CN103967276A - Architectural engineering construction device based on 3D printing technology and application method - Google Patents

Architectural engineering construction device based on 3D printing technology and application method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103967276A
CN103967276A CN201410176698.2A CN201410176698A CN103967276A CN 103967276 A CN103967276 A CN 103967276A CN 201410176698 A CN201410176698 A CN 201410176698A CN 103967276 A CN103967276 A CN 103967276A
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concrete
computer
extruder head
axis
printing
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CN201410176698.2A
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CN103967276B (en
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陈素文
李程蔚
郑毅
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同济大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses an architectural engineering construction device based on the 3D printing technology and an application method. The architectural engineering construction device is applied to the field of architectural engineering construction through the 3D printing technology. The whole architectural engineering construction device comprises a 3D printer system, a concrete pump pouring system which is synchronous with the 3D printer system and is used for concrete pouring, a circuit equipment unit and an interface and data processing unit. The 3D printer system comprises a stereoscopic control positioning device with three axes of X, Y and Z axes, and a printing extrusion head device, wherein the stereoscopic control positioning device with the three axes of X, Y and Z axes is used for achieving 3D printing on a formwork. The circuit equipment unit comprises a power supply device, a control circuit board, an extrusion head positioning sensor and a material measurement sensor. The interface and data processing unit comprises a sensor interface used for analyzing and controlling the whole system and measuring the surroundings. The architectural engineering construction device based on the 3D printing technology and the application method improve the mechanical construction level and efficiency of architectural engineering, and reduce consumption of architectural materials and energy.

Description

Building engineering construction device and application process based on 3D printing technique

Technical field

The present invention relates to the synchronous pouring technique of automation of 3D printing technique and lightweight aggregate fibrous concrete, by control technology, the two is carried out to function integrated, and apply to building engineering construction field.

Background technology

Three-dimensional printing technology is called again 3D printing technique, is a kind ofly to take mathematical model as basis, uses plastics or the powdery metal etc. can jointing material, carrys out the technology of constructed object by the mode of successively printing.3D printer comes across the nineties in last century, be use the design of 3D printing technique for constructing the plant equipment of multi-form object.3D printer and normal printer operating principle are basic identical, " printed materials " such as liquid or powder is housed in printer, after being connected with computer, by computer, controlling " printed material " is layering, finally the blueprint of Computer Design is printed as to material object.In the implementation procedure of 3D printing technique, 3D printer uses rapid shaping technique, integrate CAD modeling, CAM, laser technology, Numeric Control Technology, chemical industry, material technology etc., by 3 d modeling software in computer, design and make three-dimensional drawing, and take this mathematical model creating as basis, use software hierarchy discrete and read hierarchical file information by Numeric Control Technology, finally utilize the modes such as laser beam, hot melt nozzle by " printed materials " such as plastics, metal dust, ceramic powders with the moulding that superposes of the mode of object cross section layer, bonding.At present, 3D printing technique, with its distinctive advantage, starts to apply and show powerful development potentiality in fields such as industrial modeling, machine-building, Aero-Space, military affairs, building, household electrical appliances, light industry, medical science, archaeology, sculpture arts.

3D printing technique is compared with conventional art, and automaticity is high; The pattern of manufacturing due to its digitlization is without complicated technique and huge lathe, also can save numerous manpowers simultaneously, directly from computer, obtain graph data and just manufacture arbitrary shape part, this makes its range of application can extend to a lot of engineerings and manufactures field; 3D printing technique formation efficiency is compared traditional approach very large raising, has the features such as speed is fast, precision is high, quality is good, can greatly reduce production costs, and improves the utilization rate to raw material and the energy.

Along with the development of China's economic society, the scale of Process of Urbanization Construction strengthens year by year, and construction work exists some to merit attention and improved aspect.The problems such as waste of the environment pollution that the raising of cost of labor, construction work bring, the hysteresis of management mode, constructional materials and the energy start to be subject to the concern of industry and society.In addition also there is the problems such as amount of labour demanded is large, climate ambient influnence is large in traditional architecture engineering construction process.These problems based on existing, need to consider that new building construction technology solves, and reduce labour demand, improve automaticity, reduce constructional materials and energy consumption, alleviate the objects such as Architectural Engineering Environment pollution in the hope of reaching.

Summary of the invention

The present invention utilizes 3D printing technique, is applied to building engineering construction field, is intended to improve mechanized construction level and efficiency, minimizing constructional materials and the energy consumption of construction work.This invention equipment therefor using utilize comparatively ripe engineering plastics as the 3D printer of " printing material " with conventional for delivery of combining with the concrete pump of concreting, in the hope of reaching assurance, even surpass the object of existing traditional construction quality requirement.

The technical scheme that the present invention provides is:

A building engineering construction device based on 3D printing technique, is characterized in that, comprises 3D printer system, synchronizes with 3D printer system for concrete pump casting system, circuit arrangement unit and interface and the data processing unit of concreting, wherein:

Described 3D printer system comprises X, Y, three-dimensional positioner, the printing extruder head device controlled of Z axis three axles;

Described X, Y, the three-dimensional positioner of controlling of Z axis three axles is for realizing template 3 D-printing, be designed to X, Y, three coordinate axis shift dynamic positioning systems of Z axis, each coordinate axis shift dynamic positioning system comprises corresponding guide rail, wheel shaft and stepper motor, guide rail and wheel shaft interlock, stepper motor is fixed on stepper motor output shaft.Wherein: X-direction move through two guide rails 1 and two stepper motors 7 are realized; Y direction move through 1 guide rail 4 and a stepper motor 6 is realized; Z-direction move through two guide rails 3 and two stepper motors 5 are realized.

Print extruder head device and comprise extruder head 8, extruder head control device 10, both are connected, and both are co-located on the platform of Y-axis guide rail;

Described concrete pump casting system is concrete pump device and concrete aggregate case 13, this concrete pump device comprises that concrete discharging pump 11, discharge nozzle, discharging spray nozzle 9(are discharging opening 9) and the equipment that vibrates, described concrete discharging pump can accurately be controlled concrete load and discharging speed.Discharging opening 9 and concrete discharging pump 11, concrete aggregate case 13 are all positioned on the platform of Y-axis guide rail.

Described circuit arrangement element comprises power supply device, control circuit board, extruder head alignment sensor, material determination sensor; Described power supply device respectively with control circuit board, extruder head alignment sensor, material determination sensor, X, Y, the stepper motor of Z axis three axles, prints extruder head control device 10 and is connected with concrete pump device, for they provide working power; Described material determination sensor is used for measuring concrete vibrating compactness and the situation of condensing; Control circuit board adopts chip microcontroller.

Described interface and data processing unit are as host computer, and this host computer adopts industrial computer to realize, to whole system analysis and Control, and the sensor interface that surrounding environment is measured.Computer is connected with extruder head alignment sensor, material determination sensor respectively, and extruder head alignment sensor image data is returned to computer for the device initialize phase orientation origin of coordinates; Material determination sensor image data is returned to computer for monitoring temperature, the pressure data of extruded material, and in print procedure, the temperature of material, pressure data monitor to guarantee that whole process carries out smoothly, and return in real time measured value and observe for control personnel.Computer is connected with control circuit board, by computer, controls respectively concrete pump device, X, Y, the three-dimensional work of controlling positioner, printing extruder head device of Z axis three axles.Computer comprises software module, this software module function is characterized by: for the figure that uses cad file to draw, be converted to DXF formatted file, obtain the three-dimensional coordinate information data of each key node in the drawing file of drawing, three-dimensional coordinate data is transformed into the signal data that can cross as single-chip microcomputer identification, the Control Component of single-chip microcomputer inputted data-signal by computer, by the stepping step-length of Single-chip Controlling motor, speed completes the shift action of shower nozzle, according to coordinate data, can calculate the volume of the ejection materials such as engineering plastics simultaneously, the speed moving according to shower nozzle is again controlled the unit interval spray volume of ejection material, to realize the collaborative work of complete equipment.

Further optimize, technical solution of the present invention can also comprise functions expanding device 12, can be: wireless operated and signal sending and receiving apparatus, template construct precision supervising device etc., they are connected with computer respectively, are installed on the guide rail platform of Y-axis.

Application process of the present invention, is characterized in that, is applicable to the house upper body structure of construction, implementation step:

1) install and put up 3D printing architectural furniture.

2) by three-dimensional modeling, design with the allotment of different printed material colors and carry out the necessary structure that presets building structure template and color.

3) computer reads three-dimensional model diagram shape parameter, adopts 3D printing technique to print in order to carry out the making of template in building structure construction, with 3D printer, produces integrated template, and integrated printing and making is without dismounting.

4) by computer controlled in printed template region, after forming the closed shape of certain depth, by concrete pump, synchronously add lightweight aggregate fibrous concrete vibration compacting.

5) monitoring is guaranteed after concrete coagulating time and structural strength, builds finished product for house upper body structure, and template is directly used as the ornament materials of structure outer, and this template is not considered its stressed effect in structure.

The technical characterstic of this invention is: three axles of 3D printing technique are accurately located realization and the high-precision control that mobile technology can guarantee building engineering construction template construct; Three-dimensional graphical modelling and Numeric Control Technology can make building structure pass through the variation of printing device implementation space layout and moulding, and can make the template of printing directly as the outer decoration for vertical face materials'use of structure; Fibrous concrete is synchronously built with precision Control Technology can greatly reduce labour, improves efficiency of construction and precision, and maintains existing concrete material as structure cylinder loading material, uses popularization easy.In addition package unit can be by adding some relevant new technologies further to raise the efficiency and construction precision, as: can adopt the construction of many printing heads complicated technology realization stay in place formwork; Employing controlled in wireless transmission technology can be at indoor Long-distance Control work progress.

Compare with existing building construction technology, the present invention has following advantage:

1,3D printing technique is applied in building engineering construction, can significantly reduce the input of cost of labor, mechanization is controlled in construction can guarantee construction quality and precision.

2, adopt the integrated printing of template that 3D printing technique carries out and the fibrous concrete can integral hoisting construction efficiency as synchronously building of loading material, due to the assembled and dismounting without template, the work such as decoration of structural outer surface, can significantly reduce labour and drop into and control construction quality.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is overall structure block diagram of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is the module diagram of control section of the present invention.

Fig. 3 information flow diagram of the present invention.

Fig. 4 is apparatus of the present invention exterior structure.

Figure notation: 1-X axle base and guide rail, 2-X axle moves control wheel shaft, and 7-X axle moves stepper motor device, 3-Z bracing strut and guide rail, 5-Z axle moves stepper motor device, 4-Y bracing strut and guide rail, 6-Y axle moves stepper motor device, 8-3D printer material extruder head, 10-extruder head step device, 9-concrete synchronous is built drawing mechanism, 11-concrete pump and discharging controlling device, 13-concrete aggregate case.12-functions expanding device.

The specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, invention technical scheme is described further.

As shown in Figure 1, based on 3D printing technique and for the device each several part component framework figure of building engineering construction, what whole device was considered is the combination that 3D printer and concrete are controlled the equipment of building, wherein 3D print apparatus is mainly by X, Y, three-dimensional positioner, printing extruder head device, circuit arrangement element, external interface and the data processing equipment controlled of Z axis three axles forms jointly; Building engineering construction corollary apparatus is mainly by concrete pump, circuit arrangement element, external interface and data processing equipment.It is integrated that above-mentioned two large parts carry out function by control technology, the final accurately equipment efficiently that can be used for building engineering construction that forms.

Circuit arrangement element in 3D printer system, relate to and comprising: guarantee the power supply device of the normal work of 3D printer, the interactive apparatus that assurance computer is controlled 3D printer, described interactive apparatus comprises again control circuit mainboard and prints extruder head alignment sensor.

Circuit arrangement element in concrete pump casting system, relates to and comprising: guarantee the normal work of whole construction corollary apparatus power supply device, guarantee concrete pump and the collaborative work of 3D printer control circuit mainboard, can be used for measuring the material determination sensor of concrete vibrating compactness and the situation of condensing.This mainboard is connected with computer, by the work of computer control concrete pump.

The mechanical part of 3D printer comprises the mechanical moving element of conventional 3D printer, guarantees to be printed the equipment that thing can move freely on X-axis, Y-axis, Z axis; Print extruder head in order to print the device of discharging.

As shown in Figure 3: for the figure that uses cad file to draw, can be by being converted to DXF formatted file, obtain the three-dimensional coordinate information data of each key node in the drawing file of drawing, data are processed by computer, transform into the signal data that can cross as single-chip microcomputer identification, the Control Component of single-chip microcomputer inputted data-signal by computer, by the stepping step-length of Single-chip Controlling motor, speed completes the shift action of shower nozzle, according to coordinate data, can calculate the volume of the ejection materials such as engineering plastics simultaneously, the speed moving according to shower nozzle is again controlled the unit interval spray volume of ejection material, to realize the collaborative work of complete equipment.In the equipment course of work, by reading three-dimensional model diagram shape parameter, utilize the step-length control of stepper motor to realize accurate control and the location of extruder head on three change in coordinate axis direction.By extruder head and control device thereof, first template is printed, after forming the closed shape of certain depth, by concrete drawing mechanism, in the template closed shape of printing, carry out concreting, so work in coordination with and go on, under the prerequisite that guarantees concrete coagulating time and structural strength, control stencil marking speed and concreting rate, the integrated printing that finally can complete house upper body structure is built.The template of printing is as loading material, also without dismounting, can be directly as the external wall decorative material of structure.

Embodiment

As shown in Figure 4: in Building Construction, the house upper body structure (beam, plate, post) that required " printing " builds is positioned at two X-axis and moves the centre of controlling wheel shaft 2.Carry out in the process of template 3 D-printing, the printing of space object is that the running fix by three coordinate axes realizes, and out-of-alignment running fix is the synergistic result of corresponding guide rail, wheel shaft and motor control assembly.Wherein, X-direction move through two guide rails 1 and two stepper motors 7 are realized; Y direction move through 1 guide rail 4 and a stepper motor 6 is realized; Z-direction move through two guide rails 3 and two stepper motors 5 are realized.For the extruder head 8 of template construct and its control device 10, the discharging opening 9 of building for concrete discharging and concrete pump 11 and 13 liang of large systems of concrete aggregate case, be co-located at the platform of Y-axis guide rail; Functions expanding device 12 that can be integrated according to requirement of engineering is positioned on the guide rail platform of Y-axis equally.Described functions expanding device 12, can be: wireless operated and signal sending and receiving apparatus, concrete material performance measurement sensor device, printing extruder head alignment sensor, template construct precision supervising device etc.

Printing consumables is to have hot melt, high epistasis, easy moulding engineering plastics, for the present invention, adopts the conventional synthetic plastic in open printing storehouse.

Concrete pump device, comprises and can accurately control concrete discharging pump, discharge nozzle, the discharging spray nozzle of concrete load and discharging speed and the equipment that vibrates.Lightweight aggregate fibrous concrete refers to replace with tencel material (carbon fiber or steel fibre) New Style Concrete Materials of traditional reinforcing steel bar bear.

The present embodiment technical scheme is applicable to building engineering construction field, groundwork principle is as follows: 3D printing technique is printed in order to carry out the making of template in building structure construction, by being made into one of 3D printing technique template, replaces the assembling type steel template adopting in traditional construction technology; The making of template and the pouring construction of building structure carry out simultaneously: in being made into one of 3D printer building structure template, by computer controlled, in printed template region, by concrete pump, synchronously add lightweight aggregate fibrous concrete vibration compacting.Whole work progress is that template construct and agent structure are built the process that making synchronous coordination carries out, and when template construct is good, the concreting of agent structure also substantially completes in the situation that not considering its time of setting.Template is not considered its stressed effect in structure, and simultaneously its integrated printing and making is without dismounting, and can design the ornament materials that is directly used as structure outer with the allotment of different printed material colors by three-dimensional modeling.

Claims (3)

1. the building engineering construction device based on 3D printing technique, is characterized in that, comprises 3D printer system, synchronizes with 3D printer system for concrete pump casting system, circuit arrangement unit and interface and the data processing unit of concreting, wherein:
Described 3D printer system comprises X, Y, three-dimensional positioner, the printing extruder head device controlled of Z axis three axles;
Described X, Y, the three-dimensional positioner of controlling of Z axis three axles is for realizing template 3 D-printing, be designed to X, Y, three coordinate axis shift dynamic positioning systems of Z axis, each coordinate axis shift dynamic positioning system comprises corresponding guide rail, wheel shaft and stepper motor, guide rail and wheel shaft interlock, stepper motor is fixed on stepper motor output shaft, wherein: X-direction move through two guide rails (1) and two stepper motors (7) are realized; Y direction move through 1 guide rail (4) and a stepper motor (6) is realized; Z-direction move through two guide rails (3) and two stepper motors (5) are realized;
Print extruder head device and comprise extruder head (8), extruder head control device (10), both are connected, and both are co-located on the platform of Y-axis guide rail;
Described concrete pump casting system is concrete pump device and concrete aggregate case (13), this concrete pump device comprises concrete discharging pump (11), discharge nozzle, discharging opening (9) and the equipment that vibrates, and described concrete discharging pump can accurately be controlled concrete load and discharging speed; Discharging opening (9) and concrete discharging pump (11), concrete aggregate case (13) are all positioned on the platform of Y-axis guide rail;
Described circuit arrangement element comprises power supply device, control circuit board, extruder head alignment sensor, material determination sensor; Described power supply device respectively with control circuit board, extruder head alignment sensor, material determination sensor, X, Y, the stepper motor of Z axis three axles, prints extruder head control device (10) and is connected with concrete pump device, for they provide working power; Described material determination sensor is used for measuring concrete vibrating compactness and the situation of condensing; Control circuit board adopts chip microcontroller;
Described interface and data processing unit are as host computer, this host computer adopts industrial computer to realize, to whole system analysis and Control, the sensor interface that surrounding environment is measured: computer is connected with extruder head alignment sensor, material determination sensor respectively, and extruder head alignment sensor image data is returned to computer for the device initialize phase orientation origin of coordinates, material determination sensor image data is returned to computer for monitoring temperature, the pressure data of extruded material, computer is connected with control circuit board, by computer, controls respectively concrete pump device, X, Y, the three-dimensional work of controlling positioner, printing extruder head device of Z axis three axles, computer comprises software module, this software module function is characterized by: for the figure that uses cad file to draw, be converted to DXF formatted file, obtain the three-dimensional coordinate information data of each key node in the drawing file of drawing, three-dimensional coordinate data is transformed into the signal data that can cross as single-chip microcomputer identification, the Control Component of single-chip microcomputer inputted data-signal by computer, by the stepping step-length of Single-chip Controlling motor, speed completes the shift action of shower nozzle, according to coordinate data, can calculate the volume of the ejection materials such as engineering plastics simultaneously, the speed moving according to shower nozzle is again controlled the unit interval spray volume of ejection material, to realize the collaborative work of complete equipment.
2. the building engineering construction device based on 3D printing technique as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, also comprise functions expanding device (12), for: wireless operated and signal sending and receiving apparatus or template construct precision supervising device, they are connected with computer respectively, are installed on the guide rail platform of Y-axis.
3. an application process for the building engineering construction device based on 3D printing technique, is characterized in that, is applicable to the house upper body structure of construction, builds finished product for house upper body structure, and template is directly used as the ornament materials of structure outer.
CN201410176698.2A 2014-04-29 2014-04-29 Based on the building engineering construction device of 3D printing technique CN103967276B (en)

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