CN105948832B - A kind of small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting - Google Patents

A kind of small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105948832B
CN105948832B CN201610266733.9A CN201610266733A CN105948832B CN 105948832 B CN105948832 B CN 105948832B CN 201610266733 A CN201610266733 A CN 201610266733A CN 105948832 B CN105948832 B CN 105948832B
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stack retting
kitchen garbage
positions
anaerobic fermentation
slot
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CN105948832A (en
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吴川福
李悦宁
黄琪琪
杨民
汪群慧
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University of Science and Technology Beijing USTB
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University of Science and Technology Beijing USTB
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F9/00Fertilisers from household or town refuse
    • C05F9/02Apparatus for the manufacture
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F9/00Fertilisers from household or town refuse
    • C05F9/04Biological compost
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/20Fertilizers of biological origin, e.g. guano or fertilizers made from animal corpses
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting, belongs to changing rejected material to useful resource field.The device includes feed system, aerobic composting system, and anaerobic fermentation system and deodoration system, aerobic composting system include six stack retting slots, and connection circlewise, is wrapped in the anaerobic fermentation tank at device center.After kitchen garbage fills up in stack retting slot, stack retting slot turns to another empty slot, to accept the kitchen garbage from feed system.Specific position is equipped with spray and air-breather in cyclic annular stack retting slot, to guarantee effective progress of Composting.Kitchen garbage through stack retting enters anaerobic fermentation tank and carries out methane phase fermentation.The be for biogas use methane bag of fermentor can be used as domestic gas after collecting.The produced biogas slurry of fermentor and biogas residue are discharged into septic tank.The advantages that present apparatus has structure simple, and environmental pollution is small, and waste resource recovery utilizes, is particularly suitable for the processing of the produced kitchen garbage of family or residential quarters.

Description

A kind of small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting
Technical field
The present invention relates to changing rejected material to useful resource fields, particularly relate to a kind of small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting.
Background technique
Kitchen garbage is the chief component of municipal refuse, have high grease (5%~20%), high salt (wet basis: 0.8%~1.5%), high-moisture (70%~90%), high organic content (butt: 90% or more) and perishable smelly, easy acid The features such as change, easily biological-degradable.Currently, the produced kitchen garbage of city dweller family or directly abandoning or being discharged into after crushing city Political affairs sewage network.This way will increase the yield of landfill gas and percolate, increase refuse landfill and municipal wastewater treatment plant Load causes prevention of secondary pollution expense to increase significantly.In addition, the high salt in kitchen garbage will limit it as composting production It is long-term used in soil.
Full of nutrition in kitchen garbage, contained microelement etc. is also relatively suitble to the growth demand of microorganism, therefore is suitble to In biological treatment.And anaerobic methane production technology have to the wide adaptation ranges (substrate component of degradable complexity) of fermentation materials, Target product (biogas) is easily separated, is easy to the characteristics of engineer application, is recycling organic waste technology most potential at present.
The present invention provides that a kind of structure is simple, and easy to operate, environmental pollution is small, and can realize the small-sized of changing food waste into resources Installation for fermenting can be applied to the processing of the produced kitchen garbage of family or residential quarters.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermentings.
The device includes feed system, aerobic composting system, anaerobic fermentation system and deodoration system;
Wherein, feed system is located at kitchen garbage installation for fermenting top, and feed system includes pond, garbage disposer charging Mouth and garbage disposer;Aerobic composting system includes the identical six aerobic stack retting slots of volume, and six aerobic stack retting slots are annular in shape Connection, six aerobic stack retting slots are located at No.1 position, No. two positions, third place, No. four positions, No. five positions and No. six positions;Six good There is partition between oxygen stack retting slot, six aerobic stack retting slots are driven by a motor rotation;No. two positions, third place, No. four positions and No. five positions Stack retting slot is ventilated by being laid on the air pipeline of bottom;After the produced foul smell of stack retting slot is collected by foul smell gas gathering mask, through smelly Feed channel is discharged after being delivered to deodoration system deodorization;No. two positions, third place, No. four positions, No. five positions and No. six positions stack retting groove top portion Equipped with fermentation liquid spray equipment;The aerobic stack retting slot feed inlet of garbage disposer outlet connection stack retting slot No.1 position;Stack retting slot one Number the produced fermentation liquid in position is discharged into the fermentation liquid collecting tank of kitchen garbage installation for fermenting bottom, fermentation liquid through submerged fermentation liquid delivery pipe The fermented liquid spray piping of fermentation liquid and fermentation liquid spray equipment, which return, in collecting tank is sprayed onto stack retting slot;No. six positions of stack retting slot bottom is set There is anaerobic fermentation tank feed inlet;
There is blender in anaerobic fermentation system in anaerobic fermentation tank, is driven by motor;When anaerobic fermentation tank feed inlet is opened When, blender starting;When anaerobic fermentation tank feed inlet is closed, blender is opened 2 times, every time 3 minutes daily;Anaerobic fermentation tank Produced biogas enters biogas collection airbag through firedamp drainage mouth and biogas pipeline and uses for gas furnace;The produced biogas slurry of anaerobic fermentation tank Slag is discharged into septic tank through biogas slurry and biogas residue discharge outlet and biogas slurry and biogas residue pipeline.
Aerobic composting system and anaerobic fermentation system are sealed in same cabinet, are equipped with and are protected between cabinet exterior and cabinet wall Adiabator, wherein the thermal coefficient of thermal insulation material is lower than 0.0005kW/ (m2·℃)。
Garbage disposer can also add complex micro organism fungicide, microbial inoculum in garbage disposer for being crushed kitchen garbage Add the 0.5%-1% that ratio is kitchen garbage dry weight.
Six rotate 60 degree in aerobic stack retting slot every 1-2 days;Kitchen garbage residence time in each stack retting slot is 5-14 days. No. two positions, third place, No. four positions and No. five daily Ventilation Rates of position stack retting slot are 10-25L- air/kg- organic matter/d;No. two Organic matter adjusts moisture content by spray fermentation liquid in position, third place, No. four positions, No. five positions and No. six position stack retting slots, makes wherein Moisture content be not less than 60%.
Anaerobic fermentation tank is closely surround by six aerobic stack retting slots;Anaerobic fermentation tank and six aerobic stack retting slot spacing boards Thermal coefficient is 100-250kW/ (m2·℃).Kitchen garbage hydraulic detention time is 15-30 days in anaerobic fermentation tank.It is single good The volume ratio of oxygen stack retting slot and anaerobic fermentation tank is 1:20-1:40.
The anaerobically digested sludge through taming is inoculated in anaerobic fermentation tank.
Deodorization device in deodoration system is biological deodorizer or materialization deodorization device.
The advantageous effects of the above technical solutions of the present invention are as follows:
(1) present invention, which can be reduced, stacks generated foul smell and waste liquid amount by kitchen garbage, improves environmental sanitation, reduces meal Kitchen garbage collecting and transferring difficulty and cost;
(2) present apparatus recycles debirs aerobic composting process institute quantity of heat production, and the production of kitchen anaerobic fermentation system can be improved Gas velocity rate;
(3) kitchen garbage first passes through aerobic stack retting degradation part easily biodegradable organics in advance in the present apparatus, is conducive to avoid detesting Acidification phenomenon during aerobe fermentation improves anaerobic fermentation system stability;
(4) present apparatus operating cost is low, and water consumption is few, while recyclable biogas energy;
(5) foul smell yield is few during present apparatus processing kitchen garbage, and biogas slurry and biogas residue can be directly discharged into septic tank, favorably Biomass energy in further recycling septic tank.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is a kind of small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting structural schematic diagram of the invention;
Fig. 2 is a kind of top view of small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting of the invention.
Wherein: the pond 1-;2- garbage disposer feed inlet;3- garbage disposer;The aerobic stack retting slot feed inlet of 4-;5- No.1 Position;No. bis- positions 6-;7- third place;No. tetra- positions 8-;No. five positions 9-;No. six positions 10-;11- partition;12- cabinet exterior;13- cabinet Inner wall;14- anaerobic fermentation tank;15- blender;16- motor;17- fermentation liquid collecting tank;18- fermentation liquid spray piping;19- hair Zymotic fluid spray equipment;20- biogas slurry and biogas residue discharge outlet;21- firedamp drainage mouth;22- biogas pipeline;23- biogas collection airbag;24- combustion Steam stove;25- anaerobic fermentation tank feed inlet;26- air pipeline;27- biogas slurry and biogas residue pipeline;28- foul smell gas gathering mask;29- foul smell pipe Road;30- fermentation liquid draining pipe.
Specific embodiment
To keep the technical problem to be solved in the present invention, technical solution and advantage clearer, below in conjunction with attached drawing and tool Body embodiment is described in detail.
The present invention provides a kind of small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, Fig. 1 is the apparatus structure schematic diagram, while being also A-A the schematic diagram of the section structure in Fig. 2. The device is divided into feed system, aerobic composting system, anaerobic fermentation system and deodoration system;Wherein, feed system includes pond 1, garbage disposer feed inlet 2, garbage disposer 3;Aerobic composting system includes the identical six aerobic stack retting slots of volume, is in ring Shape connection, six aerobic stack retting slots are located at the position 6 of No.1 position 5, two, the position 9 of position 8, five of third place 7, four and No. six positions 10;There is partition 11 between six aerobic stack retting slots, can be driven and be rotated by motor 16;No. two positions 6,7, No. four positions 8 of third place and No. five 9 stack retting slots of position can be ventilated by being laid on the air pipeline 26 of bottom;The produced foul smell of stack retting slot is received by foul smell gas gathering mask 28 After collection, discharged after foul smell pipeline 29 is delivered to deodoration system deodorization;No. two positions 6, the position 8, five of third place 7, four position 9 and six Number 10 stack retting groove top portion of position is equipped with fermentation liquid spray equipment 19;The aerobic heap of the outlet of garbage disposer 3 connection stack retting slot No.1 position 5 Macerate slot feed inlet 4;The produced fermentation liquid in stack retting slot No.1 position 5 is discharged into fermentation liquid collecting tank 17, slot through submerged fermentation liquid delivery pipe 30 The fermented liquid spray piping 18 of interior fermentation liquid and fermentation liquid spray equipment 19 return and are sprayed onto corresponding stack retting slot;10 bottom of No. six positions of stack retting slot Portion is equipped with anaerobic fermentation tank feed inlet 25;
There is blender 15 in anaerobic fermentation system in anaerobic fermentation tank 14, is driven by motor 16;When anaerobic fermentation tank is fed When mouth 25 is opened, blender 15 starts;When anaerobic fermentation tank feed inlet 25 is closed, blender 15 opens 2 times daily, and every time 3 Minute;The produced biogas of anaerobic fermentation tank 14 enters biogas collection airbag 23 for gas furnace 24 through firedamp drainage mouth 21 and biogas pipeline 22 It uses;The produced biogas slurry and biogas residue of anaerobic fermentation tank 14 is discharged into septic tank through biogas slurry and biogas residue discharge outlet 20 and biogas slurry and biogas residue pipeline 27;This Aerobic composting system and anaerobic fermentation system are sealed in same cabinet in kitchen garbage installation for fermenting, cabinet exterior 12 and cabinet Thermal insulation material is equipped between inner wall 13.
Feed system is located at kitchen garbage installation for fermenting top;Fermentation liquid collecting tank 17 is located at kitchen garbage installation for fermenting bottom Portion;Garbage disposer 3 can also add complex micro organism fungicide in addition to broken kitchen garbage function herein;Anaerobic fermentation tank 14 is inscribed Anaerobically digested sludge of the kind through taming.
Embodiment 1
It is handled using above-mentioned apparatus kitchen garbage produced to family.12 thermal coefficient of installation for fermenting cabinet exterior is 0.00048kW/(m2·℃).It is about 2kg that device handles kitchen garbage amount daily.(dosage is kitchen to rubbish with composite bacteria agent The 0.5% of rubbish dry weight) enter aerobic stack retting slot after mixing is broken.Kitchen garbage residence time in each stack retting slot is 10 It;In No. two positions 6,7, No. four positions 8 of third place and No. five 9 stack retting slots of position daily Ventilation Rate be 25L- air/kg- organic matter/ D, the produced foul smell of stack retting slot discharge after biological deodorizer purifies;No. two positions 6, the position 8, five of third place 7, four position 9 and six Organic water content of matter adjusts moisture content by spray fermentation liquid in number 10 stack retting slot of position, is allowed to not less than 60%.Meal through stack retting Kitchen rubbish enters anaerobic fermentation tank 14 by anaerobic fermentation tank feed inlet 25.Anaerobic fermentation tank 14 and six aerobic stack retting slot spacing boards Thermal coefficient be 136kW/ (m2·℃);The volume ratio of single aerobic stack retting slot and anaerobic fermentation tank 14 is 1:30;Kitchen rubbish Rubbish hydraulic detention time in anaerobic fermentation tank 14 is 20 days.In this installation for fermenting, by aforesaid operations condition, device factor of created gase For 420-520mL- methane/g-vs.
Embodiment 2
Using the identical device of embodiment 1, kitchen garbage is mixed into quantitative mushroom bran, kitchen rubbish before entering garbage disposer 3 Rubbish: mushroom bran=5:1;Kitchen garbage residence time in each stack retting slot is 5 days;Kitchen garbage waterpower in anaerobic fermentation tank 14 Residence time is 30 days.Other conditions are same as Example 1.By aforesaid operations condition, device factor of created gase is 490-580mL- first Alkane/g-vs.
Embodiment 3
Using the identical device of embodiment 1, kitchen garbage amount day output is about 20kg;Single aerobic stack retting slot and anaerobism The volume ratio of fermentor 14 is 1:25;Kitchen garbage residence time in each stack retting slot is 7 days.Other conditions and embodiment 2 It is identical.By aforesaid operations condition, device factor of created gase is 510-590mL- methane/g-vs.
Aerobic stack retting device is set to anaerobic ferment devices periphery by the present invention, using the heat production of aerobic fermentation process institute Amount improves anaerobic fermentation rate.In addition, easily biodegradable organics can be decomposed after the aerobic stack retting of kitchen waste, can be effectively relieved Acidification problem in anaerobic fermentation process improves system stability.Finally, the produced secondary pollution of the present apparatus is less, it is also recyclable Biomass energy, apparatus structure is reasonable, easy to operate, is more appropriate household food waste treatment device.
The above is a preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that for those skilled in the art For, without departing from the principles of the present invention, several improvements and modifications can also be made, these improvements and modifications It should be regarded as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting, it is characterised in that: including feed system, aerobic composting system, anaerobic fermentation System and deodoration system;
Wherein, feed system is located at kitchen garbage installation for fermenting top, and feed system includes pond (1), garbage disposer charging Mouth (2) and garbage disposer (3);Aerobic composting system includes the identical six aerobic stack retting slots of volume, six aerobic stack retting slots Connection annular in shape, six aerobic stack retting slots are located at No.1 position (5), No. two positions (6), third place (7), No. four positions (8), No. five Position (9) and No. six positions (10);Have partition (11) between six aerobic stack retting slots, six aerobic stack retting slots are driven by motor (16) to be revolved Turn;No. two positions (6), third place (7), No. four positions (8) and No. five position (9) stack retting slots are by being laid on the air pipeline (26) of bottom It ventilates;After the produced foul smell of stack retting slot is collected by foul smell gas gathering mask (28), it is de- that deodoration system is delivered to through foul smell pipeline (29) Discharge after smelly;No. two positions (6), third place (7), No. four positions (8), No. five positions (9) and No. six position (10) stack retting groove top portions are equipped with hair Zymotic fluid spray equipment (19);The aerobic stack retting slot feed inlet (4) of garbage disposer (3) outlet connection stack retting slot No.1 position (5);Heap Macerate the fermentation liquid that slot No.1 position (5) produced fermentation liquid is discharged into kitchen garbage installation for fermenting bottom through submerged fermentation liquid delivery pipe (30) Collecting tank (17), the fermented liquid spray piping (18) of fermentation liquid collecting tank (17) interior fermentation liquid and fermentation liquid spray equipment (19) return It is sprayed onto stack retting slot;Stack retting slot No. six positions (10) bottom is equipped with anaerobic fermentation tank feed inlet (25);
There are blender (15) in anaerobic fermentation tank (14) in anaerobic fermentation system, is driven by motor (16);When anaerobic fermentation tank into When material mouth (25) is opened, blender (15) starting;When anaerobic fermentation tank feed inlet (25) are closed, blender (15) is opened daily 2 times, every time 3 minutes;Anaerobic fermentation tank (14) produced biogas enters biogas collection through firedamp drainage mouth (21) and biogas pipeline (22) Airbag (23) is used for gas furnace (24);Anaerobic fermentation tank (14) produced biogas slurry and biogas residue is through biogas slurry and biogas residue discharge outlet (20) and biogas slurry Biogas residue pipeline (27) is discharged into septic tank;
Rotate 60 degree within described six aerobic stack retting slots every 1-2 days;Kitchen garbage residence time in each stack retting slot is 5-14 days;
No. two positions (6), third place (7), No. four positions (8) and No. five daily Ventilation Rates of position (9) stack retting slot are 10-25L- empty Gas/kg- organic matter/d;Have in No. two positions (6), third place (7), No. four positions (8), No. five positions (9) and No. six position (10) stack retting slots Machine object adjusts moisture content by spray fermentation liquid, makes moisture content therein not less than 60%;
The anaerobic fermentation tank (14) is closely surround by six aerobic stack retting slots;Anaerobic fermentation tank (14) and six aerobic stack retting slots The thermal coefficient of spacing board is 100-250kW/ (m2·℃);
The interior kitchen garbage hydraulic detention time of anaerobic fermentation tank (14) is 15-30 days;
The volume ratio of each aerobic stack retting slot and anaerobic fermentation tank (14) is 1:20-1:40.
2. small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the aerobic composting system and detest Aerobe fermentation system sealing is equipped with thermal insulation material in same cabinet between cabinet exterior (12) and cabinet wall (13), wherein heat preservation The thermal coefficient of material is lower than 0.0005kW/ (m2·℃)。
3. small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the garbage disposer (3) is used In adding complex micro organism fungicide in broken kitchen garbage, garbage disposer (3), it is kitchen garbage dry weight that microbial inoculum, which adds ratio, 0.5%-1%.
4. small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: in the anaerobic fermentation tank (14) It is inoculated with the anaerobically digested sludge through taming.
5. small-sized kitchen garbage installation for fermenting according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the deodorization in the deodoration system Device is biological deodorizer or materialization deodorization device.
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CN106431517A (en) * 2016-12-01 2017-02-22 北京科技大学 Kitchen waste treatment device for coupling aerobic composting with anaerobic fermentation
CN107935653B (en) * 2017-12-29 2023-05-12 浙江浦江加百列生态科技有限公司 Organic liquid fertilizer fermentation process and fermentation system
CN110655188B (en) * 2019-10-11 2020-08-11 重庆大学 Domestic garbage leachate and landfill gas cooperative treatment device and method thereof
CN111604356A (en) * 2020-05-25 2020-09-01 上海巷西环境科技有限公司 Household kitchen waste self-degradation environment-friendly intelligent treatment equipment and method
CN112625874B (en) * 2021-01-22 2023-08-25 浙江师范大学 Anaerobic digestion treatment system for kitchen waste
CN112845531B (en) * 2021-01-22 2022-03-25 浙江师范大学 Anaerobic digestion treatment method for kitchen waste
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CN114590981A (en) * 2022-01-17 2022-06-07 上海市机电设计研究院有限公司 Device for aerobic stabilization of anaerobic digestion residues of kitchen waste
CN114410696A (en) * 2022-02-08 2022-04-29 北京科技大学 Method for producing methane by co-fermenting kitchen waste and mushroom bran at high temperature
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