CN109590472A - A kind of functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing based on coaxial powder-feeding - Google Patents

A kind of functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing based on coaxial powder-feeding Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109590472A
CN109590472A CN201811611324.3A CN201811611324A CN109590472A CN 109590472 A CN109590472 A CN 109590472A CN 201811611324 A CN201811611324 A CN 201811611324A CN 109590472 A CN109590472 A CN 109590472A
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powder
fgm
scanning
layer
functionally gradient
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李洽
葛青
路鹏
周崇
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Laser Technology Development (beijing) Co Ltd
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Laser Technology Development (beijing) Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • B22F10/20Direct sintering or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/24After-treatment of workpieces or articles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y10/00Processes of additive manufacturing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/24After-treatment of workpieces or articles
    • B22F2003/248Thermal after-treatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2998/00Supplementary information concerning processes or compositions relating to powder metallurgy
    • B22F2998/10Processes characterised by the sequence of their steps
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2999/00Aspects linked to processes or compositions used in powder metallurgy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing based on coaxial powder-feeding, comprising: establish the threedimensional model of part;Hierarchy slicing processing, setting scanning direction and scanning track are carried out to threedimensional model;Technological parameter is set according to the demand of part to be formed, technological parameter includes powder feeder quantity, the powder proportion of each slicing layer and each slicing layer different zones, scanning speed, laser power and spot diameter;Increasing material manufacturing is executed on the substrate in processing storehouse according to technological parameter;Part is cut to separation from substrate, the powder in cleaning and recycling processing storehouse completes increasing material manufacturing.In During Laser Rapid Forming, realize the control of the proportioning components to the functionally gradient material (FGM) of two or more material, the composition distribution for arbitrarily customizing functionally gradient material (FGM) as requested may be implemented, be used in mixed way different materials in same structure to print complicated shape functionally gradient material (FGM).

Description

A kind of functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing based on coaxial powder-feeding
Technical field
The present invention relates to material increasing fields, and in particular to a kind of functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing based on coaxial powder-feeding.
Background technique
Increases material manufacturing technology, also known as laser melt 3D printing, are to develop a kind of faster advanced manufacturing technology in recent years.Gold The laser fusing increases material manufacturing technology for belonging to part is metal powder material successively to be melted by high energy laser beam, and then realize arbitrarily complicated Metal parts manufacture.
Functionally gradient material (FGM) is that the novel compound material of one kind realizes the composition of material by special design and construction It is slowly varying with performance, so that it is met specific functional requirement.Due to this gradient performance feature of functionally gradient material (FGM), so that it has Have the advantages that general composite material is incomparable, thus there is high application value and Research Prospects.With application field Constantly extension, also constantly changes the needs of functionally gradient material (FGM).Common functionally gradient material (FGM) is made by increasing in currently available technology The metal powder material of two kinds of materials is mixed by different proportion and is printed by material manufacturing technology, and common problem is to be merely capable of It realizes the gradient transition on two-dimensional directional, increasing material manufacturing can not be carried out to multiple material, realize the gradient transition on three-dimensional.
Summary of the invention
In view of the above technical problems, the present invention provides a kind of functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing based on coaxial powder-feeding, including with Lower step:
S1, the threedimensional model for establishing part;
S2, hierarchy slicing processing, setting scanning direction and scanning track are carried out to threedimensional model;
S3, technological parameter is arranged according to the demand of part to be formed, technological parameter includes powder feeder quantity, each slicing layer and The powder of each slicing layer different zones matches, scanning speed, laser power and spot diameter;
S4, increasing material manufacturing is executed on the substrate in processing storehouse according to technological parameter;
S5, part is cut to separation from substrate, the powder in cleaning and recycling processing storehouse completes increasing material manufacturing.
Further, step S2 is specifically included:
S201, threedimensional model is divided into n slicing layer, n is positive integer;
S202, classify to n slicing layer, be divided into m class, corresponding scanning direction is set for every a kind of slicing layer, every m layers is The different classification of each layer of correspondence in one group, one group, m≤n, m are positive integer;
S203, scanning track is set according to the scanning direction of each slicing layer.
Further, step S4 is specifically included:
S401, i=1 is enabled;
S402, the classification type for obtaining i-th layer adjust laser scanning direction according to setting, are matched according to powder in increasing material manufacturing Adjust the powder feeding rate of powder feeder in real time in the process;
S403, complete current slice layer increasing material manufacturing after, judge whether i is equal to n, if be equal to, enter step S5, otherwise Execute step S404;
S404, i=i+1, return step S402 are enabled.
Further, step S5 is specifically included:
S501, the part of forming is separated using wire cutting technology from substrate, part is made annealing treatment;
S502, after completing annealing, Physical Processing is carried out to piece surface, obtains finished product;
S503, the mixed powder in processing storehouse is collected using clearing and retrieving device;
S504, it will be separated in the powder for being collected into mixing feeding five-stage whirlwind cylinder;
S505, mixing powder separation after the completion of, complete increasing material manufacturing.
Further, the annealing in step S502 specifically:
The part basically separated is immediately placed in be warming up in 600 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius of heat-treatment furnace in advance into Row stress reducing internal heat keeps the temperature 120 minutes, then air-cooled using coming out of the stove.
In conclusion hierarchy slicing processing is carried out by the threedimensional model for establishing part, and to threedimensional model, by three-dimensional mould Type is divided into n slicing layer, classifies to n slicing layer, is divided into m class, and corresponding scanning direction is arranged for every a kind of slicing layer, The every m layers classification different for each layer of correspondence in one group, one group, is arranged scanning direction according to the scanning direction of each slicing layer With scanning track, technological parameter is arranged according to the demand of part to be formed.It enables i=1, obtains i-th layer of classification type, according to setting Adjustment laser scanning direction is set, adjusts the powder feeding rate of powder feeder in real time during increasing material manufacturing according to powder proportion, until Increasing material manufacturing is completed to n slicing layer, and is separated the part of forming from substrate using wire cutting technology, part is carried out Annealing obtains finished product after Physical Processing is handled, and using clearing and retrieving device to the mixed powder in processing storehouse It is collected, after the completion of separating mixed powder using five-stage whirlwind cylinder, completes increasing material manufacturing.
By adopting the above technical scheme, the invention has the advantages that:
The present invention realizes the proportioning components to the functionally gradient material (FGM) of two or more material in During Laser Rapid Forming Control, may be implemented arbitrarily to customize the composition distribution of functionally gradient material (FGM) as requested, be used in mixed way in same structure different Material realizes the gradient transition on three-dimensional.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing process flow chart based on coaxial powder-feeding of one embodiment of the present of invention;
Fig. 2 is the specific steps flow chart of the S2 of one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 3 is the specific steps flow chart of the S4 of one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 4 is the specific steps flow chart of the S5 of one embodiment of the invention.
Specific embodiment
In order to make the objectives, technical solutions, and advantages of the present invention clearer, with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments, right The present invention is further elaborated.It should be appreciated that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the present invention, and It is not used in the restriction present invention.
In order to solve can not achieve the adjustment to functionally gradient material (FGM) type or composition, entirely free on his composition regulation cannot achieve The problems such as, the present invention provides a kind of functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing based on coaxial powder-feeding.
As shown in Figure 1, the present invention provides a kind of functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing based on coaxial powder-feeding, including following step It is rapid:
S1, elder generation establish threedimensional model according to the shape of formation of parts in a computer;
S2, hierarchy slicing processing is carried out to threedimensional model, i.e., the three-dimensional data information of part is converted into a series of two-dimensional surfaces Information, setting scanning direction and scanning track;
Wherein, as shown in Fig. 2, step S2 is specifically included:
S201, threedimensional model is divided into n slicing layer, n is positive integer;
S202, classify to n slicing layer, be divided into m class, corresponding scanning direction is set for every a kind of slicing layer, every m layers is The different classification of each layer of correspondence in one group, one group, m≤n, m are positive integer;
S203, scanning track is set according to the scanning direction of each slicing layer.
During carrying out increasing material manufacturing, if the scanning direction of the slicing layer of three-dimensional part model is all identical, layer with Binding force between layer is weaker, is easy to happen fracture.By adopting the above technical scheme, the slicing layer of part model is classified, Different scanning directions is arranged in inhomogeneous slicing layer, so that the scanning direction of adjacent layer is different, considerably increases each cut Binding force between lamella.In step S202, when being grouped, the slicing layer number of plies of last group may be less than m, this As long as when last group in the corresponding classification of each slicing layer it is different, the corresponding classified order of each layer in each group can It can also be different with identical.
S3, technological parameter is arranged according to the demand of part to be formed, technological parameter includes powder feeder quantity, each slicing layer And the powder proportion of each slicing layer different zones, scanning speed, laser power and spot diameter;
Using above-mentioned steps, according to each slicing layer of part to be formed and the composition and knot of each slicing layer different zones Structure design, the proportion of the determining powder feeder powder feeding material in different location, and required according to the performance of formation of parts or organization design, Dynamic organization's regulation and control scheme is analyzed, determines the laser forming technological parameter of different location, and by these data real-time transmissions to counting The information of synchronous real-time control is formed in calculation machine, to realize the laser fast forming to the part of a variety of composite materials.
Determine that the quantity of powder feeder, the type of powder can use multiple groups according to requirements such as design of part intensity to be formed Powder feeder powder feeding simultaneously, computer drives powder feeder powder feeding according to processing process, and will be collected by multiple sensors Powder flow velocity, flow export to computer, computer control the powder sending quantity of each group powder feeder, powder feeder powder feeding rate and The type of powder.
In forming process, control program of the computer according to setting, technological parameter pass through control scanning speed, laser Power and spot diameter, dynamic realtime control During Laser Rapid Forming, adjust the powder feeding rate of powder feeder, the flow velocity of powder, Flow stablizes whole process.Wherein, dynamic realtime control is set according to structure, the material property synthesis of part to be formed Meter regulation, in forming process, by adjusting control powder feeder quantity, the powder feeding rate of powder feeder, each slicing layer and every The powder of a slicing layer different zones matches, scanning speed, and laser power and spot diameter treat formation of parts and carry out increasing material Manufacture.
S4, increasing material manufacturing is executed on the substrate in processing storehouse according to technological parameter;
Wherein, as shown in figure 3, step S4 is specifically included:
S401, i=1 is enabled;
S402, the classification type for obtaining i-th layer adjust laser scanning direction according to setting, are matched according to powder in increasing material manufacturing Adjust the powder feeding rate of powder feeder in real time in the process;I.e. according to i-th layer of classification type, laser scanning direction and powder are determined Proportion adjusts the powder feeding rate of powder feeder in real time, has reached part Each part intensity requirement.
S403, complete current slice layer increasing material manufacturing after, judge whether i is equal to n, if be equal to, enter step S5, It is no to then follow the steps S404;
S404, i=i+1 is enabled, executes step S402.
S5, part is cut to separation from substrate, the powder in cleaning and recycling processing storehouse completes increasing material manufacturing.
Wherein, as shown in figure 4, step S5 is specifically included:
S501, the part of forming is separated using wire cutting technology from substrate, part is made annealing treatment;
S502, after completing annealing, Physical Processing is carried out to piece surface, obtains finished product;
Wherein, the annealing in step S502 specifically:
The part basically separated is immediately placed in be warming up in 600 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius of heat-treatment furnace in advance into Row stress reducing internal heat keeps the temperature 120 minutes, then air-cooled using coming out of the stove.
S503, the mixed powder in processing storehouse is collected using clearing and retrieving device;
S504, it will be separated in the powder for being collected into mixing feeding five-stage whirlwind cylinder;
S505, mixing powder separation after the completion of, complete increasing material manufacturing.
Using above-mentioned steps, remaining mixed powder is separated while the finished product for obtaining part, both obtained at The part of shape will not waste powder, save cost.
Here is specific embodiments of the present invention:
Embodiment one:
The forming of TC4-TA15 class functionally gradient material (FGM).Internal layer is TC4 class material, and outer layer is TA15 class material.
X-Y-Z cartesian coordinate system is established, using horizontal direction as X-axis, vertical direction is Y-axis, and X-Y plane is vertical with Z axis. The threedimensional model of part to be formed is divided into 60 slicing layers by the threedimensional model for establishing part to be formed.To 60 slicing layers into Row classification is divided into a, and b, c three classes slicing layer, the scanning direction of a class slicing layer is paralleled by X axis direction, the scanning side of b class slicing layer To, at 60 degree of angles, the scanning direction of c class slicing layer and X-axis are at 120 degree of angles with X-axis.Every 3 layers of slicing layer are one group of circulation, Slicing layer corresponds to type sequence and arranges by a, b, c in group, and scanning track is arranged along scanning direction for each slicing layer, powder feeding is arranged Device quantity is two, is matched according to the metal powder material that the performance design of functionally gradient material (FGM) scans the corresponding TC4-TA15 material in track, The metal powder material proportion of the TC4-TA15 material of slicing layer different zones may be different according to performance requirement, and computer needs Store scanning track and corresponding metal powder material proportion.
Myriawatt laser is used in manufacturing process, laser power is 6 kilowatts to 6.5 kilowatts, and protective gas is argon gas, scanning Speed is 1 m/min to 2 ms/min, and spot diameter is 8 millimeters, and the scanning track generated according to computer is in the base for processing storehouse It treats formation of parts on plate to be scanned, scanning completes one layer, scanning track and corresponding TC4-TA15 according still further to next layer The metal powder material proportion of material applies corresponding functionally gradient material (FGM), in entire forming process, computer dynamic real-time control.All After slicing layer completes increasing material manufacturing, the gradient material component that is shaped.The gradient material component of forming is separated from substrate, Stress reducing internal heat is carried out by being immediately placed in the heat-treatment furnace for be warming up in advance 630 degrees Celsius from the part separated on substrate, heat preservation It is 120 minutes, then air-cooled using coming out of the stove.
After completing annealing, Physical Processing is carried out to part, obtains finished product, recycles clearing and retrieving device to processing storehouse Interior mixed powder is collected, and the powder for being collected into mixing is sent into five-stage whirlwind cylinder and is separated, mixed powder After the completion of separation, increasing material manufacturing is completed.
Embodiment two:
The forming of TA15-TC4-TC31 class functionally gradient material (FGM).Part to be formed includes TA15-TC4 transition region, TC4-TC31 transition Area, TA15-TC31 transition region and TA15-TC4-TC31 transition region.
X-Y-Z cartesian coordinate system is established, using horizontal direction as X-axis, vertical direction is Y-axis, and X-Y plane is vertical with Z axis. The threedimensional model of part to be formed is divided into 60 slicing layers by the threedimensional model for establishing part to be formed.To 60 slicing layers into Row classification, is divided into a, b, c, tetra- class slicing layer of d, and the scanning direction of a class slicing layer is paralleled by X axis direction, the scanning of b class slicing layer In angle of 45 degrees, the scanning direction of c class slicing layer and X-axis are at 90 degree of angles, the scanning direction of d class slicing layer and X for direction and X-axis Axis is at 135 degree of angles.Every 4 layers of slicing layer are one group of circulation, and organizing interior slicing layer and corresponding to type sequence is random alignment, each to cut Scanning track is arranged along scanning direction in lamella, and setting powder feeder quantity is three, scans rail according to the performance design of functionally gradient material (FGM) The metal powder material of the corresponding TA15-TC4-TC31 material of mark matches, the gold of the TA15-TC4-TC31 material of slicing layer different zones Belonging to powder proportion may be different according to performance requirement, and computer needs to store scanning track and corresponding metal powder material is matched Than.
Myriawatt laser is used in manufacturing process, laser power is 5.5 kilowatts to 6 kilowatts, and protective gas is argon gas, scanning Speed is 1 m/min to 1.5 ms/min, and spot diameter is 8 millimeters, and the scanning track generated according to computer is in processing storehouse It treats formation of parts on substrate to be scanned, scanning completes one layer, scanning track and corresponding TA15- according still further to next layer The metal powder material proportion of TC4-TC31 material applies corresponding functionally gradient material (FGM), and in entire forming process, computer dynamic is real-time Control.After whole slicing layers complete increasing material manufacturings, the gradient material component that is shaped.By the gradient material component of forming from base It is separated on plate, carries out stress for being immediately placed in the heat-treatment furnace for being warming up to 700 degrees Celsius in advance from the part separated on substrate Reducing internal heat keeps the temperature 120 minutes, then air-cooled using coming out of the stove.
Remaining step is the same as example 1, and details are not described herein.
Embodiment described above is only that preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described, not to design of the invention It is defined with range.Without departing from the design concept of the invention, ordinary people in the field is to technical side of the invention The various changes and improvements that case is made, should all drop into protection scope of the present invention, the claimed technology contents of the present invention, Through being all described in the claims.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing based on coaxial powder-feeding, which comprises the following steps:
S1, the threedimensional model for establishing part;
S2, hierarchy slicing processing, setting scanning direction and scanning track are carried out to the threedimensional model;
S3, technological parameter is arranged according to the demand of part to be formed, the technological parameter includes powder feeder quantity, each slicing layer And the powder proportion of each slicing layer different zones, scanning speed, laser power and spot diameter;
S4, increasing material manufacturing is executed on the substrate in processing storehouse according to the technological parameter;
S5, part is cut to separation from the substrate, the powder in cleaning and recycling processing storehouse completes increasing material manufacturing.
2. functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the step S2 is specifically included:
S201, the threedimensional model is divided into n slicing layer, n is positive integer;
S202, classify to the n slicing layer, be divided into m class, corresponding scanning direction, every m are set for every a kind of slicing layer The layer classification different for each layer of correspondence in one group, one group, m≤n, m are positive integer;
S203, scanning track is set according to the scanning direction of each slicing layer.
3. functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing as claimed in claim 2, which is characterized in that the step S4 is specifically included:
S401, i=1 is enabled;
S402, the classification type for obtaining i-th layer adjust laser scanning direction according to setting, are matched according to powder in increasing material manufacturing Adjust the powder feeding rate of the powder feeder in real time in the process;
S403, complete current slice layer increasing material manufacturing after, judge whether i is equal to n, if be equal to, enter step S5, otherwise Execute step S404;
S404, i=i+1 is enabled, executes step S402.
4. functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the step S5 is specifically included:
S501, the part of forming is separated using wire cutting technology from the substrate, part is made annealing treatment;
S502, after completing annealing, Physical Processing is carried out to the piece surface, obtains finished product;
S503, the mixed powder in the processing storehouse is collected using clearing and retrieving device;
S504, it will be separated in the powder for being collected into mixing feeding five-stage whirlwind cylinder;
S505, mixing powder separation after the completion of, complete increasing material manufacturing.
5. functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing as claimed in claim 4, which is characterized in that the annealing tool in the step S502 Body are as follows:
The part separated from the substrate is immediately placed in the preparatory heat-treatment furnace for being warming up to 600 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius Middle progress stress reducing internal heat keeps the temperature 120 minutes, then air-cooled using coming out of the stove.
CN201811611324.3A 2018-12-27 2018-12-27 A kind of functionally gradient material (FGM) Method of printing based on coaxial powder-feeding Pending CN109590472A (en)

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CN111299576A (en) * 2019-12-31 2020-06-19 北京航空航天大学合肥创新研究院 Multi-component material laser additive manufacturing method for precision component

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CN111299576A (en) * 2019-12-31 2020-06-19 北京航空航天大学合肥创新研究院 Multi-component material laser additive manufacturing method for precision component

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