CN104651636B - Vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment with protection device - Google Patents

Vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment with protection device Download PDF

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CN104651636B
CN104651636B CN201510065306.XA CN201510065306A CN104651636B CN 104651636 B CN104651636 B CN 104651636B CN 201510065306 A CN201510065306 A CN 201510065306A CN 104651636 B CN104651636 B CN 104651636B
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牛强
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牛强
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Abstract

With the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, belong to non-ferrous metal magnesium Extraction metallurgy technical field.This equipment includes electrically heated vacuum electric furnace, and bottom has liquid outlet, top to have liquid injection port, charge door, magnesium vapor to export, and magnesium vapor outlet to magnesium vapor condensation chamber, is then attached to vacuum pump by sealing thermal insulation pipeline communication.The liquid outlet of vacuum electric furnace is positioned at inside vacuum deslagging chamber.Argon shield room is by vacuum electric furnace and vacuum deslagging chamber portion disposed within.Present invention vacuum refining reactive magnesium device, particularly hollow cathode direct current electric arc furnace with electricity as thermal source, electric thermal power is big, is suitable for maximization large-scale production, and the production capacity of magnesium metal has greatly improved;Peripheral argon shield barrier is prevented from air and leaks into magnesium refining furnace thus cause severe safety production accident, and the safety of refining magnesium process units is greatly improved;Realizing the consecutive production produced, single stove produces magnesium amount bigger raising, it is thus achieved that the metal raw magnesium of less impurity content.

Description

Vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment with protection device
Technical field
The invention belongs to non-ferrous metal magnesium Extraction metallurgy technical field, particularly to the equipment of electric heating refining magnesium.
Background technology
Magnesium metal and magnesium alloy are the lightest structural metallic materials, use at the vehicles, electronic product, build Build the field such as material, Aero-Space, bring energy-conservation effect, be described as " the 3rd metal ", " two Pius XIs The green metal material recorded ".The mineral resources of the major metal material such as iron and steel, aluminum the most progressively tend to exhausted, And the mineral resources of magnesium metal are the abundantest, moreover sea water contains the magnesium resource of more horn of plenty, be available for the mankind Use more than one thousand years.
From natural mineral products, the Technology of extraction of metal magnesium divides two big classes: electrolysis and thermal reduction.Electrolysis Method typically uses magnesium chloride to be raw material, and while electrolysis obtains magnesium metal, by-product chlorine, environmental issue is difficult To overcome, at present the magnesium metal yield in the whole world uses electrolysis only less than 20%.
Several magnesium refining methods of Fig. 1 system introduction, the main technique of thermal reduction is silicothermic process, i.e. adopt Being reducing agent reduction-oxidation magnesium with silicon, obtain magnesium metal steam under high temperature and vacuum condition, then condensation obtains The technique obtaining magnesium metal, wherein occupy main flow is so-called " Pidgeon process " technique (Pidgeon Process), Namely external-heat horizontal tank cycle silicothermic process, this method is current leading industry technology.Additionally, it is French Once developed semi-continuous electrical conductivity of molten slag silicothermic reduction technique (Magnetherm Process) and achieved product Industry, seldom has factory to use this technique.
With the carbothermy also having Hansgirg that ferrosilicon process also belongs to thermal reduction technique.Carbothermy refining magnesium is exactly Use carbonaceous reducing agent magnesium oxide, it is thus achieved that magnesium metal steam and CO gas, obtain after fast cooling condensation Magnesium metal.Carbothermy refining magnesium the biggest problem be product be the mixed gas of magnesium metal gas and CO gas, when When cooling down is to obtain magnesium metal, it may occur that magnesium-reduced back reaction, cause magnesium reoxidized by CO gas, Product is mixed with too many MgO and carbon so that the recovery rate of magnesium is substantially reduced, the most how to make magnesium gas The quenching operation of body fast cooling as far as possible becomes the most crucial.Carbothermic method uses a large amount of natural gass, hydrogen Method Deng reducibility gas dilution reduces the temperature of mixed gas, and the introducing of a large amount of foreign gas causes into This increase, the most this carbothermic method was abandoned by industrial quarters later.In recent years, Australian Union's science Organize the scientist of CSIR O to consider mixed gas with industrial research and expand acquisition by convergent-divergent nozzle Supersonic jet, so that gas temperature rapid drawdown, and by named for this technique MagSonic technique, but Still it is in the development test stage.
In short, the industrial magnesium refining method having certain scale yield in history mainly has electrolysis, carbon heat also The semicontinuous process for smelting magnesium of former method, Pidgeon process and Magnetherm, wherein the hot process for smelting magnesium of carbon only exists The factory in 1930-1940 age used, and mainstream industry method the most in the world only has electrolysis and Pi Jiang Method.Before nineteen ninety is for mid-term, electrolysis yield account for the whole world magnesium yield more than 80%, Pidgeon process and Magnetherm method yield only about 20%.From the beginning of at the beginning of 21 century, Magnetherm technique stops production substantially, Electrolysis also atrophy is a lot, and only Pidgeon process yield has accounted for the whole world more than 80%.
Either Pidgeon process technique or the semicontinuous process for smelting magnesium of Magnetherm of France, all special with ferrosilicon Be siliceous more than 75% ferrosilicon (usually #75 ferrosilicon) as reducing agent, the Ore conduct containing MgO , under elevated temperature in vacuo, there is the chemical reaction of Si reduction magnesium oxide, as shown in formula (1) in refining magnesium raw material.
2MgO+Si=SiO2+2Mg(gas) (1)
Owing in reactant, product, only Mg at high temperature becomes gas, extracted out by vacuum-pumping system, Thus leave conversion zone, the low-temperature zone condensation in vacuum line becomes solid or liquid, thus obtains gold Belong to magnesium.
Generally, silicon is using the form of ferrosilicon as reaction mass, usually uses white clouds containing magnesium raw material Product CaO MgO after stone calcining reacts, and industrial common chemical equation is as shown in (2)
2 (CaO MgO)+Si (+Fe)=2CaO SiO2(+Fe)+2Mg(gas) (2)
Silicon is good reducing agent in metallurgical industry, but owing to magnesium is active metal, with the binding ability of oxygen It is very strong, so Si reduction magnesium needs high temperature at ambient pressure.By using vacuum to reduce product metal The dividing potential drop of magnesium gas, and combine SiO with CaO2Generate stable dicalcium silicate so that Si reduction magnesium oxide As long as temperature less than 1200 DEG C can carry out commercial production.
So-called Pidgeon process is Canada metallurgist Pi Jiang professor in the perfect technique of the 1940's early development, And use till today.Pidgeon process technique be by siliceous 75% ferrosilicon, magnesium-containing ore etc. is with solid phases such as mixing pressure balls Contact, be placed in the alembic that heat resisting steel is made, evacuation in tank, outside tank use flame heating, heat from Being passed to by tank body outside tank in the furnace charge in tank, in promoting horizontal tank, material carries out chemical reaction, and magnesium vapor exists When in tank, move in direction along vacuum suction, the water jacket that is condensed in tank mouth position is cooled to solid-state, becomes knot Brilliant magnesium sticks on cooling jacket inwall, and after the 10-12 hour cycle, Crystalline Magnesium is taken out by can opening, then Remelting becomes magnesium liquid, carries out refine or alloying, then ingot casting, and material reaction temperature is about 1150~1250 DEG C, Vacuum is generally less than 13Pa, and cyclical intermission produces.Existing production of magnesium by pidgeonprocess has a following essence defect:
1. reactant ferrosilicon and forge and white carry out chemical reaction with the solid phase way of contact, reaction rate is slow, typically In technical process, the reduction reaction cycle is up to 10~12 hours, inefficiency;
2. use flame external heat, heat by outside reactor by being gradually transmitted to inside, the cycle is long, heat The loss of energy is big, and heat utilization rate is low, and specialty analysis thinks that the heat utilization rate of typical process only has about 20%;
3. limit reactor volume due to the mode of external heat, typical horizontal tank internal diameter 400 millimeters with In, generally diameter 300-370mm, batch is little, and the one time 10 12 hours former magnesium of output of single tank is only Having 20~30 kilograms, floor space is big, and field management difficulty is big, is difficult to realize large-scale production and mechanization Operation;
4. using the ferrosilicon Han element silicon 75% is reducing agent, and general ton magnesium ferrosilicon consumption is 1.05~1.20 tons, I.e. silicon exceeds well over theoretical consumption figures and causes waste, and the most all ferrum element waste;
The most horizontal tank typically uses containing nickel, the expensive heat resisting steel of chromium, consumes quickly, and cost is high;
6. smoke contamination is serious, and work situation is severe, big to the negative effect of ecological environment around;
7. needing hand charging, skim, clear up Crystalline Magnesium, labor intensity is big, it is difficult to realize automated job.
The semicontinuous process for smelting magnesium of Magnetherm of France's exploitation has improved than Pidgeon process, is not only embodied in and adopts Carry out internal heating with electric power, thus improve energy utilization rate, and production efficiency obtains the biggest lifting. Magnetherm process for smelting magnesium is semi-continuous, often produces 1 ton of magnesium metal and the most about produces 5~6 tons of reducing slags, Needing in time major part reducing slag to be discharged reaction zone, this is accomplished by breaking vacuum, stops smelting, and causes life The interruption produced.
South Africa Mintek mechanism develops MTMP (Mintek on the basis of Magnetherm technique Thermal Magnesium Process) technique, its prominent change is no longer to use vacuumizing in stove, but Refining magnesium at ambient pressure, such tapping process can be carried out under not end-of-life state, becomes Total continuity technique, generation Valency is that temperature to be promoted to about 1750 DEG C, causes energy consumption to raise and the fire proof material of furnace lining lost of life, Er Qiegeng Multielement is volatized into furnace gas together in company with magnesium, causes the purity of magnesium to decline.
The process for smelting magnesium being just known as Magnetherm described by United States Patent (USP) US2971833, uses true Slag resistance heating under Kong, namely electroslag heating, once achieved stable commercial scale in multiple countries Produce.United States Patent (USP) US5090996, on the basis of Magnetherm process for smelting magnesium, is changed under atmospheric pressure state Reduction refining magnesium.United States Patent (USP) US5383953 describes with metal reduction refining magnesium under normal pressure, by controlling slag Composition realize, be also considered in all respects as the improvement of Magnetherm technique.United States Patent (USP) 2847295 disclosure The method and apparatus of a kind of electric heating refining magnesium, wherein metallic reducing agent mixes with magnesium ore deposit fine powder, it is ensured that furnace charge is Under solid-state premise, heating obtains magnesium vapor.United States Patent (USP) US3151977 discloses the method for electrothermal reduction refining magnesium, Production continuously can be maintained.United States Patent (USP) US4699653 describe at ambient pressure plasma as thermal source Continuous silicone heat refining magnesium.
Chinese patent CN95100495.6 discloses the technology of a kind of interior heat refining magnesium, its technique and Magnetherm Having similarity, also simply after loading solid-state furnace charge, along with the rising of temperature, furnace charge can be in molten state. But the response system that this patent describes is due to condition of high vacuum degree, causes magnesium vapor to be directly condensed into solid state crystallization magnesium, Easily block vacuum system, it is impossible to realize producing continuously.Chinese patent CN201010145505.9 proposes one The method of kind of melting and reducing silicon heat refining magnesium, by allocating silicon into, aluminum oxide form multi-unit fused slag system so that Reactant and product form ferrosilicon liquid and polynary slag, are liquid phase, improve reacting dynamics condition.
Chinese patent CN201080000976, CN201010255097, CN201010255111 provide very The method and apparatus of empty circular flow magnesium-smelting so that ferrosilicon liquid can be sufficiently mixed with magnesium ore deposit, and passes through dip pipe Realize vacuum and circulating under atmospheric pressure environment, it is thus achieved that good reacting dynamics condition, simultaneously can also Continuous discharging slag.
Have the most progressive compared with production of magnesium by pidgeonprocess technique, Magnetherm technique and MTMP technique, prominent Go out to show that reactor is the electric furnace maximized, use electric energy that furnace charge carries out internal heating, energy utilization rate Higher;Reaction temperature is high, and higher 300 500 degrees Celsius than Pidgeon process temperature, part furnace charge is liquid phase, thus Obtain good dynamic contacts condition;It is capable of semicontinuous even completely continuous manufacturing, unit reactor list The yield of bit time has had on the order of magnitude and has been obviously improved, as shown in table 1.But existing technique still has Deficiency, and these deficiencies the most do not obtain good improvement in published patent, mainly show themselves in that
The sealing of electric furnace is difficult to absolute guarantee does not has external oxidizing gas to enter, and there are major safety risks. Owing to in-furnace temperature is up to 1500-1750 degree Celsius, sealing becomes important problem, on charge door, bell Electrode hole at etc., at such high temperatures, be difficult to accomplish positive confinement.Particularly electrodes etc. need fortune Dynamic parts, are difficult to good slipper seal especially.Air is brought to enter in stove due to poorly sealed, The biggest production obstacle, even major accident can be caused.The gas leakage of a small amount of air, can cause a small amount of magnesium vapor It is oxidized to magnesium oxide, enters into condensation chamber so that former magnesium purity reduces;The air of more amount leaks into, and makes Obtain furnace atmosphere and be changed into week reduction, neutrality, even oxidisability from strong reducing property, even result in magnesium vapor Cannot produce, produce and pause;Large quantity of air leaks into suddenly, a large amount of magnesium vapor can be caused by abrupt oxidization thus Discharge a large amount of heat energy, bring severe safety accident on fire, that burn, even explode.Existing patent is to this all Clear and definite counter-measure is not proposed.
The electrical heating power of non-electric arc is relatively low.Electrical heating has different modes, and watt level difference is totally different.Existing Metallurgical technology Electric heating in, the power of resistance, electroslag, plasma arcs heating is generally the least, only There is several MW;The power of sensing heating increases, it is possible to reach 10-25MW;The power of electric arc heated Maximum, it is possible to reach 80-120MW.The energy consumption of silicon heat refining magnesium is the highest, and the power consumption of ton magnesium reaches 6000-10000kwh, being suitable for powerful Electric heating is exactly electric arc.But as in figure 2 it is shown, vacuum bar Under part, it is breakdown that high voltage causes low density gas to be easy to, the bad stability of electric arc, thus electricity under vacuum The voltage that arc heating is used often only has 20-30 volt, and the highest 60-70 only lies prostrate, the most common vacuum Consumable electric furnace, heating power wretched insufficiency, as a comparison, steel-making high power electric arc furnace used, electricity under normal pressure Pressing and lie prostrate for 400-800, the voltage of ultra high power electric resistivity is more up to 1000-1500 volt, and vacuum consumable is electric The electrical heating power of arc stove is far smaller than ultra high power electric furnace arrangement for producing steel.Some patents use the sides such as plasma Formula heat, owing to single plasma gun power maximum only has several MW, thus must configure ten several even Tens heaters, cause equipment extremely complex, and cost height is looked forward to.
Magnetherm method operates under vacuo, does not use electric arc heated, but uses and be independent of air electricity From electroslag heating, electric thermal power is less, and productivity, production capacity are relatively low, every stove production capacity per hour less than one ton, And be semi continuous, the quantity of slag of magnesium-smelting silicothermic process is very big, and the quantity of slag of ton magnesium reaches 68 tons, needs of slagging tap Vacuum breaker, repeats evacuation and delays a lot of production time, cause quantity-produced to pause, and pilot process The thermal shock that can bring refractory material unavoidably circulates, and causes refractory life to reduce.
MTMP technological temperature is too high, and the loss of resistance to material is big, and former magnesium addition content is high.In order to realize entirely connecting Continuous production, MTMP technique have employed the technique of atmospheric operation, is on the one hand no need to change vacuum of slagging tap Condition thus can with Total continuity, can use under what is more important normal pressure high voltage stable electric arc operation, This is accomplished by improving furnace temperature to more than 1700 degree so that the reduction reaction of refining magnesium can occur, but too high stove Raising and the reduction in fire proof material of furnace lining life-span of energy consumption is carried out in temperate zone.Being additionally, since high furnace temperature, volatility is originally The material being weaker than magnesium enters gas phase the most in a large number, and the purity of magnesium vapor is decreased obviously, as shown in table 2.
The operating condition of table 1 various magnesium-smelting silicothermic process technique and production capacity
Former magnesium component Pidgeon process Magnetherm technique Mintek technique
Pressure (atmospheric pressure) 0.00010-0.00066 0.05-0.1 ~1
Temperature (degree Celsius) 1100-1200 1550-1600 1700-1750
Every stove yield every day 50kg 20ton 100ton
The former magnesium purity (wt%) of the various silicon of table 2 hot process for smelting magnesium gained and impurity content (wt%)
Former magnesium component Pidgeon process Magnetherm technique Mintek technique
Mg 99.68 99.07 97.86
Si 0.010 0.05 0.28
Al 0.004 0.01 0.088
Ca 0.005 0.005 1.77
Fe 0.007 0.005 0.25
Summary of the invention
Magnesium refining method and device is provided in order to overcome in existing industry refining magnesium technology and device and disclosed patent The deficiency existed and drawback, the present invention provides a kind of vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment with protection device, its mesh Be:
An object of the present invention is to provide a set of vacuum refining magnesium with electricity as thermal source, that be suitable for maximizing anti- Answer device so that the production capacity of magnesium metal has greatly improved;
Another object of the present invention is to provide a set of air that is prevented to leak into magnesium refining furnace thus cause seriously pacifying The preventer of full production accident so that the safety of refining magnesium process units is greatly improved;
Another object of the present invention is to provide a kind of vacuum slag-draining device supporting with vacuum refining magnesium electric furnace, make Vacuum magnesium refining furnace need not destroy vacuum can realize outside deslagging, it is achieved the seriality of production;
A further object of the invention be exactly use electric arc heated this there is maximum heating power mode time, Can use higher voltage-operated and electric arc is the most stable, it is possible in stove, input bigger electric thermal power, Thus list stove product magnesium amount has bigger raising;
A further object of the invention reduces furnace charge dust exactly and enters in magnesium vapor, improves the pure of magnesium vapor Degree, and then obtain the metal raw magnesium of less impurity content.
For reaching above-mentioned purpose, the technical scheme is that the vacuum electric heating with protection device Refining magnesium equipment, it is characterised in that include such as lower part:
The most electrically heated vacuum electric furnace, at its underpart or a bottom at least liquid outlet, at an upper portion thereof or top Portion's at least liquid injection port, at an upper portion thereof or a top at least charge door, at an upper portion thereof or top extremely Rare magnesium vapor outlet, described magnesium vapor exports by sealing thermal insulation pipeline communication to magnesium vapor condensation chamber, Described sealing thermal insulation pipe interior temperature is kept above 650 DEG C, and magnesium vapor condensation chamber is with vacuum electric furnace vacuum pump even Connect;
B. vacuum deslagging chamber, the liquid outlet end of described vacuum electric furnace is positioned at inside described vacuum deslagging chamber, institute State vacuum deslagging chamber and be connected to vacuum deslagging chamber vacuum pump and vacuum deslagging chamber gas charging system;
C. argon shield room, described argon shield room is by vacuum electric furnace and vacuum deslagging chamber portion disposed within, institute State argon shield room and be connected to argon shield room vacuum pump and argon shield room gas charging system.
The Electric heating of described vacuum electric furnace is direct-current arc heating, alternating current arc heats, electromagnetic induction adds One or more in the heating of heat, resistance, electroslag heating or Arc Plasma Heating.
The Electric heating of described vacuum electric furnace is direct-current arc, and described vacuum electric furnace is vacuum direct current electric arc furnace, Its top is provided with carbonaceous hollow cathode, is cathode cavity, in described cathode cavity in the middle part of described hollow cathode It is passed through argon as carrier gas, carries out air conveying being input to inside vacuum electric furnace by solid powder with argon, and In cathode cavity, argon pressure is higher than the pressure within vacuum electric furnace, and vacuum direct current electric arc furnace bottom is provided with the end Anode.
Below the end anode of described vacuum electric furnace, stabilising arc field generator for magnetic is installed.
Bottom described vacuum electric furnace or sidepiece be provided be passed through argon stirring Argon pipe, Argon pipe with for argon fill Put connection.
Described magnesium vapor condensation chamber is positioned at argon shield chamber interior, and bottom it or bottom offers the outlet of magnesium liquid.
Described liquid injection port is opened on the pipeline that magnesium vapor condensation chamber is connected with vacuum electric furnace, and in liquid injection port It is provided with ferrosilicon liquid fluid injection tank, described charge door is provided with storage tank.
The liquid outlet switching device being turned on and off liquid outlet it is provided with in described vacuum deslagging chamber.
Described liquid injection port is positioned at vacuum deslagging chamber, and vacuum deslagging chamber is internally provided with and accepts liquid outlet outflow smelting The Sheng liquid bag of gold melt.
Described argon shield room is completely cut off with ambient atmosphere by sealing device, and its air pressure inside is normal pressure, and argon The volume ratio of gas is more than 99.5%, is provided with vacuum deslagging between described argon shield room and described vacuum deslagging chamber Room gate chamber.
Argon shield room gate chamber is installed between argon shield room and ambient atmosphere.
Described argon shield room have its argon gas inside of extraction carry out purifying, purify after return again to argon shield room Argon purification system.
Compared with prior art, the present invention at least has the advantage that
(1) harmful effect and potential safety hazard that the gas leakage of airtight vacuum electric furnace causes magnesium vapor to aoxidize are reduced
During high-temperature vacuum refining magnesium, the infiltration of any gas all can produce a series of serious consequence, according to The size of air leakage, it may occur that former magnesium addition content improves, magnesium vapor productivity declines, even magnesium vapor is on fire The severe safety production accidents such as combustion explosion.
Owing to magnesium vapor character is very active, in addition to oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, Steam, for magnesium metal steam, is all oxidizing gas so that magnesium metal is oxidized to magnesium oxide solid powder Dirt, reduces the recovery rate of magnesium, and causes the purity of magnesium to decline.
Use argon shield room, add the ar gas environment of one layer of anaerobic, air is leaked into the wind in stove Danger is greatly lowered.
Except magnesium refining furnace, magnesium vapor condensation chamber and the outlet of magnesium liquid are also at argon shield room, can directly exist Anaerobic argon gas atmosphere goes out magnesium, is cast into ingot, it might even be possible in oxygen-free environment after direct refine, alloying It is cast into the higher magnesium alloy ingot of added value again.
In argon shield room, the most all use automation or robot manipulating task.The present age metallurgical industry automatic Change, the level of IT application has been fully able to meet high temperature, danger, arduous, high intensity, badly smelt work Unmanned operation in environment.Intervene needing manpower to enter especially or in the case of maintenance, manually wear Isolating positive pressure oxygen breathing apparatus, namely oxygen face mask, enter argon shield room and carry out operation.Isolation type Positive pressure oxygen respirator is different from fume respirator, using the teaching of the invention it is possible to provide carry oxygen, reclaims simultaneously and breathes generation The gas such as carbon dioxide, in blast furnace roof operation, coal mine rescue, chemical industry, make under water In industry, aeronautical field, mountaineering widely used, reliability is the highest.
(2) using powerful electric arc heated, refining reactive magnesium device realizes maximizing, output increased
The energy consumption of refining magnesium is huge, uses electrically heated ferrosilicon process, magnesium metal per ton to need 6000-10000kwh Power consumption, if magnesium refining furnace needs bigger yield, use electric arc heated can obtain bigger Heating power.
Resistance, electroslag, plasma arcs heat, and general electrical power is the MVA order of magnitude;Sensing heating, 20 25MVA can be reached greatly;Electric arc heated, it is possible to reaching power is 80-120MVA.If employing etc. Ion arc, the production capacity of reactor is less, and what plasma-arc heater was corresponding hour produces a magnesium amount is hundreds of Kilogram;Use sensing heating, several tons can be reached per hour;And use the large-scale reactor of electric arc heated, The large-scale production of tens tons of magnitudes per hour can be accomplished.
Pyrolytic semlting reactor such as magnesium refining furnace etc., within the specific limits, heat size is the biggest, and the thermal efficiency is the highest, This is because heat radiation is determined by surface area, the molten bath of metallurgical melt is the biggest, and the surface area of unit volume is more Little, total heat dissipation capacity is the least, and the thermal efficiency is the highest.
Although the power of electric arc heated is very big, but under vacuo, rarefaction of air, gas is easily hit by high voltage Wear, it is difficult to using higher supply voltage is pilot arc, and electric arc is unstable, causes electric arc heated High-power advantage plays the most out.Under vacuum, the one of direct-current arc and the stable DC electric arc is used to be Row measure, the most particularly important.
There is not alternating polarity change as exchange phone in direct-current arc, repeatedly putting out of electric arc does not the most occur Go out, ignition procedures, thus direct-current arc is more more stable than alternating current arc.Hearth electrode have employed solenoid Produce stabilising arc magnetic field, be more beneficial for stablizing of direct-current arc.Coreless armature is used to become arc, due to logical in cavity Entering certain gas and fine ore, gas and fine ore flowing result in plasma arc effect, compression arc, steady Determine electric arc, reduce consumption of electrode, present positive C-V characteristic, as shown in Fig. 4 (b), after the starting the arc, by While step increases electric current, voltage also can improve, such that input power increases, electric arc is more simultaneously Stable, and the direct-current arc of solid plain electrode presents negative C-V characteristic, as shown in Fig. 4 (a).Direct current Electric arc adds coreless armature, can use high voltage, and electric thermal power can reach the magnitude of normal pressure.
Additionally, direct current hollow cathode still gas-fine ore jet possesses higher effluxvelocity, similar wait from The downward impulsive force of daughter jet, has preferable stirring action, its stirring power and mixing time and allusion quotation to molten bath The external refining of the process intensification type of type is similar to, and such as its stirring intensity is about at 1~10W/ (t m3), during mixing Between also the magnitude of 100 seconds.So, the lifting of melt tank reaction efficiency is brought.
(3) smelting end deslagging is without destroying vacuum, improves working performance
Can produce continuously, during deslagging, need not vacuum breaker, it is only necessary to external vacuum deslagging chamber is pumped to Air pressure within vacuum electric furnace is consistent, or lower, it is not necessary to repeatedly bleeds, inflate and waste smelting Time, waste argon, waste are bled the energy, thus working performance is higher, simultaneously more difficult in stove are mixed into Oxidizing gas.
(4) protection carbide refractory
Due to the refining special high temperature of magnesium, vacuum environment, ordinary oxide type refractory material or easily steamed by magnesium Gas reduces, or slag phase acid after being dissolved in first alkalescence, thus conventional carbide refractory is as refining magnesium Inner lining of furnace.
Carbide refractory, resistance to elevated temperatures is much better than oxide type refractory material, but once touches oxygen The property changed atmosphere, can rapid oxidation ablation.Use argon shield room and the configuration of vacuum deslagging chamber, furnace inner lining And carbonaceous electrodes is almost in contact with less than any oxygen, protects refractory material.
(5) fine ore utilization rate improves
Generally, solid charge enters stove more employing bulk, and fine powder furnace charge is easily taken away by furnace gas. For the smelting of magnesium metal, owing to resultant metal magnesium is condensed, with greater need for sternly by furnace gas effusion burner hearth Lattice limit the use of fine ore.But the actual raw material preparatory stage all can produce a certain proportion of fine powder ore deposit, if not Can be used, cause the waste of raw ore.
By the charging function of coreless armature in the present invention, fine ore is directly entered the molten bath under coreless armature, and And be to be injected into molten bath with certain speed, the most it is not carried from reactor by furnace gas and causes furnace charge to damage Lose, enhance smelting process because the specific surface area in fine powder ore deposit is very big, improves smelting speed on the contrary.
(6) magnesium vapor purity improves, impurity content reduces
Owing to fine powder ore deposit is by coreless armature, under the argon jet action as carrier gas, high fast direction molten bath, So fine ore is not easy to be swept along away by furnace gas, favourable for reducing impurity in former magnesium.Coreless armature operation simultaneously Lower carbonaceous electrodes consumption reduces, and reduces the generation of CO weak oxide gas, it is possible to reduce CO oxidation in furnace gas Magnesium vapor forms oxide impurity.
The probability that argon shield room, vacuum deslagging chamber make oxidizing gas leak in stove is greatly reduced, magnesium Oxidational losses reduces, thus the purity of magnesium is higher.
After magnesium condensation, either solid or liquid, can directly go out magnesium, casting in argon shield room It is cast into magnesium alloy ingot after becoming ingot, or refine, alloying, does not contacts with air, oxygen all the time, Thus the purity quality of magnesium is higher.
Accompanying drawing explanation
The various magnesium refining method of Fig. 1 illustrates
The schematic diagram that Fig. 2 vacuum therapeutic method to keep the adverse QI flowing downwards bulk breakdown voltage changes with vacuum
The vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment schematic diagram with protection device of Fig. 3 hollow cathode direct-current arc
The explanation of each several part in Fig. 3
101 vacuum electric furnaces, 102 liquid outlets, 103 liquid injection port, 104 charge doors, 105 magnesium vapors outlet, 106 Breeze tank, 107 hollow cathode argon tanks, 108 storage tanks, 109 ferrosilicon liquid fluid injection tanks, 120 hollow cathodes, 121 cathode cavities, 130 end anodes, 140 stabilising arc field generator for magnetic, 150 for argon devices, 160 Argon pipes, 180 sealing thermal insulation pipelines, 201 vacuum deslagging chamber, 210 vacuum deslagging chamber vacuum pumps, 220 vacuum deslagging chamber Gas charging system, 230 liquid outlet switching devices, 240 Sheng liquid bag, 301 argon shield rooms, 302 argon shields Room vacuum pump, 303 argon shield room gas charging systems, 401 vacuum deslagging chamber gate chambers, 501 argon shield rooms Gate chamber, 601 magnesium vapor condensation chambers, 602 magnesium liquid outlets, 603 magnesium liquid bags, 701 vacuum electric furnace vacuum pumps
Fig. 4 solid electrode and the VA characteristic curve of coreless armature direct-current arc
The VA characteristic curve of (a) solid electrode direct-current arc
The VA characteristic curve of (b) coreless armature direct-current arc
Detailed description of the invention
Embodiment one:
Vacuum electric furnace 101 is vacuum direct current electric arc furnace, and furnace lining is carbide refractory, and top is that graphite is empty The heart-yin pole 120, anode 130 at the bottom of graphite is positioned at furnace bottom, has stabilising arc field generator for magnetic under end anode 130 140.Magnetic field is produced, it is possible to hollow cathode 120 and the end after the coil electricity of stabilising arc field generator for magnetic 140 The direct-current arc produced between anode 130 produces electromagnetic force so that tend towards stability after electric arc stress.Hollow the moon One layer of sheet metal it is lined with, to protect the cathode cavity 121 of graphite on the wall of pole 120 inner cathode cavity 121 Inwall is not washed away by powdery furnace charge, and the top of hollow cathode 120 is connected with a breeze tank 106 sealed, And it is connected to a hollow cathode argon tanks 107, utilizes the argon with pressure in hollow cathode argon tanks 107 Air-flow, can be input to breeze powder in the cathode cavity 121 of hollow cathode 120, then into very Empty electric furnace 101 is internal.
Vacuum electric furnace 101 top, in addition to cathode aperture, is placed with three holes, liquid injection port 103, Charge door 104, one is magnesium vapor outlet 105.Liquid injection port 103 is provided above ferrosilicon liquid fluid injection tank 109, In vacuum electric furnace 101, intermittently or continuously inject ferrosilicon liquid.Charge door 104 top is provided with storage tank 108, Solid mineral aggregate particularly block stock can be joined inside vacuum electric furnace 101 under air-tight state.Magnesium steams Gas outlet 105 is connected to magnesium vapor condensation chamber 601 by sealing thermal insulation pipeline 180, exports 105 from magnesium vapor To sealing thermal insulation pipeline 180 until the entrance of magnesium vapor condensation chamber 601 all uses carbon lining, outer wrap There is adiabator, keep its internal temperature to be higher than 650 DEG C, to prevent magnesium vapor from condensing.Magnesium vapor condensation chamber 601 are connected to vacuum electric furnace vacuum pump 701 by cleaner unit, and vacuum electric furnace vacuum pump 701 is cold by magnesium vapor Solidifying room 601, sealing thermal insulation pipeline 180, magnesium vapor outlet 105 evacuation internal to vacuum electric furnace 101, very Reciprocal of duty cycle can reach less than 67Pa.In the present embodiment, liquid injection port 103 is arranged in magnesium vapor outlet 105 and leans on Nearly magnesium vapor condensation chamber 601 side, charge door 104 is arranged on furnace roof away from magnesium vapor condensation chamber 601 Side.Liquid injection port 103 is opened on the pipeline that magnesium vapor condensation chamber is connected with vacuum electric furnace 101 so that The ferrosilicon liquid that liquid injection port 103 is injected can carry out rain type to the furnace gas that will enter magnesium vapor condensation chamber 601 Washing and filtering, filters out the fine dust that furnace gas carries, and purifies furnace gas so that the condensed purity of magnesium is higher.
Bottom vacuum electric furnace 101 or sidepiece is provided with the gas blow pipe 160 of blowing argon gas, gas blow pipe 160 connection is for argon Device 150, is passed through argon and the molten bath within vacuum electric furnace 101 is carried out argon bottom-blowing stirring.
Vacuum deslagging chamber 201 is connected with vacuum electric furnace 101, and the two is connected by liquid outlet 102, this In embodiment, the ferrosilicon liquid fluid injection tank 109 of liquid injection port 103 and top thereof also is located in vacuum deslagging chamber 201.
Vacuum deslagging chamber 201 is provided with vacuum deslagging chamber vacuum pump 210, vacuum deslagging chamber gas charging system 220.Root According to needs, vacuum deslagging chamber vacuum pump 210 to vacuum deslagging chamber 201 evacuation and maintains vacuum, this Vacuum is identical or slightly higher, lower slightly with the vacuum within vacuum electric furnace 101, inflation system of vacuum deslagging chamber It is internal that argon is filled with vacuum deslagging chamber 201 by system 220 as required, joins with vacuum deslagging chamber vacuum pump 210 It is combined, regulation air pressure within vacuum deslagging chamber 201.At vacuum electric furnace 101 by liquid outlet 102 When discharging reducing agent ferrosilicon liquid and liquid refining magnesium residue, the vacuum of vacuum deslagging chamber 201 should be relatively low, side Just the ferrosilicon liquid of liquid, melt cinder flow out.After discharge opeing terminates, can maintain vacuum deslagging chamber 201 original very Reciprocal of duty cycle, it is also possible to properly increase.
Vacuum deslagging chamber 201 is internal is additionally provided with liquid outlet switching device 230, the liquid outlet to vacuum electric furnace 101 102 carry out the operation opened, close, and are commonly called as " tap-hole opening and sealing unit " in metallurgical technology, for automation or Person remotely operates machinery.The internal Sheng liquid bag 240 that is provided with of vacuum deslagging chamber 201, and it is provided with lifting Sheng liquid bag The lifting device of 240, enters contain liquid bag 240 from the liquid ferrosilicon of liquid outlet 102 outflow, melting and reducing slag, Then excluding one layer of melt cinder on surface, the Sheng liquid bag 240 that will be equipped with liquid ferrosilicon is promoted to ferrosilicon liquid fluid injection tank Above in the of 109, ferrosilicon liquid is blended into ferrosilicon liquid fluid injection tank 109, the most again interval or lasting from containing liquid bag 240 It is internal that ground injects vacuum electric furnace 101.The melt cinder excluded from Sheng liquid bag 240 enters into argon by gate chamber 401 Gas shielded room 301, is transported to atmospheric environment by gate chamber 501 the most again, carries out Slag treatment.
It is internal that vacuum electric furnace 101 and vacuum deslagging chamber 201 are all located at argon shield room 301.Argon shield room 301 are provided with argon shield room vacuum pump 302 and argon shield room gas charging system 303.Argon shield room vacuum pump Argon shield chamber interior 301 can be evacuated to less than 67Pa, argon shield room gas charging system 303 by 302 Argon shield room 301 can be filled with argon to normal pressure or pressure-fired, it is also possible to examine in the long-term blowing out of needs When repairing, argon shield room is filled with air, is conveniently manually entered operation.Before and after long-term shutdowns overhauls, empty During the two kinds of gas with various displacements of gas-argon, vacuum pump 302 is used to be evacuated to argon shield room 301 is internal The final vacuum of vacuum pump, is then charged with gas to be full of, and is the most again evacuated to the limit, then Again be filled with and treat gassy, the most repeatedly after, be i.e. capable of gas close to replacing completely.In normal work Making state, is repeatedly bled by above-mentioned-inflated in argon shield room 301 so that the internal argon in argon shield room 301 The percent by volume of gas reaches 99.8%, meets the control requirement as far as possible reducing oxygen, nitrogen in producing.
Argon shield room 301 is also by portion disposed within for magnesium vapor condensation chamber 601.Have bottom magnesium vapor condensation chamber Magnesium liquid outlet 602, can go out to be injected into magnesium liquid bag 603 by magnesium liquid stream, and the magnesium liquid in magnesium liquid bag 603 can be straight It is connected on the internal ingot casting in argon shield room 301 or refine, alloying, under argon shield, the burning of magnesium liquid, Oxidation, absorption gaseous impurity are greatly reduced, by the pig moulding machine of automatization, refining furnace, alloying device energy Enough realizations smoothly.
Vacuum electric furnace vacuum pump 701 is also included by argon shield room 301.Vacuum electric furnace vacuum pump 701 Preferably employ multi-level water steam jet pump.From being mainly composed of of magnesium vapor outlet 105 high-temperature furnace gas out Magnesium vapor and argon, and other impurity on a small quantity, along with magnesium vapor in magnesium vapor condensation chamber 601 the most complete Portion condenses, and in the final expellant gas of vacuum electric furnace vacuum pump 701, major part is argon, possibly together with certain Steam, after being extracted out internal gas by argon shield room vacuum pump 302, is dried, is dehydrated, only Impurity in a series of process such as change, purification, effectively removing argon, then pressurization enters into argon shield room and fills The argon tanks of gas system 303, returns to argon shield room 301, it is achieved argon recycles, and reduces fresh argon Gas consumes.
Between vacuum deslagging chamber 201 and argon shield room 301, an at least vacuum deslagging chamber gate chamber 401, Preferably, respectively set a vacuum deslagging chamber gate chamber 401 aloft with lower, facilitate various raw material, refining magnesium residual Slag, ferrosilicon residual liquid pass in and out.Between argon shield room 301 and ambient atmosphere environment, at least an argon is protected Protect room gate chamber 501, it is preferable that respectively set an argon shield room gate chamber 501 aloft with lower, convenient Various raw materials, refining magnesium residue, ferrosilicon residual liquid, magnesium ingot, magnesium liquid pass in and out.Vacuum deslagging chamber gate chamber 401 with The structure of argon shield room gate chamber 501, function are the same, use at least in twice gate and twice gate The transition region in portion realizes the maintenance to vacuum or ar gas environment, allows transport solid furnace charge, liquid simultaneously Furnace charge, the device turnover of melted slag charge.
Embodiment two:
Using 60% liquid ferrosilicon in the present embodiment is reducing agent, and the dolomite after calcining is magnesium ore deposit raw material, contains Magnesium 23%, diameter is not more than 40mm.In the middle part of vacuum direct current electric arc furnace, maximum inner diameter is 6000mm, in furnace bottom Footpath is 4200mm, interior a height of 5100mm.DC source power is 50MW, and during normal operating, voltage is the highest 800 volts, electric current 60-70KA, control temperature 1600 degrees Celsius.Graphite hollow cathode 120 diameter 1300mm, Cathode cavity 121 internal diameter 300mm, furnace pressure 10000Pa, the argon pressure in hollow cathode 120 is 14000Pa, forges the diameter hollow cathode 120 that enters into less than 6mm in white lead and feeds, account for total magnesium mineral aggregate 16%, diameter joins in stove more than 6mm's by charge door 104, accounts for the 84% of whole magnesium ore deposit, separately has A small amount of calcined bauxite, the fluorite crushed add as auxiliary agent.
Be previously added in stove 1600 degrees Celsius 60% ferrosilicon liquid 50 tons, then by Argon pipe 160 end Blowing argon gas stirs, then by charge door 104, cathode cavity 121 be separately added into bulk, powdery containing oxidation Magnesium calcined dolomite powder and auxiliary agent, inject ferrosilicon liquid by liquid injection port 103 in stove simultaneously.Within one hour, add Entering magnesium slag 25 tons, auxiliary agent 5 tons, another liquid injection port of passing through injects ferrosilicon liquid 30 tons.Common magnesium vapor excessively is cold Solidifying room obtains magnesium metal 5.1 tons, and containing magnesium 99.2%, the magnesium metal response rate is 88%, average ton magnesium power consumption 7200kwh, ton magnesium silicon consumes 600kg, and close to theoretical value, ferrum element is almost without consumption.
Reacting complete, stop power transmission, in maintaining stove, vacuum is constant.Reduce argon bottom-blowing flow so that slag Layer is layered with ferrosilicon liquid.The vacuum of detection vacuum deslagging chamber 201, operation vacuum deslagging chamber vacuum pump 210, Vacuum deslagging chamber gas charging system 220 so that the gas pressure in vacuum deslagging chamber 201 is internal with vacuum drying oven 101 Pressure roughly the same or lower slightly, the liquid outlet switching device 230 of automatization of operation vacuum deslagging chamber 201, Open liquid outlet 102 so that ferrosilicon liquid flows out together with slag, flow into one and contain liquid bag 240, then pull down Upper strata slag enters a slag ladle, opens vacuum deslagging chamber gate chamber 401 so that slag ladle leaves vacuum deslagging chamber 201, enter into argon shield room 301, and leave argon guarantor by argon shield room gate chamber 501 further Protect room 301 and enter into ambient atmosphere environment, carry out Slag treatment.Meanwhile, along contrary route of slagging tap, will A collection of fresh ferrosilicon liquid is sent into argon shield room 301 and also and then is arrived vacuum deslagging chamber 201, stays after refining magnesium Ferrosilicon liquid mixing in containing liquid bag 240, is then promoted to the fluid injection at vacuum electric furnace 101 top by Sheng liquid bag Mouth 103 positions, are blended into the ferrosilicon liquid contained in liquid bag 240 in the ferrosilicon liquid fluid injection tank 109 of furnace roof.Close Closing liquid outlet 102, ferrosilicon liquid enters into vacuum electric furnace by liquid injection port 103 from ferrosilicon liquid fluid injection tank 109 In 101, prepare to refine magnesium next time.
Embodiment three:
Vacuum electric furnace 101 is airtight intermediate frequency electromagnetic electric induction furnace, frequency 100 hertz, rated power 20000kW, uses the coil-induced heating of water-cooled copper.Inner load volume is 60 tons of liquid steel iron charges, due to Ferrosilicon density is less than iron and steel, loads ferrosilicon liquid quality and be about 30-40 ton during actual refining magnesium operation.Vacuum induction electricity Stove 101 top is provided with liquid injection port 103, charge door 104 and a magnesium vapor outlet 105.The all 3mm in magnesium ore deposit Above bulk, is all joined in stove by charge door 104 from storage tank 108.Ferrosilicon liquid is from being arranged on note Ferrosilicon liquid fluid injection tank 109 above liquid mouth 103 joins in stove.Furnace bottom is provided with argon bottom-blowing device, argon By Argon pipe 160, molten bath in stove is carried out Gas Stirring, the electromagnetic agitation shape formed with load coil Become superposition agitation effects.Vacuum pump 701 directly by magnesium vapor condensation chamber 601, sealing thermal insulation pipeline 180, Vacuum induction furnace 101 internal cavities evacuation, sealing thermal insulation pipeline 180 are used by magnesium vapor outlet 105 Carbon lining, outer wrap has adiabator, keeps internal temperature to be higher than 650 DEG C, to prevent magnesium vapor from condensing.
Vacuum deslagging chamber 201, argon shield room 301 are identical with embodiment one.

Claims (12)

1. with the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, it is characterised in that include such as lower part:
The most electrically heated vacuum electric furnace (101), its underpart or a bottom at least liquid outlet (102), At an upper portion thereof or a top at least liquid injection port (103), at an upper portion thereof or a top at least charge door (104), at an upper portion thereof or top at least magnesium vapor outlet (105), described magnesium vapor outlet (105) It is communicated to magnesium vapor condensation chamber (601), described sealing thermal insulation pipe interior by sealing thermal insulation pipeline (180) Temperature is kept above 650 DEG C, and magnesium vapor condensation chamber (601) is connected with vacuum electric furnace vacuum pump (701);
B. vacuum deslagging chamber (201), liquid outlet (102) end of described vacuum electric furnace (101) is positioned at institute Stating vacuum deslagging chamber (201) internal, described vacuum deslagging chamber is connected to vacuum deslagging chamber vacuum pump (210) With vacuum deslagging chamber gas charging system (220);
C. argon shield room (301), described argon shield room (301) is by vacuum electric furnace (101) and vacuum Deslagging chamber (201) portion disposed within, it is true that described argon shield room (301) is connected to argon shield room Empty pump (302) and argon shield room gas charging system (303).
2. as claimed in claim 1 with the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, it is characterised in that The Electric heating of described vacuum electric furnace (101) is direct-current arc heating, alternating current arc heating, electromagnetic induction One or more in heating, resistance heating, electroslag heating or Arc Plasma Heating.
3. as claimed in claim 1 with the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, it is characterised in that The Electric heating of described vacuum electric furnace is direct-current arc, and described vacuum electric furnace (101) is vacuum direct-current arc Stove, its top is provided with carbonaceous hollow cathode (120), the top of hollow cathode (120) and a sealing Breeze tank (106) connects, and is cathode cavity (121) in the middle part of described hollow cathode, described cathode cavity (121) In be passed through argon as carrier gas, carry out the air conveying vacuum electric furnace (101) that is input to by solid powder with argon The pressure that in inside, and cathode cavity (121), argon pressure is internal higher than vacuum electric furnace (101), vacuum Direct current electric arc furnace bottom is provided with end anode (130).
4. as claimed in claim 3 with the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, it is characterised in that End anode (130) lower section of described vacuum electric furnace (101) is provided with stabilising arc field generator for magnetic (140).
5. the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment with protection device as described in as arbitrary in claim 1,2,3 or 4, It is characterized in that, described vacuum electric furnace (101) bottom or sidepiece are provided with the Argon pipe being passed through argon stirring (160), Argon pipe is connected with for argon device (150).
6. as claimed in claim 1 with the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, it is characterised in that It is internal that described magnesium vapor condensation chamber (601) is positioned at argon shield room (301), and bottom it or bottom is offered Magnesium liquid is had to export (602).
7. as claimed in claim 1 with the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, it is characterised in that Described liquid injection port (103) is opened in the pipeline that magnesium vapor condensation chamber (601) is connected with vacuum electric furnace (101) On, and it is provided with ferrosilicon liquid fluid injection tank (109) in liquid injection port (103), on described charge door (104) It is provided with storage tank (108).
8. as claimed in claim 1 with the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, it is characterised in that It is provided with, in described vacuum deslagging chamber (201), the liquid outlet switching device being turned on and off liquid outlet (102) (230)。
9. as claimed in claim 1 with the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, it is characterised in that Described liquid injection port (103) is positioned at vacuum deslagging chamber (201), and vacuum deslagging chamber is internally provided with and accepts Liquid mouth (102) flows out Sheng liquid bag (240) of metallurgical melt.
10. as claimed in claim 1 with the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, it is characterised in that Described argon shield room (301) is completely cut off with ambient atmosphere by sealing device, and its air pressure inside is normal pressure, and The volume ratio of argon is more than 99.5%, described argon shield room (301) and described vacuum deslagging chamber (201) it Between be provided with vacuum deslagging chamber gate chamber (401).
11. as claimed in claim 1 with the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, it is characterised in that Between described argon shield room (301) and ambient atmosphere, argon shield room gate chamber (501) is installed.
12. as claimed in claim 1 with the vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment of protection device, it is characterised in that Described argon shield room (301) have its argon gas inside of extraction carry out purifying, purify after return again to argon shield The argon purification system of room (301).
CN201510065306.XA 2015-02-06 2015-02-06 Vacuum electric heat refining magnesium equipment with protection device Active CN104651636B (en)

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CN105018740B (en) * 2015-08-07 2017-03-22 山西大学 Vacuum reduction furnace for electromagnetic induction heating melting reduction of magnesium metal
CN107699712B (en) * 2017-09-27 2020-06-12 温州翰轩林工业设计有限公司 Magnesium metallurgical furnace and magnesium smelting method
CN110863118A (en) * 2019-11-27 2020-03-06 国科镁业科技(河南)有限公司 Application of nickel-based filter material in gas-phase magnesium purification and production system comprising same

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