CN104588650A - Material increase manufacturing method of functionally graded parts based on three-dimensional heterogeneous powder laying - Google Patents

Material increase manufacturing method of functionally graded parts based on three-dimensional heterogeneous powder laying Download PDF

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CN104588650A
CN104588650A CN201510088107.0A CN201510088107A CN104588650A CN 104588650 A CN104588650 A CN 104588650A CN 201510088107 A CN201510088107 A CN 201510088107A CN 104588650 A CN104588650 A CN 104588650A
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powder
paving
dimensional
heterogeneous
manufacture
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CN201510088107.0A
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CN104588650B (en
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易培云
鲍恩泽
彭林法
来新民
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上海交通大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a material increase manufacturing method of functionally graded parts based on three-dimensional heterogeneous powder laying. The method comprises the following steps: (1) designing three-dimensional structures of parts; (2) determining the powder laying parameters and sintering or melting process parameters; (3) pre-storing different raw powder materials in different parallel powder reservoirs; (4) preparing powder with the corresponding components for a powder supplying system in real time; (5) finishing laying powder materials on a current slice layer to be processed when a powder laying nozzle finishes scanning a current powder laying path; (6) scanning the powder forming the top surface of a cylinder along the corresponding scanning path, and sintering or melting and solidifying the powder of scanned region; (7) reading the parameter information of the next layer of slices by a computer, and repeating steps (3) to (6), so as to obtain the complete three-dimensional parts. Compared with the prior art, the method can control the material components of each point in the parts and realize the material increase manufacturing of complex parts with three-dimensional function gradients.

Description

Functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional increases material manufacture method
Technical field
The present invention relates to and increase material manufacture field, especially relate to a kind of functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional and increase material manufacture method.
Background technology
The fast development of the technology such as modern water power, aerospace, electronics, ocean, biologic medical, the performance of part is had higher requirement, the different parts of such as part needs to present different characteristics, as mechanical property, high temperature resistant, corrosive nature, antioxygenic property, appearance property etc.General simple substance part is difficult to meet these conditions, although traditional composite material parts can fully utilize the performance of homogenous material, but inside parts often also exists a large amount of matrix and the interface of reinforcing material not between homophase, these interfaces are regions that stress distribution is undergone mutation or stress is concentrated, overall performance for part has a negative impact, in addition, conventional composite materials is often difficult to make complicated 3 d part.
1984, Japanese state-run aerospace laboratory gained enlightenment from stratiform level and smooth continually varying shell case sections tissue, proposed the imagination of FGM (Functionally Gradient Materials is called for short FGM).The material of this " component, stuctures and properties consecutive variations ", is used to the thermal protection of aerospace equipment the earliest.The functionally gradient part that FGM is made, has a wide range of applications.As the support applied in bioengineered tissue, need the mechanical property of mating replaced position, be replaced by example with bone, support is mated the mechanical property of compact bone, cancellous bone, cortex bone respectively to external demand by inside.For another example the compressor blade dish used in airspace engine, require higher temperature-room type plasticity, intensity and low cycle fatigue property at dish edge and dish core, coiling edge then will have high high temperature fracture toughness and creep resistance.Above part not only has complicated three-dimensional structure, and inside parts also has complicated functionally gradient, this requirement new for process technology proposes.
Increasing material manufacturing technology is adopt the technology by material progressively accumulation forming 3 d part, and compared with traditional material removal process method, have saving material, process velocity is fast, and flexibility is high, machinable degree of structuration complexity advantages of higher.
In numerous increasing material manufacturing technology, selective laser sintering (Selective Laser Sintering, be called for short SLS) be the increasing material manufacture method be widely used at present with selective laser melting technology (Selective Laser Melting, be called for short SLM).Compare other and increase material manufacturing technology, selective laser sintering and selective laser melting technology have machinable material ranges extensively, does not need additional designs supporting construction, stock utilization advantages of higher.The general principle of these two kinds of technology is: first cut into slices to the three-dimensional CAD model of part, obtains the cross section information of every one deck section.Power spreading device spreads one deck powder in formation cylinder, adopts laser optionally to scan on this layer of powder, makes powder bonding or the fusing of scanning area, obtains the monolayer shape of part; Then the piston bottom formation cylinder declines a height, and power spreading device re-lays one deck powder on front one deck powder, and the cross section information that laser is then cut into slices according to lower one deck carries out selective scanning to powder; Successively add up according to this, the final part obtaining three-dimensional.Also occurred that employing electron beam replaces laser in recent years, as the Selected area electron bundle smelting technology (ElectronBeam Melting is called for short EBM) of energy input, but its general principle is identical.
Utilize traditional SLS (SLM, EBM) technology, baroque 3 d part can be processed, but be difficult to the functionally gradient realizing inside parts complexity.Method conventional at present, being the machined parameters by continuously changing laser (electron beam), obtaining the performance such as voidage, microstructure continually varying FGM.
Practical function gradient being come for the method by changing material component, also having groups of people to propose some improvement projects, but all exist significantly not enough.As China Patent Publication No. CN103480845A has invented a kind of 3D Method of printing and powder feeding brush mechanism thereof, powder feeding brush mechanism comprises funneling cylinder body, the meal outlet of funneling cylinder body is elongated, and the both sides of meal outlet are respectively symmetrically arranged with one piece and are driven and the elastic scraper that can move up and down by motor; The meal outlet of funneling cylinder body is provided with a valve by its switch of Electric Machine Control; With three-dimensional software design elements model, the part of unlike material is identified; Then slicing delamination process; Prestore separately a kind of required powder in powder cylinder and funneling cylinder body; Control system is according to the profile information of section, and control powder feeding brush mechanism and provide powder to formation cylinder, laser fusion sintered powder, complete one deck processing like this, the 3D that can realize composite material parts prints and manufactures.But the powder sort that this invention can be laid is subject to the restriction of compartment number in funnel cylinder, in view of the volume of funnel cylinder can not be too large, thus available powders kind is inevitable less.And the powdery components in a slicing layer is fixing.Even if in a slicing layer, the heterogeneous paving powder in individual layer is carried out by the mode of the different meal outlet valve of switch, different powder also can only in parallel zonal distribution, and have obvious interface between different powdery components, accurate control and the consecutive variations of inside parts optional position material component cannot be realized.The similar power spreading device also having China Patent Publication No. CN103978211A invention.In addition, China Patent Publication No. CN103480843A has invented a kind of 3D Method of printing of the composite material parts based on three cylinder forming machines, comprises the steps: with three-dimensional software design elements model; On the basis of threedimensional model, identify the part of unlike material, the part of identical material, use same mark, the part of unlike material adopts different marks; Then threedimensional model carries out slicing delamination process; Prestore respectively required a kind of dusty material in the powder cylinder of 3D printer, the profile information that the system of control 3D printer is cut into slices according to threedimensional model, and control two powder feeding cylinders to formation cylinder for powder, laser fusion sintered powder, completes one deck processing like this; Control formation cylinder to decline a thickness, repeat the step spreading powder, layer and layer are piled up, once directly complete the 3D printing manufacture of composite.But this invention can only use the two kinds of powder prestored, and kind is less, and the proportioning of two kinds of powder that prestore is immutable, can only use same powder in same slicing layer, accurate control and the consecutive variations of inside parts optional position material component cannot be realized.In addition, utility model patent Authorization Notice No. CN201109649Y has invented a kind of metal dust power spreading device be shaped for precinct laser fusion.Its form by leting slip a remark, utilizes screw rod and the matched in clearance of lower end of leting slip a remark, realizes powder falling.But the powder of the method is pre-stored in the cavity of leting slip a remark, and therefore powder stock proportioning is immutable.When powder stock kind is more, need preset leting slip a remark a lot, structure is very complicated, and cannot realize the consecutive variations of powdery components.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention is exactly provide a kind of functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional to increase material manufacture method to overcome defect that above-mentioned prior art exists, is applicable to the part that the gradient of quick manufacturing structure and its inside function is all very complicated.
Object of the present invention can be achieved through the following technical solutions:
Functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional increases a material manufacture method, it is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
(1) three-dimensional structure of part is designed, according to the requirement that part three-dimensional structure and internal material distribute, hierarchy slicing is carried out to part, obtain thickness and the cross sectional shape of the section of each layer, then a discrete processes is carried out to every one deck section, and the material component information of the interior every bit of record section;
(2) determine paving powder craft parameter, and sinter or melting process parameter;
(3) independent of in the powder-supply system outside working chamber, in different block form powder-storing machines, different powder stocks is prestored into;
(4) described powder-supply system is according to supplying powder time-scale, the aperture of control powder valve, in real time the powder of preparation respective components, sends in the feed bin in working chamber by powder delivery device, and described feed bin carries out buffering to the powder sent here and accommodates also stacking according to the order of sequence;
(5) when the powder buffer memory in feed bin reaches setting value, the height that the decline of formation cylinder piston is corresponding with current slicing layer thickness to be processed, the paving powder mouth of feed bin and below thereof is under the drive of guide rail, along corresponding paving mill diagram footpath, point by point scanning is carried out to formation cylinder end face, powder stacking in feed bin is spread in formation cylinder according to the order of sequence, when pawnshop powder mouth completes the scanning in current paving mill diagram footpath, the dusty material of current slicing layer to be processed is laid complete;
(6) light source is under the driving of galvanometer system, according to the sintering corresponding with current slice layer or melting characteristic parameter, scan along the powder of corresponding scanning pattern to formation cylinder end face, by the powder sintered of scanning area or Melting And Solidification, so far complete the processing of one deck section;
(7) computer read and lower one deck cut into slices corresponding thickness, spread powder craft parameter, sintering or melting process parameter information, repeat step (3) to (6), until after completing the processing of all sections, by successively stacking, obtain complete 3 d part.
Described powder-supply system comprises the powder-storing machine of at least 2, the powder valve equal with powder-storing machine quantity, powder blenders, powder feeder and powder conveying device, according to supplying powder time-scale, powder-supply system controls the aperture of each powder valve in real time, to realize real-time change and the control of powder mixture ratio, powder blenders is by powder rapid mixing and send into powder feeder, and mixed powder is sent into powder conveying device by powder feeder.
Each powder-storing machine stores the different powder stock of component.
Described feed bin receives the dusty material from powder conveying device, stacking according to the order of sequence after cushioning, and resupplies paving powder mouth.
Described feed bin is provided with lets out powder mouth, by suction mode by the excessive powder in feed bin through letting out powder mouth venting.
Described sintering or melt-processedly to carry out in canister.
Add and inert gas shielding is carried out to processing environment and preheating is carried out to powder man-hour.
Described light source is laser or electron beam.
Described paving powder craft parameter comprises the paving mill diagram footpath of paving powder mouth, spreads the confession powder time-scale of powder speed and powder-supply system, and described sintering or melting process parameter comprise light source power, sweep span, sweep speed and scanning pattern.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has the following advantages:
1) by the control of computer, make powder valve, powder feeder, guide rail, the collaborative work of paving powder mouth, according to each slicing layer in part for powder time-scale, regulate the proportioning of powder in real time, the powdery components that can realize in single slicing layer accurately controls and can continually varying feature; Accumulated by the longitudinal direction of all slicing layers, realize the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional of inside parts, thus realize the functionally gradient of inside parts complexity, substantially increase the functionally gradient complexity in three dimensions of part.
2) because powder is in the working chamber that protected by the powder-supply system entered environment control cabinet of outside, so eliminate the space for powder cylinder or material-falling hopper.Make the structure in canister compacter, cut down finished cost.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is for realizing system layout schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the enlarged drawing of formation cylinder room;
Fig. 3 is the internal composition change schematic diagram of functionally gradient part.
Wherein 1. powder feeders, 2. blender, 3. powder valve; 4. block form powder-storing machine, 5. formation cylinder piston, 6. non-sintered powder; 7. sintered powder, 8. spreads powder mouth, 9. feed bin; 10. guide rail, 11. powder delivery devices, 12. canisters; 13. galvanometer systems; 14. LASER Light Sources, 15. protective glasses, 16. let out powder mouth.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention is described in detail.
Embodiment
The magnetic valve that powder valve can adopt aperture controlled.Blender can adopt cone and screw mixer.Automatic powder feeding system can be the continuous-flow conveyor according to the design of powder mechanics, also can be the airslide conveyor according to the design of granule fluid mechanics.If selection continuous-flow conveyor, then powder delivery device is the closed chute feeder guiding powder, if select airslide conveyor, then powder delivery device is then powder conduit.Be provided with porous barrier (such as adopting ceramic porous plate material) in feed bin, by powder and gas separaion, gas is got rid of by the steam vent on feed bin top, and powder is then settled down to bin bottom.Paving powder mouth can adopt screw extrusion type or gear extruded type.But LASER Light Source carbon dioxide laser (being suitable for sintered polymer) also can be optical-fiber laser (being suitable for sintering metal).As adopted electron beam as sintering (fusing) energy, then galvanometer system changes Electron Beam Focusing guidance system into.
As shown in Figure 2, be a kind of simple and clear functionally gradient part schematic diagram, it is long is L, and wide is W, and height is H, and material is made up of powder 1, powder 2, powder 3, its Changing Pattern can with the coordinate position of each point in part represent for:
Component 1 (%)=80+10y/L
Component 2 (%)=(20-10y/L) × [0.5+0.125 (x/W+z/H)]
Component 3 (%)=(20-10y/L) × [0.5-0.125 (x/W+z/H)]
Wherein, x ∈ [0, W], y ∈ [0, L], z ∈ [0, H]
First, utilize CAD 3D design software to design the three-dimensional structure of part, and according to above-mentioned formula to the every bit marking material component information in 3 d part.Then 3 d part is cut into slices, while the every one deck chip formation of acquisition, the material component information of the interior every bit that obtains cutting into slices.By algorithm, determine to spread the paving mill diagram footpath of powder mouth, paving powder speed, powder-supply system for paving powder craft parameters such as powder time-scales, calculate the sintering such as sweep span, scanning pattern, laser power (fusing) technological parameter of laser.
Stored in pure powder 1 in No. 1 storage powder cylinder, stored in pure powder 2 in No. 2 storage powder cylinders, stored in pure powder 3 in No. 3 storage powder cylinders.
Formation cylinder piston declines a thickness h, and paving powder mouth moves to formation cylinder under the drive of guide rail, prepares to carry out paving powder.Meanwhile, powder-supply system supplies powder time-scale, to feed bin for powder according to corresponding to current layer.When there being enough powder buffer memorys in feed bin, start to spread powder.
When powder-supply system supplies powder at the point for coordinate (0,0,0), the aperture of storing up No. 1 powder valve corresponding to powder cylinder with No. 1 is 80%, and No. 2 powder valve apertures of storing up powder cylinder corresponding with No. 2 are 10%, and No. 3 powder valve apertures of storing up powder cylinder corresponding with No. 3 are 10%.At paving powder mouth, along x-axis from (0,0,0), point spreads powder to (L, 0,0) in the process put, the aperture of No. 1 powder valve maintenance 80%, the aperture of No. 2 powder valve is linearly increased to 12.5% by 10%, and the aperture of No. 3 powder powder valve reduces to 7.5% by 10%.Powder is stacking according to the order of sequence in feed bin, then is laid by paving powder mouth feeding formation cylinder.
According to above-mentioned principle, paving powder mouth completes the paving powder work of current slicing layer to be processed, under the drive of guide rail, gets back to original position.
Laser, under the driving of galvanometer system, adopts corresponding sintering (fusing) technological parameter, scans along corresponding scanning pattern to the powder in formation cylinder, by sweep test sintering (Melting And Solidification).So far sintering (fusing) processing of ground floor section is completed.
Computer obtains corresponding thickness of cutting into slices with lower one deck, spreads the information such as powder craft parameter, sintering (fusing) technological parameter, still carries out the paving powder of next slicing layer and selective sintering (fusing) shaping according to said process.
By circulation above-mentioned steps, successively add up, until complete the forming process of 3 d part.
The working chamber at forming process place, if needed, can carry out vacuumizing and the function of inert gas shielding.
Powder in formation cylinder, if needed, can carry out preheating.
As needs substrate, then can installation base plate on formation cylinder piston.
Powder in feed bin and paving powder mouth, can be discharged by letting out powder mouth, with tackle to make mistakes for powder or other faults cause processing to be interrupted time, reset the powder buffer memory in feed bin.
Embodiments of the present invention are not restricted to the described embodiments; other are any do not deviate from Spirit Essence of the present invention and principle under do change, modification, substitute, combine, simplify; all should be the substitute mode of equivalence, be included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. the functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional increases a material manufacture method, it is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
(1) three-dimensional structure of part is designed, according to the requirement that part three-dimensional structure and internal material distribute, hierarchy slicing is carried out to part, obtain thickness and the cross sectional shape of the section of each layer, then a discrete processes is carried out to every one deck section, and the material component information of the interior every bit of record section;
(2) determine paving powder craft parameter, and sinter or melting process parameter;
(3) independent of in the powder-supply system outside working chamber, in different block form powder-storing machines, different powder stocks is prestored into;
(4) described powder-supply system is according to supplying powder time-scale, the aperture of control powder valve, in real time the powder of preparation respective components, sends in the feed bin in working chamber by powder delivery device, and described feed bin carries out buffering to the powder sent here and accommodates also stacking according to the order of sequence;
(5) when the powder buffer memory in feed bin reaches setting value, the height that the decline of formation cylinder piston is corresponding with current slicing layer thickness to be processed, the paving powder mouth of feed bin and below thereof is under the drive of guide rail, along corresponding paving mill diagram footpath, point by point scanning is carried out to formation cylinder end face, powder stacking in feed bin is spread in formation cylinder according to the order of sequence, when pawnshop powder mouth completes the scanning in current paving mill diagram footpath, the dusty material of current slicing layer to be processed is laid complete;
(6) light source is under the driving of galvanometer system, according to the sintering corresponding with current slice layer or melting characteristic parameter, scan along the powder of corresponding scanning pattern to formation cylinder end face, by the powder sintered of scanning area or Melting And Solidification, so far complete the processing of one deck section;
(7) computer read and lower one deck cut into slices corresponding thickness, spread powder craft parameter, sintering or melting process parameter information, repeat step (3) to (6), until after completing the processing of all sections, by successively stacking, obtain complete 3 d part.
2. a kind of functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional according to claim 1 increases material manufacture method, it is characterized in that, described powder-supply system comprises the powder-storing machine of at least 2, the powder valve equal with powder-storing machine quantity, powder blenders, powder feeder and powder conveying device, according to supplying powder time-scale, powder-supply system controls the aperture of each powder valve in real time, to realize real-time change and the control of powder mixture ratio, powder blenders is by powder rapid mixing and send into powder feeder, and mixed powder is sent into powder conveying device by powder feeder.
3. a kind of functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional according to claim 2 increases material manufacture method, it is characterized in that, each powder-storing machine stores the different powder stock of component.
4. a kind of functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional according to claim 1 and 2 increases material manufacture method, it is characterized in that, described feed bin receives the dusty material from powder conveying device, stacking according to the order of sequence after cushioning, and resupplies paving powder mouth.
5. a kind of functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional according to claim 4 increases material manufacture method, and it is characterized in that, described feed bin is provided with lets out powder mouth, by the mode of suction by the excessive powder in feed bin through letting out powder mouth venting.
6. a kind of functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional according to claim 1 increases material manufacture method, it is characterized in that, described sintering or melt-processedly to carry out in canister.
7. a kind of functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional according to claim 1 or 6 increases material manufacture method, it is characterized in that, adds and carry out inert gas shielding to processing environment and carry out preheating to powder man-hour.
8. a kind of functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional according to claim 1 increases material manufacture method, and it is characterized in that, described light source is laser or electron beam.
9. a kind of functionally gradient part based on the heterogeneous paving powder of three-dimensional according to claim 1 increases material manufacture method, it is characterized in that, described paving powder craft parameter comprises the paving mill diagram footpath of paving powder mouth, spreads the confession powder time-scale of powder speed and powder-supply system, and described sintering or melting process parameter comprise light source power, sweep span, sweep speed and scanning pattern.
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