CN105332683A - Fracturing experimental facility and method - Google Patents

Fracturing experimental facility and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105332683A
CN105332683A CN201510784720.6A CN201510784720A CN105332683A CN 105332683 A CN105332683 A CN 105332683A CN 201510784720 A CN201510784720 A CN 201510784720A CN 105332683 A CN105332683 A CN 105332683A
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China
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hydraulic pump
fluid injection
cavity
piston
fluid
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CN201510784720.6A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN105332683B (en
Inventor
邹雨时
周彤
王雷
张士诚
马新仿
肖博
李宁
郝思莹
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中国石油大学(北京)
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Priority to CN201510784720.6A priority Critical patent/CN105332683B/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/25Methods for stimulating production
    • E21B43/26Methods for stimulating production by forming crevices or fractures

Abstract

The invention provides a fracturing experimental facility and method. The facility comprises a controller, a cavity, a fluid supplying system, a fluid injection pipeline, a plurality of hydraulic pumps, at least one loading piston and at least one load balancing component, wherein the cavity is used for accommodating rock samples; the loading pistons are in contact with the corresponding load balancing components when pressure is applied to the rock samples; each load balancing component comprises a bottom plate and a rotor; each bottom plate is provided with a groove; each rotor is rotatably mounted in the corresponding groove; the fluid supplying system is connected with the fluid injection pipeline, and provides fracturing liquid for the fluid injection pipeline; and the fluid injection pipeline penetrates in the cavity and communicates with a shaft in the rock samples. By the load balancing components comprising the bottom plates and the rotors, and when loading planes of the rock samples are not parallel, the force applied to the surfaces of the rock samples can be uniform through rotation of the rotors, so that accuracy of a fracturing experimental result is guaranteed.

Description

Fracturing experiments device and method

Technical field

The present invention relates to fracturing technique, particularly relate to a kind of fracturing experiments device and method.

Background technology

Fracturing technique is the crucial yield-increasing technology in oil-gas field development.Its principle fluid is injected pit shaft by ground high-pressure pump group and produces pressure in shaft bottom, and when pressure exceedes geostatic stress and the tensile strength on stratum, can produce a crack in shaft bottom, this crack can as the migration pathway of oil gas.

In prior art, can unit simulation fracturing process by experiment, particularly, by the ambient stress of simulate formation rock, and the process of actual pressing crack construction completes experiment, in specific experiment process, be in experimental facilities by rock sample, adopt piston directly to carry out the underground stress suffered by simulation rock to rock applying pressure, then pass into fracturing fluid, until rock produces crack and makes fracturing fluid enter in crack.The form that experiment terminates rear fracture is observed intuitively, thus the impact of research various factors (geostatic stress, operational discharge capacity, fracturing fluid viscosity, intrinsic fracture character etc.) fracture crack initiation expansion, thus provide effective theoretical foundation and technical support for putting into practice.

But, when using existing experimental facilities to simulate fracturing process, when rock sample is not standard square, the loaded planar of rock sample can be not parallel, piston can be caused like this to carry out rock sample discontinuity when terminal pressure loads to rock sample, thus cause the experimental result simulating pressure break inaccurate.

Summary of the invention

The invention provides a kind of fracturing experiments device and method, for solving the inaccurate problem of experimental result of the simulation pressure break that rock sample discontinuity in prior art causes.

First aspect present invention provides a kind of fracturing experiments device, and this device comprises: controller, for holding the cavity of rock sample, fluid feed system, fluid injection conduit line, multiple hydraulic pump, at least one loads piston and at least one load equalization parts; Wherein,

Described multiple hydraulic pump comprises: Main Hydraulic Pump and at least one is from hydraulic pump, described Main Hydraulic Pump and described at least one be all connected with described controller from hydraulic pump, described at least one from hydraulic pump and described at least one load piston one_to_one corresponding, at least one loading piston described is all connected with described Main Hydraulic Pump, and at least one loading piston described connects from hydraulic pump with corresponding respectively;

Described at least one load piston and at least one load equalization parts one_to_one corresponding described, described loading piston to during described rock sample applying pressure with corresponding described load equalization component contact;

At least one load equalization parts described are arranged at the outside of described cavity;

Described load equalization parts comprise base plate and rotor, and described base plate is provided with groove, and described rotor is rotatable to be arranged in described groove;

Described fluid feed system is connected with described fluid injection conduit line, for described fluid injection conduit line provides fracturing fluid;

Described fluid injection conduit line is located in described cavity, and is communicated with the pit shaft in described rock sample.

Second aspect present invention provides a kind of fracturing experiments method, and the method is applied to aforesaid device, and the method comprises:

Main Hydraulic Pump opened by controller, and controls described Main Hydraulic Pump applies correspondence successively preset pressure at least one loading piston, and wherein, described Main Hydraulic Pump puts on the different preset pressure difference loading piston;

Controller opens at least one from hydraulic pump, and described in controlling, at least one applies preset pressure to the loading piston of correspondence respectively from hydraulic pump, and wherein, the different preset pressure from hydraulic pump applying is different;

Controller is pass into fracturing fluid in rock sample, and monitoring and record pressure break result.

Fracturing experiments device provided by the present invention, by arranging the load equalization parts comprising base plate and rotor in fracturing experiments device, make when the loaded planar of rock sample is not parallel, make the power suffered by rock sample surface become even by the rotation of rotor, thus ensure the accuracy of fracturing experiments result.

Accompanying drawing explanation

In order to be illustrated more clearly in the embodiment of the present invention or technical scheme of the prior art, be briefly described to the accompanying drawing used required in embodiment or description of the prior art below, apparently, accompanying drawing in the following describes is some embodiments of the present invention, for those of ordinary skill in the art, under the prerequisite not paying creative work, other accompanying drawing can also be obtained according to these accompanying drawings.

Fig. 1 is the structural representation of fracturing experiments device embodiment one provided by the invention;

Fig. 2 is the structural representation of fracturing experiments device embodiment two provided by the invention;

Fig. 3 is the structural representation of fracturing experiments device embodiment three provided by the invention;

Fig. 4 is the structural representation of fracturing experiments device embodiment four provided by the invention;

Fig. 5 is the structural representation of fracturing experiments device embodiment five provided by the invention;

Fig. 6 is the schematic flow sheet of fracturing experiments embodiment of the method one provided by the invention.

Detailed description of the invention

Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in the embodiment of the present invention, be clearly and completely described the technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention, obviously, described embodiment is only the present invention's part embodiment, instead of whole embodiments.Based on the embodiment in the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art, not making the every other embodiment obtained under creative work prerequisite, belong to the scope of protection of the invention.

Fig. 1 is the structural representation of fracturing experiments device embodiment one provided by the invention, as shown in Figure 1, this fracturing experiments device comprises: controller 1, for holding the cavity 2 of rock sample, fluid feed system 3, fluid injection conduit line 4, multiple hydraulic pump, at least one loads piston 5 and at least one load equalization parts 6.

Multiple hydraulic pump comprises: Main Hydraulic Pump 9 and at least one is from hydraulic pump 10, Main Hydraulic Pump 9 and at least one be all connected with controller 1 from hydraulic pump 10, at least one loads piston 5 one_to_one corresponding from hydraulic pump 10 and at least one, at least one loads piston 5 and is all connected with Main Hydraulic Pump 9, and at least one loading piston 5 connects from hydraulic pump 10 with corresponding respectively.

At least one loads piston 5 and at least one load equalization parts 6 one_to_one corresponding, loads when piston 5 pairs of rock samples apply pressure and contacts with corresponding load equalization parts 6.

At least one load equalization parts 6 is arranged at the outside of cavity 2.

Load equalization parts 6 comprise base plate 65 and rotor 66, and base plate 65 is provided with groove, and rotor 66 is rotatable to be arranged in this groove.

Fluid feed system 3 is connected with fluid injection conduit line 4, for fluid injection conduit line 4 provides fracturing fluid.

Fluid injection conduit line 4 is located in cavity 2, and is communicated with the pit shaft in rock sample.

Alternatively, above-mentioned Main Hydraulic Pump 9 and being connected with hydraulic cylinder from hydraulic pump 10, by hydraulic cylinder for hydraulic pump provides hydraulic pressure, and promotes to load piston 5 by Main Hydraulic Pump 9 and from hydraulic pump 10.

Alternatively, one end that loading piston 5 contacts with load equalization parts 6 is provided with groove, can hold rotor 66 when loading piston and contacting with load equalization parts 6.

It should be noted that, for the rock sample of large-size, the rock sample of such as 40cm × 40cm × 40cm, can be directly carry out fracturing experiments in cavity 2, for the rock sample that size is less, the rock sample of such as 30cm × 30cm × 30cm can be in cavity at the metal shell that its surface parcel a layer thickness is moderate, to ensure the accuracy of experimental result again.

When using said apparatus to carry out fracturing experiments, start-up connector, under the control of the controller, first starting Main Hydraulic Pump makes loading piston move, and promote rock sample, rock sample is made to be in cavity, after rock sample is cavity, close Main Hydraulic Pump and start from hydraulic pump, be load piston to apply less power from hydraulic pump, make to load piston and less power is applied to rock sample, namely rock sample is accurately pressurizeed, with the stress that simulation rock is suffered in actual underground environment.After reaching underground environment stress, be the rock sample injection fracturing fluid in cavity by infusion fluid systems, and carry out the frac of rock.If the loaded planar of rock sample is not parallel, when loading piston contact load equalization parts, the rotor in load equalization parts rotates accordingly, thus makes the power suffered by rock sample surface contacted with it become even.

In the present embodiment, by arranging the load equalization parts comprising base plate and rotor in fracturing experiments device, make when the loaded planar of rock sample is not parallel, make the power suffered by rock sample surface become even by the rotation of rotor, thus ensure the accuracy of fracturing experiments result.

Preferably, Main Hydraulic Pump 9 is high-pressure pump, is low-lift pump from hydraulic pump 10.

Fig. 2 is the structural representation of fracturing experiments device embodiment two provided by the invention, on the basis of Fig. 1, as shown in Figure 2, at least one loads piston 5 and comprises: first loads piston 51, second loads piston 52, the 3rd loading piston (not shown), correspondingly, at least one load equalization parts 6 comprises: the first load equalization parts 61, second load equalization parts 62, the 3rd load equalization parts (not shown).

First to load outside first surface that piston 51 is arranged at cavity 2, second to load outside second surface that piston 52 is arranged at cavity 2, the 3rd load the 3rd outer side surface that piston is arranged at cavity 2, wherein, cavity 2 is cuboid, and above-mentioned first surface, above-mentioned second surface are adjacent between two with above-mentioned 3rd surface.

It should be noted that, rock sample is generally square, and therefore, preferably, cavity can be set to the square mated with rock sample.

In the present embodiment, loading piston is specially three orthogonal and adjacent between two loading pistons, be separately positioned on three outer side surfaces of cavity, thus form three shaft models, this three shaft model can triaxial stress effectively in Reality simulation underground environment suffered by rock, thus ensures the accuracy of fracturing experiments.

Fig. 3 is the structural representation of fracturing experiments device embodiment three provided by the invention, on the basis of Fig. 1 or Fig. 2, as shown in Figure 3, this device also comprises: at least one Pipe installing parts 7, at least one Pipe installing parts 7 and at least one load equalization parts 6 one_to_one corresponding, Pipe installing parts 7 are between load equalization parts 6 and cavity 2.

Pipe installing parts 7 comprise: fluid injection plate 71 and balance base plate 72, fluid injection plate 71 is parallel with balance base plate 72, and an end face of fluid injection plate 71 is fixedly connected with balance base plate 72, the other end of fluid injection plate 71 is fixedly connected with load equalization parts 6, and balance base plate 72 is between fluid injection plate 71 and cavity 2.

Balance base plate 72 is provided with at least one through hole, and fluid injection plate 71 is provided with at least one groove.

Correspondingly, a kind of described fluid injection conduit line 4 of above-described embodiment is located in cavity 2, and be communicated with the pit shaft in rock sample, be specially: fluid injection conduit line 4 is connected to fluid injection plate 71, and pass the groove of fluid injection plate 71 and pass above-mentioned through hole and be plugged in the pit shaft of rock sample, be communicated with pit shaft.

When fluid injection conduit line is communicated with the pit shaft be plugged in rock sample, its junction has certain projection, and by the balance base plate that is provided with through hole and the fluid injection plate with groove, projection can be made through the through hole on balance base plate and be contained in the groove of fluid injection conduit, and the parallel of rock sample loading surface can not be destroyed, ensure rock sample uniform force in fracturing process.

Further, groove in fluid injection plate can inject pipeline, namely for the laying of fluid injection conduit line, because fluid injection conduit line is all laid in groove by containing fluid, also can not destroy the parallel of rock sample loading surface, ensure rock sample uniform force in fracturing process.

Further, balance base plate is provided with at least one through hole, fluid injection plate is provided with at least one groove, when being provided with multiple pit shaft in rock sample, multiple pit shaft can be connected respectively in fluid injection conduit line by least one through hole above-mentioned and at least one groove, thus realize many pit shafts and inject fracturing fluid respectively, thus realize the experiment of many wellbore fracture.

Fig. 4 is the structural representation of fracturing experiments device embodiment four provided by the invention, and on the basis of Fig. 3, as shown in Figure 4, fluid feed system 3 comprises: carbon dioxide phase converting member 31, Pressure Control Unit 32 and fluid container 33.

The output of carbon dioxide phase converting member 31 is connected with the first input end of fluid container 33.

Pressure Control Unit 32 is connected with the second input of fluid container 33.

The output of fluid container 33 is connected with fluid injection conduit line 4.

Preferably, carbon dioxide phase converting member 31 is low temperature bath.

Preferably, fluid injection conduit line 4 is outside equipped with insulation layer.

When using carbon dioxide as fracturing fluid, need strictly to control the phase of carbon dioxide, to meet the requirement of experiment of the pressure break physical analogy of liquid carbon dioxide and supercritical carbon dioxide.In the present embodiment, controlled by the temperature of low temperature bath to carbon dioxide, simultaneously, the pressure of Pressure Control Unit to carbon dioxide controls, after meeting certain temperature and pressure, generation meets the carbon dioxide pressure break liquid of phase requirement and is stored in fluid container, when after beginning fracturing experiments, is exported by carbon dioxide pressure break liquid from the output of fluid container.Insulation layer is set outside fluid input tube line, with extraneous impact exchange heat occurring and produces phase when carbon dioxide can be stoped to flow through fluid input tube line.

Fig. 5 is the structural representation of fracturing experiments device embodiment five provided by the invention, and on the basis of Fig. 4, as shown in Figure 5, this device also comprises: temperature control unit 8.

Temperature control unit 8 comprises: heating plate 81, temperature pick up 82 and temperature controller 83.

Heating plate 81 is arranged on the inwall of cavity 2.

Temperature pick up 82 is plugged in the outer wall of cavity 2.

Heating plate 81 and temperature pick up 82 are all connected with temperature controller 83.

Particularly, cavity 2 has a housing 21, the end face that housing 21 contacts with above-mentioned balance base plate 72 is provided with through hole, hole size is mated with the size of balance base plate 72, when promoting load equalization parts 6, fluid injection plate 71 and balance base plate 72 to make loading piston 5, these three parts can move to cavity 2 inside and contact with rock sample.

Alternatively, heating plate 81 can be arranged on the outer wall of rock sample in cavity, also can be arranged on cavity inner wall.

Preferably, temperature pick up is temperature probe.

In the present embodiment, by increasing temperature control unit in the apparatus, can set and steady temperature needed for test experience, with the temperature of effective simulation rock in actual underground environment, ensureing the accuracy of fracturing experiments.

Fig. 6 is the schematic flow sheet of fracturing experiments embodiment of the method one provided by the invention, and the method is applied to aforesaid device, and as shown in Figure 6, the method comprises:

Main Hydraulic Pump opened by S101, controller, and controls Main Hydraulic Pump applies correspondence successively preset pressure at least one loading piston, and wherein, Main Hydraulic Pump puts on the different preset pressure difference loading piston.

Use Main Hydraulic Pump to make loading piston promote load equalization parts, fluid injection plate and balance base plate to the preset pressure loading piston applying correspondence and move to rock sample place rapidly.

S102, controller open at least one from hydraulic pump, and control at least one from hydraulic pump respectively to the loading piston applying preset pressure of correspondence, wherein, and the different preset pressure difference applied from hydraulic pump.

Use and different respectively preset pressure is applied to the loading piston of correspondence from hydraulic pump, make to load piston and from different directions accurate stress is applied to rock sample respectively, the stress of different directions can carry out difference according to actual underground environment and arrange, thus can effective Reality simulation underground environment, ensure the accuracy of fracturing experiments.

S103, controller, after fluid feed system injects fracturing fluid in rock sample, are monitored and record pressure break result.

In the present embodiment, first use high pressure Main Hydraulic Pump to make to load piston to promote load equalization parts, fluid injection plate and balance base plate to move to rock sample place rapidly, re-use low pressure accurately to pressurize to rock sample from different directions from hydraulic pump, thus can effective Reality simulation environment.Further, use Main Hydraulic Pump and coordinate the mode loaded from hydraulic pump, greatly can save the time of fracturing experiments, through experiment, use said method that the time that in fracturing experiments, loading procedure is used can be made to shorten to 15 minutes ~ 20 minutes from 1 hour, thus greatly improve the efficiency of fracturing experiments.

Last it is noted that above each embodiment is only in order to illustrate technical scheme of the present invention, be not intended to limit; Although with reference to foregoing embodiments to invention has been detailed description, those of ordinary skill in the art is to be understood that: it still can be modified to the technical scheme described in foregoing embodiments, or carries out equivalent replacement to wherein some or all of technical characteristic; And these amendments or replacement, do not make the essence of appropriate technical solution depart from the scope of various embodiments of the present invention technical scheme.

Claims (9)

1. a fracturing experiments device, is characterized in that, comprising: controller, for holding the cavity of rock sample, fluid feed system, fluid injection conduit line, multiple hydraulic pump, at least one loads piston and at least one load equalization parts; Wherein,
Described multiple hydraulic pump comprises: Main Hydraulic Pump and at least one is from hydraulic pump, described Main Hydraulic Pump and described at least one be all connected with described controller from hydraulic pump, described at least one from hydraulic pump and described at least one load piston one_to_one corresponding, at least one loading piston described is all connected with described Main Hydraulic Pump, and at least one loading piston described connects from hydraulic pump with corresponding respectively;
Described at least one load piston and at least one load equalization parts one_to_one corresponding described, described loading piston to during described rock sample applying pressure with corresponding described load equalization component contact;
At least one load equalization parts described are arranged at the outside of described cavity;
Each described load equalization parts comprise base plate and rotor, and described base plate is provided with groove, and described rotor is rotatable to be arranged in described groove;
Described fluid feed system is connected with described fluid injection conduit line, for described fluid injection conduit line provides fracturing fluid;
Described fluid injection conduit line is located in described cavity, and is communicated with the pit shaft in described rock sample.
2. device according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, at least one loading piston described comprises: first loads piston, second loads piston, the 3rd loading piston, correspondingly, at least one load equalization parts described comprise: the first load equalization parts, the second load equalization parts, the 3rd load equalization parts;
Described first to load outside first surface that piston is arranged at described cavity, described second to load outside second surface that piston is arranged at described cavity, the described 3rd load the 3rd outer side surface that piston is arranged at described cavity, wherein, described cavity is cuboid, and described first surface, described second surface are adjacent between two with described 3rd surface.
3. device according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that, also comprise: at least one Pipe installing parts, at least one Pipe installing parts described and at least one load equalization parts one_to_one corresponding described, described Pipe installing parts are between described load equalization parts and cavity;
Described Pipe installing parts comprise: fluid injection plate and balance base plate, described fluid injection plate is parallel with described balance base plate, and an end face of described fluid injection plate is fixedly connected with described balance base plate, the other end of described fluid injection plate is fixedly connected with described load equalization parts, and described balance base plate is between described fluid injection plate and described cavity;
Described balance base plate is provided with at least one through hole, and described fluid injection plate is provided with at least one groove;
Correspondingly, described fluid injection conduit line is located in described cavity, and be communicated with the pit shaft in described rock sample, be specially: described fluid injection conduit line is connected to described fluid injection plate, and pass the groove of described fluid injection plate and pass described through hole and be plugged in the pit shaft of described rock sample, be communicated with described pit shaft.
4. device according to claim 3, is characterized in that, described fluid feed system comprises: carbon dioxide phase converting member, Pressure Control Unit and fluid container;
The output of described carbon dioxide phase converting member is connected with the first input end of described fluid container;
Described Pressure Control Unit is connected with the second input of described fluid container;
The output of described fluid container is connected with described fluid injection conduit line.
5. device according to claim 4, is characterized in that, described carbon dioxide phase converting member is low temperature bath.
6. device according to claim 5, is characterized in that, described fluid injection conduit line is outside equipped with insulation layer.
7. device according to claim 4, is characterized in that, also comprises: temperature control unit;
Described temperature control unit comprises: heating plate, temperature pick up and temperature controller;
Described heating plate is arranged on the inwall of described cavity;
Described temperature pick up is plugged in the outer wall of described cavity;
Described heating plate and described temperature pick up are all connected with described temperature controller.
8. device according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described Main Hydraulic Pump is high-pressure pump, described from hydraulic pump be low-lift pump.
9. a fracturing experiments method, is characterized in that, described method is applied to the device described in any one of claim 1-8, and described method comprises:
Main Hydraulic Pump opened by controller, and controls described Main Hydraulic Pump applies correspondence successively preset pressure at least one loading piston, and wherein, described Main Hydraulic Pump puts on the different preset pressure difference loading piston;
Described controller opens at least one from hydraulic pump, and described in controlling, at least one applies preset pressure to the loading piston of correspondence respectively from hydraulic pump, and wherein, the different preset pressure from hydraulic pump applying is different;
Described controller, after fluid feed system injects fracturing fluid in rock sample, is monitored and record pressure break result.
CN201510784720.6A 2015-11-16 2015-11-16 Fracturing experiments device and method CN105332683B (en)

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CN105954172A (en) * 2016-05-19 2016-09-21 西安科技大学 Coal bed liquid CO2 fracturing permeability improvement experimental device and method
CN106404549A (en) * 2016-10-31 2017-02-15 中国石油大学(北京) Supercritical carbon dioxide fracturing simulation experiment device
CN107246255A (en) * 2017-07-26 2017-10-13 太原理工大学 Supercritical CO2The analogue means and method of fracturing coal body are combined with hydraulic fracturing

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CN204679347U (en) * 2015-06-18 2015-09-30 西南石油大学 A kind of drilling fluid pressurization sealing crushing test device
CN205154125U (en) * 2015-11-16 2016-04-13 中国石油大学(北京) Fracturing experimental apparatus

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CN103940962A (en) * 2014-04-15 2014-07-23 西安科技大学 System and method for simulating coal mine underground hydraulic fracturing experiment laboratory
CN203835361U (en) * 2014-04-15 2014-09-17 西安科技大学 Coal mine underground hydraulic fracturing condition laboratory simulation device
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105954172A (en) * 2016-05-19 2016-09-21 西安科技大学 Coal bed liquid CO2 fracturing permeability improvement experimental device and method
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