CN110129584B - Short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device and method - Google Patents

Short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110129584B
CN110129584B CN201910473232.1A CN201910473232A CN110129584B CN 110129584 B CN110129584 B CN 110129584B CN 201910473232 A CN201910473232 A CN 201910473232A CN 110129584 B CN110129584 B CN 110129584B
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zinc
smelting
zone
furnace
reduction
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CN110129584A (en
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李东波
黎敏
邓兆磊
尉克俭
茹洪顺
曹珂菲
苟海鹏
裴忠冶
吴卫国
许良
冯双杰
李兵
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China ENFI Engineering Corp
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China ENFI Engineering Corp
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22BPRODUCTION AND REFINING OF METALS; PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
    • C22B19/00Obtaining zinc or zinc oxide
    • C22B19/04Obtaining zinc by distilling

Abstract

The invention provides a short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device and a short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting method. The device comprises a furnace body, a partition wall and at least one heating electrode, wherein the furnace body is provided with an inner cavity; the partition wall is arranged in the inner cavity of the furnace body, the partition wall divides the inner cavity into a smelting area and an electric heating reduction area along the horizontal direction, and a communication channel is arranged below the partition wall and used for communicating the smelting area with the electric heating reduction area; the smelting area is provided with a first feed inlet and a smelting area flue, and the first feed inlet is used for adding zinc concentrate and a fusing agent; the electric heating reduction area is provided with a second feed inlet, at least one electrode through hole and an electric heating reduction area flue, and the second feed inlet is used for adding a reducing agent; the heating electrodes are in one-to-one correspondence with the electrode through holes and extend into the electric heating reduction region through the electrode through holes. The pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device provided by the invention effectively solves the problems of complex flow, high energy consumption and the like of pyrometallurgical zinc smelting in the prior art through the furnace body, and has the advantages of high production efficiency, low equipment cost, high zinc recovery rate and the like.

Description

Short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device and method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of pyrometallurgical zinc smelting, in particular to a short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device and a short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting method.
Background
Zinc is one of ten large nonferrous metals, and is widely applied to various aspects of national economy. At present, zinc smelting is mainly carried out by a wet process, zinc concentrate is leached after being roasted or treated by other means, zinc sulfate solution is obtained, cathode zinc sheets are obtained through liquid purification and electrolytic deposition, and Zn99.995 zinc ingots are obtained through zinc casting. The process has more procedures, complex process, huge investment and high energy consumption, and the direct current power consumption per ton of zinc in a single electrodeposition procedure reaches 3000 kWh. Most importantly, a large amount of leaching slag, iron slag and the like are generated in the wet process, the yield of the leaching slag and the iron slag exceeds 50%, the slag belongs to dangerous waste, and needs to be subjected to harmless treatment, so that a large amount of energy consumption is caused, and new pollution is brought.
Blast furnaces, vertical pots and electric furnaces are the only existing pyrometallurgical zinc-smelting processes at present, and the energy consumption is generally high. Blast furnaces and vertical tanks have high requirements on raw material components and complex material preparation process; the electric furnace needs to control the atmosphere and temperature in the furnace to prevent the large amount of reduction of iron; the three kinds of pyrometallurgical zinc smelting processes have low direct zinc recovery rate, high zinc content in blast furnace slag and electric furnace slag and low total zinc recovery rate. At present, the capacity of a single blast furnace can reach more than 10 ten thousand tons of zinc per year, and the capacity of a single series of vertical tanks and electric furnaces is only thousands of tons per year, so that the requirement of modern large-scale industrial production can not be met completely.
The CN101492774B zinc smelting equipment and the zinc smelting process melt zinc concentrate by using an oxygen bottom blowing smelting furnace, then cast blocks are sent to a blast furnace for reduction, and zinc steam is condensed by using traditional lead rain or zinc rain to obtain crude zinc. The method eliminates the sintering machine of the blast furnace process and its associated problems. However, the method still uses a blast furnace for smelting, the molten slag needs to be cast and cooled, the material preparation process is complicated, the energy consumption is higher, and the zinc recovery rate is not improved compared with the traditional zinc smelting technology by a pyrometallurgy method.
The CN101914690B zinc concentrate smelting process melts zinc concentrate in an oxygen bottom blowing smelting furnace, the melt is sent to a side blowing reducing furnace for reduction, and zinc steam is condensed by traditional lead rain or zinc rain to obtain crude zinc. The method eliminates the sintering machine of the blast furnace process and the problems caused by the sintering machine, and the side-blown reduction furnace is used for replacing the blast furnace to directly reduce the melt, so that the energy consumption is lower; oxygen-enriched smelting in side-blown furnace features small blast quantity, high concentration of Zn vapour and by-product of gas. However, in the method, two metallurgical furnaces are used, molten slag flows into a side-blown furnace from a bottom-blown furnace, heat loss is inevitable, the smoke dissipation point is increased, the side-blown furnace belongs to molten pool smelting, a large amount of oxygen-enriched air needs to be blown into the side-blown furnace, the concentration of zinc steam is low, secondary oxidation of the zinc steam is more easily caused, and the direct yield of zinc is reduced.
The CN105925805A lead-zinc ore smelting method melts lead-zinc ore in an oxidation smelting furnace, the melt is sent to a power frequency electric heating reduction furnace for reduction, and zinc steam is condensed by traditional lead rain or zinc rain to obtain crude zinc. However, in the method, two metallurgical furnaces are used, molten slag flows into the power frequency electrothermal reduction furnace from the oxidation smelting furnace, heat loss is inevitable, smoke dissipation points are increased, the smelting temperature of the power frequency electrothermal reduction furnace is limited, the slag contains high zinc, the zinc recovery rate is low, and iron cannot be recovered. And the single series of the power frequency electric heating reduction furnaces are limited in capacity and difficult to adapt to large-scale industrial production.
For the reasons, a new pyrometallurgical zinc smelting process needs to be provided, and the problems of complex flow, high energy consumption and the like in the pyrometallurgical zinc smelting process are solved.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention mainly aims to provide a short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device and a short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting method, which are used for solving the problems of complex process, high energy consumption and the like in the prior art during pyrometallurgical zinc smelting.
In order to achieve the above object, according to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a short-circuit pyrometallurgical zinc smelting apparatus comprising: a furnace body having an inner cavity; the partition wall is arranged in the inner cavity of the furnace body, the partition wall divides the inner cavity into a smelting area and an electric heating reduction area along the horizontal direction, and a communication channel is arranged below the partition wall and used for communicating the smelting area with the electric heating reduction area; the smelting area is provided with a first feed inlet and a smelting area flue, and the first feed inlet is used for adding zinc concentrate and a fusing agent; the electric heating reduction area is provided with a second feed inlet, at least one electrode through hole and an electric heating reduction area flue, and the second feed inlet is used for adding a reducing agent; and at least one heating electrode, wherein the heating electrodes correspond to the electrode through holes one by one and extend into the electric heating reduction region through the electrode through holes.
Furthermore, the partition wall is provided with a through hole for enabling high zinc slag formed in the smelting zone to pass through and enter the electric heating reduction zone, and the electric heating reduction zone is also provided with a slag discharge port and a pig iron discharge port.
Further, the furnace body has a top wall, the top wall has a first portion located above the smelting zone and a second portion located above the electrothermal reduction zone, and the position of the top wall of the first portion is higher than that of the top wall of the second portion.
Furthermore, the furnace type of the smelting zone is a vertical furnace type, the first feed inlet is positioned at the top and/or the side part of the smelting zone, and the flue of the smelting zone is positioned at the top of the smelting zone.
Furthermore, the short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device also comprises at least one side-blowing spray gun, the side part of the smelting zone is provided with at least one spray gun inlet, and the side-blowing spray guns correspond to the spray gun inlets one by one and extend into the smelting zone through the spray gun inlets for injecting oxygen-enriched gas and optional carbonaceous fuel into the smelting zone.
Further, the bottom wall in the furnace body is a surface which is inclined downwards from the smelting zone to the electric heating reduction zone; or the bottom wall in the furnace body is divided into three parts from the smelting zone to the electrothermal reduction zone, the first part is positioned below the smelting zone, the third part is positioned below the electrothermal reduction zone, the first part and the third part are connected through the second part, and the second part is provided with a step-shaped surface or an inclined surface, so that the height of the first part is higher than that of the third part.
Further, the height difference between the first part bottom wall and the third part bottom wall is 150-500 mm.
Further, the third portion of the bottom wall is located directly below the partition wall, or the third portion of the bottom wall is offset from the partition wall directly below and towards the melting zone.
Further, the second feed inlet is positioned at the top of the electrothermal reduction zone, and the electrothermal reduction zone flue is positioned at the top and/or the side of the electrothermal reduction zone.
According to another aspect of the invention, the method for smelting zinc in the short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device comprises the following steps: introducing zinc concentrate, flux and oxygen-enriched gas into a smelting zone for smelting reaction to obtain high-zinc slag, sulfur-containing flue gas and melt; discharging sulfur-containing flue gas through a flue of the smelting zone; high zinc slag and melt enter an electrothermal reduction area to carry out electrothermal reduction under the heating action of a heating electrode and the reduction action of a reducing agent to obtain zinc steam, slag and pig iron.
Further, the zinc concentrate is zinc sulfide concentrate and/or lead-zinc composite ore; preferably, the oxygen-enriched gas is oxygen-enriched air or oxygen; preferably, the fusing agent is one or more of siliceous fusing agent, calcareous fusing agent and ferrous fusing agent.
Further, the concentration of oxygen in the smelting zone is 40-80%, and the temperature of the smelting reaction is 1200-1400 ℃.
Furthermore, the temperature of the sulfur-containing flue gas is 1200-1400 ℃, and the content of zinc element in the high-zinc slag is 20-60%.
Further, in the process of the smelting reaction, oxygen-enriched gas is sprayed into the melt in the smelting zone by using a side-blown spray gun, or the oxygen-enriched gas and carbonaceous fuel are sprayed into the melt in the smelting zone by using the side-blown spray gun.
Further, the melt enters the electric heating reduction area through a communication channel between the partition wall and the bottom wall of the furnace body, and the high zinc slag enters the electric heating reduction area through a through hole formed in the partition wall.
Further, the reducing agent is one or more of coke, anthracite, crushed coke and semi coke.
Further, the operation temperature of the electric heating reduction is 1200-1300 ℃, and after the zinc steam is discharged, the operation temperature of the electric heating reduction is increased to 1500-1600 ℃ so as to discharge the pig iron.
Further, the slag is discharged in a stage discharge mode, and the zinc content of the slag is 0.5-1.5%.
Further, the method also comprises the step of condensing the zinc vapor to obtain crude zinc and coal gas; preferably, the carbonaceous fuel is one or more of natural gas, pulverized coal and coal gas.
Further, the method also comprises the step of cooling and dedusting the sulfur-containing flue gas; preferably, after the temperature reduction and dust removal step, the obtained gas is subjected to acid preparation.
The invention provides a short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device which comprises a furnace body, a partition wall and at least one heating electrode, wherein the furnace body is provided with an inner cavity; the partition wall is arranged in the inner cavity of the furnace body, the partition wall divides the inner cavity into a smelting area and an electric heating reduction area along the horizontal direction, and a communication channel is arranged below the partition wall and used for communicating the smelting area with the electric heating reduction area; the smelting area is provided with a first feed inlet and a smelting area flue, and the first feed inlet is used for adding zinc concentrate and a fusing agent; the electric heating reduction area is provided with a second feed inlet, at least one electrode through hole and an electric heating reduction area flue, and the second feed inlet is used for adding a reducing agent; the heating electrodes are in one-to-one correspondence with the electrode through holes and extend into the electric heating reduction region through the electrode through holes.
The pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device integrates smelting and electric heating reduction of zinc concentrate into the same device through the arrangement of a furnace body and a partition wall, and ensures that smoke of a smelting zone and smoke of an electric heating reduction zone are separated definitely while unreacted raw materials are blocked by the partition wall with enhanced cooling between the two zones, and only the lower part of a molten pool is communicated between the two zones. The flue gas in the smelting zone contains high-concentration SO2The sulfur-containing flue gas is reduced by adding a reducing agent into the electrothermal reduction zone, and the flue gas is mainly zinc vapor. The flue gas in the two areas is separately discharged, which is more beneficial to the recovery of zinc and the independent utilization of sulfur-containing flue gas. Meanwhile, the efficient smelting zone and the electrothermal reduction zone are combined in one furnace, so that the occupied area is small, the configuration height difference is reduced, and the construction investment of the furnace and a factory building is reduced. The combination of the two furnaces reduces the operation of discharging and adding the melt, has higher production operation rate, and can reduce the consumption of operators and corresponding tools. The melting and the reduction volatilization are completed in one furnace, and the electric heating reduction area can also use the melting high temperature to maintain a certain temperature, thereby reducing the consumption of electric energy when the volatilization operation is carried out independently. The melting bath has both melting and volatilizing operations, the amount of the stored melt in the furnace is relatively large, the liquid storage time can be increased, the single-furnace processing capacity is favorably improved, the recovery rate of zinc is improved, and lead, iron, indium, germanium and the like can be simultaneously recovered, so that the higher recovery rate is ensured.
In summary, the pyrometallurgical zinc refining device provided by the invention effectively solves the problems of complex flow, high energy consumption and the like in the pyrometallurgical zinc refining in the prior art through the furnace body, and has the advantages of high production efficiency, low equipment cost, high zinc recovery rate and the like.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this application, are included to provide a further understanding of the invention, and the description of the invention and the embodiments illustrated are intended to explain the invention and not to limit the invention. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 shows a schematic diagram of a short-circuit pyrometallurgical apparatus in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 shows a schematic cross-sectional view A-A of FIG. 1; and
fig. 3 shows a schematic cross-sectional structure at C-C in fig. 1.
Wherein the figures include the following reference numerals:
10. a furnace body; 11. a smelting zone; 111. a first feed port; 112. a smelting zone flue; 12. an electrically heated reduction zone; 121. a second feed port; 122. an electrode through hole; 123. an electric heating reduction area flue; 124. a slag discharge port; 125. a pig iron discharge port; 20. a partition wall; 30. the electrodes are heated.
Detailed Description
It should be noted that the embodiments and features of the embodiments in the present application may be combined with each other without conflict. The present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the embodiments with reference to the attached drawings.
As described in the background art, the problems of complex flow, large energy consumption and the like exist when the zinc pyrometallurgy is carried out in the prior art. In order to solve the problem, the invention provides a short-process zinc pyrometallurgical device, as shown in fig. 1, the device comprises a furnace body 10, a partition wall 20, at least one heating electrode 30, wherein the furnace body 10 is provided with an inner cavity; the partition wall 20 is arranged in the inner cavity of the furnace body 10, the partition wall 20 divides the inner cavity into a smelting area 11 and an electrothermal reduction area 12 along the horizontal direction, and a communication channel is arranged below the partition wall 20 and used for communicating the smelting area 11 with the electrothermal reduction area 12; the smelting zone 11 is provided with a first feed port 111 and a smelting zone flue 112, and the first feed port 111 is used for adding zinc concentrate and a fusing agent; the electrothermal reduction region 12 is provided with a second feed inlet 121, at least one electrode through hole 122 and an electrothermal reduction region flue 123, wherein the second feed inlet 121 is used for adding a reducing agent; the heating electrodes 30 correspond to the electrode through holes 122 one by one and extend to the inside of the electrothermal reduction region 12 through the electrode through holes 122.
The pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device (Bref furnace for short) integrates the smelting and the electric heating reduction of zinc concentrate into the same device through the arrangement of a furnace body and a partition wall, and ensures that the smoke of a smelting area and the smoke of an electric heating reduction area are separated definitely while unreacted raw materials are blocked by the partition wall with enhanced cooling between the two areas, and only the lower part of a molten pool is communicated and communicated between the two areas. The flue gas in the smelting zone contains high-concentration SO2The sulfur-containing flue gas is reduced by adding a reducing agent into the electrothermal reduction zone, and the flue gas is mainly zinc vapor. The flue gas in the two areas is separately discharged, which is more beneficial to the recovery of zinc and the independent utilization of sulfur-containing flue gas. Meanwhile, the efficient smelting zone and the electrothermal reduction zone are combined in one furnace, so that the occupied area is small, the configuration height difference is reduced, and the construction investment of the furnace and a factory building is reduced. The combination of the two furnaces reduces the operation of discharging and adding the melt, has higher production operation rate, and can reduce the consumption of operators and corresponding tools. The melting and the reduction volatilization are completed in one furnace, and the electric heating reduction area can also use the melting high temperature to maintain a certain temperature, thereby reducing the consumption of electric energy when the volatilization operation is carried out independently. The melting bath has the melting and volatilization operations, the amount of the stored melt in the furnace is relatively large, the liquid storage time can be increased, the processing capacity of a single furnace is favorably improved (the structure of an electric heating area is improved, the zinc capacity of the single furnace can meet various scales of 1-20 ten thousand tons and the like) and the recovery rate of zinc is improved, and lead, iron, indium, germanium and the like can be simultaneously recovered and the higher recovery rate is ensured.
In summary, the pyrometallurgical zinc refining device provided by the invention effectively solves the problems of complex flow, high energy consumption and the like in the pyrometallurgical zinc refining in the prior art through the furnace body, and has the advantages of high production efficiency, low equipment cost, high zinc recovery rate and the like.
In a preferred embodiment, the partition wall 20 is opened with through holes for passing the high zinc dross formed in the smelting zone 11 into the electrothermal reduction zone 12, and the electrothermal reduction zone 12 is further provided with a dross discharge port 124 and a pig iron discharge port 125. In the actual zinc smelting process, oxidation desulfurization and slagging processes occur when zinc concentrate is subjected to smelting reaction in the smelting zone 11, molten melt is positioned at the bottom of a molten pool, and high zinc slag with high zinc content floats on the surface of the melt. The partition wall 20 is provided with through holes for the high zinc slag to pass through, and the melt at the bottom of the molten pool enters the electrothermal reduction zone 12 through a channel below the partition wall. Such an arrangement is advantageous in maintaining a steady flow of the melt and dross, thereby allowing more zinc to be removed from the flue by reduction and volatilization during the electro-thermal reduction process. In the process of electrothermal reduction, most of indium, germanium and the like are enriched along with the development of zinc vapor, and lead is reduced into crude lead.
More preferably, the partition wall 20 is provided with a cooling element therein, which can further enhance the cooling effect, block the unreacted raw meal, and separate the two kinds of smoke.
In a preferred embodiment, as shown in figure 1, the furnace body 10 has a top wall with a first portion above the smelting zone 11 and a second portion above the electrothermal reduction zone 12, the first portion having a top wall at a higher position than the second portion. The arrangement is that the reaction tank of the smelting zone 11 is far away from the top wall, and the reaction tank of the electrothermal reduction zone 12 is near to the top wall. Because the smelting reaction needs to be carried out under the condition of oxygen enrichment and the generation amount of the sulfur-containing flue gas is large, the oxygen enrichment condition is provided for the smelting reaction, and the sulfur-containing flue gas is discharged more stably. The zinc vapor formed by the electrothermal reduction and volatilization of the electrothermal reduction zone 12 is easier to enrich and discharge out of the furnace body. More preferably, as shown in figures 1 and 2, the profile of the smelting zone 11 is a vertical profile, the first feed openings 111 are located at the top and/or sides of the smelting zone 11, and the smelting zone flues 112 are located at the top of the smelting zone 11.
The zinc smelting process is carried out under oxygen conditions, and in a preferred embodiment, the short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device further comprises at least one side-blowing lance, and at least one lance inlet is arranged at the side part of the smelting zone 11, and the side-blowing lance is in one-to-one correspondence with the lance inlet and extends into the smelting zone 11 through the lance inlet for injecting oxygen-enriched gas and optionally carbonaceous fuel into the smelting zone 11. The zinc concentrate has higher sulfur content generally, and the heat release amount in the smelting process is large, so that the self-heating reaction can be basically met. Of course, a small amount of carbonaceous fuel may be injected through the side-blowing lance to supplement the heat if desired. The side-blown lance is preferably an immersed lance, so that the smelting efficiency is improved, and the melt in the side-blown lance can be strongly stirred, so that the mass and heat transfer efficiency is improved, and the recovery rate of zinc is further improved.
In order to make the melt flow more convenient, in a preferred embodiment, as shown in fig. 1, the bottom wall of the interior of the furnace body 10 is a surface that slopes downward along the smelting zone 11 to the electrothermal reduction zone 12; or, the bottom wall inside the furnace body 10 is divided into three parts along the smelting zone 11 to the electrothermal reduction zone 12, the first part is positioned below the smelting zone 11, the third part is positioned below the electrothermal reduction zone 12, the first part and the third part are connected through the second part, and the second part has a stepped surface or an inclined surface so that the height of the first part is higher than that of the third part. The arrangement of the bottom wall can provide dynamic conditions for the flow of the melt and the high zinc slag in the smelting zone 11, so that the flow of the melt and the high zinc slag between the smelting zone 11 and the electrothermal reduction zone 12 is more stable, and the treatment efficiency is higher.
In order to make the melt flow more stable and to enable the zinc concentrate to be smelted and reduced electro-thermally and volatilised more fully, in a preferred embodiment the height difference between the bottom wall of the first section and the bottom wall of the third section is 150-500 mm. More preferably, the third portion of the bottom wall is located directly below the partition wall 20, or the third portion of the bottom wall is offset from directly below the partition wall 20 and towards the smelting zone 11.
In a preferred embodiment, as shown in fig. 3, the second feed opening 121 is located at the top of the electro-thermal reduction zone 12, and the electro-thermal reduction zone flue 123 is located at the top and/or side of the electro-thermal reduction zone 12. In view of more convenient connection of the recovery processing unit for zinc vapor to the above-described zinc smelting unit, it is preferable that the electrothermal reduction zone flue 123 is located at the side of the electrothermal reduction zone 12. And in order to further enhance the reduction effect, it is preferable that the top and sides of the electrothermal reduction zone 12 are further provided with side-blowing lances for blowing the reducing agent.
In practical application, the electrothermal reduction zone 12 needs to be designed with a good furnace body sealing structure, such as mechanical labyrinth sealing, water sealing, sand sealing, etc., according to the process characteristics of zinc volatilization.
More preferably, each part of the furnace body adopts an integral elastic framework furnace type according to different cooling modes so as to ensure long service life of the furnace. Because the positions are different, the requirements for cooling are different, some need to have strong cooling effect, and some need to be weaker; meanwhile, the manufacturing cost of elements with different cooling effects is also greatly different, so that cooling elements with reasonable cooling strength are required to be adopted according to different cooling effect requirements so as to ensure the reasonability of the manufacturing cost of the equipment and reasonable technical and economic indexes.
According to another aspect of the invention, the invention also provides a method for smelting zinc by using the short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device, which comprises the following steps: zinc concentrate, flux and oxygen-enriched gas are introduced into a smelting zone 11 for smelting reaction to obtain high-zinc slag, sulfur-containing flue gas and melt; discharging sulfur-containing flue gas through a smelting zone flue 112; the high zinc slag and the melt enter an electrothermal reduction area 12 to carry out electrothermal reduction under the heating action of a heating electrode 30 and the reduction action of a reducing agent to obtain zinc steam, slag and pig iron.
The pyrometallurgical zinc smelting process provided by the invention integrates smelting and electric heating reduction of zinc concentrate in the same device through the arrangement of a furnace body and a partition wall, and ensures that smoke in a smelting zone and a electric heating reduction zone are separated definitely while unreacted raw materials are blocked by the partition wall with enhanced cooling, and only the lower part of a molten pool is communicated and communicated between the two zones. The flue gas in the smelting zone contains high-concentration SO2The sulfur-containing flue gas is reduced by adding a reducing agent into the electrothermal reduction zone, and the flue gas is mainly zinc vapor. The flue gas in the two areas is separately discharged, which is more beneficial to the recovery of zinc and the independent utilization of sulfur-containing flue gas. Meanwhile, the high-efficiency smelting zone and the electric heating reduction zone are combinedIn one furnace, the occupied area is small, the configuration height difference is reduced, and the construction investment of the furnace and a factory building is reduced. The combination of the two furnaces reduces the operation of discharging and adding the melt, has higher production operation rate, and can reduce the consumption of operators and corresponding tools. The melting and the reduction volatilization are completed in one furnace, and the electric heating reduction area can also use the melting high temperature to maintain a certain temperature, thereby reducing the consumption of electric energy when the volatilization operation is carried out independently. The melting bath has the melting and volatilization operations, the amount of the stored melt in the furnace is relatively large, the liquid storage time can be increased, the processing capacity of a single furnace is favorably improved (the structure of an electric heating area is improved, the zinc capacity of the single furnace can meet various scales of 1-20 ten thousand tons and the like) and the recovery rate of zinc is improved, and lead, iron, indium, germanium and the like can be simultaneously recovered and the higher recovery rate is ensured.
The zinc concentrate and flux may be dosed first and then fed together into the smelting zone 11. The specific batching mode can be as follows: the weight ratio of the zinc concentrate to the flux is 100: 5-15.
In a preferred embodiment, the zinc concentrate is a zinc sulfide concentrate and/or a lead-zinc complex ore; preferably, the oxygen-enriched gas is oxygen-enriched air or oxygen. Oxygen-enriched air refers to air having an oxygen volume fraction greater than 21%. The solvent may be of a type commonly used in the art, such as one or more of a siliceous flux, a calcareous flux, and an iron flux. The siliceous flux can be quartz stone, river sand and the like, the calcareous flux can be limestone, dolomite and the like, and the irony flux can be iron ore, cinder and the like.
In order to further improve the smelting effect, in a preferred embodiment, the oxygen concentration in the smelting zone 11 is 40-80%, and the temperature of the smelting reaction is 1200-1400 ℃. More preferably, the temperature of the sulfur-containing flue gas is 1200-1400 ℃, and the content of zinc element in the high-zinc slag is 20-60%.
In order to enhance the smelting effect, in a preferred embodiment, oxygen-enriched gas is injected into the melt in the smelting zone 11 by a side-blowing lance during the smelting reaction, or oxygen-enriched gas and carbonaceous fuel are injected into the melt in the smelting zone 11 by a side-blowing lance during the smelting reaction. The sulfur content in the zinc concentrate is high, and the self-heating reaction can be realized. If necessary, the carbonaceous fuel may be injected by a side-blowing lance to perform the heat compensation.
In order to make the high zinc slag and the melt below more stably enter the electrothermal reduction region, it is preferable that the melt enters the electrothermal reduction region 12 through a communication passage between the partition wall 20 and the bottom wall of the furnace body 10, and the high zinc slag enters the electrothermal reduction region 12 through a through hole opened on the partition wall 20.
The reductant may be of a type commonly used in the art, such as one or more of coke, anthracite, crushed coke, semi coke. In order to further improve the reduction efficiency and the zinc evaporation efficiency, the operation temperature of the electro-thermal reduction is preferably 1200-1300 ℃, and after the zinc vapor is discharged, the operation temperature of the electro-thermal reduction is increased to 1500-1600 ℃ so as to discharge the pig iron. The increase of the operation temperature of the electric heating reduction zone 12 is beneficial to more rapid and thorough reduction and volatilization of zinc, indium, germanium and the like, and the temperature is raised after zinc steam is discharged, so that pig iron can be further discharged. More preferably, the slag is discharged in a stage discharge mode, and the zinc content of the slag is 0.5-1.5%.
In a preferred embodiment, the method further comprises the step of condensing the zinc vapor to obtain crude zinc and coal gas. After the zinc vapor is discharged from the electrothermal reduction area 12, most of indium, germanium and the like are volatilized to enter the zinc vapor to be enriched, zinc, a small amount of indium, germanium and the like in the zinc vapor can be converted into crude zinc to be recycled through a condensation process, and coal gas with high calorific value is separated out. Preferably, the carbonaceous fuel is one or more of natural gas, pulverized coal and coal gas. More preferably, the method further comprises the step of cooling and dedusting the sulfur-containing flue gas. SO in sulfur-containing flue gas2Higher concentration, often>10 percent, preferably, after the temperature reduction and dust removal step, the obtained gas is subjected to acid preparation.
In addition to the zinc vapour, the electroheat reduction zone 1 also produces pig iron and lead bullion, which can be discharged from the melt tapping (lead bullion outlet and pig iron outlet) located in the lower part of the electroheat reduction zone 12. In addition, after the high zinc slag is subjected to electric heating reduction and volatilization, the residual slag can be discharged through a slag discharge port and then subjected to water crushing, takeout or slag yard storage.
The present application is described in short flow detail below with reference to specific examples, which are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention as claimed.
Example 1
Zinc concentrate (Zn: 50%) and slag-forming agent (FeO, SiO)2And CaO) is directly added from a charging port arranged in a smelting area of the Bref furnace, oxygen-enriched air is sprayed into the Bref furnace from the side part of the smelting area of the Bref furnace, and then zinc concentrate and the oxygen-enriched air are subjected to oxidation smelting to obtain flue gas and high zinc slag. Flue gas SO of Bref furnace smelting zone2The content is more than 20 percent, and the flue gas is sent to produce acid after the temperature is reduced by a waste heat boiler and the dust is collected by an electric dust collector. The slag type of the high zinc slag is ZnO-FeO-SiO2Type, ZnO-FeO-SiO2CaO type, ZnO-FeO-SiO2CaO-ZnO type. The oxygen concentration in the oxygen-enriched air is 60 percent, and the smelting temperature of the smelting zone of the Bref furnace is 1300 ℃.
And (3) feeding the high zinc slag into an electrothermal reduction area of the Bref furnace through a communication channel between a partition wall with a cooling element and the bottom wall of the furnace body, and simultaneously carrying out electrothermal reduction under the heating action of a heating electrode and the reduction action of a reducing agent to obtain flue gas and slag. Flue gas in an electric heating reduction zone of the Bref furnace contains zinc vapor and CO, and the flue gas is condensed to obtain crude zinc and coal gas. The smelting temperature of the electric heating reduction zone of the Bref furnace is 1200 ℃.
Example 2
The difference from example 1 is that: the smelting temperature of the electric heating reduction zone of the Bref furnace is 1300 ℃.
Example 3
The difference from example 1 is that: the smelting temperature of the electric heating reduction zone of the Bref furnace is 1300 ℃ firstly and then 1400 ℃. And obtaining flue gas, slag and pig iron in an electric heating reduction area of the Bref furnace.
Example 4
The difference from example 3 is that: the smelting temperature of the electric heating reduction zone of the Bref furnace is 1300 ℃ firstly and then 1500 ℃.
Example 5
The difference from example 3 is that: the smelting temperature of the electric heating reduction zone of the Bref furnace is 1300 ℃ firstly and then 1600 ℃.
Example 6
The difference from example 1 is that: the zinc concentrate is changed into lead-zinc composite ore (containing 28 percent of Zn and 22 percent of Pb). And obtaining flue gas, furnace slag and crude lead in an electric heating reduction area of the Bref furnace.
Example 7
The difference from example 6 is that: the smelting temperature of the electric heating reduction zone of the Bref furnace is 1300 ℃.
Example 8
The difference from example 6 is that: the smelting temperature of the electric heating reduction zone of the Bref furnace is 1300 ℃ firstly and then 1400 ℃. Flue gas, slag, crude lead and pig iron are obtained in an electric heating reduction area of the Bref furnace.
Example 9
The difference from example 8 is that: the smelting temperature of the electric heating reduction zone of the Bref furnace is 1300 ℃ firstly and then 1500 ℃.
Example 10
The difference from example 8 is that: the smelting temperature of the electric heating reduction zone of the Bref furnace is 1300 ℃ firstly and then 1600 ℃.
The recovery rates of zinc and iron elements in the smelting processes of zinc concentrate in examples 1 to 5 are shown in table 1.
TABLE 1
Comparing examples 2 to 5, it is clear that limiting the temperature of the electrically heated reduction zone of the Bref furnace to the preferred range of protection of the present application is advantageous for further increasing the recovery of zinc and iron metals.
The recovery rates of zinc, lead and iron elements in the smelting processes of zinc concentrates in examples 6 to 10 are shown in table 2.
TABLE 2
Comparing examples 7 to 10, it is clear that limiting the temperature of the electrically heated reduction zone of the Bref furnace to the preferred range of protection of the present application facilitates further recovery of zinc, lead and iron metals.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention and is not intended to limit the present invention, and various modifications and changes may be made by those skilled in the art. Any modification, equivalent replacement, or improvement made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (12)

1. A short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device which is characterized by comprising:
a furnace body (10) having an inner cavity;
the partition wall (20) is arranged in the inner cavity of the furnace body (10), the inner cavity is horizontally divided into a smelting zone (11) and an electrothermal reduction zone (12) by the partition wall (20), and a communication channel is arranged below the partition wall (20) and used for communicating the smelting zone (11) with the electrothermal reduction zone (12); the smelting zone (11) is provided with a first feeding hole (111) and a smelting zone flue (112), and the first feeding hole (111) is used for feeding zinc concentrate and a fusing agent; the electrothermal reduction region (12) is provided with a second feed inlet (121), at least one electrode through hole (122) and an electrothermal reduction region flue (123), and the second feed inlet (121) is used for adding a reducing agent; the furnace type of the smelting zone (11) is a vertical furnace type, the first feed inlet (111) is positioned at the top and/or the side part of the smelting zone (11), and the smelting zone flue (112) is positioned at the top of the smelting zone (11); the second feed inlet (121) is positioned at the top of the electrothermal reduction zone (12), and the electrothermal reduction zone flue (123) is positioned at the top and/or the side of the electrothermal reduction zone (12); and
at least one heating electrode (30), wherein the heating electrodes (30) correspond to the electrode through holes (122) one by one and extend to the interior of the electrothermal reduction region (12) through the electrode through holes (122);
wherein, the partition wall (20) is provided with through holes for enabling high zinc slag formed in the smelting zone (11) to pass through and enter the electrothermal reduction zone (12), the electrothermal reduction zone (12) is also provided with a slag discharge port (124) and a pig iron discharge port (125), and the partition wall (20) is provided with a cooling element; the furnace body (10) has a top wall with a first portion above the smelting zone (11) and a second portion above the electrothermal reduction zone (12), the first portion of the top wall being at a higher level than the second portion of the top wall; the bottom wall in the furnace body (10) is divided into three parts along the smelting zone (11) to the electrothermal reduction zone (12), the first part is positioned below the smelting zone (11), the third part is positioned below the electrothermal reduction zone (12), the first part and the third part are connected through the second part, and the second part is provided with a step-shaped surface or an inclined surface so that the height of the first part is higher than that of the third part; the height difference between the bottom wall of the first part and the bottom wall of the third part is 150-500 mm; the short-process pyrometallurgical zinc smelting device further comprises at least one side-blowing spray gun, at least one spray gun inlet is formed in the side portion of the smelting zone (11), the side-blowing spray gun is in one-to-one correspondence with the spray gun inlets and extends into the smelting zone (11) through the spray gun inlets, oxygen-enriched gas and optional carbonaceous fuel are injected into the smelting zone (11), and the side-blowing spray gun is an immersed spray gun.
2. A method of producing zinc using the short circuit pyrometallurgical zinc production plant of claim 1, wherein the method comprises the steps of:
zinc concentrate, flux and oxygen-enriched gas are introduced into a smelting zone (11) for smelting reaction to obtain high-zinc slag, sulfur-containing flue gas and melt; discharging the sour flue gas through a smelting zone flue (112);
and (3) enabling the high-zinc slag and the melt to enter an electrothermal reduction zone (12), and carrying out electrothermal reduction under the heating action of a heating electrode (30) and the reduction action of a reducing agent to obtain zinc steam, slag and pig iron.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the zinc concentrate is a zinc sulfide concentrate and/or a lead-zinc complex ore;
the oxygen-enriched gas is oxygen-enriched air or oxygen;
the flux is one or more of siliceous flux, calcareous flux and iron flux.
4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the oxygen concentration in the smelting zone (11) is 40-80% and the temperature of the smelting reaction is 1200-1400 ℃.
5. The method according to claim 4, wherein the temperature of the sulfur-containing flue gas is 1200-1400 ℃, and the content of zinc element in the high-zinc slag is 20-60%.
6. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 5, wherein the oxygen-enriched gas is injected into the melt of the smelting zone (11) during the smelting reaction using a side-blowing lance, or wherein the oxygen-enriched gas and carbonaceous fuel are injected into the melt of the smelting zone (11) using the side-blowing lance.
7. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 5, wherein the melt enters the electrothermal reduction zone (12) through a communication passage between a partition wall (20) and the bottom wall of the furnace body (10), and the high zinc dross enters the electrothermal reduction zone (12) through a through hole formed in the partition wall (20).
8. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 5, wherein the reductant is one or more of coke, anthracite, semi-coke.
9. The method as claimed in claim 8, wherein the operation temperature of the electro-thermal reduction is 1200 to 1300 ℃, and after the zinc vapor is discharged, the operation temperature of the electro-thermal reduction is increased to 1500 to 1600 ℃ to discharge the pig iron.
10. The method according to claim 7, wherein the slag is discharged in a staged discharge manner, and the slag contains 0.5-1.5% zinc.
11. The method of claim 6, further comprising the step of condensing the zinc vapor to obtain crude zinc and coal gas; the carbonaceous fuel is one or more of natural gas, pulverized coal and coal gas.
12. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 5, further comprising the step of subjecting the sulfur-containing flue gas to temperature reduction and dust removal; and after the temperature reduction and dust removal step, carrying out acid preparation on the obtained gas.
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CN111424175A (en) * 2020-04-15 2020-07-17 中国恩菲工程技术有限公司 System and method for smelting zinc concentrate and zinc-containing secondary material
CN112981136B (en) * 2021-04-16 2021-08-31 中国恩菲工程技术有限公司 One-step zinc smelting method for spraying zinc concentrate in molten pool

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