CN104879159B - A kind of devices and methods therefor of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction - Google Patents

A kind of devices and methods therefor of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104879159B
CN104879159B CN201510318014.2A CN201510318014A CN104879159B CN 104879159 B CN104879159 B CN 104879159B CN 201510318014 A CN201510318014 A CN 201510318014A CN 104879159 B CN104879159 B CN 104879159B
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China
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pressure
drilling rod
drilling
gas extraction
sliding bush
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CN201510318014.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104879159A (en
Inventor
刘晓
张鹏伟
马耕
李锋
苏现波
陶云奇
黄杨
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河南理工大学
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Abstract

A kind of device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction, including drilling rod, high pressure water-injection pump, gaza's device, inflatable packer, ball sliding bush and drill bit, high pressure water-injection pump and gaza's device are connected with drilling rod left end, inflatable packer is arranged on drilling rod, ball sliding bush turning set is on drilling rod and between adjacent inflatable packer, blast nozzle is provided with ball sliding bush, the center of gravity of ball sliding bush is located between the center of ball sliding bush and blast nozzle, spray orifice corresponding with ball sliding bush is provided with drilling rod, drill bit is arranged at drilling rod right-hand member.

Description

A kind of devices and methods therefor of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction
Technical field
The present invention relates to coal mine gas drainage field, more particularly to a kind of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction Devices and methods therefor.
Background technology
Mine gas is one of Major Natural factor of serious threat Safety of Coal Mine Production, and coal and gas prominent and gas Blast be influence current coal production disaster most, extensive casualties and huge property loss are caused every year.With opening The increase of depth is adopted, coal seam gas-bearing capacity and gas pressure also gradually increase, particularly with single, soft, hypotonic back production work Make face, there is presently no the efficient extraction technology of effective coal-bed gas.Therefore, how gas accident is effectively prevented and treated, actively control Gas Disaster, the Main Topics as restriction colliery high-yield and high-efficiency safety in production instantly.
It is preventing and treating gas problem that seam is carried out to single, soft high gas layer stope and nets anti-reflection and gas pumping Essential measure, and currently known pre- coal-bed gas method of taking out mainly has two kinds:One is bored by playing concordant extraction to coal seam Hole carries out gas pumping, but for single, the soft high gas layer in part, long drilled holes of being constructed in coal seam are very difficult , cause easily to occur spray orifice in boring procedure by institute's back production Coal Quality is soft, spoil hole, plug-hole, the phenomenon of bit freezing, this makes The drilling constructed out of haulage way is obtained it is difficult to should without the protolith by interference from human factor through being naturally occurring in protolith Power area reaches the bearing stress concentration zones of the elevated tailgate side of coal and rock internal stress around excavation, along with yolk coal Crack agensis, the low reason of permeability in layer so that the pre- extraction time for taking out coal-bed gas is directly carried out using prior art Short, sucrose extraction is low, can not extract gas out sometimes or even at all, cause the hard case of " having gas can not take out ", make extracting result It is very undesirable;Another is to take out coal-bed gas in advance in roof or construction of bottom plates Yan Chou lanes plus layer-through drilling, but due to investment Height, shaft sinking and drifting is big, and the reason such as production and accessory system complexity causes ton coal production cost higher, it is contemplated that safety and economy Problem, this measure is not also promoted on a large scale.Therefore, for the gas pre-drainage of single, soft high gas layer, It is badly in need of an effective method to change the status quo.
The content of the invention
For the deficiencies in the prior art, the invention provides a kind of anti-reflection extraction watt of weak seam stope This devices and methods therefor, anti-reflection mash gas extraction is transformed for the seam net of weak seam stope, is carried out in drilling naked Hole orients waterpower gaza's perforation and open-hole segmentation hydraulic fracturing, makes to produce the solid that coal seam is linked up with roof crack in coal seam Fracture Networks, form effective passage of Methane Transport in Coal Seam output, gas permeability of coal seam are increased substantially, so that gas is had Imitate extraction.
Concrete technical scheme is:A kind of device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction, including drilling rod, high pressure Water injecting pump, gaza's device, inflatable packer, ball sliding bush and drill bit, high pressure water-injection pump and gaza's device connect with drilling rod left end Logical, inflatable packer is arranged on drilling rod, and ball sliding bush turning set is on drilling rod and positioned at adjacent inflatable packer Between, blast nozzle is provided with ball sliding bush, the center of gravity of ball sliding bush is located between the center of ball sliding bush and blast nozzle, drilling rod On be provided with spray orifice corresponding with ball sliding bush, drill bit is arranged at drilling rod right-hand member.
The ball sliding bush includes sheath and ball, and sheath is sheathed on drilling rod, and sheath coordinates with drilling rod for gap, sheath It is provided between two ends and drilling rod on sealing structure, sheath medial surface and drilling rod lateral surface and is respectively arranged with the first corresponding ring Connected in star and the second annular groove, ball are arranged in first annular groove and the second annular groove, and blast nozzle is arranged at sheath On, spray orifice is arranged in the cavity that sheath is constituted with drilling rod.
The spray orifice is circumferentially uniformly distributed along drilling rod, and its quantity is 4.
A kind of weak seam stope carried out using the device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction The method of anti-reflection mash gas extraction, including following process,(1)A drill site is dug in roof;(2)Utilize a kind of weak seam Cooperation between the drilling rod and drill bit of the device of stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction is drilled with diameter parallel in coal seam in drill site With top plate interface and away from 1 ~ 2m of coal seam drilling;(3)One borehole axial is divided into multiple units;(4)It is soft using one kind The cooperation of the device drilling rod and ball sliding bush of coal seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction is in a unit along perpendicular to coal seam Direction to coal seam oriented perforating, the liquid component that drilling is returned out according to the observation judges whether to stop perforation, if what drilling was returned out When having cinder or rock slag in liquid component, then continue perforation;If the liquid that returns out of drilling starts to become clarification, not only without rock slag but also During without cinder, stop perforation, the composition of perforating fluid used in perforation includes water and fine sand;(5)With process(4)In same unit Using a kind of inflatable packer, ball sliding bush and the drilling rod of the device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction it Between cooperation carry out hydraulic fracturing, if when the pump pressure of high pressure water-injection pump reaches more than liquid filling pressure after a period of stabilisation, pressure It is rapid to decline, and pressure, without obvious rising, illustrates that cracks in coal seam is connected with neighbouring pressure break cracks in coal seam, then stopped during persistent pressure Only pressure break;If pressure rises rapidly during persistent pressure, illustrate that fracturing fluid ruptures coal seam, should now continue pressure break of pressurizeing; (6)Other units are selected to carry out process successively(4)And process(5), until whole drilling completes perforation and fracturing work,(7)It is right Negative pressure gas pumping is carried out in drilling.
The drill site is formed by the lateral top plate of haulage way one digging, and drill site mesa base is apart from coal seam 1m.
The drilling is uniformly distributed using drill site to be radial in the sector region in the center of circle, and drilling depth should pass through protolith Stressed zone enters in the bearing stress concentration zones of tailgate side rib.
The pressure that sets of described inflatable packer is more than perforation liquid filling pressure and less than FRACTURING DESIGN liquid filling pressure.
The drilling is axially a unit per 15m along it.
The process(5)In, when opening high pressure water-injection pump and gaza's device hydraulic fracturing, the slow water filling in preceding 3 ~ 5min Hydraulic pressure is set gradually to increase to design liquid filling pressure;At the end of pressure break, the slow release of high pressure water-injection pump.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
1. from the lateral top plate of haulage way one dig drill site, the method that drilling is drilled with top plate drill site, both shortened from The length of extraction borehole during ground punching extraction, again using rock stratum construct easy pore-forming the characteristics of, improve drilling rate of penetration and Pore-forming stability, greatly extends the hole pumping and mining life-span, it is to avoid drilled during this coal seam concordant hole extraction in coal seam easily Spray brill, bit freezing, spoil hole, the shortcoming of plug-hole.
2. whole drilling is divided into several sections by the segmentation hydraulic fracturing carried out in drilling, pressure is concentrated on every time a bit of Upper carry out pressure break, is the fracturing effect obtained with less flow, reduces water-carrying capacity, frac system is wanted so as to reduce Ask, the volume of equipment is greatly reduced, underground gallery condition can be better adapted to.
3. the gap extension when perforation in roof strata is pressure break is provided in the trend in a guiding coal seam, rock stratum Seam net further open, expand, communicated with each other with the initial fissure in coal seam, and then pressure break coal seam, form more uniform, hair The three-dimensional gap network of coal petrography reached, increase coal-bed gas desorption surface product improves desorption rate, is the quick migration of coal-bed gas Output provides a high-speed channel, realizes the efficient extraction of continuous-stable.
4. a kind of device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction with drill bit is truly realized drilling, water Power gaza perforation, the integration of hydraulic fracturing, single hole extraction ability and extracting result are obviously improved, drastically increase work effect Rate.
5. during working face extraction, extraction upper corner when the drilling in drill site close to tailgate can give over to back production The extraction borehole of gas is used, and is reduced engineering input, is reduced production cost, improve economic benefit.
6. present invention employs the weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction method based on seam net transformation, it can keep away The high engineering for exempting to dig Yan Chou lanes is put into, the length that drilled when can avoid opening up extraction borehole and engineering the drilling extraction from ground again, Frac pressure loss is big, equipment requirement is high, the deficiency of complex operation.Drill site is opened up nearby and carries out extensive gas pumping, not only Extracting result can be improved, it is ensured that " take out, adopt, digging " of working face balance, and the gas that comes out of extraction also can as with coal symbiosis Resource realize industrial utilization.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is a kind of apparatus structure schematic diagram of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction of the invention;
Fig. 2 is ball sliding bush structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 3 be in Fig. 2 A-A to structure sectional view;
Fig. 4 is Construction Principle structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is Fig. 4 left views;
Fig. 6 is Fig. 4 top views.
Embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3, a kind of device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction, including drilling rod 1st, high pressure water-injection pump 2, gaza's device 3, inflatable packer 4, ball sliding bush 5 and drill bit 6, drilling rod 1 are hollow for both ends open Structure, high pressure water-injection pump 2 and gaza's device 3 are connected by safety joint 15 with the left end of drilling rod 1, and inflatable packer 4 is arranged on On drilling rod 1, the turning set of ball sliding bush 5 is set on drilling rod 1 and between adjacent inflatable packer 4 on ball sliding bush 5 Blast nozzle 7 is equipped with, the center of gravity of ball sliding bush 5 is located between the center of ball sliding bush 5 and blast nozzle 7, is provided with and rolls on drilling rod 1 The corresponding spray orifice 8 of pearl sliding sleeve 5, drill bit 6 is arranged at the right-hand member of drilling rod 1.
Ball sliding bush 5 includes sheath 9 and ball 10, and sheath 9 is sheathed on drilling rod 1, and sheath 9 coordinates with drilling rod 1 for gap, Be provided between the two ends of sheath 9 and drilling rod 1 on sealing structure, the medial surface of sheath 9 and the lateral surface of drilling rod 1 be respectively arranged with it is corresponding First annular groove and the second annular groove, ball 10 is arranged in first annular groove and the second annular groove, makes sheath 9 Can freely it be rotated around drilling rod 1, while avoiding sheath 9 and drilling rod 1 occurs moving axially relative, blast nozzle 7 is arranged at sheath 9 On, spray orifice 8 is arranged in the cavity that sheath 9 is constituted with drilling rod 1.
The spray orifice 8 is uniformly distributed along drilling rod 1 is circumferential, and its quantity is 4.
As shown in Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6, the one kind carried out using the device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction The method of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction, including following process,(1)In the top of coal seam 12 one drill site of digging 11;(2)Existed using the cooperation between the drilling rod 1 and drill bit 6 of a kind of device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction The brill that diameter parallel is 1~2m in the interface of coal seam 12 and the top plate of coal seam 12 and distance away from coal seam 12 is drilled with drill site 11 Hole 13;(3)It is multiple units by 13 points of a drilling;(4)Utilize a kind of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction The cooperation of device drilling rod 1 and ball sliding bush 5 is in a unit along the direction perpendicular to coal seam 12 to the oriented perforating of coal seam 12, root The liquid components that return out of drilling 13 judge whether to stop perforation according to observations, if having in the liquid components that drilling 13 is returned out cinder or During rock slag, then continue perforation;If the liquid that return out of drilling 13 start to become clarification, not only without rock slag again without cinder when, stopping perforation, The composition of perforating fluid used in perforation includes water and fine sand;(5)With process(4)Returned in same unit using a kind of weak seam Water-filling is entered in cooperation between inflatable packer 4, ball sliding bush 5 and the drilling rod 1 of the device of mining face anti-reflection mash gas extraction Force and split, if when the pump pressure of high pressure water-injection pump 2 reaches more than liquid filling pressure after a period of stabilisation, rapid pressure drop, and hold Pressure illustrates that the crack of coal seam 12 is connected with the neighbouring crack of pressure break coal seam 12, then stops pressure break without obvious rising during continuous pressurization;If Pressure rises rapidly during persistent pressure, then illustrates that fracturing fluid is rupturing coal seam 12, should now continue pressure break of pressurizeing;(6)Selection Different units carries out process successively(4)And process(5), until whole drilling 13 completes perforation and fracturing work,(7)To drilling Negative pressure gas pumping is carried out in 13.
Drilling 13 is uniformly distributed with drill site 11 to be radial in the sector region in the center of circle, and 13 depth of drilling should pass through protolith Stressed zone enters in the bearing stress concentration zones of tailgate side rib, it is possible to increase to the pressure break scope in coal seam 12, and drill 13 edges It is axially a unit per 15m.
Drill site 11 is formed by the lateral top plate of haulage way 14 1 digging, the distance between the mesa base of drill site 11 and coal seam 12 For 1m, drill 13 a diameter of 94mm.
The pressure that sets of inflatable packer 4 have to be larger than perforation liquid filling pressure and be less than FRACTURING DESIGN liquid filling pressure;When During water sand perforation, inflatable packer 4 is not set, and perforating fluid can be returned out with annular space, during hydraulic fracturing, and liquid filling pressure reaches swollen The packing element expansion that expanding packer 4 sets inflatable packer 4 after pressure is in close contact with the wall of a borehole, realizes that annular space is sealed, swollen Expanding packer 4 is existing equipment, therefore its concrete structure is not being repeated in the present invention.
Embodiment 1
For the m of buried depth 623, the m of average thickness 4.8 single coal bed, 6 ° ~ 12 ° of 12 inclination angle of coal seam, 8 ° or so of average out to. Ature of coal is soft and mostly chunky shape.Coal seam 12 is with respect to gas bearing capacity 27 m3/t, the MPa of gas pressure 1.8.The directly top of coal seam 12 is Sandstone, 7.5 ~ 12.8 m of thickness, average thick 9.1 m;Old top is packsand, 4 ~ 22.4 m of thickness, average thick 14.9 m;The bottom plate of coal seam 12 For charcoal mudrock or mud stone, 3.9 ~ 27.6 m of thickness, average thick 16.2 m.Roof strata integrality is preferable.
It is hard according to the locus of haulage way 14 and 12 layers of coal seam position relation, face length, the inclination angle of coal seam 12, ature of coal The position of the parameter designing such as degree, roof and floor lithologic drill site 11, drilling 13 away from coal seam 12 apart from, drilling 13 length, drilling 13 numbers and Shot density.
A gang of from haulage way 14 to 12 top board construction of mining coal seam, one distance of the bottom plate away from coal seam 12 is intended is 1 m, and wide by 4 M, long 4.5 m, the high 2.5 m drill site 11 that caunches.
Drill bit 6 is driven to rotate construction drill 13 by drilling rod 1 in drill site 11, drilling 13 is 1m apart from the bottom of drill site 11, 13 will each be drilled by the division of its axial length, be a unit per 15m, then each unit of drilling 13 is penetrated successively Hole and pressing crack construction, due to the turning set of ball sliding bush 5 on the drilling rod 1 and the center of gravity of ball sliding bush 5 is located in ball sliding bush 5 Between the heart and blast nozzle 7, when drilling rod 1 is rotated, under gravity, sheath 9 is relatively rotated by ball 10 with drilling rod 1, So that blast nozzle 7 is all the time straight down, when carrying out perforation construction, start high pressure water-injection pump 2 and gaza's device 3, by water and Husky molecular mixture enters in drilling rod 1, and is entered by spray orifice 8 in the cavity that sheath 9 is constituted with drilling rod 1, due to sheath 9 Be provided with sealing structure between two ends and drilling rod 1, thus water and husky molecular mixture with high pressure from blast nozzle 7 it is vertical to It is lower to spray, the whether through coal seam 12 of perforation is judged according to the liquid that returns in drilling 13;Perforation construction carries out pressing crack construction after terminating, and leads to High pressure water-injection pump 2 and gaza's device 3 the injection fracturing fluid in drilling rod 1 are crossed, water of the fracturing fluid by fine sand and containing 2%kcl is constituted, A diameter of 0.2 ~ 1.2 mm of fine sand, and the content of fracturing fluid medium-fine sand is 5%, the liquid filling pressure of fracturing fluid is 30 Mpa, expansion The model K344 type inflatable packers of formula packer 4, fracturing fluid is sprayed straight down by blast nozzle 7, because blast nozzle 7 throttles Pressure difference sets inflatable packer 4, the environment that the adjacent formation of inflatable packer 4 is closed, because ball sliding bush 5 is located at phase Between adjacent inflatable packer 4, the characteristics of being less than compressive strength of rock using the compression strength in coal seam 12, with fracturing fluid Constantly injection, pressure becomes larger, and the fracturing fluid that blast nozzle 7 sprays is allowed to produce three-dimensional fracture network by perforation into coal seam 12 Network, and can prevent fracturing fluid from returning to crack later and re-closing as the fine sand of proppant.
Pressing crack construction stops injection fracturing fluid after terminating, unseal inflatable packer 4, by a kind of weak seam back production work The device for making face anti-reflection mash gas extraction moves to the next unit progress perforation and pressing crack construction of drilling 13, until in a drilling 13 All units complete perforation and pressing crack construction, then to this drilling 13 carry out gas pumpings, the drilling after hydraulic fracturing Carry out gas pumpings in 13, the crack that pressure break is produced is easier to reach the gas of coal seam 12 to face below a desorption pressures, in negative pressure During extraction, the quick seepage flow migration in crack that the gas after desorption is produced by pressure break, then pass through the quilt of drilling 13 in rock stratum Extensive extraction comes out.
Aforesaid operations are carried out to all drillings 13 successively, until completing, to the gas pumping in all drillings 13, to make back production Gas bearing capacity in working face coal seam 12 is down to below relevant regulations, so as to reach the quick mash gas extraction of transformation coal seam reservoirs seam net Purpose.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction, it is characterised in that:Including drilling rod, high pressure water injection Pump, gaza's device, inflatable packer, ball sliding bush and drill bit, high pressure water-injection pump and gaza's device are connected with drilling rod left end, swollen Expanding packer is arranged on drilling rod, and ball sliding bush turning set is on drilling rod and is located between adjacent inflatable packer, Blast nozzle is provided with ball sliding bush, the center of gravity of ball sliding bush is located between the center of ball sliding bush and blast nozzle, set on drilling rod Spray orifice corresponding with ball sliding bush is equipped with, drill bit is arranged at drilling rod right-hand member.
2. a kind of device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that:Institute Stating ball sliding bush includes sheath and ball, and sheath is sheathed on drilling rod, and sheath coordinates with drilling rod for gap, sheath two ends and drilling rod Between be provided with corresponding first annular groove and be respectively arranged with sealing structure, sheath medial surface and drilling rod lateral surface Second ring groove, ball is arranged in first annular groove and the second annular groove, and blast nozzle is arranged on sheath, and spray orifice is set In in the cavity that sheath and drilling rod are constituted.
3. a kind of device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction as claimed in claim 1 or 2, its feature exists In:The spray orifice is circumferentially uniformly distributed along drilling rod, and its quantity is 4.
4. using the device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction described in any claim in claims 1 to 3 A kind of method of the weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction carried out, it is characterised in that:Including following process,(1) Roof digs a drill site;(2)Using a kind of drilling rod of the device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction and Cooperation between drill bit is drilled with diameter parallel in coal seam and top plate interface and away from 1 ~ 2m of coal seam drilling in drill site;(3)Will One borehole axial is divided into multiple units;(4)Utilize a kind of brill of the device of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction The cooperation of bar and ball sliding bush is along the direction perpendicular to coal seam to coal seam oriented perforating in a unit, and drilling according to the observation is returned The liquid component gone out judges whether to stop perforation, if having cinder or rock slag in the liquid component that drilling is returned out, continues to penetrate Hole;If the liquid that returns out of drilling starts to become clarification, not only without rock slag again without cinder when, stopping perforation, perforating fluid used in perforation Composition includes water and fine sand;(5)With process(4)A kind of anti-reflection extraction of weak seam stope is utilized in same unit Cooperation between inflatable packer, ball sliding bush and the drilling rod of the device of gas carries out hydraulic fracturing, works as high pressure water-injection pump If pump pressure reach more than liquid filling pressure after a period of stabilisation, rapid pressure drop, and during persistent pressure pressure without substantially on Rise, illustrate that cracks in coal seam is connected with neighbouring pressure break cracks in coal seam, then stop pressure break;If pressure rises rapidly during persistent pressure, Then illustrate that fracturing fluid ruptures coal seam, should now continue pressure break of pressurizeing;(6)Other units are selected to carry out process successively(4)With Process(5), until whole drilling completes perforation and fracturing work,(7)To carrying out negative pressure gas pumping in drilling.
5. a kind of method of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction as claimed in claim 4, it is characterised in that:Institute State drill site to be formed by the lateral top plate of haulage way one digging, drill site mesa base is apart from coal seam 1m.
6. a kind of method of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction as claimed in claim 4, it is characterised in that:Institute State drilling to be uniformly distributed using drill site to be radial in the sector region in the center of circle, drilling depth should enter through initial stress area In the bearing stress concentration zones of tailgate side rib.
7. a kind of method of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction as claimed in claim 4, it is characterised in that:Institute The pressure that sets for the inflatable packer stated is more than perforation liquid filling pressure and less than FRACTURING DESIGN liquid filling pressure.
8. a kind of method of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction as claimed in claim 4, it is characterised in that:Institute It is axially a unit per 15m that drilling, which is stated, along it.
9. a kind of method of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction as claimed in claim 4, it is characterised in that:Institute State process(5)In, when opening high pressure water-injection pump and gaza's device hydraulic fracturing, slow water filling makes hydraulic pressure gradually in preceding 3 ~ 5min Increase to design liquid filling pressure;At the end of pressure break, the slow release of high pressure water-injection pump.
CN201510318014.2A 2015-06-11 2015-06-11 A kind of devices and methods therefor of weak seam stope anti-reflection mash gas extraction CN104879159B (en)

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