CN104928586A - Hot stamping die steel and production method thereof - Google Patents

Hot stamping die steel and production method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104928586A
CN104928586A CN201510386285.1A CN201510386285A CN104928586A CN 104928586 A CN104928586 A CN 104928586A CN 201510386285 A CN201510386285 A CN 201510386285A CN 104928586 A CN104928586 A CN 104928586A
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steel
die steel
hot stamping
stamping die
tempering
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罗爱辉
徐伟力
洪振军
吴彦骏
王晨磊
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Baoshan Iron and Steel Co Ltd
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Baoshan Iron and Steel Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention provides hot stamping die steel and a production method thereof. The hot stamping die steel is composed of, by weight, 0.45-0.50% of C, 0.1-0.3% of Si, 0.1-0.3% of Mn, 2.0-2.3% of Cr, 2.3-2.5% of Mo, 0.8-1.0% of V, smaller than or equal to 0.03% of P, smaller than or equal to 0.03% of S and the balance Fe and other inevitable impurities and meets the relational expressions that Mo/Cr=1-1.25 and V/Cr=0.35-0.43. By means of the electroslag remelting process, the ultrafine thermal treatment process, the vacuum thermal treatment process and the plasma nitriding surface treatment process, the produced and obtained hot stamping die steel is low in cost and high in comprehensive performance; the hot stamping die steel has a thermal conductivity coefficient of 34.3 W/m.k, quenching and tempering hardness of 50-53 HRC, ballistic work of 180-210 J, surface hardness of 850-1040 HV0.3 and diffusion thickness of 230-300 microns, and a white bright layer is ceaseless after nitriding.

Description

A kind of hot stamping die steel and production method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to die steel and manufacture field, be specifically related to a kind of hot stamping die steel and production method thereof.
Background technology
Usually use object that die steel is divided into cold-work die steel, hot-work die steel and plastic die steel three major types by mould.Hot stamping die steel belongs to hot-work die steel, hot stamping die steel be nearly decades usage quantity sharply rise and consume one of maximum die steel, its working condition is also more complicated than general hot-work die steel.
Along with the high speed development of automobile industry, and the improving constantly of automotive light weight technology demand, hot press-formed technique is mainly used in obtaining the stamping parts with superstrength.When obtaining ultrahigh-strength steel, the plastic force needed for cold punching forming process is very big, easily causes burn failure, equipment shakes, and also easily produce break, wrinkling, rebound, the problem such as dimensional precision is bad.Therefore, original cold punching forming process no longer can meet the needs of technology and production development, and hot press-formed technology utilization metal at high operating temperatures, and its plasticity and ductility increase sharply, and yield strength declines rapidly.
Steel hot stamping process is to austenite range by special high strength steel board heating, move quickly in mould, fast ram, by being furnished with the mould (instead of air) of cooling loop under press packing state, quench cooled (and will ensure certain speed of cooling) is carried out to part, finally obtain superstrength stamping parts (be organized as martensite, intensity is even higher at about 1500MPa).Operationally, because mould directly contacts with the blank of heating, when red-hot metal puts into hot stamping die die cavity, mold cavity surface steep temperature rise, and top layer produces stress and compressive strain when punching press and pressurize, this makes mould need good heat resistance and thermostability; By the mould with cooling water channel, component are quenched in pressure maintaining period, in order to make mould soon the precision of mould under arms in process can be taken away and be ensured to the heat of steel plate, moulding stock must have larger thermal conductivity and less thermal expansivity; When metalwork takes out, mold cavity surface is subject to tensile stress and stretching strain effect owing to sharply lowering the temperature, and very easily produces thermal fatigue at the operating mode bed die of this checker temperature; And hot stamping die steel is under arms in process, and also will be subject to greater impact load, therefore mould need possess excellent toughness; For the plucking preventing die surface from producing in process under arms, mould also needs to have higher hardness.In addition, transfer to mould internal procedure to contact with oxygen G&W in stove due to steel plate after austenitizing and produce a large amount of oxide skin, the carbide particle etc. come off in mould use procedure produces and weares and teares in mould and workpiece relative movement, requires that mould has good wear resisting property.Therefore, complicated working condition requirement hot stamping die material has higher thermal conductivity, hot strength, hardness, impelling strength, wear resistance, hardening capacity and thermostability and thermal fatigue resistance energy etc.
At present, what the hot stamping die steel that China the most often uses adopted is that in standard GB/T/T1299-2000, grade of steel is 4Cr5MoSiV1 (being equivalent to North-America standard H13 steel).The chemical composition of this hot stamping die steel adopts C 0.32 ~ 0.45wt%, Cr 4.75 ~ 5.50wt%, Mo1.20 ~ 1.75wt%, V 0.80 ~ 1.20wt%, Si 0.80 ~ 1.2wt%, Mn 0.20 ~ 0.5wt%, P≤0.03wt%, S≤0.03wt%.At present, what Japanese enterprises adopted is hot-work die steel SKD61 (being equivalent to North-America standard H13 steel), and that hot stamping die supplier of Sweden adopts is ORVAR, and that Germany Enterprises adopts is CR7V and 1.2379.
Chinese patent CN102650020 discloses a kind of high silicon height manganese type high-thermal stability hot work die steel and thermal treatment process thereof, it is constant that the feature of this steel to be in chemical composition that the element silicon of high-content and the ratio of manganese element remain 1:1, the mass percent of each main alloy element is: C 0.25 ~ 0.45%, Si 0.8 ~ 2.0%, Mn 0.8 ~ 2.0%, Cr 3.5 ~ 4.5%, Mo 0.6 ~ 1.2%, V 0.4 ~ 0.8%, P < 0.02%, S < 0.02%, Fe surplus, have employed the technique of quenching tempering twice, obtain tempered martensite.
Chinese patent CN102676752 discloses a kind of H13 steel heat treatment for automobile forging die, Quench heating is divided into three sections, repeatedly tempering is adopted to reach the object of stable tempering tissue after quenching, but, this technique uses block length determination Quenching Soaking Time, and in the actual heat treatment of mould is produced, adopt mold thickness to determine Quench and temper soaking time more rationally with accurate.
Chinese patent CN102586716 discloses a kind of wear-proof metal ceramic coating for surface of hot die steel strengthening and preparation method thereof, metal-ceramic coating and matrix are all different materials, have obvious interface to be not good metallurgical binding between body material and coating; Chinese patent CN102650029 also discloses a kind of preparation method of surface of hot die steel nano ceramic composite coating material, by the nano level Al after mixing 2o 3, TiO 2slip, by liquid phase mist projection granulating, after powder sintering, filters out the spraying feedstock of 40 μm ~ 60 μm; Plasma spray is adopted to be coated in direct spraying nickel alclad coating on pretreated matrix sample, finally on the transition layer prepared, plasma spraying is adopted to prepare Al2O3/TiO2 nano ceramic composite coating, can improve that die surface microhardness is high, wear resisting property, but, coating technology technique is very complicated, to die surface degree of cleaning require very high, for short run mould use still can, be not suitable for a large amount of industrial application.
Chinese patent CN101215680 discloses a kind of method of aluminum alloy die-casting die steel surface shot blasting strengthening process, after aluminum alloy die-casting die steel carries out quenching three tempering heat treatment, Stage microscope die steel being placed on shotblast unit carries out shot peening; Control in physical prospecting rotating speed, shot-peening jet angle, spraying pressure, shot-peening diameter and the parameter such as hardness, injecting time, make mould top layer that viscous deformation occur, and form certain thickness strengthening layer, higher unrelieved stress is formed in strengthening layer, due to the existence of bearing stress, a part of resistance to stress can be offset when mould carry load, thus improve fatigue strength.Shot peening changes its stress distribution by plastic deformation to reach enhancement purpose, the chemical constitution of die surface can't be changed, but, after surface shot blasting strengthening process, can there is dimensional change in mould, this is inappropriate for the high-precision dimensional requirement of hot stamping die.
Chinese patent CN1970825 discloses a kind of surface of hot die steel low-temperature boriding technique, employs the operational path of making Nano surface, decontamination, vacuum boronizing.Its major advantage is that hot-work die is removed and obtains high rigidity infiltration layer and excellent wear resistance, boronising temperature is low, and workpiece deformation is little, and boriding rate is fast, boride layer is controlled, and improve thermal fatigue property, environmentally safe, need not subsequent heat treatment, but, its die surface needs Surface Nanocrystalline in advance, namely shot peening, is not suitable for the intensive treatment to hot stamping die.
Chinese patent CN101928912 discloses a kind of low temperature carburization method of hot-work die steel, by active atomic diffusion, react with body material the compound or sosoloid diffusion layer that form gradual change, the carburized workpiece after tempering of quenching needs aftertreatment, and carburizing treatment comprises very complicated quenching and tempering process, and tempering temperature is higher, cause matrix hardness lower.
Chinese patent CN1386893 discloses a kind of process for treating surface of hot die steel by rare-earth plasma, with the thermal fatigue resistance of the ion implantation raising hot-work die steel of mixed rare earth alloy, its principal feature is the thermal fatigue resistance of the ion implantation raising hot-work die steel of mishmetal Ce-La mixed rare earth alloy.But, ion implantation have very large limitation for mould, it can not process for concavo-convex the showing of complicated shape, input horizon is very thin generally to be measured in units of nanometer, full depth also only has 0.1 μm, and, be that ion implantation device or rare earths material cost are all very expensive, technique is difficult to control, and is not suitable for large production.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of hot stamping die steel and production method thereof, this hot stamping die steel thermal conductivity coefficient is 34.3W/mk, quenching and tempering hardness is 50 ~ 53HRC, ballistic work is 180 ~ 210J, is organized as tempered martensite, proeutectoid carbide that tempering is separated out and the complex tissue that coexists of undissolved carbide tissue, and hardness value is high, the wear resisting property of mould can be improved, effectively can prevent the plucking of die surface, after plasma surface nitriding, bright layer is continuous, and surface hardness is 860 ~ 1040HV 0.3, alloying layer thickness 230 ~ 300 μm, more can extend the mold use life-span greatly, for the mould after wearing and tearing, through to repair a die and plasma nitriding can come into operation again, thus improves the terminal life of mould widely.
In order to achieve the above object, technical scheme provided by the invention is as follows:
A kind of hot stamping die steel, its chemical element weight percentage is: C:0.45 ~ 0.50%, Si:0.1 ~ 0.3%, Mn:0.1 ~ 0.3%, Cr:2.0 ~ 2.3%, Mo:2.3 ~ 2.5%, V:0.8 ~ 1.0%, P≤0.03%, S≤0.03%, all the other are Fe and other inevitable impurity, and meet relational expression: Mo/Cr=1 ~ 1.25, V/Cr=0.35 ~ 0.43.
The thermal conductivity coefficient of the hot stamping die steel obtained is 34.3W/mk, quenching and tempering hardness is 50 ~ 53HRC, and ballistic work is 180 ~ 210J, is organized as tempered martensite, proeutectoid carbide that tempering is separated out and the complex tissue that coexists of undissolved carbide tissue, this tissue combination of strength and toughness is good, and wear resistance is high.
Adopt low silicon, Fe content in the present invention, the Composition Design of higher molybdenum/chromium, vanadium/chromium ratio, homogenizing macrostructure, refinement microtexture, increase plasticity and toughness, improve toughness and the thermal fatigue resistance of steel, particularly:
C: carbon is the important element affecting the component segregation of steel and the homogeneity of structure of steel, in thermal conductivity: little when with solution matrix being present in the damage ratio of the steel capacity of heat transmission when carbon exists with second-phase form, it can make strong carbide and the weak carbide of Mn enter carbide from matrix, thus raising thermal conductivity, therefore the composition proportion of balance carbon of the present invention and chromium and molybdenum, make chromium and molybdenum all form carbide as far as possible, and don't make carbon content too high; Simultaneously, carbon is one of main chemical elements of high heat-intensity hot-work die steel, part carbon enters the effect that matrix plays solution strengthening, another part then forms chromium carbide, molybdenum carbide, vanadium carbide and all kinds carbide, some alloy carbides wherein can in drawing process on quenched martensite matrix disperse educt produce secondary hardening phenomenon, therefore, the present invention adopts higher carbon content.
Mn: in steelmaking process, manganese is good reductor and sweetening agent, can change character and the shape of the oxide compound that steel is formed when solidifying in steel containing Mn.Simultaneously, it and S have larger avidity, can avoid the sulfide FeS forming low melting point on crystal boundary, and exist with the MnS with certain plasticity that fusing point is higher, the hot-short phenomenon that causes because of FeS can be prevented thus eliminate the harmful effect of sulphur, improving the hot workability of steel.Manganese dissolves in the hardening capacity that strongly can increase steel in austenite, simultaneously the strong Ms point lowering steel.Mn has solution strengthening effect, thus improves ferrite and austenitic intensity and hardness, although its solid solution strengthening effect is not as good as carbon, phosphorus and silicon, it does not almost affect the ductility of steel.Although manganese element is weak carbide forming element, can not form carbide reinforced effect, adding of a certain amount of manganese element can promote the decomposition of cementite and postpone the precipitation of carbide and grow up, and is conducive to the thermostability of steel.In addition, manganese element can cause the content of the residual austenite in steel to increase with stable, can improve toughness and the thermal fatigue resistance of steel like this.Fe content is too high, fragility can be made to increase, weaken the resistance to corrosion of steel, reduces heat conductivility, welding property etc., considers and control Mn content 0.1 ~ 0.3%.
Si: the outer electronic structure of element silicon and differing greatly of Fe, research shows that it seriously can reduce the heat conductivility of steel, and therefore the present invention adopts lower Si content.Silicon is one and carries out the very effective element of displacement solution strengthening to ferrite, is only second to phosphorus, but can reduces toughness and the plasticity of steel to a certain extent simultaneously.Reduce silicone content, the inclusion of low amounts can be obtained, make macrostructure's homogenizing more, the dentrite refinement of microcosmic solidified structure, and constitutional supercooling when solidifying on freezing interface can be reduced, increase plasticity and toughness.Si is mainly solid-solution in matrix, do not form carbide, also other carbide is insoluble to, except improving the hardening capacity of steel, Si also contributes to improving the dispersity separating out alloy carbide in high tempering process, secondary hardening peak can be made to increase, thus Si improves the intensity of matrix and improves the effective element of resistance to tempering, the effect of element silicon to make steel martensitic decomposition in the process of tempering slow down, effectively martensitic decomposition can be hindered in drawing process after austenite to martensitic transformation, this is mainly by suppressing growing up and expanding ε-carbide stable region of ε-carbide particle, be delayed the transformation of ε-carbide to θ-carbide.Silicon is postponed ε → θ and is changed, and fully can reduce the growth rate of cementite in drawing process in steel, and Siliciumatom is separated out from θ phase and around θ phase, forms the enrichment region of Siliciumatom, suppresses the alligatoring of growing up of θ phase; Silicon effectively can improve the anti-temper softening ability of steel in addition.Also can increase the weight of the Decarburization Sensitivity of steel when silicon amount is too high, and the overaging speed that carbide is assembled increases and is difficult to control.In addition, silicon and manganese acting in conjunction make the high-temperature behavior of steel, as high temperature anti-temper softening performance and thermal fatigue property obtain improving more significantly, these all to hot-work die steel use properties and the life-span favourable.Comprehensive what time above, the present invention adds a small amount of Si.
Cr: although chromium element can solid solution in ferrite, can carbide be formed again.And mostly add chromium element in existing hot-work die steel, chromium carbide type is the effect that Cr7C3 and Cr23C6 silicon carbide thing plays strengthening matrix, and the control of this chromium element makes steel separate out stable disperse phase in the process of tempering, this disperse phase M7C3 and Cr23C6 not only can improve the anti-tempered performance of steel, and steel can be made to produce certain red hardness, improve the heat resistance of steel.But consider when tempering temperature is higher than 600 DEG C, the carbide of Cr just assembles alligatoring rapidly, make the anti-temper resistance energy of steel poor.Therefore, in the present invention, chromium content is controlled 2.0 ~ 2.3% scopes, molybdenum/chromium: 1 ~ 1.25, vanadium/chromium: 0.35 ~ 0.43, utilize the carbide of V and Mo to replace the effect of part chromium carbide, same effect can not only be played, also reduce Cr to the impact of thermal conductivity and the cost of alloy reducing steel, obtain high heat conductance and good comprehensive mechanical property.
Mo: molybdenum can make the grain refining of steel, improves hardening capacity and thermostrength, keeps enough intensity and creep resisting ability (be at high temperature subject to stress for a long time, deform, claim creep) when high temperature.Red property can be improved in tool steel.Molybdenum element is carbide, is also one of important chemical element in present component design.Because the solid solubility temperature of molybdenum is not high, just can solid solution in a large number during low temperature quenching, and so that the subgrain boundary of the form of M2C in martensite lath to be separated out with parallel fine acicular (two dimension is for lamellar) in the process of tempering, keep coherence with matrix, the hot hardness of raising steel.Therefore, by improving Mo content in steel, while the recovery and recrystallization temperature improving tempered martensite, Mo can form comparatively tiny carbide in steel, thus improves heat resistance and the thermostability of material further.Molybdenum element add the hardening capacity that improve the austenitic stability of steel and steel, and in steel belt roof bolt process and carbon in conjunction with the precipitation of the more more stable M2C alloy carbide of quantity of formation, this precipitation process is that a kind of particles strengthening of disperse is separated out mutually, comparatively be evenly distributed in the matrix of steel, there is good age hardening effect.The control of the add-on of molybdenum makes to obtain more M2C alloy carbide in the process of steel in tempering in this scope, and produces the effect of twice larger strengthening, and this plays an important role to the hardness of steel and the raising of impelling strength.
V: v element is a kind of carbide, the VC particle good stability of formation, and Dispersed precipitate, so effectively can improve the heat resistance of steel.The strengthening effect of vanadium in steel is similar with molybdenum element, and the content controlling vanadium can coordinate the proportioning of carbon and molybdenum and tungsten.The solid solubility temperature of vanadium is higher, for obtain vanadium carbide and coarse grains can be produced in comparatively high temps quenching, toughness is not enough, simultaneously the carbide of vanadium easily forms primary carbide in steel process of setting, reticulate or chainlike distribution at original austenite crystal prevention, not easily heavy molten, thus reduce the toughness of steel, therefore, in steel of the present invention, v element content is 0.8 ~ 1.0%, to take into account the toughness of steel.
P: in the ordinary course of things, phosphorus is the harmful element in steel, increases the fragility of steel, reduces the impelling strength of steel, and therefore phosphoric control is the strict smelting requirements of this technology steel, has a certain impact to Steel Properties desired value.
S: sulphur is mainly present in steel with the form of sulfide.It is generally acknowledged that sulphur is one of harmful element in steel, sulphur is easy to segregation in steel, worsens the quality of steel, when such as existing with the form of the lower FeS of fusing point, will cause the hot-short phenomenon of steel.Element sulphur easily causes the deterioration of the processing characteristics of steel in certain degree, easily makes steel produce overheated and burn-off phenomenon in hot worked process.Therefore, control sulphur content and can ensure processing characteristics and the mechanical property of steel, the continuous forging machining particularly during diameter forging machine hammer cogging produce superheating phenomenon play the effect of drawing up.And the improvement of the microstructure of hot-work die steel is played a role.
The production method of hot stamping die steel of the present invention, comprises the steps:
1) smelt, cast
By mentioned component batching, electrosmelting, cast steel ingot, then esr;
2) anneal, cool;
Annealing temperature 700 ± 10 DEG C, insulation 8 ~ 8.5h, cooling;
3) ultrafining heat-treatment
High temperature homogenization thermal treatment: by cooled Heating Steel Ingots to 1235 ~ 1250 DEG C, and be incubated 8 ~ 10h, makes composition of steel homogenizing, prevents component segregation, improves the solidified structure of material, cools with being placed in air;
Forging: Heating Steel Ingots to 1200 ~ 1230 DEG C, carry out multiway forging, final forging temperature 950 DEG C, forging ratio is greater than 6; In 860 ~ 870 DEG C of annealing 8 ~ 8.5h after forging, cooling;
4) Spheroidizing Annealing
Forging is heated to 660 ~ 700 DEG C, insulation 20 ~ 26h, stove after being chilled to 200 DEG C ± 20 DEG C again air cooling to room temperature;
5) vacuum heat treatment
Quench and temper under vacuum, quenching temperature 980 ~ 1100 DEG C, austenitizing is carried out in insulation, after oil cooling or water smoke cooling, carries out two to three tempering, each tempering 2 ± 0.1h at 540 DEG C ~ 600 DEG C;
6) surface plasma Nitrizing Treatment
Voltage 650 ~ 700V, atmosphere ratio NH 3: CO 2=10 ~ 16:1, furnace pressure 450 ~ 500Pa, nitriding temperature 520 ~ 550 DEG C, nitriding time 10 ~ 14h;
The hot stamping die steel thermal conductivity coefficient obtained is 34.3W/mk, quenching and tempering hardness is 50 ~ 53HRC, ballistic work is 180 ~ 210J, be organized as tempered martensite, proeutectoid carbide that tempering is separated out and the complex tissue that coexists of undissolved carbide tissue, after nitriding, bright layer is continuous, and surface hardness is 860 ~ 1040HV 0.3, alloying layer thickness 230 ~ 300 μm.
Further, step 5) described in Quenching Soaking Time t=H/25, wherein, H is the thickness of workpiece, unit mm, when H is less than 50, t=2h.
Further, step 5) described in Quenching Soaking Time be 1.5 ~ 2h.
The production method of hot stamping die steel of the present invention, adopt electroslag remelting process, the content of gas and inclusion can be reduced after esr, and obtain uniform ingredients, dense structure, steel ingot that quality is high, material structure is controlled by micronization heat treatment process, thus the strengthening effect played material, improve its performance index.Comparatively current material H13, the thermal conductivity coefficient of hot stamping die steel of the present invention improves more than 29.5%, and quenching and tempering hardness improves more than 7.5%, and impelling strength improves more than 16.7%; The hot stamping die steel cost obtained is low, and over-all properties is high.
The use properties of thermal treatment on die steel has vital impact, and thermal treatment determines die steel internal microstructure, thus determines the obdurability of die steel.Can make the hardness needed for mould acquisition by different thermal treatment, but its tissue, performance may have marked difference, give full play to the tough effect of die steel alloying element, the different die steel of different purposes just must have corresponding thermal treatment process.
Controlling quenching temperature in thermal treatment process of the present invention is 980 ~ 1100 DEG C, and tempering temperature is 540 ~ 600 DEG C; Because this hot stamping die steel is hypereutectoid steel, when quenching temperature is too low, tempering rear mold hardness is too low; When quenching temperature is too high, Austenite Grain Growth causes that the strength of materials declines, toughness is poor, after 980 ~ 1100 DEG C of quenchings, this die steel austenite carbon content increases, remaining certain Ovshinsky scale of construction after quenching, this part residual austenite is decomposed into martensite through a tempering, causes poor impact toughness.Therefore, the present invention is 540 ~ 600 DEG C of tempering two to three times, and stabilizing tissue also adjusts hardness, the tough proportioning of die steel of the most applicable heat stamping and shaping is obtained after tempering, the die steel hardness obtained is 50 ~ 53HRC, 7mm × 10mm × 10mm non-notch, and room temperature impact merit is greater than 180J.
Plasma nitriding is typical chemical heat treatment technology, decomposites nitrogen-atoms by diffusion transport to iron atom generation chemical reaction, generate different alloy nitrides by penetration enhancer, thus improves die surface hardness, wear resistance, fatigue resistance etc.It is fine that the tempering temperature of plasma surface nitriding temperature and hot-work die steel is coincide, and compared with other surface treatments, it is a kind of proven technique, and cost is low, reliability is high.By atmosphere, nitriding temperature, the time can well the phase composite of control surface compound layer and diffusion layer and its performance, by Nitrizing Treatment, can greatly improve the mold use life-span, have very high cost performance.
In surface plasma Nitrizing Treatment technique of the present invention: voltage has larger promoter action in plasma nitriding process, high voltage can improve bombarding energy, thus increasing nitriding depth and Li Gao nitrided case hardness, control voltage of the present invention is 650 ~ 700V.
The present invention is by changing NH 3: CO 2ratio regulates thickness and the diffusion layer phase composition of compound layer, and nitrogen content forms the phase constitution of infiltration layer, nitriding depth, the hardness of infiltration layer, bonding force, and obviously, the present invention regulates atmosphere ratio NH in the impact such as wear resisting property 3: CO 2=10 ~ 16:1.
In surface plasma Nitrizing Treatment technique, during ion-nitriding furnace furnace pressure height, aura is concentrated; When furnace pressure is low, aura is dispersed.Under high pressure, compound layer content is high, and low furnace pressure easily obtains γ phase, lower than 40Pa or higher than the condition of 2660Pa under ionitriding, not easily occur compound layer, the present invention controls furnace pressure at 450 ~ 500Pa, with obtain good compound layer improve wear resistance.
In surface plasma Nitrizing Treatment technique, ionitriding compound layer and diffusion layer temperature increase with temperature and significantly increase, but the weave construction of compound layer is not had much affect, and, even if under the low temperature of 400 DEG C, also have obvious nitrogenizing effect, this is also the outstanding feature of ionitriding.There is a maximum value in surface hardness, temperature too low within the specific limits, and hardened layer is too shallow, and strengthening effect is not good enough; Temperature is too high, and the nitride alligatoring in infiltration layer, causes hardness to decline, and nitriding temperature of the present invention controls at 520 ~ 550 DEG C.
The impact of nitriding time on ζ phase and γ phase compound layer thickness has different rules, and when being less than 4h, γ phase compound layer thickness extends in time and thickens, and substantially remains unchanged after 4h, and ζ phase compound layer thickness continues to increase along with nitriding time extends.In the ordinary course of things, the prolongation of nitriding time always makes compound layer thickness increase.And compound parabolic relation between diffusion layer depth and time, its Changing Pattern is similar to gas nitriding.In addition, nitriding atmosphere one timing in stove, the nitrogen concentration of compound layer does not affect by nitriding time.Along with nitriding time extends, diffusion layer is deepened, and hardness gradient tends towards stability; But soaking time increases, and cause nitride microstructure coarsening, cause hardness to decline, it is 10 ~ 14h that the present invention controls nitriding time.
Compared with prior art, beneficial effect of the present invention:
1) the present invention utilizes the net thickness of workpiece accurately to control austenitizing holding time, relative to using block length determination Quenching Soaking Time in prior art, have and guarantee that soaking time is more accurate, the stay-in-grade advantage of die & mold treatment, hot stamping die steel thermal conductivity coefficient is 34.3W/mk, quenching and tempering hardness is 50 ~ 53HRC, ballistic work is 180 ~ 210J, be organized as tempered martensite, proeutectoid carbide that tempering is separated out and the complex tissue that coexists of undissolved carbide tissue, this tissue combination of strength and toughness is good, and wear resistance is high.
2) the present invention adopts high-pressure gas quenching furnace, the type of cooling be air cooling oil quenching to room temperature, ensure mould higher cooling rate, homogeneous microstructure, and after heat treatment, improve the mold use life-span further by plasma nitriding technique.
3) the present invention is by controlling the parameters such as plasma nitriding atmosphere ratio, nitriding time, furnace pressure, voltage, nitriding temperature, and obtain the nitrided case of compound layer, after nitriding, bright layer is continuous, and surface hardness is 860 ~ 1040HV 0.3, alloying layer thickness 230 ~ 300 μm, is beneficial to the wear resistance improving mould, while raising die surface hardness, optimizes the solidity to corrosion of mould, wear resistance and non-stick nature energy.
4) plasma infiltration layer of the present invention is the surface modification of gradual change, changes in gradient along infiltration layer gradient direction performance, strengthening layer and basal body binding force good, by process by die surface strengthening.
5) nitriding workpiece of the present invention can directly use, and without the need to doing further aftertreatment, shortened process, reduces surface treatment cost.
6) present device and cost lower, workpiece shapes, limitation of size are little, convenient for production.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the quenching state microstructure of the embodiment of the present invention 1 thermal treatment process die steel.
Fig. 2 is the embodiment of the present invention 1 thermal treatment process mould steel belt roof bolt state microstructure.
Fig. 3 is the embodiment of the present invention 2 thermal treatment and surface treatment rear mold steel cross section metallographic 200 times of photos.
Fig. 4 is the embodiment of the present invention 2 thermal treatment and surface treatment rear mold steel cross section metallographic 500 times of photos.
Fig. 5 is the embodiment of the present invention 3 thermal treatment and surface treatment rear mold steel cross-sectional scans electromicroscopic photograph.
Fig. 6 is the embodiment of the present invention 3 top layer image X-ray diffraction analysis.
Fig. 7 is the section hardness gradient of the embodiment of the present invention 3.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing, the invention will be further described.
Die steel composition embodiment of the present invention is see table 1, and the surplus of its composition is Fe and inevitable impurity.
Table 1 unit: weight percent
Numbering C Si Mn Cr Mo V P S
Embodiment 1 0.48 0.3 0.3 2.3 2.4 0.8 0.03 0.03
Embodiment 2 0.47 0.2 0.2 2.1 2.3 0.9 0.03 0.03
Embodiment 3 0.46 0.2 0.2 2.2 2.3 0.8 0.03 0.03
Embodiment 4 0.46 0.1 0.2 2.1 2.2 0.8 0.02 0.03
Embodiment 5 0.47 0.3 0.2 2.2 2.3 0.9 0.03 0.02
Embodiment 6 0.48 0.3 0.3 2.0 2.3 0.8 0.03 0.02
Embodiment 1
The production method of a kind of hot stamping particular manufacturing craft steel of the present invention, comprises the steps:
1) smelt, cast
By above-mentioned chemical composition electrosmelting, cast steel ingot, then esr;
2) anneal, cool
Annealing temperature 700 ± 10 DEG C, insulation 8h, cooling;
3) ultrafining heat-treatment
High temperature homogenization thermal treatment: by cooled Heating Steel Ingots to 1235 ~ 1250 DEG C, and be incubated 8 ~ 10h, makes composition of steel homogenizing, prevents component segregation, improves the solidified structure of material, cools with being placed in air;
Forging: Heating Steel Ingots to 1200 ~ 1230 DEG C, carry out multiway forging, final forging temperature 950 DEG C, forging ratio is greater than 6; In 860 DEG C of annealing 8h after forging, cooling;
4) Spheroidizing Annealing
Forging is heated to 660 ~ 700 DEG C, insulation 20 ~ 26h, then stove after being chilled to 200 DEG C again air cooling to room temperature;
5) vacuum heat treatment
Under vacuum condition, 1020 DEG C of quenchings, insulation 1.5 ~ 2h carries out austenitizing, 600 DEG C of tempering 2h, then 590 DEG C of tempering 2h.
After this thermal treatment, die steel hardness value is 50.5HRC, and notched bar impact strength is 210J, and as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, Fig. 1 is quenched martensite to Quench and temper state microstructure, and Fig. 2 is tempered sorbite;
6) plasma nitriding
Voltage 700V, atmosphere ratio NH 3: CO 2=10:1, furnace pressure 450Pa, nitriding temperature 530 DEG C, nitriding time 10h.Nitriding rear mold steel bright layer is continuous, and surface hardness is 870HV 0.3, alloying layer thickness 230 μm.
Embodiment 2
A kind of hot stamping particular manufacturing craft steel production method of the present invention, comprises the steps:
1) smelt, cast
By above-mentioned chemical composition electrosmelting, cast steel ingot, then esr;
2) anneal, cool
Annealing temperature 700 ± 10 DEG C, insulation 8h, cooling;
3) ultrafining heat-treatment
High temperature homogenization thermal treatment: by cooled Heating Steel Ingots to 1235 ~ 1250 DEG C, and be incubated 8 ~ 10h, makes composition of steel homogenizing, prevents component segregation, improves the solidified structure of material, cools with being placed in air;
Forging: Heating Steel Ingots to 1200 ~ 1230 DEG C, carry out multiway forging, final forging temperature 950 DEG C, forging ratio is greater than 6; In 860 DEG C of annealing 8h after forging, cooling;
4) Spheroidizing Annealing
Forging is heated to 660 ~ 700 DEG C, insulation 20 ~ 26h, then stove after being chilled to 200 DEG C again air cooling to room temperature;
5) vacuum heat treatment
Under vacuum condition, 1040 DEG C of quenchings, insulation 1.5 ~ 2h carries out austenitizing, 590 DEG C of tempering 2h, then 590 DEG C of tempering 2h.
After this thermal treatment, die steel hardness value is 51HRC, and notched bar impact strength is 190J;
6) plasma nitriding
Voltage 680V, atmosphere ratio NH 3: CO 2=12:1, furnace pressure 425Pa, nitriding temperature 540 DEG C, nitriding time 12h.Nitriding rear mold steel surface hardness is 900HV0.3, alloying layer thickness 220 μm.
Fig. 3, Fig. 4 are this embodiment thermal treatment and surface treatment rear mold steel cross section metallographic 200 and 500 times of photos, visible, and nitriding rear mold steel bright layer is continuous, and without vein structure generation, nitriding structure is good.
Embodiment 3
A kind of hot stamping particular manufacturing craft steel production method of the present invention, comprises the steps:
1) smelt, cast
By above-mentioned chemical composition electrosmelting, cast steel ingot, then esr;
2) anneal, cool
Annealing temperature 700 ± 10 DEG C, insulation 8h, cooling;
3) ultrafining heat-treatment
High temperature homogenization thermal treatment: by cooled Heating Steel Ingots to 1235 ~ 1250 DEG C, and be incubated 8 ~ 10h, makes composition of steel homogenizing, prevents component segregation, improves the solidified structure of material, cools with being placed in air;
Forging: Heating Steel Ingots to 1200 ~ 1230 DEG C, carry out multiway forging, final forging temperature 950 DEG C, forging ratio is greater than 6, in 860 DEG C of annealing 8h after forging, cooling;
4) Spheroidizing Annealing: forging is heated to 660 ~ 700 DEG C, insulation 20 ~ 26h, then stove after being chilled to 200 DEG C again air cooling to room temperature;
5) vacuum heat treatment
Under vacuum condition, 1050 DEG C of quenchings, insulation 1.5 ~ 2h carries out austenitizing, 580 DEG C of tempering 2h, then 560 DEG C of tempering 2h.
After this thermal treatment, die steel hardness value is 53HRC, and notched bar impact strength is 180J;
6) plasma nitriding
Voltage 700V, atmosphere ratio NH 3: CO 2=16:1, furnace pressure 480Pa, nitriding temperature 545 DEG C, nitriding time 14h, after nitriding after this thermal treatment, die steel surface hardness is 980HV 0.3, alloying layer thickness 260 μm.
Fig. 5 is the present embodiment thermal treatment and surface treatment rear mold steel cross-sectional scans electromicroscopic photograph, visible, and nitrided case is continuously fine and close, homogeneous microstructure.
Fig. 6 is the present embodiment die steel top layer image X-ray diffraction analysis, visible, and nitrided case top layer thing is Fe mutually 3n and Fe 4n, bright layer is continuous whole, covers whole specimen surface.
Fig. 7 is the section hardness gradient of the present embodiment die steel, and visible, after nitriding, hardness significantly improves, and its hardness can reach 980HV, and nitrided case hardness gradient is comparatively mild, and alloying layer thickness can reach 260 μm.
Embodiment 4
A kind of hot stamping particular manufacturing craft steel production method of the present invention, comprises the steps:
1) smelt, cast
By above-mentioned chemical composition electrosmelting, cast steel ingot, then esr;
2) anneal, cool
Annealing temperature 700 ± 10 DEG C, insulation 8h, cooling;
3) ultrafining heat-treatment
High temperature homogenization thermal treatment: by cooled Heating Steel Ingots to 1235 ~ 1250 DEG C, and be incubated 8 ~ 10h, makes composition of steel homogenizing, prevents component segregation, improves the solidified structure of material, cools with being placed in air;
Forging: Heating Steel Ingots to 1200 ~ 1230 DEG C, carry out multiway forging, final forging temperature 950 DEG C, forging ratio is greater than 6; In 860 DEG C of annealing 8h after forging, cooling;
4) Spheroidizing Annealing
Forging is heated to 660 ~ 700 DEG C, insulation 20 ~ 26h, then stove after being chilled to 200 DEG C again air cooling to room temperature;
5) vacuum heat treatment
Under vacuum condition, 1040 DEG C of quenchings, insulation 1.8 ~ 2h carries out austenitizing, 595 DEG C of tempering 2h, then 590 DEG C of tempering 2h.
After this thermal treatment, die steel hardness value is 50.5HRC, and notched bar impact strength is 200J;
6) plasma nitriding
Voltage 680V, atmosphere ratio NH 3: CO 2=13:1, furnace pressure 425Pa, nitriding temperature 540 DEG C, nitriding time 12h.Nitriding rear mold steel surface hardness is 890HV0.3, alloying layer thickness 200 μm.
Embodiment 5
A kind of hot stamping particular manufacturing craft steel production method of the present invention, comprises the steps:
1) smelt, cast
By above-mentioned chemical composition electrosmelting, cast steel ingot, then esr;
2) anneal, cool
Annealing temperature 700 ± 10 DEG C, insulation 8h, cooling;
3) ultrafining heat-treatment
High temperature homogenization thermal treatment: by cooled Heating Steel Ingots to 1235 ~ 1250 DEG C, and be incubated 8 ~ 10h, makes composition of steel homogenizing, prevents component segregation, improves the solidified structure of material, cools with being placed in air;
Forging: Heating Steel Ingots to 1200 ~ 1230 DEG C, carry out multiway forging, final forging temperature 950 DEG C, forging ratio is greater than 6; In 860 DEG C of annealing 8h after forging, cooling;
4) Spheroidizing Annealing
Forging is heated to 660 ~ 700 DEG C, insulation 20 ~ 26h, then stove after being chilled to 200 DEG C again air cooling to room temperature;
5) vacuum heat treatment
Under vacuum condition, 1035 DEG C of quenchings, insulation 1.5 ~ 2h carries out austenitizing, 585 DEG C of tempering 2h, then 590 DEG C of tempering 2h.
After this thermal treatment, die steel hardness value is 51.5HRC, and notched bar impact strength is 188J;
6) plasma nitriding
Voltage 680V, atmosphere ratio NH 3: CO 2=12:1, furnace pressure 425Pa, nitriding temperature 540 DEG C, nitriding time 12h.Nitriding rear mold steel surface hardness is 910HV0.3, alloying layer thickness 220 μm.
Embodiment 6
A kind of hot stamping particular manufacturing craft steel production method of the present invention, comprises the steps:
1) smelt, cast
By above-mentioned chemical composition electrosmelting, cast steel ingot, then esr;
2) anneal, cool
Annealing temperature 700 ± 10 DEG C, insulation 8h, cooling;
3) ultrafining heat-treatment
High temperature homogenization thermal treatment: by cooled Heating Steel Ingots to 1235 ~ 1250 DEG C, and be incubated 8 ~ 10h, makes composition of steel homogenizing, prevents component segregation, improves the solidified structure of material, cools with being placed in air;
Forging: Heating Steel Ingots to 1200 ~ 1230 DEG C, carry out multiway forging, final forging temperature 950 DEG C, forging ratio is greater than 6; In 860 DEG C of annealing 8h after forging, cooling;
4) Spheroidizing Annealing
Forging is heated to 660 ~ 700 DEG C, insulation 20 ~ 26h, then stove after being chilled to 200 DEG C again air cooling to room temperature;
5) vacuum heat treatment
Under vacuum condition, 1050 DEG C of quenchings, insulation 1.5 ~ 2h carries out austenitizing, 590 DEG C of tempering 2h, then 590 DEG C of tempering 2h.
After this thermal treatment, die steel hardness value is 53HRC, and notched bar impact strength is 170J;
6) plasma nitriding
Voltage 680V, atmosphere ratio NH 3: CO 2=12:1, furnace pressure 425Pa, nitriding temperature 540 DEG C, nitriding time 12h.Nitriding rear mold steel surface hardness is 930HV0.3, alloying layer thickness 200 μm.

Claims (8)

1. a hot stamping die steel, its chemical element weight percentage is: C:0.45 ~ 0.50%, Si:0.1 ~ 0.3%, Mn:0.1 ~ 0.3%, Cr:2.0 ~ 2.3%, Mo:2.3 ~ 2.5%, V:0.8 ~ 1.0%, P≤0.03%, S≤0.03%, all the other are Fe and other inevitable impurity, and meet relational expression: Mo/Cr=1 ~ 1.25, V/Cr=0.35 ~ 0.43.
2. hot stamping die steel as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, the microstructure of described die steel is tempered martensite, proeutectoid carbide that tempering is separated out and the complex tissue that undissolved carbide tissue coexists.
3. hot stamping die steel as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the quenching and tempering hardness of described die steel is 50 ~ 53HRC, and ballistic work is 180 ~ 210J.
4. the production method of the hot stamping die steel as described in any one of claims 1 to 3, comprises the steps:
1) smelt, cast
By ingredient composition described in claim 1, electrosmelting, cast steel ingot, then esr;
2) anneal, cool
Annealing temperature 700 ± 10 DEG C, insulation 8 ~ 10h, cooling;
3) ultrafining heat-treatment
High temperature homogenization: by cooled Heating Steel Ingots to 1235 ~ 1250 DEG C, and be incubated 8 ~ 10h, cooling;
Forging: Heating Steel Ingots to 1200 ~ 1230 DEG C, carries out multiway forging, final forging temperature 950 DEG C, forging ratio >6, in 860 ~ 870 DEG C of annealing 8 ~ 8.5h after forging, and cooling;
4) Spheroidizing Annealing
Forging is heated to 660 ~ 700 DEG C, insulation 20 ~ 26h, then stove is chilled to 200 ± 20 DEG C, then air cooling is to room temperature;
5) vacuum heat treatment
Quench and temper under vacuum, quenching temperature 980 ~ 1100 DEG C, insulation, through oil cooling or water smoke cooling, carries out 2 ~ 3 tempering at 540 DEG C ~ 600 DEG C, each tempering 2 ± 0.1h;
6) surface plasma Nitrizing Treatment
Voltage 650 ~ 700V, atmosphere ratio NH 3: CO 2=10 ~ 16:1, furnace pressure 450 ~ 500Pa, nitriding temperature 520 ~ 550 DEG C, nitriding time 10 ~ 14h.
5. the production method of hot stamping die steel as claimed in claim 4, is characterized in that, step 5) described in Quenching Soaking Time t=H/25, wherein, H is the thickness of workpiece, unit mm; If H < is 50mm, t=2h.
6. the production method of hot stamping die steel as claimed in claim 4, is characterized in that, step 5) described in Quenching Soaking Time be 1.5 ~ 2h.
7. the production method of hot stamping die steel as claimed in claim 4, is characterized in that, the microstructure of described die steel is tempered martensite, proeutectoid carbide that tempering is separated out and the complex tissue that undissolved carbide tissue coexists.
8. the production method of hot stamping die steel as claimed in claim 4, it is characterized in that, the quenching and tempering hardness of the hot stamping die steel of acquisition is 50 ~ 53HRC, and ballistic work is 180 ~ 210J, and after nitriding, bright layer is continuous, and surface hardness is 860 ~ 1040HV 0.3, alloying layer thickness 230 ~ 300 μm.
CN201510386285.1A 2015-06-30 2015-06-30 Hot stamping die steel and production method thereof Pending CN104928586A (en)

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CN113145848A (en) * 2021-04-26 2021-07-23 佛山亘易隆科技有限公司 Grinding assembly, manufacturing method thereof and coffee machine
CN114318136A (en) * 2021-06-02 2022-04-12 中航上大高温合金材料股份有限公司 Manufacturing method of economical hot-work die steel

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CN105364433A (en) * 2015-11-27 2016-03-02 昆山惠众机电有限公司 Hot-working die production technology
CN105624371A (en) * 2015-12-30 2016-06-01 平高集团有限公司 Manufacturing method for switching-closing half shaft of high-voltage vacuum circuit breaker and switching-closing half shaft of high-voltage vacuum circuit breaker
CN107130167A (en) * 2016-02-29 2017-09-05 宝钢特钢有限公司 A kind of high-performance hot stamping die steel and preparation method thereof
CN106312485A (en) * 2016-11-09 2017-01-11 安徽联盟模具工业股份有限公司 High-precision long-service-life bending machine lower die manufacturing method
CN108103277A (en) * 2016-11-24 2018-06-01 丹阳市宏光机械有限公司 A kind of heat treatment process after mould steel electroslag remelting continuous directional solidification
CN107937698A (en) * 2017-12-25 2018-04-20 合肥南方汽车零部件有限公司 A kind of heat treatment process of 45 steel molds of metal casting
CN107937698B (en) * 2017-12-25 2019-02-01 合肥南方汽车零部件有限公司 A kind of heat treatment process of 45 steel molds of metal casting
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CN108710747A (en) * 2018-02-08 2018-10-26 哈尔滨广瀚燃气轮机有限公司 The method for determining 1Cr12Ni2WMoVNb martensitic stain less steel gas turbine blades shot peening strengthening optimized parameters
CN108866283A (en) * 2018-07-21 2018-11-23 安徽启慧信息科技有限公司 A kind of surface treatment method of automobile manufacture extrusion die
CN109136480A (en) * 2018-09-28 2019-01-04 上大鑫仑材料科技(上海)有限公司 A kind of life-prolonging method of high strength steel plate hot stamping forming die and application
CN109628874A (en) * 2018-10-29 2019-04-16 山东建筑大学 A kind of compound nitridation process of workpiece surface reinforcing
CN109797304A (en) * 2019-01-28 2019-05-24 上海钰灏新材料科技有限公司 Preparation method and its hot-work steel material through gas nitriding processing
CN110016619A (en) * 2019-05-28 2019-07-16 营口市特殊钢锻造有限责任公司 A kind of mining High Strength Wear-Resistance Material and preparation method thereof
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