CN104663065A - Method for improving saline alkali soil in use of biomass charcoal - Google Patents

Method for improving saline alkali soil in use of biomass charcoal Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104663065A
CN104663065A CN201310605008.6A CN201310605008A CN104663065A CN 104663065 A CN104663065 A CN 104663065A CN 201310605008 A CN201310605008 A CN 201310605008A CN 104663065 A CN104663065 A CN 104663065A
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China
Prior art keywords
soil
biological black
wood charcoal
black wood
pyroligneous liquor
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Pending
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CN201310605008.6A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
赵宇侠
苏伟
许瑞波
祝春水
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Huaihai Institute of Techology
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Huaihai Institute of Techology
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Priority to CN201310605008.6A priority Critical patent/CN104663065A/en
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Abstract

A method for improving saline alkali soil in use of biomass charcoal comprises the following steps: collecting agricultural straws, air-drying or drying and then putting agricultural straws into a carbonization furnace for carbonization, thereby obtaining biological black char and mixed gas; removing solid dust from the mixed gas by means of a gas-liquid separator and a dust collector, separating the mixed gas by means of a condenser according to different freezing points of various gases, thereby obtaining pyroligneous liquid; grinding the biological black char, sieving, mixing and homogenizing, thereby obtaining the biological black char; choosing saline alkali soil, applying the biological black char, the pyroligneous liquid and limestone before sowing, and applying nitrogen fertilizer as required; during application, uniformly mixing the materials, then uniformly spreading to the soil and sufficiently mixing the materials with the saline alkali soil at the root layer. The salt amount and the pH value of the surface soil of a saline and alkaline land can be reduced greatly; the volume weight of soil is reduced remarkably, the soil structure is improved, the rising of salt capillary is blocked and the healthy growth of crop roots is promoted; the raw materials are low in cost and the method is simple and easy.

Description

A kind of method improving biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil
Technical field
The invention belongs to reclamation of salinep-alkali soil technical field, particularly a kind of method improving biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil.
Background technology
Saline-alkali soil is widely distributed a kind of soil types, and the area of global saline-alkali soil accounts for 25% of the land gross area.China's wetland with saline-alkaline is mainly distributed in the North China Plain, Northeast plain, Northwest inland area and coastal region.Lianyungang possesses Hills, Plain, the multiple landform such as coastal, forms hummock, Plain and Coastal beach three big agriculture region.The soil types more complicated of Lianyungang Area, wherein solonchak area 2,030,000 mu, account for 28.9% of whole city's soil gross area 7,010,000 mu, the potential of land resource of standby improvement to be developed be larger.So the fact of day by day degenerating based on feature and the soil of the soil structure complexity of Lianyungang Area complexity, the soil types for Lianyungang Area carries out relevant experimental study to guarantee that effective use of biological black wood charcoal just seems more necessary.
China is the country that cultivated land resource is the most nervous in the world, and within 2008, China remains 18.26 hundred million mu, arable land, and 19.49 hundred million mu than 1997 subtract 1.23 hundred million mu only, and per capita cultivated land is less than the half that the world is average.Lianyungang arable area 559.9 ten thousand mu, except the place of production in the high places of production of 167.42 ten thousand mu and 2,060,000 mu, the low-yield land of 131.3 ten thousand mu is still had urgently to develop, as the typical saline-alkali soil of coastal region, produce if slaking can be improved and can be used for normal agricultural, then can for realizing the supply approach that requisition-compensation balance provides.And can using Lianyungang Area as important coastal soil improvement demonstration area.The soil types more complicated of Lianyungang Area, soil mainly contains five great soil groups, 14 subclass, 21 penus, 63 soil species, and its abundant soil types will provide good Experimental Base for technique improvement, and can be promoted well.The general soil layer of saline-alkali soil is deep, and its key issue is that crop can not normal growth in salt time-sharing environment.Saline-alkali soil administers several stages such as generally will going through isolation-desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching-improve the soil-plant, first box dam or trench digging, the source of disconnection salinity; Secondly the desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching, adopts precipitation drip washing and chemical technology by soil (being at least table soil) salinity wash-out; Again improve the soil, adopt modifying agent transformation soil physics and chemical property, generally adopt gypsum, the methods such as soil moved in improve the original.Traditional reclamation of salinep-alkali soil method cost is high, and time-consuming length, can not be applicable to large-scale redevelopment saline-alkali soil.Such as the transformation of coastal tidal saline-alkali soil generally will dig trenches to drain the water away, and drenches salt and to feel well alkali, enclose low bank between fields and store fresh water, plant reed and breed fish, and then the link such as diversion kind rice, and high, the consuming time length of cost, does not meet the quick demand of modern market agricultural production.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is for the deficiencies in the prior art, provides the method for the raising biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil that a kind of operation is more simple and convenient, improved effect is good.
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is realized by following technical scheme.The present invention is a kind of method improving biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil, and be characterized in, its step is as follows:
(1) biological black wood charcoal and pyroligneous liquor preparation: collect agricultural crop straw, air-dry or airing makes it water content lower than 20%wt, then puts into retort and carbonizes at 300 ~ 500 DEG C, obtain biological black wood charcoal and mist; Mist after gas-liquid separation device is removed solid dust by deduster, then mist is separated by condenser according to the freezing point difference of each gas, obtain pyroligneous liquor, pyroligneous liquor filters for subsequent use; Again biological black wood charcoal is ground, sieve, and mixing, obtain the biological black wood charcoal of particle diameter <0.25 mm;
(2) improve: select salt affected soil, before crop sowing, use biological black wood charcoal, pyroligneous liquor and lime stone by weight 5 ~ 6:1 ~ 2:1 ~ 3, then applied nitrogen on demand; Wherein, the amount of application of biological black wood charcoal is 1.5t.ha -1~ 4.5t.ha -1, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields in soil after being mixed when using, make it fully mix with root zone salt affected soil.
In the method and technology scheme of raising biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil of the present invention, in step (2): preferably use biological black wood charcoal, pyroligneous liquor and lime stone by weight 5:1:2.
The improvement principle of the inventive method is: the basic improving effect utilizing lime stone, and biological black wood charcoal organic matter is abundant, loose porous, and specific surface area is large, and surface-active is strong, adsorptivity and water imbibition strong, in saline-alkali soil, take water and water holding by force; Biological black wood charcoal builds soil bulk and granular texture, blocks salinity hollow billet and rises, make plant be able at root layer growth; With the loose structure of biological black wood charcoal and strong active for matrix, nitrogenous fertilizer wherein can effective slow releasing, provides lasting nutrition, simultaneously pyroligneous liquor neutralization bases, efficiently presses the salt desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching.Define chemical modifying-biological ripening-soil melioration system be integrated of efficiently applying fertilizer.Rapid build salinity water effective is separated, nutrition ample supply, and the quick improvement slaking that root system keeps away salt growth utilizes saline-alkali soil.In the present invention, the amount of application of nitrogenous fertilizer is selected by its conventional dosage, does not have special Compulsory Feature.
In the inventive method, lime stone and biological black wood charcoal can increase the soil organic matter, soil particle is reunited, improves soil structure fast; Pyroligneous liquor can neutralize alkalescence fast, then the nitrogenous fertilizer used on demand with biological black wood charcoal for matrix effectively can provide nutrition by slowly-releasing, thus can quick comprehensive slaking improvement saline-alkali soil.The inventive method has following several respects effect:
1, it significantly can reduce saline land topsoil soils salt content and pH value; The remarkable reduction bulk density of soil, improves soil structure, blocks salinity hollow billet and rises, impel crop root healthy growth;
2, the interpolation of lime stone and nitrogenous fertilizer, improves emergence rate and the survival rate of crop with the synergy of biological black wood charcoal and pyroligneous liquor, thus improves crop yield.Achieve agricultural wastes biomass circulating to utilize.Its cost can be accepted by peasant, can develop into the practical technique of extensive improvement and improving salinization soil.The core of this technology is for supporting with the nutrition of nitrogenous fertilizer, based on the improving effect of lime stone, with the neutralization of the loose structure of biological black wood charcoal and pyroligneous liquor, block salinity hollow billet and rise thus reach crop normal growth and significantly reduce salinity improves crop yield object to the murder by poisoning of crop;
3, low in raw material price, method is simple, can not contaminated soil and environment.
Embodiment
Below further describe concrete technical scheme of the present invention, so that those skilled in the art understands the present invention further, and do not form the restriction to its right.
Embodiment 1, a kind of method improving biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil, its step is as follows:
(1) biological black wood charcoal and pyroligneous liquor preparation: collect agricultural crop straw, air-dry or airing makes it water content lower than 20%wt, then puts into retort and carbonizes at 300 DEG C, obtain biological black wood charcoal and mist; Mist after gas-liquid separation device is removed solid dust by deduster, then mist is separated by condenser according to the freezing point difference of each gas, obtain pyroligneous liquor, pyroligneous liquor filters for subsequent use; Again biological black wood charcoal is ground, sieve, and mixing, obtain the biological black wood charcoal of particle diameter <0.25 mm;
(2) improve: select salt affected soil, before crop sowing, use biological black wood charcoal, pyroligneous liquor and lime stone by weight 5:1:2, then applied nitrogen on demand; Wherein, the amount of application of biological black wood charcoal is 1.5t.ha -1, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields in soil after being mixed when using, make it fully mix with root zone salt affected soil.
Embodiment 2, a kind of method improving biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil, its step is as follows:
(1) biological black wood charcoal and pyroligneous liquor preparation: collect agricultural crop straw, air-dry or airing makes it water content lower than 20%wt, then puts into retort and carbonizes at 500 DEG C, obtain biological black wood charcoal and mist; Mist after gas-liquid separation device is removed solid dust by deduster, then mist is separated by condenser according to the freezing point difference of each gas, obtain pyroligneous liquor, pyroligneous liquor filters for subsequent use; Again biological black wood charcoal is ground, sieve, and mixing, obtain the biological black wood charcoal of particle diameter <0.25 mm;
(2) improve: select salt affected soil, before crop sowing, use biological black wood charcoal, pyroligneous liquor and lime stone by weight 6:2:1, then applied nitrogen on demand; Wherein, the amount of application of biological black wood charcoal is 4.5t.ha -1, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields in soil after being mixed when using, make it fully mix with root zone salt affected soil.
Embodiment 3, a kind of method improving biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil, its step is as follows:
(1) biological black wood charcoal and pyroligneous liquor preparation: collect agricultural crop straw, air-dry or airing makes it water content lower than 20%wt, then puts into retort and carbonizes at 400 DEG C, obtain biological black wood charcoal and mist; Mist after gas-liquid separation device is removed solid dust by deduster, then mist is separated by condenser according to the freezing point difference of each gas, obtain pyroligneous liquor, pyroligneous liquor filters for subsequent use; Again biological black wood charcoal is ground, sieve, and mixing, obtain the biological black wood charcoal of particle diameter <0.25 mm;
(2) improve: select salt affected soil, before crop sowing, use biological black wood charcoal, pyroligneous liquor and lime stone by weight 6:1:2, then applied nitrogen on demand; Wherein, the amount of application of biological black wood charcoal is 3t.ha -1, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields in soil after being mixed when using, make it fully mix with root zone salt affected soil.
Embodiment 4, improves the method potted plant experiment of biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil:
Collect wheat stalk or maize straw, air-dry or airing makes it water content lower than 20%; Then putting into pool limits oxygen thermal cracking retort or shaft kiln formula limit oxygen thermal cracking retort to carbonize at 450 DEG C, obtain biological black wood charcoal and mist, after mist is removed solid dust by deduster, by condenser, mist is separated according to the freezing point difference of each gas again, obtain pyroligneous liquor, then biological black wood charcoal is ground, sieve, and mixing, obtain the biological black wood charcoal of particle diameter <0.25 mm, pyroligneous liquor is filtered for subsequent use.
Select Lianyungang Area coastal soil salt content 0.6%, the salinization face alkaline earth earth of basicity 15.5%, in mid-October, 2011 is liming stone powder 0.5kg.kg before wheat cultivation -1the biological black wood charcoal 0.5kg.kg of soil and particle diameter <0.25 mm -1soil, 2kg soil/basin; Pyroligneous liquor 0.1L.kg -1soil, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields in soil after biological black wood charcoal and pyroligneous liquor mixing, applied nitrogen simultaneously, mixing, makes it fully to mix with root parameter.Do not use the in contrast potted plant of biological black wood charcoal and pyroligneous liquor, fertilizing amount and tillage method are with experimental field identical.Topdressing during wheat growth, irrigation management are identical with potted plant pattern with plant protection measure.
After liming stone, biological black wood charcoal and pyroligneous liquor, the salt content obviously observing soil surface obviously reduces compared with the control, emergence rate and the survival rate of wheat reach more than 65%, and the emergence rate not using the soil wheat of biological black wood charcoal and pyroligneous liquor only has 40%, and growing way is uneven.PH value is reduced to 7.82 from 8.14 and reduces 0.32, the K of soil +, Na +deng salt ion also corresponding reduction.Growth of wheat roots is healthy, and growing way is normal, and output about 200 kgs/acre, therefore, barren beach saline-alkali soil achieves the normal production of wheat.At the salinization soil of salinity more than 0.4% critical value, improve then and obtain normal volume then, achieve the target that quick improvement carries out Wheat Production.
Embodiment 5, improves the method field experiment of biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil: carry out maize field planting experiment according to embodiment 4 method at selection Lianyungang Area coastal soil, wherein, the amount of application of lime stone is 0.3t.ha -1, biological black wood charcoal amount of application is 1.5t.ha -1, pyroligneous liquor amount of application is 0.3t.ha -1.Observe during corn growth, the emergence rate of corn and survival rate can reach more than 63%, and plant height is significantly higher than does not execute modifying agent field.PH value reduces, and the soluble organic fraction content of soil reduces, and does not almost occur salting stain phenomenon.
Embodiment 6, improves the method field experiment of biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil: carry out maize field planting experiment according to embodiment 5 method at selection Lianyungang Area coastal soil, wherein, the amount of application of biological black wood charcoal is 4.5t.ha -1, the amount of application of pyroligneous liquor is 0.9t.ha -1, the amount of application of lime stone is 0.9t.ha -1.Observe during corn growth, the emergence rate of corn and survival rate can reach more than 68%, and plant height is significantly higher than does not execute charcoal field, grows fine.PH value reduces, and the soluble organic fraction content of soil reduces, and does not occur salting stain phenomenon.
In embodiment 5 and 6, Crop management: when wheat or corn seeding, begins sowing in good time by locality the suitableeest sowing time, and the topdressing of growing period, irrigation management are identical with general planting management mode with plant protection measure.

Claims (2)

1. improve a method for biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil, it is characterized in that, its step is as follows:
(1) biological black wood charcoal and pyroligneous liquor preparation: collect agricultural crop straw, air-dry or airing makes it water content lower than 20%wt, then puts into retort and carbonizes at 300 ~ 500 DEG C, obtain biological black wood charcoal and mist; Mist after gas-liquid separation device is removed solid dust by deduster, then mist is separated by condenser according to the freezing point difference of each gas, obtain pyroligneous liquor, pyroligneous liquor filters for subsequent use; Again biological black wood charcoal is ground, sieve, and mixing, obtain the biological black wood charcoal of particle diameter <0.25 mm;
(2) improve: select salt affected soil, before crop sowing, use biological black wood charcoal, pyroligneous liquor and lime stone by weight 5 ~ 6:1 ~ 2:1 ~ 3, then applied nitrogen on demand; Wherein, the amount of application of biological black wood charcoal is 1.5t.ha -1~ 4.5t.ha -1, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields in soil after being mixed when using, make it fully mix with root zone salt affected soil.
2. the method for raising biomass carbon improvement salt affected soil according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (2), use biological black wood charcoal, pyroligneous liquor and lime stone by weight 5:1:2.
CN201310605008.6A 2013-11-26 2013-11-26 Method for improving saline alkali soil in use of biomass charcoal Pending CN104663065A (en)

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105175176A (en) * 2015-07-16 2015-12-23 青岛农业大学 Charcoal fertilizer for improving utilization efficiency of phosphorus in coastal saline area soil, and preparation method and application method thereof
CN105906386A (en) * 2016-04-21 2016-08-31 东北农业大学 Saline-alkali soil conditioner prepared from corn straw and preparation method thereof
CN106631596A (en) * 2016-12-23 2017-05-10 贵州大学 Mixed fertilizer for improving hardened soil and manufacturing method thereof
CN106748470A (en) * 2016-12-23 2017-05-31 贵州大学 It is a kind of to improve light, mixed type fertilizer of moderate saline-alkali soil and preparation method thereof
CN107409521A (en) * 2017-05-14 2017-12-01 吴刚 A kind of administering method of saline-alkali grassland
CN108156873A (en) * 2017-12-15 2018-06-15 上海交通大学 A kind of method using biomass carbon recuperated vegetable plastic shed soil
CN108311531A (en) * 2017-12-26 2018-07-24 广东宝汇环保科技有限公司 A kind of house refuse agent, soil treatment method
CN108913154A (en) * 2018-08-09 2018-11-30 张斌 A kind of salinized soil modifying agent method of preparation and use based on herbaceous plant refining
CN109370600A (en) * 2018-10-30 2019-02-22 北京三聚绿能科技有限公司 A kind of novel soil conditioner
CN109369241A (en) * 2018-09-06 2019-02-22 南昌大学 A kind of salinized soil modifying agent method of preparation and use based on xylophyta refining
CN110063100A (en) * 2019-04-23 2019-07-30 盛世生态环境股份有限公司 A method of for improveing buried steam pipe system and the salinized soil improvement of salinized soil
CN111073659A (en) * 2019-11-28 2020-04-28 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所(宁夏土壤与植物营养重点实验室) Carbon-based soil conditioner for heavy saline-alkali soil
CN111357419A (en) * 2020-03-23 2020-07-03 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 Method for improving soil by using wood vinegar

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CN102424638A (en) * 2011-09-13 2012-04-25 商丘三利新能源有限公司 Charcoal-base rapid curing agent for soil and production method thereof
CN102517027A (en) * 2011-12-02 2012-06-27 暨南大学 Modifying agent for soda-alkalized paddy field soil
CN102604645A (en) * 2012-01-12 2012-07-25 沈阳农业大学 Carbon-based ginseng soil conditioner and preparation method thereof

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105175176B (en) * 2015-07-16 2018-07-27 青岛农业大学 A kind of charcoal fertilizer and preparation method thereof and method of administration improving coastal saline-alkali soil phosphorous use efficiency
CN105175176A (en) * 2015-07-16 2015-12-23 青岛农业大学 Charcoal fertilizer for improving utilization efficiency of phosphorus in coastal saline area soil, and preparation method and application method thereof
CN105906386A (en) * 2016-04-21 2016-08-31 东北农业大学 Saline-alkali soil conditioner prepared from corn straw and preparation method thereof
CN106631596A (en) * 2016-12-23 2017-05-10 贵州大学 Mixed fertilizer for improving hardened soil and manufacturing method thereof
CN106748470A (en) * 2016-12-23 2017-05-31 贵州大学 It is a kind of to improve light, mixed type fertilizer of moderate saline-alkali soil and preparation method thereof
CN107409521A (en) * 2017-05-14 2017-12-01 吴刚 A kind of administering method of saline-alkali grassland
CN108156873A (en) * 2017-12-15 2018-06-15 上海交通大学 A kind of method using biomass carbon recuperated vegetable plastic shed soil
CN108311531A (en) * 2017-12-26 2018-07-24 广东宝汇环保科技有限公司 A kind of house refuse agent, soil treatment method
CN108913154A (en) * 2018-08-09 2018-11-30 张斌 A kind of salinized soil modifying agent method of preparation and use based on herbaceous plant refining
CN109369241A (en) * 2018-09-06 2019-02-22 南昌大学 A kind of salinized soil modifying agent method of preparation and use based on xylophyta refining
CN109370600A (en) * 2018-10-30 2019-02-22 北京三聚绿能科技有限公司 A kind of novel soil conditioner
CN110063100A (en) * 2019-04-23 2019-07-30 盛世生态环境股份有限公司 A method of for improveing buried steam pipe system and the salinized soil improvement of salinized soil
CN111073659A (en) * 2019-11-28 2020-04-28 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所(宁夏土壤与植物营养重点实验室) Carbon-based soil conditioner for heavy saline-alkali soil
CN111357419A (en) * 2020-03-23 2020-07-03 广西壮族自治区农业科学院 Method for improving soil by using wood vinegar

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