CN106404549B - A kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision - Google Patents

A kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106404549B
CN106404549B CN201610972423.9A CN201610972423A CN106404549B CN 106404549 B CN106404549 B CN 106404549B CN 201610972423 A CN201610972423 A CN 201610972423A CN 106404549 B CN106404549 B CN 106404549B
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China
Prior art keywords
carbon dioxide
pressure chamber
pressure
supercritical carbon
heavy
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CN201610972423.9A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN106404549A (en
Inventor
张广清
吕延军
周大伟
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中国石油大学(北京)
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • G01N3/10Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces generated by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure
    • G01N3/12Pressure testing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/02Details

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision, feature includes pressure chamber, vacuum saturation system and carbon dioxide phase converting system.Pressure chamber includes airtight cavity, flat very heavy and heating rod.Airtight cavity is sealed by upper cover plate, confining pressure cylinder and pressure chamber base composition by sealing ring.Confining pressure cylinder side wall uniformly distributed four are flat very heavy, upper cover plate and pressure chamber base it is each fix one it is flat very heavy, heating rod is fixed in pressure chamber base.Vacuum saturation system includes vacuum pump and saturated solution station.Carbon dioxide phase conversion system includes carbon dioxide air source, cooling device and injection pump, and pressurization heating after carbon dioxide cooling liquefaction is converted to supercriticality.Supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation is tested under the conditions of the present invention carries out saturation pore pressure to rock and artificial test specimen, the parameters such as injection pressure, temperature, discharge capacity of fracturing fluid in real-time monitoring fracturing process, crack propagation law is obtained, is the experiment porch for studying supercritical carbon dioxide fracturing mechanism.

Description

A kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision
Technical field
The invention belongs to hydraulic fracturing simulated experiment fields, real more particularly to a kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation Experiment device.
Background technique
Hydraulic fracturing process can consume a large amount of water resource, and anhydrous Fracturing Technology does not use water substantially, alleviate pair The demand pressure of water resource, it is domestic at present to be widely applied not yet.Conventional fracturing fluid includes that water or various chemical reagent, residual are led Fracturing stitches permeability injury, to reduce fracturing yield increasing effect.In order to reduce conventional fracturing fluid to stratum especially hyposmosis, Low pressure, water sensitivity oil-gas reservoir injury, supercritical carbon dioxide fracturing technique rises therewith.Supercritical carbon dioxide is due to it The mobility of gas and the high density characteristic of liquid are had both, clear water can be replaced to implement pressure break, and exclude stratum and contact with water Chance, reduce fracturing process in water lock and injury of the water-sensitive to stratum.The anhydrous fracturing technique of supercritical carbon dioxide has weight Again using in air carbon dioxide, without using the good feature of water, fracturing effect, for reducing environmental pollution, saving water resource It is significant, there is directive significance for oil reservoir development.Foreign countries successfully apply this skill in many oil-gas reservoirs Art, it was confirmed that its characteristic without water phase without the residue easily row of returning, while the effect of increasing production of oil-gas reservoir can be effectively improved.
Supercritical carbon dioxide fracturing technique develops one of the effective measures of hypotonic oil gas field by China is become, wherein pressure break The geometric shape in crack is to influence one of the principal element of fracturing work effect, and reasonable fracturing work can make crack in reservoir Middle extension, and it is unlikely to through-fall layer and low-pressure permeability layer.At this stage, since supercritical carbon dioxide under coupling condition is consolidated in convection current The influence factor and extension mechanism of fracturing fracture propagation law recognize deficiency, and difficulty observes directly supercritical carbon dioxide pressure break institute The practical fracture pattern generated, people mostly use greatly excessively simplified two dimension or threedimensional model simulation supercritical carbon dioxide pressure break Process, with this instruct scene fracturing work, but obtained result with actually differ greatly.Therefore, pass through simulated formation item It is to recognize the important means of crack extension mechanism that part, which carries out indoor supercritical carbon dioxide crushing test, can directly detect simulation The physical process of supercritical carbon dioxide pressure break observes fracture pattern, obtains injection pressure, the temperature of the fracturing fluid in fracturing process Degree and discharge capacity and the numerical model established with this, which have more, to be of practical significance.
Summary of the invention
The invention discloses a kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision, can to rock and artificial test specimen into Supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation under the conditions of row saturation pore pressure is tested, the note of fracturing fluid in real-time monitoring fracturing process Enter the parameters such as pressure, temperature, discharge capacity, obtain crack propagation law under super critical condition, is supercritical carbon dioxide fracturing mechanism Research provide experiment porch.
For this purpose, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is that:
A kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision, including pressure chamber, vacuum saturation system and carbon dioxide The three parts such as phase converting system.
The supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision is horizontal positioned.
The pressure chamber is by airtight cavity, flat very heavy and heating bar construction.Airtight cavity includes upper cover plate, confining pressure cylinder and pressure Power room pedestal;Confining pressure cylinder one end is connected with upper cover plate, and one end is connected with pressure chamber base;It is described flat very heavy including pressure Plate, flat very heavy bottom plate and piston, are connected through a screw thread between piston tip and pressure plare, by pressure plare and flat very heavy bottom plate every Open, two independent pressure chambers of formation, there are two oil filler point on flat very heavy bottom plate, oil filler point and piston and flat very heavy bottom plate it Between the pressure chamber that is formed be connected, the pressure chamber formed between oil filler point and pressure plare and flat very heavy bottom plate is connected.It is flat very heavy up and down Be separately fixed on upper cover plate and pressure chamber base, four it is flat it is very heavy be fixed by bolts on confining pressure cylinder inner wall, form pressure Chamber is in cube shaped test specimen for putting.Hydraulic oil is injected by manual pump by hydraulic line flat very heavy, provides three-dimensional for test specimen Confining pressure.
The upper cover plate is fixed on confining pressure cylinder by support bracket bolt, is sealed between upper cover plate and confining pressure cylinder using sealing ring; The pressure chamber base is fixed on support bracket bolt, is sealed between pressure chamber base and confining pressure cylinder using sealing ring, to be formed One airtight cavity provides pore pressure for test specimen.
The heating rod is placed in pressure chamber base by four heating rods, and the indoor water of pressure is heated to assigned temperature And it is directly displayed on the display screen of temperature control panel by temperature sensor.
The vacuum saturation system is made of vacuum pump and saturated solution station.Vacuum pump passes through the pressure of hydraulic line and sealing Room is connected, and for pressure chamber to be evacuated, then test specimen in saturated liquid injection pressure room, will be made full using saturated solution station With.
The carbon dioxide phase converting system system is made of carbon dioxide air source, cooling device and injection pump, dioxy Change carbon gas and first pass through cooling device liquefaction, is then injected into test specimen by injection pump, passes through thermal conversion in pressure chamber For supercriticality.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effects of the present invention are:
Confining pressure cylinder in the present invention and between upper cover plate, pressure chamber base by sealing ring seal, reach pressure chamber To sealing state, so as to provide pore pressure by injecting high-pressure liquid medium into pressure chamber for test specimen;Hole is provided The medium of pressure is water, cheap easy acquisition, safety and environmental protection.The present invention is equipped with vacuum pump and heating rod, and using higher Pressure chamber can be evacuated by manufacturing process process equipment, and liquid can be made to be fully infiltrated into test specimen and make its saturation;Simulate the highest temperature Degree is 100 DEG C, maximum pressure 50MPa, thus truer simulation fracturing stratum physical condition.In addition, by by dioxy Change the cooling liquefaction of carbon gas, then pressurization heating is converted into supercriticality, is injected into test specimen by injection pump, realizing makes The liquid carbon dioxide of supercriticality is used to carry out crushing test as fracturing fluid.
The present invention carries out the supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation under the conditions of saturation pore pressure to rock and artificial test specimen It tests, the parameters such as injection pressure, temperature, discharge capacity of fracturing fluid in real-time monitoring fracturing process, complete equipment is easy to operate, and Crack expanded configuration range is increased under the conditions of limited sample dimensions;The present invention is flat very heavy to be fixed on confining pressure cylinder inner wall, upper cover plate Pressure line is connected in pressure chamber base, and using quick coupling, is convenient for fast quick-detach and assembly.
Detailed description of the invention
The following drawings are only intended to schematically illustrate and explain the present invention, not delimit the scope of the invention.Wherein,
Fig. 1 is the overall system view of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision of the invention;
Fig. 2 is supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation Experimental equipment of the invention;
Fig. 3 is supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision schematic cross-sectional view of the invention;
Fig. 4 is load confining pressure device structural schematic diagram of the invention;
Fig. 5 is flat very heavy deployed configuration schematic diagram of the invention.
Drawing reference numeral explanation: 1, carbon dioxide air source;2, cooling device;3, injection pump;4, heating rod;5, saturated solution station; 6, vacuum pump;7, manual pump;8, temperature sensor;9, fabrication hole;10, upper cover plate;11, nut;12, support bracket bolt;13, confining pressure Cylinder;14, pressure chamber base;15, sealing ring;16, test specimen;17, valve;18, pit shaft;19, spiral pipeline;20,21,22,23, 24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31, oil filler point;32, pressure plare;33, flat very heavy bottom plate;34, piston.
Specific embodiment
For a clearer understanding of the technical characteristics, objects and effects of the present invention, this hair of Detailed description of the invention is now compareed Bright specific embodiment.
Fig. 1 is the overall system view of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision of the invention;Fig. 2 is of the invention Supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation Experimental equipment;Fig. 3 is that supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation Experimental equipment section view is shown It is intended to;Fig. 4 is load confining pressure device structural schematic diagram of the invention;Fig. 5 is flat very heavy deployed configuration schematic diagram of the invention.
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision, feature includes that pressure chamber, vacuum are full With the three parts such as system and carbon dioxide phase converting system.Heating rod 4 is placed in pressure chamber base 14, vacuum saturation system Saturated solution station 5 and vacuum pump 6 be connected with pressure chamber by hydraulic line.
As shown in Figures 2 and 3, pressure chamber is made of airtight cavity, flat very heavy and heating rod 4.Airtight cavity includes upper cover Plate 10, confining pressure cylinder 13 and pressure chamber base 14, six roots of sensation support bracket bolt 12 connect three parts, and 6 nuts 11 are tightened fixation, It is sealed between upper cover plate 10 and confining pressure cylinder 13 using sealing element 15, sealing element 15 is used between pressure chamber base 14 and confining pressure cylinder 13 Sealing.
As shown in figure 4, in pressure chamber up and down it is flat it is very heavy be separately fixed on upper cover plate 10 and pressure chamber base 14, four sides To it is flat it is very heavy be fixed by bolts on 13 inner wall of confining pressure cylinder, form pressure chamber, for put be in cube shaped test specimen 16.Into one Step, as shown in figure 5, it is flat very heavy including pressure plare 32, flat very heavy bottom plate 33 and piston 34, between 34 top of piston and pressure plare 32 It is connected through a screw thread, pressure plare 32 and flat very heavy bottom plate 33 is separated, two independent pressure chambers of formation, flat very heavy middle pressure It is fluted respectively on plate and piston to keep two pressure chambers closed for placing sealing ring.
Carbon dioxide phase converting system system is made of carbon dioxide air source 1, cooling device 2 and injection pump 3, titanium dioxide Carbon gas first passes through the liquefaction of cooling device 2, is injected into test specimen 16 after then being pressurizeed by injection pump 3 by spiral pipeline 19, can So that the carbon dioxide in pipeline sufficiently heats to keep supecritical state in water.
The working principle of the invention approximately as:
Firstly, lifting equipment is sling upper cover plate 10 using four fabrication holes 9, test specimen 16 is packed into pressure chamber and will be managed Line 19 is connect with pit shaft 18, is covered tightly upper cover plate 10 and confining pressure cylinder 13 using six nuts 11.Starting vacuum pump 6 will be in pressure chamber It is evacuated, is then filled the water into pressure chamber, be saturated test specimen;It fills and heats water to target temperature using heating rod 4 after water, It after test specimen temperature is identical as water temperature, is controlled with manual pump 7 flat very heavy, applies rigid load to test specimen, by oil filler point 20,22, 24,26,28,30 injection hydraulic oil, oil filler point 21,23,25,27,29,31 are opened so that hydraulic in the pressure chamber being attached thereto Oil flows back into manual pump 7;After confining pressure loaded, load confining pressure pipeline valve is closed, is injected at this time into test specimen 16 Supercritical carbon dioxide, while pump injection pressure power and discharge capacity are recorded, the pressure and temperature at test specimen crack, until test specimen ruptures;Stop It is only pumped into fracturing fluid, oil filler point 21,23,25,27,29,31 is opened, and manual pump 7 is injected to oil filler point 20,22,24,26,28,30 Hydraulic oil, pressure plare is far from test specimen.It is cooled to room temperature to temperature, by opening valve 17 to pressure outdoor drainage, then utilizes Lifting equipment slings upper cover plate 10, disassembly test test specimen, splits test specimen then to observe its internal artificial fracture pattern, test Terminate.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision, which is characterized in that the supercritical carbon dioxide pressure break mould Draft experiment device includes pressure chamber, vacuum saturation system and carbon dioxide phase converting system three parts: pressure chamber includes closed Cavity, flat very heavy and heating rod;Airtight cavity is made of upper cover plate, confining pressure cylinder and pressure chamber base, and is sealed by sealing ring, So that pressure chamber is reached sealing state, confining pressure cylinder side wall uniformly distributed four flat very heavy, upper cover plate and pressure chamber base it is each fix one it is flat Very heavy, heating rod is fixed in pressure chamber base;Vacuum saturation system includes vacuum pump, saturated solution station and hydraulic line, vacuum After pump will be evacuated in pressure chamber, liquid is injected into pressure chamber from hydraulic line, liquid is high-pressure liquid medium, and liquid fills Infiltration test specimen is divided to provide saturation pore pressure for test specimen;Carbon dioxide phase converting system is by carbon dioxide air source, cooling device, Injection pump composition, can first cool down carbon dioxide by gaseous state liquefaction, and then pressurization heating is converted to supercriticality.
2. a kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that pressure chamber is logical It crosses sealing ring and forms an airtight cavity, pore pressure can be provided for test specimen.
3. a kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that in pressure chamber 4 heating rods on pedestal, temperature sensor and temperature control panel across upper cover plate form, and heat medium is water.
4. a kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that carbon dioxide Phase converting system is made of carbon dioxide air source, cooling device and injection pump, and carbon dioxide first passes through cooling device liquefaction, so It is injected into test specimen by injection pump afterwards, passing through thermal conversion in pressure chamber is supercriticality.
CN201610972423.9A 2016-10-31 2016-10-31 A kind of supercritical carbon dioxide fracture simulation experimental provision CN106404549B (en)

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