CN105332683B - Fracturing experiments device and method - Google Patents

Fracturing experiments device and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105332683B
CN105332683B CN201510784720.6A CN201510784720A CN105332683B CN 105332683 B CN105332683 B CN 105332683B CN 201510784720 A CN201510784720 A CN 201510784720A CN 105332683 B CN105332683 B CN 105332683B
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China
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fluid
plate
hydraulic pump
cavity
fluid injection
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CN201510784720.6A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105332683A (en
Inventor
邹雨时
周彤
王雷
张士诚
马新仿
肖博
李宁
郝思莹
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中国石油大学(北京)
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Priority to CN201510784720.6A priority Critical patent/CN105332683B/en
Publication of CN105332683A publication Critical patent/CN105332683A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/25Methods for stimulating production
    • E21B43/26Methods for stimulating production by forming crevices or fractures

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of fracturing experiments device and method, and the device includes:Controller, the cavity for accommodating rock sample, fluid feed system, fluid injection conduit line, multiple hydraulic pumps, at least one loading piston and at least one load equalization part.Wherein, with corresponding load equalization component contact when loading piston is to rock sample application pressure.Load equalization part includes setting fluted on bottom plate and rotor, bottom plate, and rotor is rotatably mounted in groove.Fluid feed system is connected with fluid injection conduit line, and fracturing fluid is provided for fluid injection conduit line.Fluid injection conduit line is located in cavity, and is connected with the pit shaft in rock sample.The device is by setting the load equalization part comprising bottom plate and rotor so that when the loaded planar of rock sample is not parallel, causes the power suffered by rock sample surface to become uniform by the rotation of rotor, so as to ensure the accuracy of fracturing experiments result.

Description

Fracturing experiments device and method

Technical field

The present invention relates to fracturing technique, more particularly to a kind of fracturing experiments device and method.

Background technology

Fracturing technique is the crucial yield-increasing technology in oil-gas field development.Its principle is to note fluid by ground high pressure pump group Enter pit shaft and produce pressure in shaft bottom, when pressure exceedes crustal stress and the tensile strength on stratum, one can be produced in shaft bottom and split Seam, the crack can as oil gas migration pathway.

In the prior art, fracturing process can be simulated by experimental provision, specifically, by the stress for simulating subsurface rock Environment, and the process of actual pressing crack construction complete experiment, during specific experiment, are in into experimental provision by rock sample It is interior, pressure is directly applied come the underground stress suffered by simulation rock to rock using piston, then fracturing fluid is passed through, until rock Produce crack and fracturing fluid is entered in crack.The form that experiment terminates rear fracture is intuitively observed, so as to study each The influence of factor (crustal stress, operational discharge capacity, fracturing fluid viscosity, intrinsic fracture property etc.) fracture crack initiation extension is planted, so as to be Practice provides effective theoretical foundation and technical support.

But, when simulating fracturing process using existing experimental provision, when rock sample is not the square of standard, rock The loaded planar of stone sample can be not parallel, can so cause piston to rock sample carry out terminal pressure loading when rock sample by Power is uneven, so as to cause the experimental result for simulating pressure break inaccurate.

The content of the invention

The present invention provides a kind of fracturing experiments device and method, for solving rock sample discontinuity in the prior art The problem of experimental result of caused simulation pressure break is inaccurate.

First aspect present invention provides a kind of fracturing experiments device, and the device includes:Controller, for accommodating rock sample Cavity, fluid feed system, fluid injection conduit line, multiple hydraulic pumps, at least one loading piston and at least one load Equalizer section;Wherein,

The multiple hydraulic pump includes:One Main Hydraulic Pump and at least one from hydraulic pump, the Main Hydraulic Pump and institute At least one is stated to be connected with the controller from hydraulic pump, it is described at least one from hydraulic pump with it is described at least one loading live Plug is corresponded, and at least one described loading piston is connected with the Main Hydraulic Pump, and at least one described loading piston point Do not connected with corresponding from hydraulic pump;

The Main Hydraulic Pump be high-pressure pump, it is described from hydraulic pump be low-lift pump;

At least one described loading piston is corresponded with least one described load equalization part, the loading piston pair With the corresponding load equalization component contact during rock sample application pressure;

At least one described load equalization part is arranged at the outside of the cavity;

The load equalization part includes setting fluted on bottom plate and rotor, the bottom plate, the rotatable peace of rotor In the groove;

The fluid feed system is connected with the fluid injection conduit line, and fracturing fluid is provided for the fluid injection conduit line;

The fluid injection conduit line is located in the cavity, and is connected with the pit shaft in the rock sample.

Second aspect of the present invention provides a kind of fracturing experiments method, and this method is applied to foregoing device, and this method includes:

Controller opens Main Hydraulic Pump, and controls the Main Hydraulic Pump to apply corresponding at least one loading piston successively Preset pressure, wherein, the preset pressure that the Main Hydraulic Pump puts on different loading pistons is different;

Controller opens at least one from hydraulic pump, and control it is described at least one from hydraulic pump respectively to corresponding loading Piston applies preset pressure, wherein, the different preset pressure differences applied from hydraulic pump;

Controller is monitored and record pressure break result to be passed through fracturing fluid in rock sample.

Fracturing experiments device provided by the present invention, by centering the load comprising bottom plate and rotor in fracturing experiments dress Lotus equalizer section so that when the loaded planar of rock sample is not parallel, causes rock sample surface institute by the rotation of rotor The power being subject to becomes uniform, so as to ensure the accuracy of fracturing experiments result.

Brief description of the drawings

In order to illustrate more clearly about the embodiment of the present invention or technical scheme of the prior art, below will be to embodiment or existing There is the accompanying drawing used required in technology description to be briefly described, it should be apparent that, drawings in the following description are this hairs Some bright embodiments, for those of ordinary skill in the art, on the premise of not paying creative work, can be with root Other accompanying drawings are obtained according to these accompanying drawings.

The structural representation for the fracturing experiments device embodiment one that Fig. 1 provides for the present invention;

The structural representation for the fracturing experiments device embodiment two that Fig. 2 provides for the present invention;

The structural representation for the fracturing experiments device embodiment three that Fig. 3 provides for the present invention;

The structural representation for the fracturing experiments device embodiment four that Fig. 4 provides for the present invention;

The structural representation for the fracturing experiments device embodiment five that Fig. 5 provides for the present invention;

The schematic flow sheet for the fracturing experiments embodiment of the method one that Fig. 6 provides for the present invention.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in the embodiment of the present invention, the technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention is carried out clear, complete Site preparation is described, it is clear that described embodiment is only a part of embodiment of the invention, rather than whole embodiments.It is based on Embodiment in the present invention, it is every other that those of ordinary skill in the art are obtained under the premise of creative work is not made Embodiment, belongs to the scope of protection of the invention.

The structural representation for the fracturing experiments device embodiment one that Fig. 1 provides for the present invention, as shown in figure 1, the pressure break is real Experiment device includes:Controller 1, the cavity 2 for accommodating rock sample, fluid feed system 3, fluid injection conduit line 4, multiple liquid Press pump, at least one loading piston 5 and at least one load equalization part 6.

Multiple hydraulic pumps include:One Main Hydraulic Pump 9 and at least one from hydraulic pump 10, Main Hydraulic Pump 9 and at least one Individual to be connected from hydraulic pump 10 with controller 1, at least one is corresponded from hydraulic pump 10 with least one loading piston 5, extremely Few loading piston 5 is connected with Main Hydraulic Pump 9, and at least one loading piston 5 connects with corresponding from hydraulic pump 10 respectively Connect.

At least one loading piston 5 is corresponded with least one load equalization part 6, and loading piston 5 is to rock sample Contacted when applying pressure with corresponding load equalization part 6.

At least one load equalization part 6 is arranged at the outside of cavity 2.

Load equalization part 6 includes setting fluted on bottom plate 65 and rotor 66, bottom plate 65, and rotor 66 is rotatably mounted to In the groove.

Fluid feed system 3 is connected with fluid injection conduit line 4, is that fluid injection conduit line 4 provides fracturing fluid.

Fluid injection conduit line 4 is located in cavity 2, and is connected with the pit shaft in rock sample.

Alternatively, above-mentioned Main Hydraulic Pump 9 and it is connected, is provided by hydraulic cylinder for hydraulic pump with hydraulic cylinder from hydraulic pump 10 Hydraulic pressure, and promote loading piston 5 by Main Hydraulic Pump 9 and from hydraulic pump 10.

Alternatively, one end that loading piston 5 is contacted with load equalization part 6 is provided with groove, equal in loading piston and load Weighing apparatus part 6 can accommodate rotor 66 when contacting.

It should be noted that for the rock sample of large-size, such as 40cm × 40cm × 40cm rock sample can To be directly in carry out fracturing experiments in cavity 2, for the less rock sample of size, such as 30cm × 30cm × 30cm rock Stone sample, can be wrapped up during the moderate metal shell of a layer thickness is in again cavity on its surface, to ensure experimental result Accuracy.

When carrying out fracturing experiments using said apparatus, start controller, under the control of the controller, start main liquid first Press pump moves loading piston, and promotes rock sample so that rock sample is in cavity, when rock sample is in into cavity Afterwards, close Main Hydraulic Pump and start from hydraulic pump, apply less power from hydraulic pump for loading piston so that loading piston is to rock Stone sample applies less power, i.e., rock sample is accurately pressurizeed, with simulation rock in actual underground environment suffered by Stress.Reach after underground environment stress, be that the rock sample in cavity injects fracturing fluid by infusion fluid systems, and carry out rock The frac of stone.If the loaded planar of rock sample is not parallel, when loading piston contact load equalization part, load is equal Rotor in weighing apparatus part is rotated accordingly, so that the power suffered by the rock sample surface contacted becomes equal It is even.

In the present embodiment, by centering the load equalization part comprising bottom plate and rotor in fracturing experiments dress so that When the loaded planar of rock sample is not parallel, the power suffered by rock sample surface is caused to become equal by the rotation of rotor It is even, so as to ensure the accuracy of fracturing experiments result.

Preferably, Main Hydraulic Pump 9 is high-pressure pump, is low-lift pump from hydraulic pump 10.

The structural representation for the fracturing experiments device embodiment two that Fig. 2 provides for the present invention, on the basis of Fig. 1, such as Fig. 2 Shown, at least one loading piston 5 includes:The first loading loading loading piston of piston the 52, the 3rd of piston 51, second (does not show Go out), correspondingly, at least one load equalization part 6 includes:First load equalization part 61, the second load equalization part 62, Three load equalization part (not shown).

First loading piston 51 is arranged on the outside of the first surface of cavity 2, the second loading piston 52 is arranged at the of cavity 2 Two outer side surfaces, the 3rd loading piston are arranged at the 3rd outer side surface of cavity 2, wherein, cavity 2 is cuboid, above-mentioned first Surface, above-mentioned second surface and above-mentioned 3rd surface are adjacent two-by-two.

It should be noted that rock sample is generally square, it is therefore preferred that cavity could be arranged to and rock-like The square of product matching.

In the present embodiment, loading piston is specially three orthogonal and adjacent two-by-two loading pistons, is separately positioned on Three outer side surfaces of cavity, so as to form three shaft models, three shaft model can effectively simulate rock in true underground environment Suffered triaxial stress, so as to ensure the accuracy of fracturing experiments.

The structural representation for the fracturing experiments device embodiment three that Fig. 3 provides for the present invention, on the basis of Fig. 1 or Fig. 2, As shown in figure 3, the device also includes:At least one Pipe installing part 7, at least one Pipe installing part 7 and at least one Load equalization part 6 is corresponded, and Pipe installing part 7 is located between load equalization part 6 and cavity 2.

Pipe installing part 7 includes:Fluid injects plate 71 and balance bottom plate 72, fluid injection plate 71 and balance bottom plate 72 It is parallel, and fluid injection plate 71 end face with balance bottom plate 72 be fixedly connected, fluid inject plate 71 other end and load Equalizer section 6 is fixedly connected, and balance bottom plate 72 is located at fluid and injected between plate 71 and cavity 2.

Balance bottom plate 72 and be provided with least one through hole, fluid injection plate 71 is provided with least one groove.

Correspondingly, a kind of described fluid injection conduit line 4 of above-described embodiment is located in cavity 2, and with rock sample Pit shaft connection, be specially:Fluid injection conduit line 4 is connected to fluid injection plate 71, and injects the groove of plate 71 through fluid and wear Cross above-mentioned through hole and be plugged in the pit shaft of rock sample, connected with pit shaft.

When fluid injection conduit line is connected with the pit shaft being plugged in rock sample, its junction has certain projection, And by being provided with the balance bottom plate of through hole and injecting plate with slotted fluid, raised pass through on balance bottom plate can be caused Through hole and be contained in the groove of fluid injection conduit, without destroy rock sample loading surface it is parallel, it is ensured that in fracturing process Rock sample uniform force.

Further, the groove in fluid injection plate can accommodate fluid injection conduit line, the i.e. paving for fluid injection conduit line If because fluid injection conduit line is all laid in groove, will not also destroy the parallel of rock sample loading surface, it is ensured that in fracturing process Rock sample uniform force.

Further, it is provided with balance bottom plate at least one through hole, fluid injection plate and is provided with least one groove, when When being provided with multiple pit shafts in rock sample, multiple pit shafts can be distinguished by least one above-mentioned through hole and at least one groove It is connected in fluid injection conduit line, so as to realize that many pit shafts are injected separately into fracturing fluid, so as to realize many wellbore fracture experiments.

The structural representation for the fracturing experiments device embodiment four that Fig. 4 provides for the present invention, on the basis of Fig. 3, such as Fig. 4 Shown, fluid feed system 3 includes:Carbon dioxide phase converting member 31, Pressure Control Unit 32 and fluid container 33.

The output end of carbon dioxide phase converting member 31 is connected with the first input end of fluid container 33.

Pressure Control Unit 32 is connected with the second input of fluid container 33.

The output end of fluid container 33 is connected with fluid injection conduit line 4.

Preferably, carbon dioxide phase converting member 31 is cold bath.

Preferably, it is provided with heat-insulation layer outside fluid injection conduit line 4.

, it is necessary to which the phase to carbon dioxide is strictly controlled, to meet liquid when using carbon dioxide as fracturing fluid The requirement of experiment of the pressure break physical analogy of state carbon dioxide and supercritical carbon dioxide.In the present embodiment, pass through cold bath pair The temperature of carbon dioxide is controlled, meanwhile, Pressure Control Unit is controlled to the pressure of carbon dioxide, is being met necessarily After temperature and pressure, produce the carbon dioxide pressure break liquid for meeting phase requirement and be stored in fluid container, it is real when starting pressure break After testing, carbon dioxide pressure break liquid is exported from the output end of fluid container.Heat-insulation layer is set outside fluid input tube line, can be hindered Occurs the influence that heat exchange is produced to phase with extraneous when only carbon dioxide flows through fluid input tube line.

The structural representation for the fracturing experiments device embodiment five that Fig. 5 provides for the present invention, on the basis of Fig. 4, such as Fig. 5 Shown, the device also includes:Temperature control unit 8.

Temperature control unit 8 includes:Heating plate 81, temperature sensor 82 and temperature controller 83.

Heating plate 81 is arranged on the inwall of cavity 2.

Temperature sensor 82 is plugged in the outer wall of cavity 2.

Heating plate 81 and temperature sensor 82 are connected with temperature controller 83.

Specifically, cavity 2 has a housing 21, and the end face that housing 21 is contacted with above-mentioned balance bottom plate 72 is provided with through hole, leads to Hole size match with balancing the size of bottom plate 72 so that loading piston 5 promote load equalization part 6, fluid inject plate 71 and When balancing bottom plate 72, these three parts can be moved to the inside of cavity 2 and be contacted with rock sample.

Alternatively, heating plate 81 can be arranged on the outer wall of rock sample in cavity, can also be arranged on cavity inner wall.

Preferably, temperature sensor is temperature probe.

In the present embodiment, by increasing temperature control unit in the apparatus, can set and test experience needed for Steady temperature, with temperature of effective simulation rock in actual underground environment, it is ensured that the accuracy of fracturing experiments.

The schematic flow sheet for the fracturing experiments embodiment of the method one that Fig. 6 provides for the present invention, this method is applied to foregoing Device, as shown in fig. 6, this method includes:

S101, controller open Main Hydraulic Pump, and control Main Hydraulic Pump to apply correspondence at least one loading piston successively Preset pressure, wherein, the preset pressures that Main Hydraulic Pump puts on different loading pistons are different.

Use Main Hydraulic Pump loading piston is applied corresponding preset pressure cause loading piston promote load equalization part, Fluid injects plate and balance bottom plate is quickly moved at rock sample.

S102, controller open at least one from hydraulic pump, and control at least one to add respectively to corresponding from hydraulic pump Carry piston and apply preset pressure, wherein, the different preset pressure differences applied from hydraulic pump.

Using it is different from hydraulic pump respectively to it is corresponding loading piston apply preset pressure so that loading piston respectively from Different directions apply accurate stress to rock sample, and the stress of different directions can carry out difference according to actual underground environment and set Put, so as to effectively simulate true underground environment, it is ensured that the accuracy of fracturing experiments.

S103, controller are after fluid feed system injects fracturing fluid into rock sample, monitoring and record pressure break result.

In the present embodiment, loading piston is caused to promote load equalization part, fluid to inject first by high pressure Main Hydraulic Pump Plate and balance bottom plate are quickly moved at rock sample, reuse low pressure and rock sample is entered from different directions from hydraulic pump The accurate pressurization of row, so as to effectively simulation true environment.Further, using Main Hydraulic Pump with coordinating loading from hydraulic pump Mode, can greatly save the time of fracturing experiments, through experiment, use the above method to cause loading procedure in fracturing experiments Time used shortened to 15 minutes~20 minutes from 1 hour, so as to greatly improve the efficiency of fracturing experiments.

Finally it should be noted that:Various embodiments above is merely illustrative of the technical solution of the present invention, rather than its limitations;To the greatest extent The present invention is described in detail with reference to foregoing embodiments for pipe, it will be understood by those within the art that:Its according to The technical scheme described in foregoing embodiments can so be modified, or which part or all technical characteristic are entered Row equivalent substitution;And these modifications or replacement, the essence of appropriate technical solution is departed from various embodiments of the present invention technology The scope of scheme.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of fracturing experiments device, it is characterised in that including:Controller, the cavity for accommodating rock sample, fluid supply System, fluid injection conduit line, multiple hydraulic pumps, at least one loading piston and at least one load equalization part;Wherein,
The multiple hydraulic pump includes:One Main Hydraulic Pump and at least one from hydraulic pump, the Main Hydraulic Pump and it is described extremely Few one be connected from hydraulic pump with the controller, it is described at least one from hydraulic pump with it is described at least one load piston one One correspondence, it is described at least one loading piston be connected with the Main Hydraulic Pump, and it is described at least one load piston respectively with It is corresponding to be connected from hydraulic pump;
The Main Hydraulic Pump be high-pressure pump, it is described from hydraulic pump be low-lift pump;
At least one described loading piston is corresponded with least one described load equalization part, and the loading piston is to described With the corresponding load equalization component contact during rock sample application pressure;
At least one described load equalization part is arranged at the outside of the cavity;
Each load equalization part includes setting fluted on bottom plate and rotor, the bottom plate, the rotatable peace of rotor In the groove;
The fluid feed system is connected with the fluid injection conduit line, and fracturing fluid is provided for the fluid injection conduit line;
The fluid injection conduit line is located in the cavity, and is connected with the pit shaft in the rock sample;
At least one described loading piston includes:First loading piston, the second loading piston, the 3rd loading piston, correspondingly, institute Stating at least one load equalization part includes:First load equalization part, the second load equalization part, the 3rd load equalization portion Part;
The first loading piston is arranged on the outside of the first surface of the cavity, the second loading piston is arranged at the chamber The second surface outside of body, the 3rd loading piston are arranged at the 3rd outer side surface of the cavity, wherein, the cavity is Cuboid, the first surface, the second surface and the 3rd surface are adjacent two-by-two.
2. device according to claim 1, it is characterised in that also include:At least one Pipe installing part, it is described at least One Pipe installing part is corresponded with least one described load equalization part, and the Pipe installing part is located at described carry Between lotus equalizer section and cavity;
The Pipe installing part includes:Fluid injects plate and balance bottom plate, the fluid injection plate and the balance bottom plate It is parallel, and the end face of fluid injection plate is fixedly connected with the balance bottom plate, the other end of fluid injection plate It is fixedly connected with the load equalization part, the balance bottom plate is located at the fluid and injected between plate and the cavity;
The balance bottom plate is provided with least one through hole, and the fluid injection plate is provided with least one groove;
Correspondingly, the fluid injection conduit line is located in the cavity, and is connected with the pit shaft in the rock sample, specifically For:The fluid injection conduit line is connected to the fluid injection plate, and injects the groove of plate through the fluid and lead to through described Hole and it is plugged in the pit shaft of the rock sample, is connected with the pit shaft.
3. device according to claim 2, it is characterised in that the fluid feed system includes:Carbon dioxide phase turns Change part, Pressure Control Unit and fluid container;
The output end of the carbon dioxide phase converting member is connected with the first input end of the fluid container;
The Pressure Control Unit is connected with the second input of the fluid container;
The output end of the fluid container is connected with the fluid injection conduit line.
4. device according to claim 3, it is characterised in that the carbon dioxide phase converting member is cold bath.
5. device according to claim 4, it is characterised in that be provided with heat-insulation layer outside the fluid injection conduit line.
6. device according to claim 3, it is characterised in that also include:Temperature control unit;
The temperature control unit includes:Heating plate, temperature sensor and temperature controller;
The heating plate is arranged on the inwall of the cavity;
The temperature sensor is plugged in the outer wall of the cavity;
The heating plate and the temperature sensor are connected with the temperature controller.
7. a kind of fracturing experiments method, it is characterised in that methods described is applied to the device described in claim any one of 1-6, Methods described includes:
Controller opens Main Hydraulic Pump, and controls the Main Hydraulic Pump to apply corresponding default at least one loading piston successively Pressure, wherein, the preset pressure that the Main Hydraulic Pump puts on different loading pistons is different;
The controller opens at least one from hydraulic pump, and control it is described at least one from hydraulic pump respectively to corresponding loading Piston applies preset pressure, wherein, the different preset pressure differences applied from hydraulic pump;
The controller is after fluid feed system injects fracturing fluid into rock sample, monitoring and record pressure break result.
CN201510784720.6A 2015-11-16 2015-11-16 Fracturing experiments device and method CN105332683B (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105954172A (en) * 2016-05-19 2016-09-21 西安科技大学 Coal bed liquid CO2 fracturing permeability improvement experimental device and method
CN106404549B (en) * 2016-10-31 2019-11-12 中国石油大学(北京) A kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision
CN107246255B (en) * 2017-07-26 2019-03-26 太原理工大学 Supercritical CO2With the simulator and method of the compound fracturing coal body of hydraulic fracturing

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CN103940962A (en) * 2014-04-15 2014-07-23 西安科技大学 System and method for simulating coal mine underground hydraulic fracturing experiment laboratory
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