CN110129584A - Short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device and method - Google Patents

Short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110129584A
CN110129584A CN201910473232.1A CN201910473232A CN110129584A CN 110129584 A CN110129584 A CN 110129584A CN 201910473232 A CN201910473232 A CN 201910473232A CN 110129584 A CN110129584 A CN 110129584A
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zinc
smelting zone
electrothermal reduction
furnace
reduction area
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CN110129584B (en
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李东波
黎敏
邓兆磊
尉克俭
茹洪顺
曹珂菲
苟海鹏
裴忠冶
吴卫国
许良
冯双杰
李兵
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China ENFI Engineering Corp
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China ENFI Engineering Corp
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22BPRODUCTION AND REFINING OF METALS; PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
    • C22B19/00Obtaining zinc or zinc oxide
    • C22B19/04Obtaining zinc by distilling

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device and methods.The device includes that furnace body, partition wall and at least one heating electrode, furnace body have inner cavity;Partition wall is arranged in the inner cavity of furnace body, and inner cavity is divided into smelting zone and electrothermal reduction area by partition wall in the horizontal direction, and is provided with communicating passage to be connected to smelting zone and electrothermal reduction area below partition wall;Smelting zone is provided with first charging aperture and smelting zone flue, and first charging aperture is for being added zinc concentrate and flux;Electrothermal reduction area is provided with second charging aperture, at least one electrode through-hole and electrothermal reduction area flue, and second charging aperture is for being added reducing agent;Heating electrode and electrode through-hole, which correspond and pass through electrode through-hole, to be extended to inside electrothermal reduction area.Using pyrometallurgy of zinc device provided by the invention by furnace body, the problems such as process existing for prior art pyrometallurgy of zinc is complicated, energy consumption is high is efficiently solved, and has had both the advantages that high production efficiency, equipment cost are low, the rate of recovery of zinc is high.

Description

Short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device and method
Technical field
The present invention relates to pyrometallurgy of zinc technical fields, in particular to a kind of short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device and method.
Background technique
Zinc is one of ten big non-ferrous metals, is widely used in the various aspects of national economy.Currently, zinc abstraction is with wet process stream Cheng Weizhu, zinc concentrate be fired or other means processing after leached, obtain solution of zinc sulfate and obtained through net liquid, electrolytic deposition Cathode zinc metal sheet obtains Zn99.995 zinc ingot metal through zinc founding.The process process is more, process is complicated, investment is huge, energy consumption is higher, The ton zinc direct current consumption of single electrodeposition process just reaches 3000kWh.Most of all, wet process generates a large amount of leached mud, iron Slag etc., output capacity are more than 50%, these slags belong to hazardous waste, need to carry out harmless treatment, and cause a large amount of energy Source consumes and brings new pollution.
Blast furnace, perpendicular tank and electric furnace are the pyrometallurgy of zinc technique only deposited at present, and energy consumption is generally higher.Blast furnace, perpendicular tank pair Material composition is more demanding, melting process is complicated;Electric furnace need to control furnace atmosphere and temperature, prevent a large amount of reduction of iron;Three kinds Pyrometallurgy of zinc technique zinc direct yield is lower, and blast furnace, electroslag are high containing zinc, and zinc overall recovery is low.Currently, except separate unit blast furnace For production capacity up to 100,000 tons of zinc/more than year, the single series production capacity for erecting tank and electric furnace is only thousands of tons/year, is unable to satisfy the modern times completely Change big industrial requirement.
CN101492774B zinc-smelting equipment and smelting process melt zinc concentrate using oxygen bottom blowing smelter, later ingot bar Blast furnace reduction is sent, zinc fume condenses to obtain crude zinc using traditional lead splash condensing or zinc rain.This method eliminates blast furnace men The sintering machine of skill and its problem of bring.However, this method is still using shaft smelting, liquid slag needs ingot bar cooling, stock Process is complicated, and energy consumption is higher, and the more traditional pyrometallurgy of zinc technology of zinc recovery does not improve.
CN101914690B Zinc concentrate smelting process melts zinc concentrate using oxygen bottom blowing smelter, and melt send side-blown go back Former furnace reduction, zinc fume condense to obtain crude zinc using traditional lead splash condensing or zinc rain.This method eliminates blast furnace process Sintering machine and its problem of bring, is directly restored melt using side-blown reduction furnace substitution blast furnace, energy consumption is lower;Side-blown converter is rich Oxygen melting, the blow rate required is small, and zinc fume concentration, can by-product gas compared with blast furnace height.However, two metallurgical furnaces are used in this method, Liquid slag flows into side-blown converter by bottom convertor, inevitably has heat loss and increases flue gas loss point, and it is molten that side-blown converter reduction belongs to molten bath Refining, need to blast enriched-oxygen air, cause zinc fume concentration relatively low, more easily cause the secondary oxidation of zinc fume, reduce zinc and directly receive Rate.
CN105925805A Pb-Zn deposits smelting process melts Pb-Zn deposits in oxidizing semlting furnace, and melt send power frequency electric heating also Former furnace reduction, zinc fume condense to obtain crude zinc using traditional lead splash condensing or zinc rain.However, using two metallurgy in this method Furnace, liquid slag flow into power frequency electric reduction furnace by oxidizing semlting furnace, inevitably have heat loss and increase flue gas loss point, power frequency electric Thermal reduction furnace smelting temperature is limited, will cause that slag is higher containing zinc, and zinc recovery is low, can not recycle iron.And power frequency electric reduction furnace Single series production capacity it is limited, it is difficult to adapt to large-scale industrial production.
Based on the above reasons, it is necessary to a kind of new pyrometallurgy of zinc technique is provided, solve to deposit in the above pyrometallurgy of zinc technique Process it is complicated, energy consumption is high the problems such as.
Summary of the invention
The main purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device and methods, to solve in the prior art Carry out the problems such as existing process is complicated, energy consumption is high when pyrometallurgy of zinc.
To achieve the goals above, according to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a kind of short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device, Include: furnace body, there is inner cavity;Partition wall is arranged in the inner cavity of furnace body, and inner cavity is divided into smelting zone by partition wall in the horizontal direction With electrothermal reduction area, and partition wall below be provided with communicating passage to be connected to smelting zone and electrothermal reduction area;Smelting zone is provided with First charging aperture and smelting zone flue, first charging aperture is for being added zinc concentrate and flux;Electrothermal reduction area be provided with second into Material mouth, at least one electrode through-hole and electrothermal reduction area flue, second charging aperture is for being added reducing agent;And at least one adds Thermode, heating electrode and electrode through-hole correspond and pass through electrode through-hole and extend to inside electrothermal reduction area.
Further, through-hole is offered on partition wall, the high cadmia form smelting zone passes through and enters electrothermal reduction Area, and electrothermal reduction area is additionally provided with slag-drip opening and pig iron discharge outlet.
Further, furnace body has roof, and roof has the first part being located above smelting zone and is located at electrothermal reduction Second part above area, the position of first part's roof are higher than the position of second part roof.
Further, the type of furnace of smelting zone is the vertical type of furnace, and first charging aperture is located at the top and/or side of smelting zone, Smelting zone flue is respectively positioned on the top of smelting zone.
Further, short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device further includes at least one side-blown spray gun, and the side of smelting zone is provided with At least one gun inlets, side-blown spray gun and gun inlets, which correspond and pass through gun inlets, to be extended to inside smelting zone, is used In spraying into oxygen rich gas and optionally carbonaceous fuel into smelting zone.
Further, the bottom wall of furnace interior is the surface tilted down along smelting zone to electrothermal reduction area;Alternatively, furnace body Internal bottom wall divides into three parts along smelting zone to electrothermal reduction, and first part is located at below smelting zone, Part III position Below electrothermal reduction area, first part is connected with Part III by second part, and second part has stepped surfaces Or inclined surface, so that the height of first part is higher than the height of Part III.
Further, the difference in height between first part's bottom wall and Part III bottom wall is 150~500mm.
Further, Part III bottom wall is located at the underface of partition wall, alternatively, Part III bottom wall deviate partition wall just under Simultaneously it is biased to smelting zone in side.
Further, second charging aperture is located at the top in electrothermal reduction area, and electrothermal reduction area flue is located at electrothermal reduction area Top and/or side.
According to another aspect of the present invention, a kind of method of short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device zinc metallurgy, method are additionally provided Melting reaction is carried out the following steps are included: zinc concentrate, flux and oxygen rich gas are passed through in smelting zone, obtains high cadmia, sulfur-bearing Flue gas and melt;Sulfur-containing smoke gas is discharged by smelting zone flue;High cadmia and melt is set to enter electrothermal reduction area, in heating electrode Heat effect and reducing agent reduction under carry out electrothermal reduction, obtain zinc fume, clinker and the pig iron.
Further, zinc concentrate is zinc sulfide concentrates and/or lead zinc grandidierite;Preferably, oxygen rich gas is oxygen-enriched air Or oxygen;Preferably, flux is one of siliceous flux, calc-flux, irony flux or a variety of.
Further, the oxygen concentration in smelting zone is 40~80%, and the temperature of melting reaction is 1200~1400 DEG C.
Further, the temperature of sulfur-containing smoke gas is 1200~1400 DEG C, and the content of Zn-ef ficiency is 20~60% in high cadmia.
Further, during melting reaction, oxygen rich gas is sprayed into the melt of smelting zone using side-blown spray gun, or Person sprays into oxygen rich gas and carbonaceous fuel into the melt of smelting zone using side-blown spray gun.
Further, melt is by entering electrothermal reduction area, Gao Xin for the communicating passage between partition wall and furnace body bottom wall Slag enters electrothermal reduction area by the through-hole being provided on partition wall.
Further, reducing agent is one of coke, anthracite, coke cutting, semi-coke or a variety of.
Further, the processing temperature of electrothermal reduction is 1200~1300 DEG C, and after zinc fume discharge, by electrothermal reduction Processing temperature improve to 1500~1600 DEG C, the pig iron is discharged.
Further, clinker is discharged by the way of stage emission, and clinker contains zinc 0.5~1.5%.
Further, method further includes the steps that being condensed to obtain crude zinc and coal gas to zinc fume;Preferably, carbonaceous is fired Material is one of natural gas, fine coal, coal gas or a variety of.
Further, method further includes the steps that carrying out cooling dedusting to sulfur-containing smoke gas;Preferably, in cooling dust removal step Later, obtained gas is subjected to relieving haperacidity.
Short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device provided by the invention includes furnace body, partition wall and at least one heating electrode, furnace body tool There is inner cavity;Partition wall is arranged in the inner cavity of furnace body, and inner cavity is divided into smelting zone and electrothermal reduction area by partition wall in the horizontal direction, And communicating passage is provided with to be connected to smelting zone and electrothermal reduction area below partition wall;Smelting zone is provided with first charging aperture and melts Area's flue is refined, first charging aperture is for being added zinc concentrate and flux;Electrothermal reduction area is provided with second charging aperture, at least one electricity Pole through-hole and electrothermal reduction area flue, second charging aperture is for being added reducing agent;It heats electrode and electrode through-hole corresponds simultaneously It is extended to inside electrothermal reduction area by electrode through-hole.
Pyrometallurgy of zinc device provided by the invention is arranged by furnace body, partition wall integrates the melting of zinc concentrate and electrothermal reduction In the same apparatus, guarantee while raw material complete by the cooling partition wall barrier unreacted of setting reinforcing between the area Liang Ge The flue gas in smelting zone and electrothermal reduction area resolutely separates, and only has the communication of molten bath lower part to communicate between the area Liang Ge.Smelting zone flue gas SO containing high concentration2, it is sulfur-containing smoke gas, after electrothermal reduction area addition reducing agent is restored, flue gas is mainly zinc fume.By two The flue gas in area is separately discharged, be more advantageous to zinc recovering and sulfur-containing smoke gas using only.Meanwhile by efficient smelting zone and electric heating Reducing zone is combined in a stove, and occupied area is small, is reduced configuration height difference, is reduced stove itself and the construction throwing of workshop Money.Two stove combinations, the operation for reducing melt discharge and being added have higher production operational availability, can reduce operator It is consumed with corresponding Work tool.Fusing and reduction volatilization are completed in a stove, and the height of fusing can also be used in electrothermal reduction area Temperature maintains certain temperature, reduces the consumption for individually carrying out electric energy when volatilization operation.Take into account fusing and volatilization operation, furnace in molten bath Interior storage melt amount is relatively large, can increase the liquid storage time, is conducive to improve single furnace processing capacity and improves the rate of recovery of zinc, Lead, iron, indium, germanium etc. can be also recycled simultaneously and guarantee the higher rate of recovery.
To sum up, efficiently solving prior art fire by furnace body using pyrometallurgy of zinc device provided by the invention The problems such as process existing for method zinc metallurgy is complicated, energy consumption is high, and had both that high production efficiency, equipment cost are low, the zinc rate of recovery is high The advantages that.
Detailed description of the invention
The accompanying drawings constituting a part of this application, which is used to provide, to be understood into short route of the invention, of the invention Illustrative embodiments and their description are used to explain the present invention, and are not constituted improper limitations of the present invention.In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 shows the structural schematic diagram of short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 shows cross section structure schematic diagrams at A-A in Fig. 1;And
Fig. 3 shows in Fig. 1 cross section structure schematic diagram at C-C.
Wherein, the above drawings include the following reference numerals:
10, furnace body;11, smelting zone;111, first charging aperture;112, smelting zone flue;12, electrothermal reduction area;121, Two feed inlets;122, electrode through-hole;123, electrothermal reduction area flue;124, slag-drip opening;125, pig iron discharge outlet;20, partition wall; 30, electrode is heated.
Specific embodiment
It should be noted that in the absence of conflict, the features in the embodiments and the embodiments of the present application can phase Mutually combination.The present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments.
As described in background technology part, existing process complexity, energy consumption when pyrometallurgy of zinc are carried out in the prior art The problems such as big.In order to solve this problem, the present invention provides a kind of short route pyrometallurgy of zinc devices, as shown in Figure 1, the device Including furnace body 10, partition wall 20, at least one heating electrode 30, furnace body 10 has inner cavity;The inner cavity of furnace body 10 is arranged in partition wall 20 In, and inner cavity is divided into smelting zone 11 and electrothermal reduction area 12, and the company of being provided with below partition wall 20 by partition wall 20 in the horizontal direction Circulation passage is to be connected to smelting zone 11 and electrothermal reduction area 12;Smelting zone 11 is provided with first charging aperture 111 and smelting zone flue 112, first charging aperture 111 is for being added zinc concentrate and flux;Electrothermal reduction area 12 is provided with second charging aperture 121, at least one A electrode through-hole 122 and electrothermal reduction area flue 123, second charging aperture 121 is for being added reducing agent;Heat electrode 30 and electrode Through-hole 122 is corresponded and is extended to inside electrothermal reduction area 12 by electrode through-hole 122.
Pyrometallurgy of zinc device (abbreviation Bref furnace) provided by the invention by furnace body, partition wall setting by the melting of zinc concentrate and Electrothermal reduction is integrated in the same apparatus, strengthens cooling partition wall by setting between the area Liang Ge and obstructs the complete raw material of unreacted While, guarantee that the flue gas in smelting zone and electrothermal reduction area resolutely separates, only has the communication of molten bath lower part to communicate between the area Liang Ge. Smelting zone flue gas SO containing high concentration2, it is sulfur-containing smoke gas, after electrothermal reduction area addition reducing agent is restored, flue gas is mainly zinc Steam.The flue gas in the area Liang Ge is separately discharged, be more advantageous to zinc recovering and sulfur-containing smoke gas using only.Meanwhile it will be efficient Smelting zone and electrothermal reduction district's groups are closed in a stove, and occupied area is small, reduce configuration height difference, reduce stove itself and The construction investment of workshop.Two stove combinations, the operation for reducing melt discharge and being added have higher production operational availability, can Reduce operator and the consumption of corresponding Work tool.Fusing and reduction volatilization are completed in a stove, and electrothermal reduction area can also Certain temperature is maintained using the high temperature of fusing, reduces the consumption for individually carrying out electric energy when volatilization operation.Take into account fusing in molten bath With volatilization operation, storage melt amount is relatively large in furnace, can increase the liquid storage time, is conducive to improve single furnace processing capacity and (changes Into electric heating plot structure, the zinc production capacity of separate unit furnace can be made to meet the various scales such as 1~200,000 tons) and the rate of recovery of zinc is improved, may be used also It recycles lead, iron, indium, germanium etc. simultaneously and guarantees the higher rate of recovery.
To sum up, efficiently solving prior art fire by furnace body using pyrometallurgy of zinc device provided by the invention The problems such as process existing for method zinc metallurgy is complicated, energy consumption is high, and had both that high production efficiency, equipment cost are low, the zinc rate of recovery is high The advantages that.
In a preferred embodiment, through-hole is offered on partition wall 20, to the high cadmia for forming smelting zone 11 By and enter electrothermal reduction area 12, and electrothermal reduction area 12 is additionally provided with slag-drip opening 124 and pig iron discharge outlet 125.In reality Zinc metallurgy during, zinc concentrate carries out that oxidation sweetening and slagging process has occurred when melting reaction in smelting zone 11, is located at molten Bottom of pond portion be molten state melt, float on bath surface is the higher high cadmia of Zn content.Through-hole is opened up on partition wall 20, Be conducive to passing through for high cadmia, and the melt of molten bath bottom be then by partition wall below channel enter electrothermal reduction area 12.This Sample is provided with the stabilization for being conducive to maintain melt and dross fluidised form, thus make during electrothermal reduction more zinc by reduction and Volatilization is discharged from flue.And during electrothermal reduction, most of indium, germanium etc. are played with zinc fume to be enriched with, and lead also can be also Original becomes lead bullion.
It is highly preferred that being provided with cooling element in above-mentioned partition wall 20, reinforcing cooling effect can be further improved, barrier is not The raw material of fully reacting, and separate two kinds of flue gases.
In a preferred embodiment, as shown in Figure 1, furnace body 10 has roof, roof, which has, is located at smelting zone 11 The position of the first part of top and the second part above electrothermal reduction area 12, first part's roof is higher than second part The position of roof.In this way, the reaction tank of smelting zone 11 apart from roof farther out, the reaction tank in electrothermal reduction area 12 is apart from roof It is relatively close.Because melting reaction need to carry out under conditions of oxygen-enriched, and sulfur-containing smoke gas production quantity is larger, facilitates in this way to melting reaction Excess oxygen is provided and makes the more stable discharge of sulfur-containing smoke gas.The zinc fume that electrothermal reduction area 12 is formed through electrothermal reduction and volatilization is then It is more easily enriched with and furnace body is discharged.It is highly preferred that as illustrated in fig. 1 and 2, the type of furnace of smelting zone 11 is the vertical type of furnace, the first charging Mouth 111 is located at the top and/or side of smelting zone 11, and smelting zone flue 112 is respectively positioned on the top of smelting zone 11.
It need to be carried out under Oxygen Condition in the fusion process of zinc, in a preferred embodiment, above-mentioned short route fire Method zinc metallurgy device further includes at least one side-blown spray gun, and the side of smelting zone 11 is provided at least one gun inlets, side-blown spray Rifle and gun inlets, which correspond and pass through gun inlets, to be extended to inside smelting zone 11, oxygen-enriched for spraying into smelting zone 11 Gas and optionally carbonaceous fuel.The usual sulfur content of zinc concentrate is higher, and the thermal discharge in fusion process is big, can satisfy substantially Autothermal reaction.Certainly, a small amount of carbonaceous fuel can also be sprayed by side-blown spray gun in case there is a need and carries out concurrent heating.It is preferred that Above-mentioned side-blown spray gun is immersion spray gun, to improve smelting efficiency, while can also be stirred strongly to melt composition therein, from And be conducive to improve mass-and heat-transfer efficiency, to further increase the rate of recovery of zinc.
In order to flow melt more easily, in a preferred embodiment, as shown in Figure 1, inside furnace body 10 Bottom wall is the surface tilted down along smelting zone 11 to electrothermal reduction area 12;Alternatively, the bottom wall inside furnace body 10 is along smelting zone 11 Divide to electrothermal reduction area 12 for three parts, first part is located at 11 lower section of smelting zone, and Part III is located at electrothermal reduction area 12 Lower section, first part and Part III are connected by second part, and second part has stepped surfaces or inclined surface, with The height of first part is set to be higher than the height of Part III.It to be the melt and high cadmia in smelting zone 11 that bottom wall is arranged in this way Flowing dynamic conditions is provided, keep melt between smelting zone 11 and electrothermal reduction area 12 and the circulation of high cadmia more stable, place It manages more efficient.
In order to keep melt flows more stable, and so that zinc concentrate is obtained more fully melting and electrothermal reduction and volatilizees, In a preferred embodiment, the difference in height between first part's bottom wall and Part III bottom wall is 150~500mm.More Preferably, Part III bottom wall is located at the underface of partition wall 20, alternatively, Part III bottom wall deviates the underface of partition wall 20 and inclined To smelting zone 11.
In a preferred embodiment, as shown in figure 3, second charging aperture 121 is located at the top in electrothermal reduction area 12, Electrothermal reduction area flue 123 is located at the top and/or side in electrothermal reduction area 12.In view of the recovery processing for zinc fume fills It sets and is more easily connect with above-mentioned zinc metallurgy device, preferably the side that is located at electrothermal reduction area 12 of electrothermal reduction area flue 123.And it is Further reinforcing reduction effect, it is preferable that the top and side in electrothermal reduction area 12 are additionally provided with side-blown spray gun, to be blown into Reducing agent.
In practical application, the process characteristic that electrothermal reduction area 12 volatilizees according to zinc, needs to design good furnace sealing Structure, such as using forms such as mechanical labyrinth sealing, water seal, sand seals.
It is highly preferred that each position of shaft according to use the different types of cooling, using the integral, flexible skeleton type of furnace, to ensure The long furnace longevity.Due to location difference, also different to cooling requirement, some need cooling effect is strong, and some need is weak Some;The different element cost of cooling is also that difference is biggish, so needing to be wanted according to different cooling effects It asks, takes the cooling element of reasonable intensity of cooling, to guarantee that the reasonability of equipment cost itself, and reasonable Technological Economy refer to Mark.
According to another aspect of the present invention, above-mentioned short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device zinc metallurgy is utilized the present invention also provides a kind of Method comprising following steps: zinc concentrate, flux and oxygen rich gas are passed through in smelting zone 11 and carry out melting reaction, is obtained High cadmia, sulfur-containing smoke gas and melt;Sulfur-containing smoke gas is discharged by smelting zone flue 112;High cadmia and melt is set to enter electric heating also Former area 12 carries out electrothermal reduction under the heat effect of heating electrode 30 and the reduction of reducing agent, obtains zinc fume, clinker And the pig iron.
Pyrometallurgy of zinc method provided by the invention is arranged by furnace body, partition wall integrates the melting of zinc concentrate and electrothermal reduction In the same apparatus, guarantee while raw material complete by the cooling partition wall barrier unreacted of setting reinforcing between the area Liang Ge The flue gas in smelting zone and electrothermal reduction area resolutely separates, and only has the communication of molten bath lower part to communicate between the area Liang Ge.Smelting zone flue gas SO containing high concentration2, it is sulfur-containing smoke gas, after electrothermal reduction area addition reducing agent is restored, flue gas is mainly zinc fume.By two The flue gas in area is separately discharged, be more advantageous to zinc recovering and sulfur-containing smoke gas using only.Meanwhile by efficient smelting zone and electric heating Reducing zone is combined in a stove, and occupied area is small, is reduced configuration height difference, is reduced stove itself and the construction throwing of workshop Money.Two stove combinations, the operation for reducing melt discharge and being added have higher production operational availability, can reduce operator It is consumed with corresponding Work tool.Fusing and reduction volatilization are completed in a stove, and the height of fusing can also be used in electrothermal reduction area Temperature maintains certain temperature, reduces the consumption for individually carrying out electric energy when volatilization operation.Take into account fusing and volatilization operation, furnace in molten bath Interior storage melt amount is relatively large, can increase the liquid storage time, be conducive to improve single furnace processing capacity (improve electric heating plot structure, The zinc production capacity of separate unit furnace can be made to meet the various scales such as 1~200,000 tons) and improve the rate of recovery of zinc, can also recycle simultaneously lead, iron, Indium, germanium etc. simultaneously guarantee the higher rate of recovery.
Above-mentioned zinc concentrate and flux can first ingredient, be then injected towards in smelting zone 11 together.Specific batching mode It can be such that the weight between zinc concentrate and flux is 100:5~15.
In a preferred embodiment, zinc concentrate is zinc sulfide concentrates and/or lead zinc grandidierite;Preferably, oxygen-enriched Gas is oxygen-enriched air or oxygen.Oxygen-enriched air refers to the air that oxygen purity is greater than 21%.Above-mentioned solvent can be this One of the common type in field, such as siliceous flux, calc-flux, irony flux are a variety of.Siliceous flux can be stone Diamond stone, river sand etc., calc-flux can be lime stone, dolomite etc., and irony flux can be iron ore, slag etc..
In order to further improve Smelting Effect, in a preferred embodiment, the oxygen concentration in smelting zone 11 is 40~80%, the temperature of melting reaction is 1200~1400 DEG C.It is highly preferred that the temperature of sulfur-containing smoke gas is 1200~1400 DEG C, The content of Zn-ef ficiency is 20~60% in high cadmia.
Melting reaction is the process for making zinc concentrate carry out oxidation sweetening slag making under oxygen effect, in order to reinforce melting effect Fruit during melting reaction, is sprayed into using side-blown spray gun into the melt of smelting zone 11 in a preferred embodiment Oxygen rich gas, alternatively, spraying into oxygen rich gas and carbonaceous fuel into the melt of smelting zone 11 using side-blown spray gun.Contain in zinc concentrate Sulfur content is higher, can be realized autothermal reaction.When necessary, it can use side-blown spray gun and spray into carbonaceous fuel progress concurrent heating.
In order to make the melt of high cadmia and lower section is more stable to enter electrothermal reduction area, it is preferable that melt passes through for partition wall Communicating passage between 20 and 10 bottom wall of furnace body enters electrothermal reduction area 12, high cadmia by the through-hole that is provided on partition wall 20 into Enter electrothermal reduction area 12.
Above-mentioned reducing agent can be type commonly used in the art, for example, one of coke, anthracite, coke cutting, semi-coke or It is a variety of.In order to further increase the evaporation efficiency of reduction efficiency and zinc, the preferably processing temperature of electrothermal reduction is 1200~1300 DEG C, and after zinc fume discharge, the processing temperature of electrothermal reduction is improved to 1500~1600 DEG C, the pig iron is discharged.Electric heating The increase of 12 processing temperature of reducing zone is conducive to zinc, indium, germanium etc. more rapidly and thoroughly reduction volatilization, and is discharged in zinc fume After heat up, further the pig iron can be released.It is highly preferred that clinker is discharged by the way of stage emission, clinker containing zinc 0.5~ 1.5%.
In a preferred embodiment, the above method further includes being condensed to obtain crude zinc and coal gas to zinc fume Step.After electrothermal reduction area 12 is discharged in zinc fume, most of indium, germanium etc. are volatized into zinc fume, are enriched with, by condensing Zinc, a small amount of indium, germanium etc. in zinc fume can be converted to crude zinc recycling by journey, and isolate the coal gas of high heating value.Preferably, Carbonaceous fuel is one of natural gas, fine coal, coal gas or a variety of.It is highly preferred that the above method further include to sulfur-containing smoke gas into The step of row cooling dedusting.SO in sulfur-containing smoke gas2Concentration is higher, often > 10%, it is preferable that after the dust removal step that cools down, Obtained gas is subjected to relieving haperacidity.
Other than zinc fume, electrothermal reduction area 1 goes back the output pig iron and lead bullion simultaneously, can be respectively by being located at electrothermal reduction Melt discharge port (lead bullion outlet and pig iron outlet) discharge of 12 lower part of area.In addition, high cadmia after electrothermal reduction, volatilization, remains Under clinker can be discharged by slag-drip opening, then by water is broken, takes out or cinder field is sent to store up.
The application is made to be described in detail into short route below in conjunction with specific embodiment, these embodiments should not be understood as limiting The application range claimed.
Embodiment 1
By zinc concentrate (containing Zn:50%) and slag former (FeO, SiO2And CaO) by the feed opening of Bref furnace smelting zone setting It is directly added into, oxygen-enriched air sprays into Bref furnace from the side of Bref furnace smelting zone, and zinc concentrate and oxygen-enriched air is then made to carry out oxygen Change melting, obtains flue gas, high cadmia.Bref furnace smelting zone flue gas SO2Content is greater than 20%, through waste heat boiler cooling, electric precipitation Device send flue gas acid preparing after gathering dust.The slag type of high cadmia is ZnO-FeO-SiO2Type, ZnO-FeO-SiO2- CaO type, ZnO-FeO- SiO2- CaO-ZnO type.Oxygen concentration 60% in oxygen-enriched air, Bref furnace smelting zone smelting temperature are 1300 DEG C.
Above-mentioned high cadmia is entered into Bref furnace by the communicating passage between the partition wall with cooling element and furnace body bottom wall In electrothermal reduction area, while electrothermal reduction is carried out under the heat effect of heating electrode and the reduction of reducing agent, obtains cigarette Gas, clinker.Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area's flue gas contains zinc fume and CO, which is condensed to obtain crude zinc and coal gas.Bref furnace Electrothermal reduction area smelting temperature is 1200 DEG C.
Embodiment 2
The difference from embodiment 1 is that: 1300 DEG C of smelting temperature of Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area.
Embodiment 3
The difference from embodiment 1 is that: Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area smelting temperature is first 1300 DEG C, and rear is 1400 DEG C. Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area obtains flue gas, clinker, the pig iron.
Embodiment 4
Difference with embodiment 3 is: Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area smelting temperature is first 1300 DEG C, and rear is 1500 DEG C.
Embodiment 5
Difference with embodiment 3 is: Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area smelting temperature is first 1300 DEG C, and rear is 1600 DEG C.
Embodiment 6
The difference from embodiment 1 is that: zinc concentrate is changed to lead zinc grandidierite (containing Zn:28%, containing Pb:22%).Bref furnace Electrothermal reduction area obtains flue gas, clinker, lead bullion.
Embodiment 7
Difference with embodiment 6 is: 1300 DEG C of smelting temperature of Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area.
Embodiment 8
Difference with embodiment 6 is: Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area smelting temperature is first 1300 DEG C, and rear is 1400 DEG C. Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area obtains flue gas, clinker, lead bullion, the pig iron.
Embodiment 9
Difference with embodiment 8 is: Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area smelting temperature is first 1300 DEG C, and rear is 1500 DEG C.
Embodiment 10
Difference with embodiment 8 is: Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area smelting temperature is first 1300 DEG C, and rear is 1600 DEG C.
The rate of recovery of Zn-ef ficiency and ferro element is shown in Table 1 in the method for smelting of zinc concentrate in embodiment 1 to 5.
Table 1
Comparing embodiment 2 to 5 is it is found that by the limit temperature in Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area in the preferred protection scope of the application Inside be conducive to the rate of recovery for further mentioning zinc and ferrous metal.
The rate of recovery of Zn-ef ficiency, lead element and ferro element is shown in Table 2 in the method for smelting of zinc concentrate in embodiment 6 to 10.
Table 2
Comparing embodiment 7 to 10 is it is found that preferably protect model in the application for the limit temperature in Bref furnace electrothermal reduction area Be conducive to the rate of recovery for further mentioning zinc, lead and ferrous metal in enclosing.
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, is not intended to restrict the invention, for the skill of this field For art personnel, the invention may be variously modified and varied.All within the spirits and principles of the present invention, made any to repair Change, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., should all be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (20)

1. a kind of short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device characterized by comprising
Furnace body (10) has inner cavity;
Partition wall (20), be arranged in the inner cavity of the furnace body (10), and the partition wall (20) by the inner cavity along level side To being divided into smelting zone (11) and electrothermal reduction area (12), and communicating passage is provided with to be connected to below the partition wall (20) State smelting zone (11) and the electrothermal reduction area (12);The smelting zone (11) is provided with first charging aperture (111) and smelting zone Flue (112), the first charging aperture (111) is for being added zinc concentrate and flux;The electrothermal reduction area (12) is provided with Two feed inlets (121), at least one electrode through-hole (122) and electrothermal reduction area flue (123), the second charging aperture (121) For reducing agent to be added;And
At least one heating electrode (30), the heating electrode (30) and the electrode through-hole (122) correspond and pass through institute It states electrode through-hole (122) and extends to electrothermal reduction area (12) inside.
2. short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device according to claim 1, which is characterized in that offered on the partition wall (20) logical Hole, the high cadmia form the smelting zone (11) passes through and enters the electrothermal reduction area (12), and the electric heating is also Former area (12) is additionally provided with slag-drip opening (124) and pig iron discharge outlet (125).
3. short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device according to claim 2, which is characterized in that the furnace body (10) has roof, The roof there is the first part being located above the smelting zone (11) and be located above the electrothermal reduction area (12) the Two parts, the position of roof described in first part are higher than the position of roof described in second part.
4. short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device according to claim 3, which is characterized in that the type of furnace of the smelting zone (11) is The vertical type of furnace, the first charging aperture (111) are located at the top and/or side of the smelting zone (11), the smelting zone flue (112) it is respectively positioned on the top of the smelting zone (11).
5. short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device according to claim 4, which is characterized in that the short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device It further include at least one side-blown spray gun, the side of the smelting zone (11) is provided at least one gun inlets, the side-blown spray Rifle and the gun inlets, which correspond and pass through the gun inlets, extends to the smelting zone (11) inside, is used for described Oxygen rich gas and optionally carbonaceous fuel are sprayed into smelting zone (11).
6. short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device according to any one of claim 1 to 5, which is characterized in that the furnace body (10) internal bottom wall is the surface tilted down along the smelting zone (11) to the electrothermal reduction area (12);Alternatively, described The internal bottom wall of furnace body (10) is divided into three parts, first part position along the smelting zone (11) to the electrothermal reduction area (12) Below the smelting zone (11), Part III is located at below the electrothermal reduction area (12), and first part and Part III are logical Second part connection is crossed, and second part has stepped surfaces or inclined surface, so that the height of first part is higher than third Partial height.
7. short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device according to claim 6, which is characterized in that bottom wall and third described in first part Difference in height between the bottom wall of part is 150~500mm.
8. short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device according to claim 6, which is characterized in that bottom wall described in Part III is located at institute The underface of partition wall (20) is stated, alternatively, bottom wall described in Part III deviates the underface of the partition wall (20) and is biased to described molten It refines area (11).
9. short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device according to any one of claim 1 to 5, which is characterized in that described second into Material mouth (121) is located at the top of the electrothermal reduction area (12), and electrothermal reduction area flue (123) is located at the electrothermal reduction The top and/or side in area (12).
10. a kind of method using short route pyrometallurgy of zinc device zinc metallurgy described in any one of any one of claims 1 to 99, feature It is, the described method comprises the following steps:
Zinc concentrate, flux and oxygen rich gas are passed through in smelting zone (11) and carry out melting reaction, obtain high cadmia, sulfur-containing smoke gas and Melt;The sulfur-containing smoke gas is discharged by smelting zone flue (112);
The high cadmia and the melt is set to enter electrothermal reduction area (12), in the heat effect and reducing agent of heating electrode (30) Reduction under carry out electrothermal reduction, obtain zinc fume, clinker and the pig iron.
11. according to the method described in claim 10, it is characterized in that, the zinc concentrate is that zinc sulfide concentrates and/or lead zinc are multiple Close mine;
Preferably, the oxygen rich gas is oxygen-enriched air or oxygen;
Preferably, the flux is one of siliceous flux, calc-flux, irony flux or a variety of.
12. method described in 0 or 11 according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the oxygen concentration in the smelting zone (11) is 40 ~80%, the temperature of the melting reaction is 1200~1400 DEG C.
13. according to the method for claim 12, which is characterized in that the temperature of the sulfur-containing smoke gas is 1200~1400 DEG C, The content of Zn-ef ficiency is 20~60% in the high cadmia.
14. method described in any one of 0 to 13 according to claim 1, which is characterized in that during the melting reaction, The oxygen rich gas is sprayed into the melt of the smelting zone (11) using side-blown spray gun, alternatively, using the side-blown spray gun to The oxygen rich gas and carbonaceous fuel are sprayed into the melt of the smelting zone (11).
15. method described in any one of 0 to 13 according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the melt passes through for partition wall (20) communicating passage between furnace body (10) bottom wall enters the electrothermal reduction area (12), and the high cadmia is by being provided with The through-hole stated on partition wall (20) enters the electrothermal reduction area (12).
16. method described in any one of 0 to 13 according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the reducing agent is coke, smokelessly One of coal, coke cutting, semi-coke are a variety of.
17. according to the method for claim 16, which is characterized in that the processing temperature of the electrothermal reduction is 1200~1300 DEG C, and after zinc fume discharge, the processing temperature of the electrothermal reduction is improved to 1500~1600 DEG C, by the life Iron discharge.
18. according to the method for claim 17, which is characterized in that the clinker is discharged by the way of stage emission, institute Clinker is stated containing zinc 0.5~1.5%.
19. according to the method for claim 14, which is characterized in that the method also includes condensing to the zinc fume The step of obtaining crude zinc and coal gas;Preferably, the carbonaceous fuel is one of natural gas, fine coal, the coal gas or a variety of.
20. method described in any one of 0 to 19 according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the method also includes to sulfur-bearing cigarette Gas carries out the step of cooling dedusting;Preferably, after the cooling dust removal step, obtained gas is subjected to relieving haperacidity.
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