized in that, the chassis includes low bottom-disc and top bottom-disc, and cooling cavity is provided with the top bottom-disc, described Top bottom-disc is provided with the water inlet and delivery port being connected with the cooling cavity;
The cast die body periphery is straight tube structure, and interior is inverted round table structure, including the first half and lower half, it is described on The periphery of half portion is provided with hollow insulation layer, and the periphery of the lower half is provided with the separate cooling water channel of multiple tracks;
The hot feeding head is in land structure, and the larger diameter end of the land snaps onto the upper end of the cast die body, It is easy to snapping centering body upper end that boss seam is set.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
1st, mold of the invention realizes that strand forces cooling and directional solidification from bottom to top, avoids vertical die wall and directionless Property growth column crystal it is excessively flourishing and make its vertical chassis growth, eliminate center porosity, V-type segregation problems, obtain crystal grain Refinement, ultrasound detection crystal grain uniformly, the flawless big substance casting forging stock of solidified structure dense uniform, ultrasonic flaw detection qualification rate carries It is high.
2nd, the present invention breaks the normal procedure ingot mould design concept, and the cast die body first half is hollow insulation structure, under cast die body The cooling water channel and chassis water cooling of half portion, can to mold different zones be segmented selectivity cooling, take into account establish one-dimension temperature field and High intensity of cooling, strand sensible heat and latent heat more than 90% conduct from chassis, realize directional solidification.
3rd, the present invention uses hot feeding head, molten glass layers, heating oxidant layer and the coating that inside is provided with so that shrinkage cavity Area is concentrated mainly on hot feeding head part, improves the solid height in hot feeding head, reduces strand cutting head cutting tail accounting.
On the basis of above-mentioned technical proposal, the present invention can also do following improvement.
Further, the top bottom-disc is Be-Co-Cu or red copper material, and interlaced resistance is provided with the cooling cavity Flowing plate.
Beneficial effect using above-mentioned further scheme is that Be-Co-Cu or red copper material can reduce hot concentration zones temperature, Quick uniform cools down strand, 3~4 times more superior than mould steel of heat conductivity;Spoiler can increase heat exchange area, improve water speed and Convection transfer rate, most heats that aluminium alloy discharges are made to be conducted by chassis.
Further, the hot feeding head shell is cast iron, and internal layer is formed by laying fireproof bricks, it is internal to it is lower and on successively Provided with molten glass layers, heating oxidant layer and coating.
Beneficial effect using above-mentioned further scheme is that aluminium alloy in hot feeding head is heated in exothermic mixture burning, subtracts Thermograde between small hot feeding head and aluminium alloy, delay the alloy part liquid setting time, there is provided Feeding channel it is unimpeded and Enough feeding aluminium alloys;Exothermic mixture oxidation heat liberation makes to emit, the exothermic mixture slightly longer than the casting blank solidification time that hold aluminium alloy setting time Burning maximum temperature is more than aluminium alloy liquidus temperature;Molten glass layers can effectively obstruct exothermic mixture composition pollution aluminium alloy, have Float impurity in effect heat of adsorption feeding head, and makes aluminium alloy and atmospheric isolation;Coating is calcining red charcoal, plays insulation and resistance Only O in air2、N2、H2Deng the effect into aluminium alloy;Acted on by the oxidation heat liberation of the exothermic mixture of hot feeding head, Mao Ronghe Golden liquid setting time is more than the casting blank solidification time, emits and holds aluminium alloy final set, there is provided solidification feeding liquid.
Further, the molten glass layers are made up of 80wt% Na-Si-Ca glasses and 20wt% boric anhydrides.
Further, the thickness of the molten glass layers is 10-20mm, or controls dosage to add 1-1.2kg for ingot casting per ton Melten glass.
Further, the heating oxidant layer is made up of aluminium powder, oxidant and binding agent.
Further, the heating oxidant layer includes 10-15wt% aluminium powders, 10-15wt%Al2O3, 10-15wt%C, 20- 30wt%Fe2O3, 5wt%NaNO3, 5wt%KNO3And the waterglass and clay of surplus, dosage are that ingot casting per ton adds 1-2kg..
Further, the coating is calcining red charcoal.
Beneficial effect using above-mentioned further scheme is to play O in insulation and prevention air2、N2、H2Deng entering alloy The effect of liquid.
Further, zircon ceramic plate and asbestic blanket are filled with described hollow insulation layer;The cast die body lower half Periphery is provided with three separate cooling water channels, including the first side wall water channel, second sidewall water channel and the 3rd side wall water channel.
Beneficial effect using above-mentioned further scheme is that hollow insulation layer can extend the cast die body first half and vulcanize Contracting emits the setting time of intraoral aluminium alloy;Multiple tracks side wall water cooling takes into account the double action for improving intensity of cooling and directional solidification;When After the solidification of strand the latter half, the water cooling of top bottom-disc acts on gradual unobvious, it is impossible to which the not solidifying part of the strand first half is played Cooling effect is forced, heat transfer modes fade to Two-Dimensional Heat by one dimensional heat transfer, and the thermograde of vertical direction is gradually reduced, no longer Continue to meet directional solidification condition.Moved up with solidification front, open cooling water channel valve, take first segmentation to supply water, the confession of rear full section The mode of water.After the following aluminium alloy solidification of the first side wall water channel, the valve of the first side wall water channel is opened, is changed to by natural cooling Cooling is forced, its height above aluminium alloy continues to realize directional solidification under high intensity cooling;Move up with solidification front and progressively move To more than second sidewall water channel, the valve of second sidewall water channel is opened afterwards, when appearance aluminium alloy solidification is emitted, opens the 3rd side wall The valve of water channel.The heat and mass of the solidifying part of aluminium alloy be always to solidification model, and after solidification is completed in lower half, side wall water It is cold no longer to change its Solidification Microstructure Morphology.In this case side wall water cooling plays the heat transfer effect same with water-cooled copper chassis.Strand Water-cooled copper chassis and side wall water cooling are improved under intensity of cooling effect, and large dendritic crystal is inhibited in strand, reduce microsegregation, simultaneously Crystal grain thinning.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of top bottom-disc;
Fig. 3 is the temperature variation curve that Dual band IR measures hot feeding head outer wall and cast die body lower half outer wall;
Fig. 4 is natural cooling NARloy-Z crystal grain uniformity ultrasonic testing results;
Fig. 5 is NARloy-Z crystal grain uniformity ultrasonic testing results in the embodiment of the present invention 1;
Fig. 6 is natural cooling Cu-Cr-Zr crystal grain uniformity ultrasonic testing results;
Fig. 7 is Cu-Cr-Zr crystal grain uniformity ultrasonic testing results in the embodiment of the present invention 2;
In figure, 1, top bottom-disc;2nd, low bottom-disc;3rd, cast die body;4th, cavity is cooled down;5th, water inlet;6th, delivery port;7th, vulcanize Contracting rising head;8th, hollow insulation layer;9th, spoiler;10th, refractory brick;11st, molten glass layers;12nd, heating oxidant layer;13rd, coating; 14th, the first side wall water channel;15th, second sidewall water channel;16th, the 3rd side wall water channel;17th, ingot casting.
Embodiment
The principle and feature of the present invention are described below in conjunction with example, the given examples are served only to explain the present invention, and It is non-to be used to limit the scope of the present invention.
A kind of strand directional solidification and regional choice cooling Combined water chill mould, including chassis, located at the chassis On cast die body 3 and the hot feeding head 7 on the cast die body, it is characterized in that, under the chassis includes Chassis 2 and top bottom-disc 1, the top bottom-disc is interior to be provided with cooling cavity 4, and the top bottom-disc is provided with to be connected with the cooling cavity Water inlet 5 and delivery port 6;
The cast die body periphery is straight tube structure, and interior is inverted round table structure, including the first half and lower half, it is described on The periphery of half portion is provided with hollow insulation layer 8, and the periphery of the lower half is provided with three separate cooling water channels, including first Side wall water channel 14, the side wall water channel 16 of second sidewall water channel 15 and the 3rd;
The hot feeding head is in land structure, and the larger diameter end of the land snaps onto the upper end of the cast die body, The hot feeding head shell is cast iron, and internal layer is built by laying bricks or stones by refractory brick 10 and formed, it is internal to it is lower and on be sequentially provided with melten glass Layer 11, heating oxidant layer 12 and coating 13;
The top bottom-disc is Be-Co-Cu or red copper material, and interlaced spoiler 9 is provided with the cooling cavity;
The molten glass layers are made up of 80wt% Na-Si-Ca glasses and 20wt% boric anhydrides;
The heating oxidant layer includes 10-15wt% aluminium powders, 10-15wt%Al2O3, 10-15wt%C, 20-30wt% Fe2O3, 5wt%NaNO3, 5wt%KNO3And the waterglass and clay of surplus, dosage are that ingot casting per ton adds 1-2kg;
The coating is calcining red charcoal;
Zircon ceramic plate and asbestic blanket are filled with described hollow insulation layer.
As shown in figure 3, due to being kept approximately constant using exothermic mixture, hot feeding head temperature in longer period of time, Inner alloy liquid final set can be ensured;Cast die body lower half outer wall because aluminium alloy sensible heat and latent heat are molded absorption, Temperature first raises, and reaches peak value by the short period, and strand fast cooling under water cooling effect, is initially completed solidification afterwards.Can To assign the time that infrared measurement of temperature result peak value occurs as the time criterion for opening three groups of side wall water channels successively.
Embodiment 1
Combined water chill mould is placed on the lifting platform of vacuum casting room, is evacuated to below 10Pa, use graphite crucible Cathode copper is warming up to 1200 DEG C, fine silver is added after metal molten in crucible and sponge zirconium, fusion temperature is continuously heating to 1300-1350 DEG C, NARloy-Z alloys (Cu-3%Ag-0.5%Zr) liquid is obtained after adjusting component, cools and stands to 1150- 1200 DEG C of vacuum castings, being raised with liquid level slowly reduces lifting platform, ensures that soaking water gap below liquid level, prevents aluminium alloy all the time It is splashed to interior die wall.End to be cast adds the melten glass prepared by loading hopper, adds the exothermic mixture of preparation immediately, finally Add coverture.
Open water inlet within 5~10 minutes before upper starts, top bottom-disc and low bottom-disc is dropped to relatively low temperature.Alloy By being poured on submersed nozzle in cast die body, top bottom-disc internal cooling water channel is separated liquid by spoiler, improves cooling water and reaches Arrive 12m/s or so.Die wall temperature between the first side wall water channel and second sidewall water channel is measured by infrared radiation thermometer, according to temperature Line of writing music opens the first side wall water channel, 10~12m/s of design water speed or so.Second sidewall water channel is progressively opened according to infrared measurement of temperature With the 3rd side wall water channel, improve strand top and emit the intensity of cooling for holding aluminium alloy, the heat overwhelming majority is passed by top bottom-disc Lead, and establish directional solidification temperature field.
Mirco structure of the NARloy-Z ingot castings after solid gas coupling is strengthened is shown does not observe secondary pipe substantially, low Tissue shows that column crystal has obvious direction again, and ingot blank center is without obvious shrinkage porosite, solidified structure dense uniform.In comparison diagram 4 Natural cooling ingot blank, the crystal grain refinement of the present embodiment is more uniform in Fig. 5, ultrasonic fault detector probe model used 2.5P20, frequency 2.5MHz, sound intensity 46dB, signal to noise ratio 10-20%.Shrinkage cavity concentrates on hot feeding head top, vulcanizes contracting well, The hot solid height of feeding head is in 60~70mm, maximum height 80mm.Shown after the heat treatment of NARloy-Z alloy cast ingots excellent High temperature tensile properties, high temperature resistance high cycle fatigue ability and creep resisting ability.
Embodiment 2
Combined water chill mould is placed on the lifting platform of vacuum casting room, is evacuated to below 10Pa, use graphite crucible By cathode copper, 1200 DEG C are warming up to, fine silver is added after metal molten in crucible and sponge zirconium, fusion temperature is continuously heating to 1300-1350 DEG C, obtain Cu-Cr-Zr alloys (Cu-0.65%Cr-0.1%Zr) liquid after adjusting component, cool and stand to 1220-1250 DEG C of vacuum casting, being raised with liquid level slowly reduces lifting platform, ensures that soaking water gap below liquid level, prevents all the time Aluminium alloy is splashed to interior die wall.End to be cast adds the melten glass prepared by loading hopper, adds the heating of preparation immediately Agent, it is eventually adding coverture.
Open water inlet within 5~10 minutes before upper starts, top bottom-disc and low bottom-disc is dropped to relatively low temperature.Alloy Liquid is separated by pouring into cast die body, top bottom-disc internal cooling water channel on submersed nozzle by spoiler, improves cooling water and reaches 12m/s or so.Die wall temperature between the first side wall water channel and second sidewall water channel is measured by infrared radiation thermometer, according to temperature Curve opens the first side wall water channel, 10~12m/s of design water speed or so, and second sidewall water channel 32 is progressively opened according to infrared measurement of temperature Side wall water channel 33 is pressed with the, strand top is improved and emits the intensity of cooling for holding aluminium alloy, the heat overwhelming majority is passed through top bottom-disc Conduction, and establish directional solidification temperature field.
As shown in fig. 7, ultrasonic testing results show that the crystal grain uniformity contrasts natural cooling ingot blank (Fig. 6) more refinement It is even.The ingot casting surface and internal soundness obtained by the present embodiment all has significant improvement, and is mainly manifested in:1st, ingot casting table The thickness increase of face fine grained region, crystallite dimension reduces, and the column crystal direction of growth strengthens, and ingot blank center is without obvious shrinkage porosite, solidification Dense structure is uniform, ultrasonic fault detector probe model 2.5P20 used, frequency 2.5MHz, sound intensity 46dB, signal to noise ratio 10- 20%;2nd, 10-30MPa, elongation after fracture increase 10-20%, hardness are improved with Cu-Cr-Zr strength of alloy under state Also have with performances such as impact flexibility and largely improve;3rd, rising head fraction is reduced, reduces casting cutting head cutting tail rate, And implement to play a key effect to extending die life and improving production efficiency by the technology.
The foregoing is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, be not intended to limit the invention, it is all the present invention spirit and Within principle, any modification, equivalent substitution and improvements made etc., it should be included in the scope of the protection.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of strand directional solidification and regional choice cooling Combined water chill mould, including chassis, on the chassis Cast die body and the hot feeding head on the cast die body, it is characterised in that the chassis include low bottom-disc and on Chassis, is provided with cooling cavity in the top bottom-disc, the top bottom-disc be provided with the water inlet that is connected with the cooling cavity and Delivery port;
The cast die body periphery is straight tube structure, and interior is inverted round table structure, and cast die body includes the first half and lower half, institute The periphery for stating the first half is provided with hollow insulation layer, and the periphery of the lower half is provided with the separate cooling water channel of multiple tracks;
The hot feeding head is in land structure, and the larger diameter end of the land snaps onto the upper end of the cast die body, is easy to The boss seam that snapping alignment cast die body upper end is set;
The top bottom-disc is Be-Co-Cu or red copper material, and interlaced spoiler is provided with the cooling cavity;
The hot feeding head shell is cast iron, and internal layer is formed by laying fireproof bricks, inside hot feeding head to it is lower and on successively Provided with molten glass layers, heating oxidant layer and coating.
2. Combined water chill mould according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the molten glass layers are by 80wt% sodium silicon Lime glass and 20wt% boric anhydrides composition.
3. Combined water chill mould according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that the thickness of the molten glass layers is 10-20mm。
4. Combined water chill mould according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that the dosage of the molten glass layers is Ingot casting per ton adds 1-1.2kg melten glass.
5. Combined water chill mould according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the heating oxidant layer is by aluminium powder, oxidant Formed with binding agent.
6. Combined water chill mould according to claim 1 or 5, it is characterised in that the heating oxidant layer includes 10- 15wt% aluminium powders, 10-15wt%Al2O3、10-15wt%C、20-30wt%Fe2O3、5wt%NaNO3、5wt%KNO3And the water glass of surplus Glass and clay, dosage are that ingot casting per ton adds 1-2kg.
7. Combined water chill mould according to claim 1, it is characterised in that be filled with zirconium in described hollow insulation layer Ceramic wafer and asbestic blanket;The periphery of the cast die body lower half is provided with three separate cooling water channels, including the first side Wall water channel, second sidewall water channel and the 3rd side wall water channel.
CN201610765805.4A 2016-08-30 2016-08-30 A kind of strand directional solidification and the Combined water chill mould of regional choice cooling Active CN106180659B (en)

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