CN105680652A - Hybrid magnetic circuit double-stator weak-magnetic speed multiplying solid rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor and method thereof - Google Patents

Hybrid magnetic circuit double-stator weak-magnetic speed multiplying solid rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor and method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105680652A
CN105680652A CN201610247924.0A CN201610247924A CN105680652A CN 105680652 A CN105680652 A CN 105680652A CN 201610247924 A CN201610247924 A CN 201610247924A CN 105680652 A CN105680652 A CN 105680652A
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axial
motor
stator
rotor
radial
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CN105680652B (en
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王道涵
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Shandong University
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Shandong University
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K16/00Machines with more than one rotor or stator
    • H02K16/04Machines with one rotor and two stators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K1/00Details of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/06Details of the magnetic circuit characterised by the shape, form or construction
    • H02K1/22Rotating parts of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/27Rotor cores with permanent magnets
    • H02K1/2706Inner rotors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K21/00Synchronous motors having permanent magnets; Synchronous generators having permanent magnets
    • H02K21/12Synchronous motors having permanent magnets; Synchronous generators having permanent magnets with stationary armatures and rotating magnets
    • H02K21/14Synchronous motors having permanent magnets; Synchronous generators having permanent magnets with stationary armatures and rotating magnets with magnets rotating within the armatures
    • H02K21/16Synchronous motors having permanent magnets; Synchronous generators having permanent magnets with stationary armatures and rotating magnets with magnets rotating within the armatures having annular armature cores with salient poles

Abstract

The invention discloses a hybrid magnetic circuit double-stator weak-magnetic speed multiplying solid rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor and method thereof. The hybrid magnetic circuit double-stator weak-magnetic speed multiplying solid rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor comprises a radial stator, an axial stator and a rotor. The rotor is arranged in the radial stator and is coaxial with the radial stator. The axial stator is arranged on the end part of the rotor and is coaxial with the rotor. The rotor is a solid rotor. Permanent magnets are arranged in the rotor and are used for generating radial magnetic poles and axial magnetic poles. One part of magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnets enters the radial stator through the radial magnetic poles and is crosslinked with a radial armature winding to form radial main magnetic flux, the other part of the magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnets enters the axial stator through the axial magnetic poles and is crosslinked with an axial armature winding to form axial main magnetic flux, and the radial main magnetic flux is in parallel connection with the axial main magnetic flux. According to the invention, an end part magnetic leakage effect is eliminated, the utilization rate of motor materials is improved, the weight of the motor is reduced, the power density is increased, magnetic increasing operation and weak-magnetic speed multiplying operation can be flexibly realized, and the economic operation range of the motor is widened.

Description

Mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor and method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of permagnetic synchronous motor, be specifically related to a kind of mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor and method thereof.
Background technology
In recent years, along with the reduction of the raising of permanent magnet material resistance to elevated temperatures and price, magneto is more widely applied in national defence, industrial and agricultural production and daily life etc., and forward high-power, high performance and microminiaturized direction are developed. The power of current magneto from several milliwatts to several megawatts, the large-scale magneto that range of application is drawn from toy motor, commercial Application to naval vessel, be widely applied in national economy, daily life, war industry, aerospace various aspects.
There is following technical disadvantages in existing AC permanent magnet synchronous motor:
1, permagnetic synchronous motor is fixed due to permanent magnet magnetic kinetic potential, and motor main flux is non-adjustable, causes output-constant operation narrow range, and speed adjustable range is wide in range not.
2, in existing internal permanent magnet synchronous motor rotor structure, rotor permanent magnet realizes " poly-magnetic effect " by various combinations, therefore rotor core magnetic poles is close significantly high, its end is made to there is bigger leakage magnetic flux, leakage-flux of rotor is closed by end or the end cap of rotor, the total magnetic flux produced due to permanent magnet is certain, the existence that brow leakage is logical not only makes two end magnetic field skewness of motor, and reduce the useful flux utilization rate of motor, thus reducing power density and the torque density of motor, for overcoming the impact that brow leakage is logical, during actual design, rotor is through frequently with overhang structure, make rotor core axial length more than motor stator core axial length, but this structure significantly increases motor axial length, and then add core material consumption and the manufacturing cost of motor, and this structural nature does not play the effect suppressing brow leakage logical.
3, when existing permagnetic synchronous motor is properly functioning, generally only has iqElectric current produces torque, now id=0, during weak magnetic field operation, it is necessary to rotor is applied d shaft current, now id≠ 0, and then realize the demagnetizing effect to rotor magnetic pole, owing to d shaft current is produced by the power inverter of motor, therefore when motor carries out weak magnetic control, the amplitude of machine winding current can be enlarged markedly, and it is greatly increased the capacity of power inverter, when needs carry out the weak magnetic of the degree of depth, the d shaft current now needed is very big, the merit angle of motor will reduce rapidly, current of electric will quickly exceed the capacity of converter, therefore, to needing to carry out the permagnetic synchronous motor of weak magnetism speed expansion operation, typically require and take extra measure and method to carry out weak magnetically condition, every pole magnetic flux is reduced with this.
4, during according to weak magnetic, the path of d axle magnetic flux process is different, the permagnetic synchronous motor of existing built-in rotor structure can be divided into two classes, one type, when carrying out weak magnetic control, the d axle magnetic flux that armature winding produces can pass the permanent magnet of motor, cause permanent magnet irreversible demagnetization, an other class, when carrying out weak magnetic control, the d axle magnetic flux that armature winding produces closes without permanent magnet, but the more rotor flux end by motor and end cap Guan Bi are forced in the magnetic field that d shaft current produces, significantly increase the leakage magnetic flux of motor, and owing to motor end magnetic resistance is generally much bigger than air-gap reluctance, therefore, d shaft current required for weak magnetic is bigger, significantly increase cost and the winding copper loss of power of motor inverter.
5, existing permagnetic synchronous motor usual armature counter electromotive force harmonic wave is bigger, cogging torque outstanding problem, bring serious vibration and noise problem, the method of skewed stator slot or skewed-rotor that is typically with at present is to improve counter electromotive force harmonic wave and to weaken cogging torque, but skewed stator slot and skewed-rotor processing technique are more complicated, considerably increase manufacturing cost, and can to a certain degree reduce the average electromagnetic torque of motor, reduce torque density and the power density of motor.
In this case, seeking a kind of brow leakage little, magnetic flux utilization rate is high, and sine degree is good, adjustable magnetic flexible function but the little AC permanent magnet synchronous motor of power inverter capacity is most important.
Summary of the invention
For solving the deficiency that prior art exists, the invention discloses mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor and method thereof, radial flux and axial magnetic flux that motor permanent magnet of the present invention produces all obtain utilization, eliminate brow leakage effect, improve motor material and utilize utilization rate, alleviate the weight of motor, improve power density, and can realize increasing magnetic neatly and run and weak magnetism speed expansion operation, widen the economical operation scope of motor, the performance improving driving motor for electric automobile is significant.
For achieving the above object, the concrete scheme of the present invention is as follows:
Mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor, including radial stator, axial stator and rotor, described rotor be built in radial stator and with radial stator coaxial placement, described axial stator is placed in rotor tip, concentric with rotor placing, described radial stator and axial stator lay radially armature winding and axial armature winding respectively;
Described rotor is solid rotor, permanent magnet it is placed with in rotor, for producing magnet radial poles and axial pole, the magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces enters radial stator in part through magnet radial poles and interlink with radially armature winding and form radial direction main flux, magnetic flux another part that permanent magnet produces is interlinked with axial armature winding by axial pole entrance axial stator and forms axial main flux, and radially main flux is in parallel with axial main flux;
When motor runs, by applying axial main flux when electric current dynamically regulates the operation of motor and radially main flux to radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding, realize weak magnetic control with this.
Further, described radial stator is formed by silicon steel plate stacking, and described radial stator includes stator slot, stator tooth and stator yoke, lays radially armature winding in described stator slot.
Further, described rotor has rotor slot, in rotor slot, lay permanent magnet, described permanent magnet realizes " poly-magnetic effect " by connection in series-parallel combination, producing magnetic pole on rotor, described magnetic pole is divided into magnet radial poles and axial pole, and the number of poles of axial pole and the number of poles of magnet radial poles are equal.
Further, described magnet radial poles, towards the radial stator of motor, is radial air gap between magnet radial poles and rotor, and described axial pole is processed into salient pole shape, towards motor axial stator, is axial air-gap between described axial pole and axial stator.
Further, described radial direction main flux and the magnetic field interaction that radially armature winding produces produce torque, and the magnetic field interaction that axial main flux and axial armature winding produce produces torque. Motor is absent from brow leakage field, and magnetic flux utilization rate is high, and power density and torque density are high.
Further, when motor is properly functioning, axial armature winding produces d axle and q shaft current simultaneously, the magnetic field that d shaft current produces makes most magnetic fluxs that rotor produces radially into radial core, the magnetic field interaction produced with radial direction armature winding produces main torque, additionally sub-fraction magnetic flux enters axially in axial stator, and the q shaft current of this part magnetic flux and axial armature winding interacts and produces power torque.
Further, when motor is properly functioning, axial stator winding plays increase motor radially main flux and produces power torque; When needs weak magnetism speed expansion runs, reduce the d shaft current of the axial stator winding of motor, this makes considerable rotor flux enter axially in axial iron core, reduce the radial direction main flux of motor, radial stator is made to be operated under weak magnetic stripe part, enlarge markedly the speed adjustable range of motor, it is achieved weak magnetism speed expansion.
Further, described radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding can be Single-layer Windings, or are Double Layer Winding, and radially the number of poles in the magnetic field that armature winding and axial armature winding produce is all equal with rotor magnetic pole number of poles. Wherein, number of motor phases m >=3, number of pole-pairs p >=1.
Further, when the quantity of the axial stator in above-mentioned mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor is two, being respectively placed at corresponding two ends of rotor, two ends of rotor are processed into the shape of fan ring and form axial pole.
Further, a kind of electric automobile, including above-mentioned mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor.
The torque actuated method of mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor, radial stator produces main driving torque, and axial stator realizes weak magnetic function and produces power torque, specifically includes:
When motor normal operation does not need weak magnetic field operation, the armature winding of axial stator produces d shaft current, the axial main flux of motor is reduced, radially main flux increases, motor torque is mainly by radial direction main flux and radially armature winding magnetic field generation, now the axial armature winding of motor only applies d shaft current, and radially main flux is maximum, can regulate the size of radially main flux by regulating the d shaft current of the axial armature winding of motor;
When motor needs to carry out weak magnetic field operation, the d shaft current of axial armature winding reduces, motor radially main flux reduces, axial main flux increases, now radial component motor is operated in weak magnetic stripe part, while reducing the d shaft current of axial armature winding, increases its q shaft current simultaneously, now axial stator armature winding produces power torque with axial main flux, increases torque density and the power density of motor.
The torque actuated method of mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor, axial stator produces main driving torque, and radial stator realizes weak magnetic function and produces power torque, specifically includes:
When motor normal operation does not need weak magnetic field operation, the armature winding of radial stator produces d shaft current, motor radially main flux is reduced, axial main flux increases, motor torque is mainly produced by axial main flux and axial armature winding magnetic field, now motor radially armature winding only applies d shaft current, and axial main flux is maximum, can regulate the size of axial main flux by regulating the d shaft current of motor radially armature winding;
When motor needs to carry out weak magnetic field operation, radially the d shaft current of armature winding reduces, the axial main flux of motor reduces, radially main flux increases, now axial component motor is operated in weak magnetic stripe part, while reducing the d shaft current of radially armature winding, increases its q shaft current simultaneously, now radial stator armature winding produces power torque with radially main flux, increases torque density and the power density of motor.
The torque actuated method of mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor, radial stator and axial stator all produce driving torque, specifically include:
The radial direction armature winding of motor and axial armature winding all do not produce d shaft current, all only produce q shaft current, in this case, radially main flux and radial stator armature field produce driving torque, axial main flux and axial stator armature field produce driving torque, namely radial stator and axial stator all produce driving torque, and now motor torque density and power density reach maximum.
The torque actuated method of above-mentioned mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor, when the obstructed electric current of empty load of motor, a part of magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces enters radial stator iron core by magnet radial poles through radial air gap and interlink with radially armature winding and form radial direction main flux, another part magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces enters axial stator iron core by axial pole through axial air-gap and interlinks with axial armature winding and to form axial main flux, radially main flux is in parallel with axial main flux, radial direction main flux when being respectively provided with the length of radial air gap and axial air-gap to control empty load of motor and axial main flux.
The total magnetic flux produced due to permanent magnet is certain, owing to radial direction main flux and the axial main flux of motor are parallel relationship, when radial direction armature winding applies d axle demagnetizing current, the radial direction main flux of motor reduces, axial main flux increases, on the contrary, when the axial armature winding of motor applies d axle demagnetizing current, the axial main flux of motor reduces, and radially main flux increases. when motor normal operation does not need weak magnetic, the axial armature winding of motor applies d axle demagnetizing current, now radially main flux is maximum for motor, radially magnetic is close also maximum for motor, the exportable rated maximum torque of motor and power, when motor needs to carry out weak magnetism speed expansion, reduce the d axle demagnetizing current of axial armature winding, now motor radially main flux reduces, radially magnetic is close decreases, motor realizes weak magnetic field operation, motor speed improves, now axial armature winding can apply q shaft current, motor is produced power torque, improve torque output capability during motor weak magnetic field operation, improve power density and the torque density of motor further.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
1, motor of the present invention is double-stator structure, this double-stator structure is different from existing most double-stator structures, in existing Double-stator motor, one of them stator is placed in inside rotor, for inner stator, one in rotor exterior, for external stator, the motor feels hot, and to concentrate on motor axial, motor heat load is significantly high, and inner stator is not directly connected with external environment condition, and motor radiating is comparatively difficult. two stator respectively radial stators of motor of the present invention and axial stator, two stators of this double-stator structure are respectively placed at the radial and axial direction of motor, radial stator is identical with the stator of common permagnetic synchronous motor, radial stator is coaxially placed in outside p-m rotor, the magnetic flux part that rotor permanent magnet produces enters into radial stator in radial direction through air gap and forms radially main flux, radial stator is laid radially winding, axial stator is placed in the end of motor, axial stator is coaxially relative with p-m rotor, the magnetic flux that rotor permanent magnet produces enters axially in the middle of axial stator iron core, axial stator is laid axial winding, two stator casings are all at outside motor, directly contact with external environment, and the end that can make full use of motor dispels the heat.
2, motor of the present invention is built-in rotor structure, there is internal permanent magnet synchronous motor structural compactness good, the close height of the effective magnetic of air gap, it is prone to high speed rotating and torque density advantages of higher, the rotor of the bright motor of this law is solid rotor, eddy current can be induced in starting process, realize self-starting function, rotor magnetic pole of the present invention is divided into radial and axial two parts, magnet radial poles part is similar with the rotor magnetic pole of common internal permanent magnet synchronous motor, axial pole part obtains by the axial end portion of solid rotor is processed into the fan ring iron core of salient pole shape, axial pole coordinates generation torque with motor axial stator, magnet radial poles coordinates generation torque with motor radial stator, motor rotor construction is simple, it is prone to machining, low cost of manufacture.
3, motor of the present invention is mixed magnetic circuit permagnetic synchronous motor, the magnetic flux part that permanent magnet produces radially arrives radial stator through radial air gap along motor becomes radially main flux, another part magnetic flux passes axially through the axial stator of axial air-gap arrival motor end becomes axial main flux, in motor of the present invention, the radial flux of p-m rotor and end magnetic flux are obtained for sufficient utilization, motor does not have brow leakage to lead to, improve magnetic flux utilization rate, effectively improve end-region magnetic field of electrical machine distribution, improve power density and the torque density of motor.
4, motor of the present invention can carry out weak magnetism speed expansion operation, when motor is properly functioning, axial stator winding produces d axle and q shaft current simultaneously, the magnetic field that d shaft current produces makes most magnetic fluxs that rotor produces radially into radial core, the magnetic field interaction produced with radial stator winding produces main torque, additionally sub-fraction magnetic flux enters axially in axial stator, the q shaft current of this part magnetic flux and axial stator winding interacts and produces power torque, namely when motor is properly functioning, axial stator winding plays increase motor radially main flux and produces power torque, when needs weak magnetism speed expansion runs, reduce the d shaft current of the axial stator winding of motor, this makes considerable rotor flux enter axially in axial iron core, significantly reduce the radial direction main flux of motor, radial stator is made to be operated under weak magnetic stripe part, enlarge markedly the speed adjustable range of motor, it is achieved weak magnetism speed expansion.
5, the number of poles that the number of turn of motor radial stator winding of the present invention and axial stator winding is actual with motor, permanent magnet residual magnetism density, it is relevant with motor speed range of operation that permanent magnet lays compound mode, the major function (producing main torque or weak magnetic control) that radial component according to motor and axial component undertake is different and carries out reasonable design selection, purpose is so that the axial stationary part of motor can either effectively change the radial direction main flux of motor, thus possessing enough weak magnetic energy power, when not needing weak magnetic, enough power torques can be produced again, enlarge markedly power density and the torque density of motor.
6, motor of the present invention can separately design the geomery of motor magnet radial poles and end fan ring magnetic pole and the number of turn of armature winding, by making the opposite in phase of the higher hamonic wave of the counter electromotive force of motor radial component and axial component, offset the harmonic wave weakening counter electromotive force, by making the opposite in phase of the cogging torque of motor radial component and axial component, offset the cogging torque weakening motor, improve and optimize the back emf waveform of motor with this, and weaken the cogging torque of motor, reduce vibration when motor runs and noise, overcoming existing permagnetic synchronous motor must adopt skewed slot to suppress harmonic wave the shortcoming weakening cogging torque.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 (a) is motor embodiment 1 motor axonometric chart structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 1 (b) is motor embodiment 1 radial motor stator core of the present invention and rotor structure schematic diagram;
Fig. 1 (c) is motor embodiment 1 solid rotor right view of the present invention;
Fig. 1 (d) is motor embodiment 1 axial stator structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 1 (e) is motor embodiment 1 integrated motor right view of the present invention;
Fig. 2 (a) is motor embodiment 2 motor axonometric chart structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 2 (b) is motor embodiment 2 radial motor stator core of the present invention and rotor structure schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 (c) is motor embodiment 2 solid rotor right view of the present invention;
Fig. 2 (d) is motor embodiment 2 axial stator structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 2 (e) is motor embodiment 2 integrated motor right view of the present invention;
In figure, 1. radial stator tooth, 2. radial stator yoke, 3. radial stator groove, 4. radial direction armature winding, 5. radial air gap, 6. axial stator tooth, 7. axial stator yoke, 8. axial stator groove, 9. axial armature winding, 10. axial air-gap, 11. solid rotors, 12. rotor slot, 13. permanent magnet, 14. magnet radial poles, 15. axial poles.
Detailed description of the invention:
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in detail:
Regular alternating current permagnetic synchronous motor generally divides asynchronous starting permanent magnet synchronous motor and speed governing permasyn morot, in addition, also has solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor.
Asynchronous starting permanent magnet synchronous motor with the difference on speed governing permanent magnet synchronous motor structure is: the former has starting winding or has the integral core of priming on rotor, can realize self-starting, it is not necessary to control system can be incorporated into the power networks.
Speed governing permagnetic synchronous motor is according to the difference of permanent magnet mounting means on rotor, it is possible to be divided into surface-type rotor structure and two kinds of built-in rotor structure:
In surface-type rotor structure, permanent magnet needs to be processed into arc, is directly anchored to rotor outer surface, and permanent magnet region be directly facing motor gas-gap, and the magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces is directly over air gap and enters stator formation useful flux; Compared with built-in rotor structure, permanent magnet in surface-type rotor structure is owing to being rest directly upon rotor surface, permanent magnet needs to be processed into the arcuate shape matched with rotor and air gap to ensure to form even air gap, due to the characteristic that permanent magnet material is frangible, accurately processing is complex for it, requiring higher to processing technique, cost is high. Additionally, due to permanent magnet is rest directly upon rotor surface, when motor runs, due to the effect of centrifugal force, it is desirable to must be wound around outside permanent magnet and fix without latitude band colligation, it is to avoid during rotor high speed rotating, permanent magnet falls off damage; Owing to the air gap flux density of permanent magnet and the width of permanent magnet are proportional, therefore when the width of permanent magnet is determined, empty load of motor air gap flux density is determined therewith, actual when being designed, and motor permanent magnet width is subject to the restriction of unloaded air gap flux density; Owing to permanent magnet region be directly facing motor gas-gap, control namely to adopt i when motor needs to carry out weak magnetism speed expansiondWhen being not equal to 0 control, the magnetic flux that armature winding produces can directly through permanent magnet, and permanent magnet faces the risk of irreversible demagnetization; Due to permanent magnet material pcrmeability and air very close to, in surface-type rotor structure, the reactance of d axle and q axle is equal, only interact by permanent magnetic field and armature field when motor runs and produce torque, can not producing reluctance torque, the torque density of motor and power density are relatively low compared with built-in rotor structure; Surface-type rotor structure can not place started squirrel-cage outside rotor, and motor can not realize self-starting.
In built-in rotor structure, permanent magnet is embedded in the middle of rotor core according to certain requirement, permanent magnet produces magnetic flux in iron core, in built-in rotor structure, the embedding of permanent magnet is various informative, permanent magnet can carry out connection in series-parallel combination according to different requirements and realize poly-magnetic effect, meets actual performance needs; Compared with surface-type rotor structure, permanent magnet in built-in rotor structure is not directly be placed in rotor surface, but it is embedded in the middle of rotor core by certain form, permanent magnet not region be directly facing motor gas-gap, permanent magnet relies on the permanent magnet trough in rotor to be fixed, without fixing without the binding of latitude band, rotor frame for movement good integrity, during motor high speed rotating, reliability is high;Permanent magnet can pass through series connection each other and flexible combination in parallel realizes poly-magnetic effect, it is possible to obtains the air gap flux density that specific surface formula rotor structure is much bigger, power of motor density and torque density higher than surface-type rotor structure; Motor pole embrace and air gap flux density are not directly dependent upon, and can independently be configured when design; Rotor d axle reactance and q axle reactance significant difference, can produce reluctance torque, significantly improve power density and the torque density of motor during operation; When motor weak magnetism speed expansion runs, d armature axis magnetic flux can be in parallel with the magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces, and armature flux directly through permanent magnet, will not overcome the risk of permanent magnet generation irreversible demagnetization; Can placing started squirrel-cage outside rotor in built-in rotor structure, motor is capable of self-starting.
Compared with above two permagnetic synchronous motor, solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor simply instead of silicon steel plate stacking rotor with solid rotor, its advantage is to produce eddy current in solid rotor, the magnetic field interaction that during electric motor starting, produced eddy current produces with armature winding, starting torque can be produced, it is achieved self-starting function.
It is further described below below in conjunction with examples of implementation specifically:
Embodiment 1:
As shown in Fig. 1 (a), the overall schematic perspective view of motor, present embodiment number of motor phases is 3, the radial stator number of teeth is 24, the axial stator number of teeth is 12, rotor slot number is 4, permanent magnet blocks number is 4, magnet radial poles number is 4, axial magnetic number of poles is 4, present embodiment includes radial stator, axial stator and rotor, as shown in Fig. 1 (b), radial stator is formed by silicon steel plate stacking, radial stator includes radial stator tooth 1, radial stator yoke 2 and radial stator groove 3, radially armature winding 4 is laid in radial stator groove 3, radially armature winding 4 can be Distributed Winding, concentratred winding or lap winding, radially the number of poles of armature winding is consistent with rotor radial magnetic pole number of poles, radial stator and rotor coaxial, radial air gap 5 is had between radial stator and rotor, as shown in Fig. 1 (d), axial stator is formed by silicon-steel sheet coiled is folded, axial stator includes axial stator tooth 6, axial stator yoke 7 and axial stator groove 8, axial armature winding 9 is laid in axial stator groove 8, axial armature winding 9 can be Distributed Winding, concentratred winding or lap winding, the number of poles of axial armature winding is consistent with rotor axial magnetic pole number of poles, axial stator and rotor are concentric, axial air-gap 10 is had between axial stator and rotor, as shown in Fig. 1 (e), , as shown in Fig. 1 (c), solid rotor 11 tangentially has rotor slot 12, permanent magnet 13 is laid in rotor slot 12, the magnetizing direction of adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets is contrary, adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets and between solid rotor iron core be radially formed magnet radial poles 14, adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets and between the end axial component of solid rotor iron core be processed into salient pole fan ring-shaped, form magnet radial poles 15, the magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces enters radial stator iron core by magnet radial poles through radial air gap and interlink with radially armature winding and form radial direction main flux, the magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces enters axial stator iron core by axial pole through axial air-gap and interlinks with axial armature winding and to form axial main flux, radially main flux is in parallel with axial main flux, can by separately designing the length of radial air gap and axial air-gap and controlling empty load of motor time radial direction main flux and axial main flux, when motor runs, by applying axial main flux when d shaft current dynamically regulates the operation of motor and radially main flux to radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding, weak magnetic control is realized with this, widen the output-constant operation region of motor.
Embodiment 2:
The main distinction of embodiment 2 and embodiment 1 is:
(1) as shown in Fig. 2 (a), in embodiment 2 all there is axial stator in two ends of motor, and the two of motor rotor core ends are processed into fanning the shape formation axial pole of ring, solid rotor is Fig. 2 (c) such as, and only an end of motor has the shape that axial stator, motor rotor core only one of which end are processed into fan ring to form axial pole in embodiment 1;
In embodiment 2, motor has two axial air-gaps 10, as shown in Fig. 2 (e).
(2) in embodiment 2, the arrangement mode of permanent magnet is different from embodiment 1, and in embodiment 1, permanent magnet is single parallel-connection structure, and in embodiment 2, permanent magnet is series and parallel combined structure. Remainder is identical with examples of implementation 1, such as Fig. 2 (b) and as shown in Fig. 2 (d).
Wherein, above-described embodiment 1, in 2, radial stator and axial stator can also is that the soft-magnetic composite material of high magnetic permeability is made, rotor is solid rotor, solid rotor is respectively provided with high magnetic permeability in radial direction and axial direction, permanent magnet is laid in described solid rotor, rotor is permanent magnet built-in structure, permanent magnet is according to certain assembled arrangement, realize poly-magnetic effect, magnet radial poles and axial pole is formed respectively on rotor radial and axial direction, the magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces can distinguish entrance radial air gap and axial air-gap radially and axially, and be parallel relationship, described solid rotor can produce eddy current when electric motor starting, realize self-starting.
Permanent magnet is high performance permanent magnetic materials, such as neodymium iron boron, Rare-Earth Cobalt, or low performance permanent magnet material, such as aluminum nickel cobalt or ferrite.
The salient pole fan ring-shaped of axial pole can disclosure satisfy that axial stator and the salient pole shape of rotor field distribution for other, and the height of described salient pole is much larger than the length of motor radial air gap and axial air-gap. The length of described radial air gap and axial air-gap should be an order of magnitude, the number of turn of described radial direction armature winding and the number of turn of axial armature winding and still driven winding to determine by it for adjustable magnetic winding.
The magnet radial poles of motor and the geomery of axial pole can independently design to be determined, the harmonic wave weakening counter electromotive force and cogging torque is effectively offset by reasonable combination superposition, improve and optimize the back emf waveform of motor with this, and weaken the cogging torque of motor, overcome existing permagnetic synchronous motor and must adopt skewed slot and tiltedly extremely suppress harmonic wave the shortcoming weakening cogging torque.
Permagnetic synchronous motor is operationally, during the obstructed electric current of empty load of motor, a part of magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces enters radial stator iron core by magnet radial poles through radial air gap and interlink with radially armature winding and form radial direction main flux, another part magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces enters axial stator iron core by axial pole through axial air-gap and interlinks with axial armature winding and to form axial main flux, radially main flux is in parallel with axial main flux, it is possible to radial direction main flux when being respectively provided with the length of radial air gap and axial air-gap to control empty load of motor and axial main flux. During electrical power stream run with load, there are three kinds of mode of operations: (1) described radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding all only produce q shaft current, do not produce d shaft current, now, the radial direction main flux of motor produces driving torque with radially armature winding, axial main flux produces driving torque with axial armature winding, and now motor exports maximum driving torque under same inverter capacity and same electric current; (2) described axial armature winding produces d axle demagnetizing current, now the magnetic flux of more permanent magnet generation is ordered about by magnet radial poles radially air gap entrance radial stator in axial armature magnetic field, now radially main flux increases, axial main flux reduces, motor radial stator is in increasing magnetic running status, and axial stator is in weak magnetic field operation state;(3) described axial armature winding produces d axle increasing magnetoelectricity stream, now the magnetic flux of more permanent magnet generation is ordered about by the middle of axially fan ring magnetic pole air gap vertically entrance axial stator in axial armature magnetic field, now axially main flux increases, radially main flux reduces, the axial laundry of motor is in increasing magnetic running status, and radial stator is in weak magnetic field operation state. During motor actual motion, by the number of turn of specific design radially armature winding and axial armature winding, it is possible to realize motor flexibly and increase magnetic operation or weak magnetism speed expansion operation, effectively widen motor invariable power and economical operation scope.
Wherein, radially armature winding and axial armature winding can independently apply d shaft current and q shaft current, independently carry out increasing magnetic control and weak magnetic control, effectively increase motor torque density and realize motor weak magnetism speed expansion.
During motor practical application, rated speed according to motor work, nominal torque and specific performance requirement, by the parameters of appropriate design motor such as radial air gap length, the number of turn of axial air-gap length and radially armature winding and axial armature winding, determines that motor radial stator and axial stator are to produce main driving torque or realize weak magnetic function.
The explanation of above-mentioned pattern is with axial armature winding for adjustable magnetic winding, and radially armature winding is example for driving winding, equally, it is also possible to radially armature winding is adjustable magnetic winding, and axial armature winding is for driving winding.
The above-mentioned permagnetic synchronous motor of the application is mainly applied as follows:
(1) household appliance technical field: include TV audio and video equipment, fan, air-conditioner, food processor, cosmetic tool, lampblack absorber etc.
(2) computer and ancillary equipment field thereof: include computer (driver, fan etc.), printer, drawing apparatus, CD-ROM drive, CD writer etc.
(3) field of industrial production: include industrial drives device, material processing system, automation equipment, robot etc.
(4) automotive field: include permanent magnet starting motor, wiper motor, door-lock motor, seat lifting motor, sunshading ceiling motor, clean pump motor, recorder motor, glass lifting motor, radiator cooling fan motor, air conditioner motor, antenna lifting motor, Oil pump electrical machinery etc.
(5) public life field: include clock and watch, beauty treatment machinery, automatic vending machine, ATM, paper money counter etc.
(6) traffic and transport field: include electric car, aircraft auxiliary equipment, naval vessel etc.
(7) space industry: include rocket, satellite, spacecraft, space shuttle etc.
(8) national defence: include tank, guided missile, submarine, aircraft etc.
(9) medical field: include dental drill, artificial heart, medical apparatus and instruments etc.
(10) power field: include wind-power electricity generation, cogeneration, miniature hydro-power generation, small-sized internal combustion generating set electromotor and the pilot exciter etc. of high-rating generator.
The specific embodiment of the present invention is described in conjunction with accompanying drawing although above-mentioned; but not limiting the scope of the invention; one of ordinary skill in the art should be understood that; on the basis of technical scheme, those skilled in the art need not pay various amendments or deformation that creative work can make still within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor, it is characterized in that, including radial stator, axial stator and rotor, described rotor be built in radial stator and with radial stator coaxial placement, described axial stator is placed in rotor tip, concentric with rotor placing, described radial stator and axial stator lay radially armature winding and axial armature winding respectively;
Described rotor is solid rotor, permanent magnet it is placed with in rotor, for producing magnet radial poles and axial pole, the magnetic flux that permanent magnet produces enters radial stator in part through magnet radial poles and interlink with radially armature winding and form radial direction main flux, magnetic flux another part that permanent magnet produces is interlinked with axial armature winding by axial pole entrance axial stator and forms axial main flux, and radially main flux is in parallel with axial main flux;
When motor runs, by applying axial main flux when electric current dynamically regulates the operation of motor and radially main flux to radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding, realize weak magnetic control with this.
2. mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described radial stator is formed by silicon steel plate stacking, and described radial stator includes stator slot, stator tooth and stator yoke, lay radially armature winding in described stator slot.
3. mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described rotor there is rotor slot, permanent magnet is laid in rotor slot, described permanent magnet realizes " poly-magnetic effect " by connection in series-parallel combination, producing magnetic pole on rotor, described magnetic pole is divided into magnet radial poles and axial pole, and the number of poles of axial pole and the number of poles of magnet radial poles are equal;
Described magnet radial poles, towards the radial stator of motor, is radial air gap between magnet radial poles and rotor, and described axial pole is processed into salient pole shape, towards motor axial stator, is axial air-gap between described axial pole and axial stator.
4. mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described radial direction main flux and the magnetic field interaction that radially armature winding produces produce torque, and the magnetic field interaction that axial main flux and axial armature winding produce produces torque.
5. mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor as claimed in claim 4, it is characterized in that, when motor is properly functioning, axial armature winding produces d axle and q shaft current simultaneously, the magnetic field that d shaft current produces makes most magnetic fluxs that rotor produces radially into radial core, the magnetic field interaction produced with radial direction armature winding produces main torque, additionally sub-fraction magnetic flux enters axially in axial stator, and the q shaft current of this part magnetic flux and axial armature winding interacts and produces power torque.
6. mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor as claimed in claim 4, is characterized in that, when motor is properly functioning, axial stator winding plays increase motor radially main flux and produces power torque; When needs weak magnetism speed expansion runs, reduce the d shaft current of the axial stator winding of motor, this makes considerable rotor flux enter axially in axial iron core, reduce the radial direction main flux of motor, radial stator is made to be operated under weak magnetic stripe part, enlarge markedly the speed adjustable range of motor, it is achieved weak magnetism speed expansion;
Described radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding can be Single-layer Windings, or are Double Layer Winding, and radially the number of poles in the magnetic field that armature winding and axial armature winding produce is all equal with rotor magnetic pole number of poles.
7. mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, when the quantity of the axial stator in above-mentioned mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor is two, being respectively placed at corresponding two ends of rotor, two ends of rotor are processed into the shape of fan ring and form axial pole.
8. the torque actuated method of the mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor as described in as arbitrary in claim 1-7, is characterized in that, radial stator produces main driving torque, and axial stator realizes weak magnetic function and produces power torque, specifically includes:
When motor normal operation does not need weak magnetic field operation, the armature winding of axial stator produces d shaft current, the axial main flux of motor is reduced, radially main flux increases, motor torque is mainly by radial direction main flux and radially armature winding magnetic field generation, now the axial armature winding of motor only applies d shaft current, and radially main flux is maximum, can regulate the size of radially main flux by regulating the d shaft current of the axial armature winding of motor;
When motor needs to carry out weak magnetic field operation, the d shaft current of axial armature winding reduces, motor radially main flux reduces, axial main flux increases, now radial component motor is operated in weak magnetic stripe part, while reducing the d shaft current of axial armature winding, increases its q shaft current simultaneously, now axial stator armature winding produces power torque with axial main flux, increases torque density and the power density of motor.
9. the torque actuated method of the mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor as described in as arbitrary in claim 1-8, it is characterized in that, the torque actuated method of mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor, axial stator produces main driving torque, radial stator realizes weak magnetic function and produces power torque, specifically includes:
When motor normal operation does not need weak magnetic field operation, the armature winding of radial stator produces d shaft current, motor radially main flux is reduced, axial main flux increases, motor torque is mainly produced by axial main flux and axial armature winding magnetic field, now motor radially armature winding only applies d shaft current, and axial main flux is maximum, can regulate the size of axial main flux by regulating the d shaft current of motor radially armature winding;
When motor needs to carry out weak magnetic field operation, radially the d shaft current of armature winding reduces, the axial main flux of motor reduces, radially main flux increases, now axial component motor is operated in weak magnetic stripe part, while reducing the d shaft current of radially armature winding, increases its q shaft current simultaneously, now radial stator armature winding produces power torque with radially main flux, increases torque density and the power density of motor.
10. the torque actuated method of the mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor as described in as arbitrary in claim 1-8, it is characterized in that, the torque actuated method of mixed magnetic circuit bimorph transducer weak magnetism speed expansion solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor, radial stator and axial stator all produce driving torque, specifically include:
The radial direction armature winding of motor and axial armature winding all do not produce d shaft current, all only produce q shaft current, in this case, radially main flux and radial stator armature field produce driving torque, axial main flux and axial stator armature field produce driving torque, namely radial stator and axial stator all produce driving torque, and now motor torque density and power density reach maximum.
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CN108574354A (en) * 2017-03-07 2018-09-25 福特全球技术公司 Rotor
CN112398301A (en) * 2020-11-06 2021-02-23 山东大学 Hybrid magnetic circuit permanent magnet synchronous motor for electric vehicle and driving method thereof
CN112688453A (en) * 2020-12-09 2021-04-20 诺丁汉(余姚)智能电气化研究院有限公司 End winding flux motor
CN113824286A (en) * 2021-09-18 2021-12-21 东南大学 Radial-axial brushless hybrid excitation motor
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CN102386816A (en) * 2010-08-27 2012-03-21 永济新时速电机电器有限责任公司 Method and device for controlling weak magnetism of permanent magnet synchronous motor
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CN108574354A (en) * 2017-03-07 2018-09-25 福特全球技术公司 Rotor
CN112398301A (en) * 2020-11-06 2021-02-23 山东大学 Hybrid magnetic circuit permanent magnet synchronous motor for electric vehicle and driving method thereof
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CN113824286A (en) * 2021-09-18 2021-12-21 东南大学 Radial-axial brushless hybrid excitation motor

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