CN105948851B - Microbial fertilizer - Google Patents

Microbial fertilizer Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105948851B
CN105948851B CN201610279558.7A CN201610279558A CN105948851B CN 105948851 B CN105948851 B CN 105948851B CN 201610279558 A CN201610279558 A CN 201610279558A CN 105948851 B CN105948851 B CN 105948851B
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fermentation
fertilizer
days
pile
temperature
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CN105948851A (en
Inventor
杨述
王均
涂美艳
唐懿
容亚文
徐子鸿
孙国超
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Sichuan Agricultural University
Horticulture Research Institute of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Sichuan Agricultural University
Horticulture Research Institute of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D1/00Fertilisers containing potassium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F11/00Other organic fertilisers
    • C05F11/08Organic fertilisers containing added bacterial cultures, mycelia or the like

Abstract

The invention provides a microbial fertilizer, which comprises functional bacteria and a biological organic fertilizer; the functional bacteria comprise at least one of bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, bacillus brevis and bacillus megaterium; the addition amount of the functional bacteria is not less than 0.2 hundred million/g. The preparation method of the biological organic fertilizer in the microbial fertilizer provided by the invention is simple, low in cost, high in humus degree, odorless and easy to use; the microbial fertilizer has good yield increasing effect on economic fruit trees and small application amount.

Description

Microbial fertilizer
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of microbial fertilizers.
Background
With the continuous development of green economy, the planting industry needs efficient and cheap fertilizers more and more. However, in the prior art, the preparation of microbial fertilizers has the defects of long fermentation period, low decomposition degree and unobvious yield increasing effect. Therefore, the prepared fertilizer has high cost and unsatisfactory effect.
CN103332982A discloses a method for preparing a compound microbial fertilizer for fruit tree planting. However, the method has high production cost due to complicated process and complex raw material ratio, is not favorable for large-scale production, and is difficult to substantially promote the development of the industry.
Therefore, the microbial fertilizer with simple preparation method and good yield increasing effect is urgently needed to be searched in the field.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the disadvantages of the prior art, it is an object of the present invention to provide a microbial fertilizer which can increase crop yield by at least 10% or more. The microbial fertilizer comprises functional bacteria and a biological organic fertilizer; the functional bacteria comprise at least one of bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, bacillus brevis and bacillus megaterium; the addition amount of the functional bacteria is not less than 0.2 hundred million/g microbial fertilizer; the biological organic fertilizer is prepared by the method A or the method B:
the method A comprises the following steps:
(1) preparation of fermentation raw materials: adjusting the C/N ratio of the fermentation substrate to be 20-25, and the total nutrient content to be 6.0-6.5%; the fermentation substrate comprises mushroom dregs;
(2) pre-fermentation: setting the height of the pile body to be less than or equal to 3m, wherein the water content of the fermentation raw material is 50-60%;
(3) tank type fermentation: putting the material obtained in the step (2) into a tank for stacking, wherein the height of a stack body is set to be less than or equal to 3m, and the water content of the fermentation raw material is 40-50%; turning the fertilizer when the temperature of the pile body rises to 50-55 ℃ and lasts for more than 1 day, turning the fertilizer once every 2-4 days, wherein the time of tank type fermentation is 20-25 days;
(4) composting and fermenting: setting the height of the pile body to be less than or equal to 6m, wherein the water content of the product obtained in the step (3) is 35-40%; when the temperature of the pile body rises to above 55 ℃ and lasts for 2-3 days, turning the fertilizer once every 5-7 days, wherein the time for retting and fermenting is 20-25 days;
(5) crushing and screening: when the temperature of the stack is continuously kept below 50 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (4) is below 35%, crushing and screening the product obtained in the step (4);
(6) and (3) subsequent decomposition and fermentation: performing subsequent decomposition fermentation on the product obtained in the step (5), setting the height of a pile to be less than or equal to 6m, turning over the fertilizer every 7-10 days, and completing decomposition of the organic fertilizer when the temperature of the pile is continuously kept below 40 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (5) is kept below 30% so as to obtain a decomposed organic fertilizer;
the method B comprises the following steps:
(1) preparation of fermentation raw materials: adjusting the C/N ratio of the fermentation substrate to be 20-25, and the total nutrient content to be 6.0-6.5%; the fermentation substrate comprises mushroom dregs;
(2) pre-fermentation: performing strip pile composting on the fermentation raw materials obtained in the step (1), setting the height of a pile body to be less than or equal to 2m, punching at intervals of 1m, wherein the punching diameter is 3-5cm, the punching depth is the bottom, performing one-time fertilizer turning when the temperature of the pile body rises to more than 50 ℃, and transferring the pile body into a pile retting fermentation area;
(3) composting and fermenting: performing stack retting fermentation on the obtained substance in the step (2), setting the height of a stack to be less than or equal to 3m, turning the fertilizer when the temperature of the stack rises to be more than 55 ℃ and lasts for 2-3 days, turning the fertilizer once every 3-5 days, and keeping the time of stack retting fermentation to be 20-30 days;
(4) and (3) subsequent decomposition and fermentation: and (3) performing subsequent decomposition fermentation on the product obtained in the step (3), setting the height of a pile to be less than or equal to 6m, turning the fertilizer once every 7-10 days when the temperature of the pile is higher than 50 ℃, and completing decomposition of the organic fertilizer when the temperature of the pile is continuously kept below 40 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (3) is kept below 30%, so as to obtain the decomposed organic fertilizer.
As shown in an experimental example of the invention, the microbial fertilizer obtained by the invention has high degree of decomposition, simple preparation process and obvious yield increasing effect on crops, and is particularly suitable for popularization and application of industries.
Preferably, in the step (2) of the method A, when the temperature of the stack in the pre-fermentation process reaches 35-40 ℃, the pre-fermentation process is stopped.
Preferably, in the step (1) of the method A, the content of the mushroom dregs in the fermentation substrate is more than 60 percent by weight; in the step (1) of the method B, the content of the mushroom dregs in the fermentation substrate is more than 60 percent by weight.
Preferably, in the step (1) of the method a, the fermentation substrate further comprises at least one of municipal solid waste, crop straws and livestock and poultry manure; in the step (1) of the method B, the fermentation substrate further comprises at least one of municipal solid waste, crop straws and livestock and poultry manure.
Preferably, the microbial fertilizer also comprises nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inorganic nutrients; the addition amount of the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inorganic nutrients is more than 6 percent of the total weight of the microbial fertilizer.
Preferably, the functional bacteria is bacillus subtilis.
Preferably, the functional bacteria are bacillus subtilis and brevibacillus laterosporus. More preferably, the addition amount of the bacillus subtilis is 1.046 hundred million/g.microbial fertilizer, and the addition amount of the brevibacillus laterosporus is 0.115 hundred million/g.microbial fertilizer.
The invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the microbial fertilizer has the advantages of simple preparation method, low cost, high humus degree, no odor and easy use;
2. the microbial fertilizer has good yield increasing effect on economic fruit trees and small application amount.
Detailed Description
The present invention is described in detail below by way of examples, and it should be noted that the following examples are only for illustrating the present invention and should not be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention.
Example 1
Preparing a biological organic fertilizer:
(1) preparation of fermentation raw materials: according to the weight portion, 60 portions of the bacterial residues, 30 portions of the cow dung and 10 portions of the kitchen waste are uniformly mixed, bacillus subtilis and bacillus licheniformis are added, and a nitrogen fertilizer, a phosphate fertilizer and a potassium fertilizer are added, the C/N ratio of the total mixture is adjusted to be 22, and the total nutrient content is 6.3%;
(2) tank type fermentation: stacking the fermentation raw material obtained in the step (1) in a tank, setting the height of a pile body to be 2.5m, setting the water content of the fermentation raw material to be 50%, recording and observing the temperature change condition of the pile body in the depth of 30cm every day, turning the fertilizer by using a fertilizer turning machine when the temperature of the pile body rises to 52 ℃ and lasts for 2 days, turning the fertilizer once every 4 days, and setting the fermentation time to be 22 days;
(3) composting and fermenting: after 22 days of tank fermentation, the product obtained in the step (2) has no obvious odor, at this time, the product is transferred out from the fermentation tank for stack retting fermentation, the height of the stack is 5m, and the water content of the product obtained in the step (2) is 38%; recording and observing the temperature change condition of the pile body at a depth of 30cm every day, turning the fertilizer by using a large-scale loader when the temperature of the pile body is raised to 58 ℃ and lasts for 3 days, and turning the fertilizer once every 6 days, wherein the fermentation time is 23 days;
(4) crushing and screening: when the temperature of the stack is kept at 48 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (3) is kept at 34%, crushing and screening the product obtained in the step (3) by using crushing and screening equipment;
(5) and (3) subsequent decomposition and fermentation: and (3) performing subsequent decomposition fermentation on the product obtained in the step (4), setting the height of a pile to be 5m, turning over the fertilizer every 8 days, and when the temperature of the pile is reduced to 35 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (4) is reduced to 28%, completing decomposition of the organic fertilizer to obtain the biological organic fertilizer.
And adding bacillus subtilis into the obtained microbial organic fertilizer, wherein the addition amount of the bacillus subtilis is 0.2 hundred million/g, namely the microbial fertilizer, so as to obtain the microbial fertilizer.
Example 2
The preparation method comprises the following steps of performing groove type fermentation to prepare the biological organic fertilizer:
(1) preparation of fermentation raw materials: according to the weight portion, 60 portions of the bacterial residues, 30 portions of the cow dung and 10 portions of the kitchen waste are uniformly mixed, bacillus subtilis and bacillus licheniformis are added, and a nitrogen fertilizer, a phosphate fertilizer and a potassium fertilizer are added, the C/N ratio of the total mixture is adjusted to be 22, and the total nutrient content is 6.3%;
(2) pre-fermentation: transferring the fermentation raw material obtained in the step (1) into a pre-fermentation area for stacking, wherein the height of a stack body is set to be 2.5m, and the water content of the fermentation raw material is 60%;
(3) tank type fermentation: when the temperature of the pile body at the position 30cm from the top reaches 40 ℃, transferring the obtained object in the step (2) into a fermentation tank for tank type fermentation, setting the height of the pile body to be 2.5m, keeping the water content of the obtained object in the step (2) to be 50%, recording and observing the temperature change condition of the pile body at the position 30cm from day to day, turning the fertilizer by using a fertilizer turning machine when the temperature of the pile body rises to 52 ℃ and lasts for 2 days, turning the fertilizer once every 4 days, and keeping the fermentation time to be 22 days;
(4) composting and fermenting: after 22 days of tank fermentation, the product obtained in the step (3) has no obvious odor, at the moment, the product is transferred out from the fermentation tank for stack retting fermentation, the height of the stack is set to be 5m, and the water content of the product obtained in the step (3) is 38%; recording and observing the temperature change condition of the pile body at a depth of 30cm every day, turning the fertilizer by using a large-scale loader when the temperature of the pile body is raised to 58 ℃ and lasts for 3 days, and turning the fertilizer once every 6 days, wherein the fermentation time is 23 days;
(5) crushing and screening: when the temperature of the stack is kept at 48 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (4) is kept at 34%, crushing and screening the product obtained in the step (4) by using crushing and screening equipment;
(6) and (3) subsequent decomposition and fermentation: and (3) performing subsequent decomposition fermentation on the product obtained in the step (5), setting the height of a pile to be 5m, turning over the fertilizer once every 8 days, and when the temperature of the pile is reduced to 35 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (5) is reduced to 28%, completing decomposition of the organic fertilizer to obtain the decomposed organic fertilizer.
Adding the Brevibacillus laterosporus into the obtained biological organic fertilizer, wherein the addition amount is 0.5 hundred million/g.
Example 3
The organic fertilizer is prepared by performing groove type fermentation according to the following steps:
(1) preparation of fermentation raw materials: according to the weight portion, 70 portions of bacterial residues, 10 portions of pig manure and 20 portions of cow manure after impurities such as plastic bags, stones and the like are cleaned are uniformly mixed, bacillus subtilis, brevibacillus laterosporus, a nitrogen fertilizer, a phosphate fertilizer and a potassium fertilizer are added into the mixture, the C/N ratio of the total mixture is adjusted to be 25, and the total nutrient content is 6.5%;
(2) tank type fermentation: stacking the fermentation raw material obtained in the step (1) in a tank, setting the height of a pile body to be 2m, setting the water content of the fermentation raw material to be 40%, recording and observing the temperature change condition of the pile body in the depth of 30cm every day, turning the fertilizer by using a fertilizer turning machine when the temperature of the pile body rises to 55 ℃ and lasts for 1 day, turning the fertilizer once every 2 days, and setting the fermentation time to be 25 days;
(3) composting and fermenting: after 25 days of tank fermentation, the product obtained in the step (2) has no obvious odor, at this time, the product is transferred out from the fermentation tank for stack retting fermentation, the height of the stack is set to be 5.5m, and the water content of the product obtained in the step (2) is 35%; recording and observing the temperature change condition of the pile body at a depth of 30cm every day, turning the fertilizer by using a large-scale loader when the temperature of the pile body is raised to 60 ℃ and lasts for 2 days, and turning the fertilizer once every 7 days, wherein the fermentation time is 20 days;
(4) crushing and screening: when the temperature of the stack is kept at 45 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (3) is kept at 30%, crushing and screening the product obtained in the step (3) by using crushing and screening equipment;
(5) and (3) subsequent decomposition and fermentation: and (3) performing subsequent decomposition fermentation on the product obtained in the step (4), setting the height of a pile to be 5.5m, turning over the fertilizer every 9 days, and when the temperature of the pile is reduced to 35 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (4) is reduced to 25%, completing decomposition of the organic fertilizer to obtain the biological organic fertilizer.
And adding bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inorganic nutrients into the obtained biological organic fertilizer, wherein the addition amount of the bacillus subtilis is 1.046 hundred million/g, the addition amount of the bacillus laterosporus is 0.115 hundred million/g, and the addition amount of the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inorganic nutrients is 6.5 percent of the total weight of the microbial fertilizer, so as to obtain the microbial fertilizer.
Example 4
The organic fertilizer is prepared by stack fermentation according to the following steps:
(1) preparation of fermentation raw materials: according to the weight portion, 70 portions of the bacterial residues, 10 portions of the pig manure and 20 portions of the cow manure are uniformly mixed, and bacillus subtilis, bacillus laterosporus, a nitrogen fertilizer, a phosphate fertilizer and a potassium fertilizer are added into the mixture, the C/N ratio of the total mixture is adjusted to be 25, and the total nutrient content is 6.5%;
(2) pre-fermentation: performing strip pile composting on the fermentation raw materials obtained in the step (1), setting the height of a pile body to be 1.8m, punching every 1m, wherein the punching diameter is 5cm, the punching depth is the bottom, performing one-time fertilizer turning when the temperature of the pile body rises to 53 ℃, and transferring the pile body into a composting fermentation area;
(3) composting and fermenting: carrying out composting fermentation on the obtained substance in the step (2), setting the height of a pile body to be 2m, measuring the temperature of the pile body at a depth of 30cm from the top every day, turning the fertilizer when the temperature of the pile body is raised to 58 ℃ and lasts for 2 days, turning the fertilizer once every 5 days, and keeping the time of the composting fermentation to be 30 days;
(4) and (3) subsequent decomposition and fermentation: and (3) performing subsequent composting fermentation on the product obtained in the step (3) after 30 days of composting fermentation, setting the height of a pile to be 5.5m, measuring the temperature of the pile at a depth of 30cm from the top every day, turning the fertilizer once every 10 days when the temperature of the pile reaches 53 ℃, and completing the composting of the organic fertilizer when the temperature of the pile is reduced to 32 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (3) is reduced to 25 percent, thereby obtaining the biological organic fertilizer.
And adding bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inorganic nutrients into the obtained biological organic fertilizer, wherein the addition amount of the bacillus subtilis is 1.046 hundred million/g, the addition amount of the bacillus laterosporus is 0.115 hundred million/g, and the addition amount of the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inorganic nutrients is 6 percent of the total weight of the microbial fertilizer, so as to obtain the microbial fertilizer.
Example 5
The organic fertilizer is prepared by stack fermentation according to the following steps:
(1) preparation of fermentation raw materials: according to the weight portion, 60 portions of the bacterial residues, 30 portions of the cow dung and 10 portions of the kitchen waste are uniformly mixed, bacillus subtilis and bacillus licheniformis are added, and a nitrogen fertilizer, a phosphate fertilizer and a potassium fertilizer are added, the C/N ratio of the total mixture is adjusted to be 22, and the total nutrient content is 6.3%;
(2) pre-fermentation: performing strip pile composting on the fermentation raw materials obtained in the step (1), setting the height of a pile body to be 1.5m, punching every 1m, wherein the punching diameter is 4cm, the punching depth is the bottom, performing fertilizer turning once when the temperature of the pile body rises to 52 ℃, and transferring the pile body into a composting fermentation area;
(3) composting and fermenting: carrying out composting fermentation on the obtained substance in the step (2), setting the height of a pile to be 2.5m, measuring the temperature of the pile at a depth of 30cm from the top every day, turning the fertilizer when the temperature of the pile is raised to 56 ℃ and lasts for 3 days, turning the fertilizer once every 4 days, and keeping the time of the composting fermentation to be 25 days;
(4) crushing and screening: when the temperature of the pile is kept at 48 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (3) is 32%, crushing and screening the product obtained in the step (3);
(5) and (3) subsequent decomposition and fermentation: and (3) performing subsequent decomposition fermentation on the product obtained in the step (4), setting the height of a pile to be 5m, measuring the temperature of the pile at a depth of 30cm from the top every day, turning the fertilizer once every 8 days when the temperature of the pile reaches 52 ℃, and completing decomposition of the organic fertilizer when the temperature of the pile is reduced to 35 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (3) is reduced to 28 percent, thus obtaining the biological organic fertilizer.
And adding bacillus megaterium into the obtained biological organic fertilizer, wherein the addition amount of the bacillus megaterium is 1 hundred million/g.
Example 6
The organic fertilizer is prepared by stack fermentation according to the following steps:
(1) preparation of fermentation raw materials: according to the weight portion, 60 portions of the bacterial residues, 30 portions of the cow dung and 10 portions of the kitchen waste are uniformly mixed, bacillus subtilis and bacillus licheniformis are added, and a nitrogen fertilizer, a phosphate fertilizer and a potassium fertilizer are added, the C/N ratio of the total mixture is adjusted to be 22, and the total nutrient content is 6.3%;
(2) pre-fermentation: performing strip pile composting on the fermentation raw materials obtained in the step (1), setting the height of a pile body to be 1.5m, punching every 1m, wherein the punching diameter is 4cm, the punching depth is the bottom, performing fertilizer turning once when the temperature of the pile body rises to 52 ℃, and transferring the pile body into a composting fermentation area;
(3) composting and fermenting: carrying out composting fermentation on the obtained substance in the step (2), setting the height of a pile to be 2.5m, measuring the temperature of the pile at a depth of 30cm from the top every day, turning the fertilizer when the temperature of the pile is raised to 56 ℃ and lasts for 3 days, turning the fertilizer once every 4 days, and keeping the time of the composting fermentation to be 25 days;
(4) and (3) subsequent decomposition and fermentation: and (3) performing subsequent composting fermentation on the product obtained in the step (3) after 25 days of composting fermentation, setting the height of a pile to be 5m, measuring the temperature of the pile at a depth of 30cm from the top every day, turning the fertilizer once every 8 days when the temperature of the pile reaches 52 ℃, and completing the composting of the organic fertilizer when the temperature of the pile is reduced to 35 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (3) is reduced to 28 percent, thereby obtaining the biological organic fertilizer.
And adding bacillus megaterium into the obtained biological organic fertilizer, wherein the addition amount of the bacillus megaterium is 1 hundred million/g.
Experimental example 1
The results of the measurement of the relevant indexes of the bio-organic fertilizer obtained in examples 1 to 6 are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1
Figure GDA0002045551990000061
Experimental example 2
The microbial fertilizers obtained in examples 1-6 were used for planting pepper, 30kg of the microbial fertilizers obtained in examples 1-6 were applied to each acre, and 30kg of stanley compound fertilizer (nitrogen 15% -phosphorus 15% -potassium 15%) was also applied to each acre to serve as a control group. And (3) collecting the data of fruit set number and tumor body number of each strain 40-50 days after fertilization, and collecting the data of morbidity (streak virus) 60 days after fertilization. The results of the experiment are shown in table 2.
TABLE 2
Figure GDA0002045551990000071
Experimental example 3
The microbial fertilizer obtained in the examples 1-6 is used for planting summer oranges, 280kg of the microbial fertilizer obtained in the examples 1-6 is applied to each mu, the compound microbial fertilizer recorded in the example 3 of CN103332982A is used as a control group, and the fertilizer application amount of the control group is 350kg per year. The yields were counted and the results are shown in Table 3.
TABLE 3
Figure GDA0002045551990000072

Claims (7)

1. The microbial fertilizer is characterized by comprising functional bacteria and a biological organic fertilizer; the functional bacteria comprise at least one of bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, bacillus brevis and bacillus megaterium; the addition amount of the functional bacteria is not less than 0.2 hundred million/g microbial fertilizer; the biological organic fertilizer is prepared by the method A or the method B:
the method A comprises the following steps:
(1) preparation of fermentation raw materials: adjusting the C/N ratio of the fermentation substrate to be 20-25, and the total nutrient content to be 6.0-6.5%; the fermentation substrate comprises mushroom dregs;
(2) pre-fermentation: setting the height of the pile body to be less than or equal to 3m, wherein the water content of the fermentation raw material is 50-60%;
(3) tank type fermentation: putting the material obtained in the step (2) into a tank for stacking, wherein the height of a stack body is set to be less than or equal to 3m, and the water content of the fermentation raw material is 40-50%; turning the fertilizer when the temperature of the pile body rises to 50-55 ℃ and lasts for more than 1 day, turning the fertilizer once every 2-4 days, wherein the time of tank type fermentation is 20-25 days;
(4) composting and fermenting: setting the height of the pile body to be less than or equal to 6m, wherein the water content of the product obtained in the step (3) is 35-40%; when the temperature of the pile body rises to above 55 ℃ and lasts for 2-3 days, turning the fertilizer once every 5-7 days, wherein the time for retting and fermenting is 20-25 days;
(5) crushing and screening: when the temperature of the stack is continuously kept below 50 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (4) is below 35%, crushing and screening the product obtained in the step (4);
(6) and (3) subsequent decomposition and fermentation: performing subsequent decomposition fermentation on the product obtained in the step (5), setting the height of a pile to be less than or equal to 6m, turning over the fertilizer every 7-10 days, and completing decomposition of the organic fertilizer when the temperature of the pile is continuously kept below 40 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (5) is kept below 30% so as to obtain a decomposed organic fertilizer;
the method B comprises the following steps:
(1) preparation of fermentation raw materials: adjusting the C/N ratio of the fermentation substrate to be 20-25, and the total nutrient content to be 6.0-6.5%; the fermentation substrate comprises mushroom dregs;
(2) pre-fermentation: performing strip pile composting on the fermentation raw materials obtained in the step (1), setting the height of a pile body to be less than or equal to 2m, punching at intervals of 1m, wherein the punching diameter is 3-5cm, the punching depth is the bottom, performing one-time fertilizer turning when the temperature of the pile body rises to more than 50 ℃, and transferring the pile body into a pile retting fermentation area;
(3) composting and fermenting: performing stack retting fermentation on the obtained substance in the step (2), setting the height of a stack to be less than or equal to 3m, turning the fertilizer when the temperature of the stack rises to be more than 55 ℃ and lasts for 2-3 days, turning the fertilizer once every 3-5 days, and keeping the time of stack retting fermentation to be 20-30 days;
(4) and (3) subsequent decomposition and fermentation: performing subsequent decomposition fermentation on the product obtained in the step (3), setting the height of a pile to be less than or equal to 6m, turning over the fertilizer once every 7-10 days when the temperature of the pile reaches over 50 ℃, and completing decomposition of the organic fertilizer when the temperature of the pile is continuously kept below 40 ℃ and the water content of the product obtained in the step (3) is kept below 30% to obtain a decomposed organic fertilizer;
in the step (1) of the method A, the content of the mushroom dregs in the fermentation substrate is more than 60 percent by weight percent; in the step (1) of the method B, the content of the mushroom dregs in the fermentation substrate is more than 60 percent by weight.
2. The microbial fertilizer according to claim 1, wherein in the step (2) of the method A, the pre-fermentation process is stopped when the temperature of the pile in the pre-fermentation process reaches 35-40 ℃.
3. A microbial fertilizer according to claim 1 or 2, wherein in step (1) of method a, the fermentation substrate further comprises at least one of municipal solid waste, crop straw and livestock and poultry manure; in the step (1) of the method B, the fermentation substrate further comprises at least one of municipal solid waste, crop straws and livestock and poultry manure.
4. The microbial fertilizer according to claim 1, further comprising inorganic nutrients of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; the addition amount of the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inorganic nutrients is more than 6 percent of the total weight of the microbial fertilizer.
5. The microbial fertilizer according to claim 1, wherein the functional bacteria is bacillus subtilis.
6. The microbial fertilizer according to claim 1, wherein the functional bacteria are Bacillus subtilis and Brevibacillus laterosporus.
7. The microbial fertilizer according to claim 6, wherein the addition amount of Bacillus subtilis is 1.046 hundred million/g.microbial fertilizer, and the addition amount of Brevibacillus laterosporus is 0.115 hundred million/g.microbial fertilizer.
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