CN105763009B - Mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor and its method - Google Patents

Mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor and its method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105763009B
CN105763009B CN201610248062.3A CN201610248062A CN105763009B CN 105763009 B CN105763009 B CN 105763009B CN 201610248062 A CN201610248062 A CN 201610248062A CN 105763009 B CN105763009 B CN 105763009B
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axial
motor
stator
radial
armature winding
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CN105763009A (en
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王道涵
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Shandong University
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Shandong University
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K16/00Machines with more than one rotor or stator
    • H02K16/04Machines with one rotor and two stators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K1/00Details of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/06Details of the magnetic circuit characterised by the shape, form or construction
    • H02K1/12Stationary parts of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/16Stator cores with slots for windings
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K1/00Details of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/06Details of the magnetic circuit characterised by the shape, form or construction
    • H02K1/22Rotating parts of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/27Rotor cores with permanent magnets
    • H02K1/2706Inner rotors
    • H02K1/272Inner rotors the magnetisation axis of the magnets being perpendicular to the rotor axis
    • H02K1/274Inner rotors the magnetisation axis of the magnets being perpendicular to the rotor axis the rotor consisting of two or more circumferentially positioned magnets
    • H02K1/2753Inner rotors the magnetisation axis of the magnets being perpendicular to the rotor axis the rotor consisting of two or more circumferentially positioned magnets the rotor consisting of magnets or groups of magnets arranged with alternating polarity
    • H02K1/276Magnets embedded in the magnetic core, e.g. interior permanent magnets [IPM]

Abstract

The invention discloses mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor and its method, including radial stator, axial stator and rotor, the rotor be built in radial stator and with radial stator coaxial placement, the axial stator is placed in rotor tip, with rotor is concentric places, permanent magnet is placed with the rotor, for producing magnet radial poles and axial pole, a magnetic flux part caused by permanent magnet interlinks to form radial direction main flux into radial stator by magnet radial poles with radial direction armature winding, magnetic flux another part caused by permanent magnet interlinks to form axial main flux into axial stator by axial pole with axial armature winding, radial direction main flux is in parallel with axial main flux;This invention removes brow leakage effect, improves motor material and utilizes utilization rate, alleviates the weight of motor, improves power density, and can neatly realize and increase magnetic operation and weak magnetism speed expansion operation, has widened the economical operation scope of motor.

Description

Mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor and its method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of permagnetic synchronous motor, and in particular to a kind of mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion is forever Magnetic-synchro motor and its method.
Background technology
In recent years, with the raising of permanent-magnet material resistance to elevated temperatures and the reduction of price, magneto is in national defence, industrial or agricultural Production and daily life etc. are more widely applied, and positive high-power, high performance and miniaturization direction are developed. For the power of magneto from several milliwatts to several megawatts, application draws use from toy motor, commercial Application to naval vessel at present Large-scale magneto, be widely applied in the various aspects of national economy, daily life, war industry, Aero-Space.
Following technical disadvantages be present in existing AC permanent magnet synchronous motor:
1st, permagnetic synchronous motor is fixed due to permanent magnet magnetic kinetic potential, and motor main flux is non-adjustable, causes output-constant operation model Enclose narrow, speed adjustable range is not wide in range enough.
2nd, in existing internal permanent magnet synchronous motor rotor structure, rotor permanent magnet realizes that " poly- magnetic is imitated by various combinations Should ", therefore rotor core magnetic pole magnetic is close very high so that there is larger leakage magnetic flux in its end, leakage-flux of rotor passes through rotor End or end cap closure, because total magnetic flux is certain caused by permanent magnet, the logical presence of brow leakage not only causes motor Two end magnetic field skewness, and the useful flux utilization rate of motor is reduced, it is close so as to reduce the power of motor Degree and torque density, to overcome the logical influence of brow leakage, during actual design, rotor is passed through frequently with overhang structures, So that rotor core axial length is more than motor stator core axial length, but the structure significantly increases motor axial length, And then the core material dosage and manufacturing cost of motor are added, and suppression brow leakage is not played on the structural nature and is led to Effect.
3rd, during existing permagnetic synchronous motor normal operation, generally only iqElectric current produces torque, now id=0, weak magnetic field operation When, it is necessary to apply d shaft currents, now i to rotord≠ 0, and then realize to the demagnetizing effect of rotor magnetic pole, due to d shaft currents by The power inverter of motor produces, therefore when motor carries out weak magnetic control, can significantly increase the amplitude of machine winding current, and The capacity of power inverter is greatly increased, when needing to carry out depth weak magnetic, the d shaft currents now needed are very big, the work(of motor Angle will reduce rapidly, and current of electric will exceed the capacity of frequency converter, therefore, the permanent magnetism to needing progress weak magnetism speed expansion operation quickly Synchronous motor, it usually needs take extra measure and method to carry out weak magnetic regulation, every pole magnetic flux is reduced with this.
4th, the path passed through according to d axles magnetic flux during weak magnetic is different, and the permagnetic synchronous motor of existing built-in rotor structure can To be divided into two classes, one type, when carrying out weak magnetic control, d axles magnetic flux caused by armature winding can pass through the permanent magnet of motor, Cause permanent magnet irreversible demagnetization, a kind of in addition, when carrying out weak magnetic control, d axles magnetic flux is without forever caused by armature winding Magnet closes, but magnetic field caused by d shaft currents forces more rotor fluxs to be closed by the end of motor and end cap, significantly increases The big leakage magnetic flux of motor, and because motor end magnetic resistance is much bigger generally than air-gap reluctance, therefore, the d required for weak magnetic Shaft current is larger, significantly increases the cost and winding copper loss of power of motor inverter.
5th, the usual armature counter electromotive force harmonic wave of existing permagnetic synchronous motor is larger, cogging torque outstanding problem, brings serious Vibration and noise problem, be typically that counter electromotive force harmonic wave improved simultaneously using the method for skewed stator slot or skewed-rotor at present Weaken cogging torque, but skewed stator slot and skewed-rotor processing technology are more complicated, considerably increase manufacturing cost, and can be certain Degree reduces the average electromagnetic torque of motor, reduces the torque density and power density of motor.
In this case, it is small to seek a kind of brow leakage, magnetic flux utilization rate is high, and sine degree is good, adjustable magnetic flexible function but The small AC permanent magnet synchronous motor of power inverter capacity is most important.
The content of the invention
To solve the shortcomings of the prior art, the invention discloses mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permanent magnetism Synchronous motor and its method, radial flux and axial magnetic flux are utilized caused by motor permanent magnet of the present invention, are eliminated Brow leakage effect, improve motor material and utilize utilization rate, alleviate the weight of motor, improve power density, Er Qieneng Enough neatly realize increases magnetic operation and weak magnetism speed expansion operation, has widened the economical operation scope of motor, used for electric vehicle to improving The performance of motor is significant.
To achieve the above object, concrete scheme of the invention is as follows:
Mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor, including radial stator, axial stator and rotor, The rotor is built in radial stator and is placed in rotor tip with radial stator coaxial placement, the axial stator, with turning Sub to place with one heart, the radial stator and axial stator lay radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding respectively;
Permanent magnet is placed with the rotor, for producing magnet radial poles and axial pole, magnetic flux one caused by permanent magnet Part interlinks to form radial direction main flux into radial stator by magnet radial poles with radial direction armature winding, magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet Another part interlinks to form axial main flux into axial stator by axial pole with axial armature winding, radial direction main flux with Axial main flux is in parallel;
During motor operation, by applying electric current to radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding come the fortune of dynamic regulation motor Axial main flux and radial direction main flux during row, weak magnetic control is realized with this.
Further, the radial stator is formed by silicon steel plate stacking, and the radial stator includes stator slot, stator tooth and Stator yoke, radial direction armature winding is laid in the stator slot.
Further, there is rotor slot on the rotor, permanent magnet is laid in rotor slot, the permanent magnet passes through connection in series-parallel " poly- magnetic effect " is realized in combination, magnetic pole is produced on rotor, the magnetic pole is divided into magnet radial poles and axial pole, axial pole Number of poles and the number of poles of magnet radial poles are equal.
Further, the magnet radial poles are radial air gap between magnet radial poles and rotor towards the radial stator of motor, The axial pole is processed into salient pole shape, is axially towards motor axial stator, between the axial pole and axial stator Air gap.
Further, the radial direction main flux produces torque with magnetic field interaction caused by radial direction armature winding, axially Main flux produces torque with magnetic field interaction caused by axial armature winding.Brow leakage field is not present in motor, and magnetic flux utilizes Rate is high, and power density and torque density are high.
Further, during motor normal operation, axial armature winding produces d axles and q shaft currents simultaneously, and d shaft currents produce Magnetic field cause most magnetic fluxs caused by rotor radially into radial core, with radial direction armature winding caused by magnetic field Interaction produces main torque, and sub-fraction magnetic flux is entered axially into axial stator in addition, this part magnetic flux and axially electricity The q shaft currents interaction of pivot winding produces power torque.
Further, during motor normal operation, axial stator winding plays increase motor radial direction main flux and produced and helps Power torque;When needing weak magnetism speed expansion to run, reduce the d shaft currents of motor axial direction stator winding, this causes considerable rotor Magnetic flux is entered axially into axial iron core, reduces the radial direction main flux of motor so that and radial stator is operated under the conditions of weak magnetic, The speed adjustable range of motor is significantly increased, realizes weak magnetism speed expansion.
Further, the radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding can be Single-layer Windings, or be Double Layer Winding, radially The number of poles in magnetic field caused by armature winding and axial armature winding is and rotor magnetic pole number of poles is equal.Wherein, number of motor phases m >=3, Number of pole-pairs p >=1.
Further, the number of the axial stator in above-mentioned mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor Measure for two when, be respectively placed at corresponding two ends of rotor, the shape that two ends of rotor are processed into fanning ring is formed Axial pole.
Further, a kind of electric automobile, including above-mentioned mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permanent magnet synchronous electric Machine.
The torque actuated method of mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor, radial stator produce master Driving torque, axial stator realizes weak magnetic function and produces power torque, specifically includes:
When motor normal work does not need weak magnetic field operation, the armature winding of axial stator produces d shaft currents so that motor Axial main flux reduces, and radial direction main flux increase, motor torque is mainly produced by radial direction main flux and radial direction armature winding magnetic field, Now motor axial direction armature winding only applies d shaft currents, and radial direction main flux is maximum, passes through the d of regulation motor axial armature winding Shaft current can adjust the size of radial direction main flux;
When motor needs to carry out weak magnetic field operation, the d shaft currents of axial armature winding reduce, and motor radial direction main flux subtracts Small, axial main flux increases, and now radial component motor is operated in weak magnetic condition, reduces the d shaft currents of axial armature winding Meanwhile while increase its q shaft current, now axial stator armature winding and axial main flux produce power torque, increase motor Torque density and power density.
The torque actuated method of mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor, axial stator produce master Driving torque, radial stator are realized that weak magnetic function produces power torque, specifically included:
When motor normal work does not need weak magnetic field operation, the armature winding of radial stator produces d shaft currents so that motor Radial direction main flux reduces, and axial main flux increase, motor torque is mainly produced by axial main flux and axial armature winding magnetic field, Now motor radial direction armature winding only applies d shaft currents, and axial main flux is maximum, passes through the d of regulation motor radial direction armature winding Shaft current can adjust the size of axial main flux;
When motor needs to carry out weak magnetic field operation, the d shaft currents of radial direction armature winding reduce, and motor axial direction main flux subtracts Small, radial direction main flux increases, and now axial component motor is operated in weak magnetic condition, reduces the d shaft currents of radial direction armature winding Meanwhile while increase its q shaft current, now radial stator armature winding and radial direction main flux produce power torque, increase motor Torque density and power density.
The torque actuated method of mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor, radial stator and axial direction Stator produces driving torque, specifically includes:
The radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding of motor do not produce d shaft currents, q shaft currents are only produced, at this In the case of kind, radial direction main flux and radial stator armature field produce driving torque, axial main flux and axial stator armature magnetic Field produces driving torque, i.e. radial stator and axial stator all produces driving torque, and now motor torque density and power are close Degree reaches maximum.
The torque actuated method of above-mentioned mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor, in empty load of motor During obstructed electric current, a part of magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet enters radial stator iron core and footpath by magnet radial poles by radial air gap Interlink to form radial direction main flux to armature winding, another part magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet passes through axial air-gap by axial pole Interlinking to form axial main flux with axial armature winding into axial stator iron core, radial direction main flux is in parallel with axial main flux, Radial direction main flux and axial main flux when setting the length of radial air gap and axial air-gap to carry out controlled motor zero load respectively.
Because total magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet is certain, because the radial direction main flux of motor and axial main flux are simultaneously Connection relation, when radial direction armature winding applies d axle demagnetizing currents, the radial direction main flux of motor reduces, axial main flux increase, phase Instead, when the axial armature winding of motor applies d axle demagnetizing currents, the axial main flux of motor reduces, the increase of radial direction main flux. When motor normal work does not need weak magnetic, motor axial direction armature winding applies d axle demagnetizing currents, now motor radial direction main flux Maximum, motor radial direction magnetic is close also maximum, the exportable rated maximum torque of motor and power, when motor needs to carry out weak magnetism speed expansion When, reduce the d axle demagnetizing currents of axial armature winding, now motor radial direction main flux reduction, radial direction magnetic is close to be decreased, motor Weak magnetic field operation is realized, motor speed is improved, and now axial armature winding can apply q shaft currents, and power torque is produced to motor, Torque output capability during motor weak magnetic field operation is improved, further improves the power density and torque density of motor.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
1st, motor of the present invention is double-stator structure, and the double-stator structure is different from existing most double-stator structures, existing There is one of stator in Double-stator motor to be placed in inside rotor, be inner stator, one in rotor exterior, to be outer fixed Son, the motor feels hot concentrates on motor axial direction, and motor thermic load is very high, and inner stator is not direct is connected with external environment condition, electric Machine radiating is more difficult.Two stators of motor of the present invention are respectively radial stator and axial stator, and the two of the double-stator structure Individual stator is respectively placed at the radial and axial direction of motor, and radial stator is identical with the stator of common permagnetic synchronous motor, Radial stator is coaxially placed on the outside of p-m rotor, and a magnetic flux part is entered in radial direction through air gap caused by rotor permanent magnet Entering to radial stator and form radial direction main flux, radial direction winding is laid on radial stator, axial stator is placed in the end of motor, Axial stator is coaxially relative with p-m rotor, and magnetic flux caused by rotor permanent magnet is entered axially among axial stator iron core, Axial winding is laid in axial stator, two stator casings in outside motor, directly contact, and can fill with external environment Divide and radiated using the end of motor.
2nd, motor of the present invention is built-in rotor structure, good with internal permanent magnet synchronous motor structural compactness, air gap The close height of effective magnetic, is easy to the advantages that rotation and torque density are high at a high speed, rotor magnetic pole of the present invention is divided into radial and axial Two parts, magnet radial poles part is similar with the rotor magnetic pole of common internal permanent magnet synchronous motor, axial pole part pass through by The fan ring iron core that the axial end portion of rotor is processed into salient pole shape is obtained, and axial pole coordinates to produce with motor axial stator to be turned Square, magnet radial poles coordinate with motor radial stator produces torque, and motor rotor construction is simple, is easy to be machined, manufacturing cost It is low.
3rd, motor of the present invention is mixed magnetic circuit permagnetic synchronous motor, and a magnetic flux part caused by permanent magnet radially passes through along motor Crossing radial air gap arrival radial stator turns into radial direction main flux, and another part magnetic flux passes axially through axial air-gap and reaches motor side The axial stator in portion turns into axial main flux, and the radial flux of p-m rotor and end magnetic flux are obtained for and filled in motor of the present invention The utilization divided, motor do not have brow leakage to lead to, improve magnetic flux utilization rate, effectively improve end-region magnetic field of electrical machine distribution, improve The power density and torque density of motor.
4th, motor of the present invention can carry out weak magnetism speed expansion operation, and during motor normal operation, axial stator winding produces d simultaneously Axle and q shaft currents, magnetic field caused by d shaft currents cause most magnetic fluxs caused by rotor radially into radial core, With radial stator winding caused by magnetic field interaction produce main torque, sub-fraction magnetic flux enters axially into axially fixed in addition In son, when the q shaft currents interaction of this part magnetic flux and axial stator winding produces power torque, i.e. motor normal operation, Axial stator winding plays increase motor radial direction main flux and produces power torque;When needing weak magnetism speed expansion to run, reduce electricity To the d shaft currents of stator winding, this causes considerable rotor flux to enter axially into axial iron core, is substantially reduced arbor The radial direction main flux of motor so that radial stator is operated under the conditions of weak magnetic, significantly increases the speed adjustable range of motor, realize weak Magnetism speed expansion.
5th, the number of turn of the motor radial stator winding and axial stator winding of the present invention number of poles actual with motor, permanent magnet remain Magnetic density, permanent magnet placement combination is related to motor speed range of operation, according to the radial component and axial component of motor The major function (producing main torque or weak magnetic control) undertaken is different and carries out reasonable design selection, it is therefore an objective to so that electricity Arbor can either effectively change the radial direction main flux of motor to stationary part, so as to possess enough weak magnetic abilities, not need In the case of weak magnetic, and can enough produces enough power torques, significantly increases the power density and torque density of motor.
6th, motor of the present invention can separately design the geomery and armature of motor magnet radial poles and end fan ring magnetic pole The number of turn of winding, by motor radial component and the opposite in phase of the higher hamonic wave of the counter electromotive force of axial component, to support Disappear and weaken the harmonic wave of counter electromotive force, by motor radial component and the opposite in phase of the cogging torque of axial component, to support Disappear and weaken the cogging torque of motor, improve and optimize the back emf waveform of motor with this, and weaken the cogging torque of motor, drop Vibration and noise during low motor operation, harmonic wave must be suppressed and be weakened tooth using skewed slot by overcoming existing permagnetic synchronous motor The shortcomings that groove torque.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 (a) is the motor solid figure structure schematic representation of motor embodiment 1 of the present invention;
Fig. 1 (b) is the radial motor stator core of motor embodiment 1 of the present invention and rotor structure schematic diagram;
Fig. 1 (c) is the silicon steel sheet rotor right view of motor embodiment 1 of the present invention;
Fig. 1 (d) is the axial stator structural representation of motor embodiment 1 of the present invention;
Fig. 1 (e) is the integrated motor right view of motor embodiment 1 of the present invention;
Fig. 2 (a) is the motor solid figure structure schematic representation of motor embodiment 2 of the present invention;
Fig. 2 (b) is the radial motor stator core of motor embodiment 2 of the present invention and rotor structure schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 (c) is the silicon steel sheet rotor right view of motor embodiment 2 of the present invention;
Fig. 2 (d) is the axial stator structural representation of motor embodiment 2 of the present invention;
Fig. 2 (e) is the integrated motor right view of motor embodiment 2 of the present invention;
In figure, 1. radial stator teeth, 2. radial stator yokes, 3. radial stator grooves, 4. radial direction armature winding, 5. radial direction gas Gap, 6. axial stator teeth, 7. axial stator yokes, 8. axial stator grooves, 9. axial armature windings, 10. axial air-gaps, 11. rotors, 12. rotor slot, 13. permanent magnets, 14. magnet radial poles, 15. axial poles.
Embodiment:
The present invention is described in detail below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:
Regular alternating current permagnetic synchronous motor generally divides asynchronous starting permanent magnet synchronous motor and speed governing permasyn morot, In addition, also solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor.
Asynchronous starting permanent magnet synchronous motor is with the difference on speed governing permanent magnet synchronous motor structure:The former has on rotor Winding or the integral core with priming are started, self-starting can be realized, can be incorporated into the power networks without control system.
Speed governing permagnetic synchronous motor can be divided into surface-type rotor structure according to the difference of permanent magnet mounting means on rotor With two kinds of built-in rotor structure:
In surface-type rotor structure, permanent magnet needs to process camber, is directly anchored to rotor outer surface, permanent magnet is direct Towards motor gas-gap, magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet is directly over air gap and forms useful flux into stator;With built-in rotor knot Structure is compared, and the permanent magnet in surface-type rotor structure is due to being rest directly upon rotor surface, and permanent magnet needs to be processed into and rotor To form even air gap with the arcuate shape that air gap matches to ensure, due to the frangible characteristic of permanent-magnet material, its accurate processing compared with For complexity, higher is required to processing technology, cost is high.Further, since permanent magnet is rest directly upon rotor surface, motor operation When, due to the effect of centrifugal force, it is desirable to no latitude band banding fixed must be wound outside permanent magnet, when avoiding the rotor from rotating at a high speed forever Magnet falls off damage;Because the air gap flux density of permanent magnet and the width of permanent magnet are proportional, therefore when permanent magnet When width determines, empty load of motor air gap flux density determines therewith, and when being actually designed, motor permanent magnet width is by unloaded air gap The close restriction of magnetic;Because permanent magnet region be directly facing motor gas-gap, when motor needs progress weak magnetism speed expansion control to use id When 0 controls, magnetic flux caused by armature winding can be directly through permanent magnet, and permanent magnet faces the risk of irreversible demagnetization;Due to The magnetic conductivity of permanent-magnet material and air are very close to the reactance of d axles and q axles is equal in surface-type rotor structure, during motor operation only Torque is produced by permanent magnetic field and armature field interaction, it is impossible to produces reluctance torque, the torque density and power of motor are close Degree is relatively low compared with built-in rotor structure;Surface-type rotor structure can not place started squirrel-cage on the outside of rotor, and motor can not Realize self-starting.
In built-in rotor structure, permanent magnet is embedded among rotor core according to certain requirement, and permanent magnet is in iron core Middle generation magnetic flux, the insertion of permanent magnet is various informative in built-in rotor structure, and permanent magnet can be carried out according to different requirements Poly- magnetic effect is realized in connection in series-parallel combination, meets actual performance needs;Compared with surface-type rotor structure, in built-in rotor structure Permanent magnet be not directly to be placed in rotor surface, but be embedded into by certain form among rotor core, permanent magnet is not Motor gas-gap is region be directly facing, permanent magnet relies on the permanent magnet trough in rotor to be fixed, without without latitude band bundled fixed, rotor machine Tool structural integrity is good, and reliability is high when motor rotates at a high speed;Permanent magnet can be flexible with parallel connection by connecting between each other Poly- magnetic effect is realized in combination, can obtain the air gap flux density more much bigger than surface-type rotor structure, power of motor density and torque Density is higher than surface-type rotor structure;Motor pole embrace and air gap flux density are not directly dependent upon, can be only respectively in design It is vertical to be configured;Rotor d axles reactance and q axle reactance significant differences, reluctance torque can be produced during operation, significantly improve motor Power density and torque density;When motor weak magnetism speed expansion is run, d armature axis magnetic flux can be in parallel with magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet, electricity Pivot magnetic flux will not overcome the risk that irreversible demagnetization occurs for permanent magnet directly through permanent magnet;Energy in built-in rotor structure Enough that started squirrel-cage is placed on the outside of rotor, motor can realize self-starting.
Compared with above two permagnetic synchronous motor, solid-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor simply instead of silicon with solid rotor Steel disc laminates rotor, and its advantage is that vortex can be produced in solid rotor, caused vortex and armature winding during electric motor starting Caused magnetic field interaction, starting torque can be produced, realizes self-starting function.
With reference to more detailed examples of implementation, the present invention is described in detail:
Embodiment 1:
As shown in Fig. 1 (a), the overall schematic perspective view of motor, present embodiment number of motor phases is 3, the radial stator number of teeth For 24, the axial stator number of teeth is 12, and rotor slot number is 4, and permanent magnet block number is 4, and magnet radial poles number is 4, and axial magnetic number of poles is 4, Present embodiment includes radial stator, axial stator and rotor, and as shown in Fig. 1 (b), radial stator is formed by silicon steel plate stacking, Radial stator includes radial stator tooth 1, radial stator yoke 2 and radial stator groove 3, and radial direction armature is laid in radial stator groove 3 Winding 4, radial direction armature winding 4 can be Distributed Winding, concentratred winding or lap winding, number of poles and the rotor footpath of radial direction armature winding It is consistent to magnetic pole number of poles, radial stator and rotor coaxial, there is radial air gap 5 between radial stator and rotor, as shown in Fig. 1 (d), Axial stator is formed by silicon steel sheet wound, and axial stator includes axial stator tooth 6, axial stator yoke 7 and axial stator groove 8, axle Lay axial armature winding 9 into stator slot 8, axial armature winding 9 can be Distributed Winding, concentratred winding or lap winding, The number of poles of axial armature winding is consistent with rotor axial magnetic pole number of poles, and axial stator and rotor are concentric, axial stator and rotor it Between have axial air-gap 10, as shown in Fig. 1 (e),;As shown in Fig. 1 (c), rotor 11 is tangentially provided with rotor slot 12, in rotor slot 12 Lay permanent magnet 13, the magnetizing directions of adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets on the contrary, adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets and between rotor core edge Be formed radially magnet radial poles 14, adjacent two pieces of permanent magnets and between the end axial component of rotor core be processed into salient pole fan ring Shape, forms magnet radial poles 15, and magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet enters radial stator iron core by magnet radial poles by radial air gap Interlink to form radial direction main flux with radial direction armature winding, magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet is entered by axial pole by axial air-gap Axial stator iron core interlinks to form axial main flux with axial armature winding, and radial direction main flux is in parallel with axial main flux, can be with By separately designing the length of radial air gap and axial air-gap come radial direction main flux during controlled motor zero load and axial main flux, During motor operation, by radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding apply d shaft currents come dynamic regulation motor operation when Axial main flux and radial direction main flux, weak magnetic control is realized with this, widens the output-constant operation region of motor.
Embodiment 2:
The main distinction of embodiment 2 and embodiment 1 is:
(1) as shown in Fig. 2 (a), in embodiment 2 there is axial stator, and motor rotor core in two ends of motor Two ends be processed into fan ring shape formed axial pole, rotor such as Fig. 2 (c), and in embodiment 1 only have motor one There is axial stator individual end, and motor rotor core only has the shape formation axial pole that fan ring is processed into an end;
Motor has two axial air-gaps 10 in embodiment 2, as shown in Fig. 2 (e).
(2) arrangement mode of permanent magnet is different from embodiment 1 in embodiment 2, and permanent magnet is single and is coupled in embodiment 1 Structure, and permanent magnet is series and parallel combined structure in embodiment 2.Remainder is identical with examples of implementation 1, such as Fig. 2 (b) and as schemed Shown in 2 (d).
Wherein, in above-described embodiment 1,2, radial stator and axial stator can also be the soft magnetism composite wood of high magnetic permeability Material is made, and rotor is respectively provided with high magnetic permeability in radial direction and axial direction, permanent magnet is laid in the rotor, rotor is forever Magnet built-in structure, permanent magnet realize poly- magnetic effect, respectively in rotor radial and axial direction according to certain assembled arrangement Upper formation magnet radial poles and axial pole, magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet can enter radial air gap and axle radially and axially respectively To air gap, and it is parallel relationship.
Permanent magnet is high performance permanent magnetic materialses, such as neodymium iron boron, Rare-Earth Cobalt, or low performance permanent-magnet material, such as aluminium nickel cobalt or Person's ferrite.
The salient pole fan ring-shaped of axial pole can be the salient pole that other disclosure satisfy that axial stator and rotor field distribution Shape, the height of the salient pole are much larger than the length of motor radial air gap and axial air-gap.The radial air gap and axial air-gap Length to should be an order of magnitude, the number of turn of the radial direction armature winding and the number of turn of axial armature winding by it be adjustable magnetic winding Or winding is driven to determine.
The magnet radial poles of motor and the geomery of axial pole can independently design determination, be folded by reasonable combination The harmonic wave and cogging torque for weakening counter electromotive force are offset added with effect, improves and optimize the back emf waveform of motor with this, and cut The cogging torque of light current machine, overcome existing permagnetic synchronous motor extremely must suppress harmonic wave and weaken teeth groove using skewed slot and tiltedly The shortcomings that torque.
At work, during the obstructed electric current of empty load of motor, a part of magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet passes through footpath to permagnetic synchronous motor Interlink to form radial direction main flux with radial direction armature winding into radial stator iron core by radial air gap to magnetic pole, permanent magnet produces Another part magnetic flux interlink to be formed with axial armature winding into axial stator iron core by axial air-gap by axial pole Axial main flux, radial direction main flux is in parallel with axial main flux, and the length of radial air gap and axial air-gap can be set respectively Radial direction main flux and axial main flux during controlled motor zero load.During electrical power stream run with load, there are three kinds of mode of operations: (1) the radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding only produce q shaft currents, do not produce d shaft currents, now, the footpath of motor Driving torque is produced to main flux and radial direction armature winding, axial main flux produces driving torque with axial armature winding, now Motor exports maximum driving torque under same inverter capacity and same electric current;(2) the axial armature winding produces d axles and gone Magnetoelectricity stream, now axial armature magnetic field drive magnetic flux caused by more permanent magnets by magnet radial poles radially air gap enter radially Stator, now radial direction main flux increase, axial main flux reduce, and motor radial stator, which is in, increases magnetic running status, axial stator In weak magnetic field operation state;(3) the axial armature winding produces d axles increasing magnetoelectricity stream, and now axial armature magnetic field is driven more By axially fan ring magnetic pole, air gap enters among axial stator magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet vertically, and now axial main flux increases Greatly, radial direction main flux reduces, and motor axial direction laundry is in weak magnetic field operation state in increasing magnetic running status, radial stator.Motor During actual motion, by the number of turn of specific design radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding, it can flexibly realize that motor increases Magnetic is run or weak magnetism speed expansion operation, effectively widens motor invariable power and economical operation scope.
Wherein, radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding can independently apply d shaft currents and q shaft currents, independent Carry out increasing magnetic control and weak magnetic control, effectively increase motor torque density and realize motor weak magnetism speed expansion.
During motor practical application, according to the rated speed of motor work, nominal torque and specific performance requirement, pass through conjunction The parameters such as radial air gap length of reason design motor, axial air-gap length and radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding The number of turn, to determine that motor radial stator and axial stator are to produce main driving torque or realize weak magnetic function.
The explanation of above-mentioned pattern be using axial armature winding as adjustable magnetic winding, radial direction armature winding for driving winding exemplified by, Equally, can also radial direction armature winding be adjustable magnetic winding, axial armature winding is driving winding.
The above-mentioned permagnetic synchronous motor of the present invention is mainly using as follows:
(1) household appliance technical field:Including TV audio and video equipment, fan, air conditioner, food processor, cosmetic tool, oil smoke Machine etc..
(2) computer and its ancillary equipment field:Including computer (driver, fan etc.), printer, plotter, light Drive, CD writer etc..
(3) field of industrial production:Including industrial drives device, material processing system, automation equipment, robot etc..
(4) automotive field:Including permanent magnet starting motor, wiper motor, door-lock motor, seat lifting motor, sunshading ceiling Motor, cleaning pump motor, recorder motor, glass lifting motor, radiator cooling fan motor, air conditioner motor, antenna liter Motor, Oil pump electrical machinery etc. drop.
(5) public life field:Including clock and watch, beauty machinery, automatic vending machine, ATM, paper money counter etc..
(6) traffic and transport field:Including electric car, aircraft auxiliary equipment, naval vessel etc..
(7) space industry:Including rocket, satellite, spaceship, space shuttle etc..
(8) national defence:Including tank, guided missile, submarine, aircraft etc..
(9) medical field:Including dental drill, artificial heart, medicine equipment etc..
(10) power field:Including wind-power electricity generation, cogeneration, miniature hydro-power generation, small-sized internal combustion generating set hair Motor, and pilot exciter of high-rating generator etc..
Although above-mentioned the embodiment of the present invention is described with reference to accompanying drawing, model not is protected to the present invention The limitation enclosed, one of ordinary skill in the art should be understood that on the basis of technical scheme those skilled in the art are not Need to pay various modifications or deformation that creative work can make still within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor, it is characterized in that, including radial stator, axial stator And rotor, the rotor are built in radial stator and are placed in rotor-end with radial stator coaxial placement, the axial stator Portion, and rotor is concentric places, and the radial stator and axial stator lay radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding respectively;
Permanent magnet is placed with the rotor, for producing magnet radial poles and axial pole, a magnetic flux part caused by permanent magnet Interlink to form radial direction main flux with radial direction armature winding into radial stator by magnet radial poles, magnetic flux caused by permanent magnet is another Part interlinks to form axial main flux into axial stator by axial pole with axial armature winding, radial direction main flux and axial direction Main flux is in parallel;
During motor operation, by radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding apply electric current come dynamic regulation motor operation when Axial main flux and radial direction main flux, weak magnetic control is realized with this;
There is rotor slot on the rotor, permanent magnet is laid in rotor slot, the permanent magnet is combined by connection in series-parallel and realizes " poly- magnetic Effect ", produces magnetic pole on rotor, and the magnetic pole is divided into magnet radial poles and axial pole, the number of poles and radial direction magnetic of axial pole The number of poles of pole is equal;
The magnet radial poles are radial air gap between magnet radial poles and rotor towards the radial stator of motor, the axial pole Salient pole shape is processed into, is axial air-gap towards motor axial stator, between the axial pole and axial stator.
2. mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, it is described Radial stator is formed by silicon steel plate stacking, and the radial stator includes stator slot, stator tooth and stator yoke, in the stator slot Lay radial direction armature winding;
The radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding can be Single-layer Windings, or be Double Layer Winding, radial direction armature winding and axle Number of poles to magnetic field caused by armature winding is equal and rotor magnetic pole number of poles is equal.
3. mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, it is described Radial direction main flux produces torque with magnetic field interaction caused by radial direction armature winding, and axial main flux produces with axial armature winding Raw magnetic field interaction produces torque.
4. mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor as claimed in claim 3, it is characterized in that, motor During normal operation, axial armature winding produces d axles and q shaft currents simultaneously, and magnetic field caused by d shaft currents causes caused by rotor absolutely Most of magnetic flux radially into radial core, with radial direction armature winding caused by magnetic field interaction produce main torque, separately Outer sub-fraction magnetic flux is entered axially into axial stator, the q shaft current phase interactions of this part magnetic flux and axial armature winding With generation power torque.
5. mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor as claimed in claim 3, it is characterized in that, motor During normal operation, axial stator winding plays increase motor radial direction main flux and produces power torque;Transported when needing weak magnetism speed expansion During row, reduce the d shaft currents of motor axial direction stator winding, this causes considerable rotor flux to enter axially into axial iron core In, reducing the radial direction main flux of motor so that radial stator is operated under the conditions of weak magnetic, significantly increases the speed adjustable range of motor, Realize weak magnetism speed expansion.
6. mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, it is above-mentioned When the quantity of axial stator in mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor is two, it is respectively placed at Corresponding two ends of rotor, the shape that two ends of rotor are processed into fanning ring form axial pole.
7. the torque of the mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor as described in claim 1-6 is any is driven Dynamic method, it is characterized in that, radial stator produces main driving torque, and axial stator realizes weak magnetic function and produces power torque, has Body includes:
When motor normal work does not need weak magnetic field operation, the armature winding of axial stator produces d shaft currents so that motor axial direction Main flux reduces, and radial direction main flux increase, motor torque is mainly produced by radial direction main flux and radial direction armature winding magnetic field, now Motor axial direction armature winding only applies d shaft currents, and radial direction main flux is maximum, passes through the d axles electricity of regulation motor axial armature winding The size of stream regulation radial direction main flux;
When motor needs to carry out weak magnetic field operation, the d shaft currents of axial armature winding reduce, and motor radial direction main flux reduces, axle Increase to main flux, now radial component motor is operated in weak magnetic condition, while reducing the d shaft currents of axial armature winding, Increase its q shaft current simultaneously, now axial stator armature winding produces power torque with axial main flux, increases the torque of motor Density and power density.
8. the torque of the mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor as described in claim 1-6 is any is driven Dynamic method, it is characterized in that, axial stator produces main driving torque, and radial stator realizes that weak magnetic function produces power torque, specifically Including:
When motor normal work does not need weak magnetic field operation, the armature winding of radial stator produces d shaft currents so that motor is radially Main flux reduces, and axial main flux increase, motor torque is mainly produced by axial main flux and axial armature winding magnetic field, now Motor radial direction armature winding only applies d shaft currents, and axial main flux is maximum, passes through the d axles electricity of regulation motor radial direction armature winding Stream adjusts the size of axial main flux;
When motor needs to carry out weak magnetic field operation, the d shaft currents of radial direction armature winding reduce, and motor axial direction main flux reduces, footpath Increase to main flux, now axial component motor is operated in weak magnetic condition, while reducing the d shaft currents of radial direction armature winding, Increase its q shaft current simultaneously, now radial stator armature winding produces power torque with radial direction main flux, increases the torque of motor Density and power density.
9. the torque of the mixed magnetic circuit low harmony wave multiple stators weak magnetism speed expansion permagnetic synchronous motor as described in claim 1-6 is any is driven Dynamic method, it is characterized in that, radial stator and axial stator produce driving torque, specifically include:
The radial direction armature winding and axial armature winding of motor do not produce d shaft currents, q shaft currents are only produced, in this feelings Under condition, radial direction main flux and radial stator armature field produce driving torque, axial main flux and the production of axial stator armature field Raw driving torque, i.e. radial stator and axial stator all produce driving torque, and now motor torque density and power density reach To maximum.
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CN112398301B (en) * 2020-11-06 2022-04-15 山东大学 Hybrid magnetic circuit permanent magnet synchronous motor for electric vehicle and driving method thereof
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